Angiotensin III: A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40%).Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Glutamyl Aminopeptidase: A ZINC-dependent membrane-bound aminopeptidase that catalyzes the N-terminal peptide cleavage of GLUTAMATE (and to a lesser extent ASPARTATE). The enzyme appears to play a role in the catabolic pathway of the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Angiotensin I: A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in fetal tissues. Many effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor such as VASODILATION and sodium loss are the opposite of that of the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Angiotensins: Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (VASOCONSTRICTION) and fluid homeostasis via the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. These include angiotensins derived naturally from precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, and those synthesized.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize the ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 2 RECEPTOR.Natriuretic Agents: Endogenous or exogenous chemicals that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body. They consist of peptides and non-peptide compounds.Angiotensin Amide: The octapeptide amide of bovine angiotensin II used to increase blood pressure by vasoconstriction.Saralasin: An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.Gold Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain gold as an integral part of the molecule.TetrazolesLosartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.1-Sarcosine-8-Isoleucine Angiotensin II: An ANGIOTENSIN II analog which acts as a highly specific inhibitor of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Biphenyl CompoundsRenin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.

Angiotensin receptor subtype 1 mediates angiotensin II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced cyclic AMP production in preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells. (1/90)

In a previous study, we found that angiotensin (Ang) II enhances beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells (PMVSMCs) obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats. The purpose of the present investigation was to identify the Ang receptor subtypes that mediate this effect. In our first study, we compared the ability of Ang II, Ang III, Ang (3-8), and Ang (1-7) to increase cAMP production in isoproterenol (1 microM)-treated PMVSMCs. Each peptide was tested at 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 nM. Both Ang II and Ang III increased intracellular (EC50s, 1 and 11 nM, respectively) and extracellular (EC50s, 2 and 14 nM, respectively) cAMP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. In contrast, Ang (3-8) and Ang (1-7) did not enhance either intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels at any concentration tested. In our second study, we examined the ability of L 158809 [a selective Ang receptor subtype 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist] to inhibit Ang II (100 nM) and Ang III (100 nM) enhancement of isoproterenol (1 microM)-induced cAMP production in PMVSMCs. L 158809 (10 nM) abolished or nearly abolished (p <.001) Ang II and Ang III enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular and extracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, PD 123319 (300 nM; a selective AT2 receptor antagonist) did not significantly alter Ang II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels. We conclude that AT1 receptors, but not AT2, Ang (3-8), nor Ang (1-7) receptors mediate Ang II and Ang III enhancement of beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured PMVSMCs.  (+info)

Prejunctional angiotensin receptors involved in the facilitation of noradrenaline release in mouse tissues. (2/90)

The effect of angiotensin II, angiotensin III, angiotensin IV and angiotensin-(1-7) on the electrically induced release of noradrenaline was studied in preparations of mouse atria, spleen, hippocampus, occipito-parietal cortex and hypothalamus preincubated with [3H]-noradrenaline. The prejunctional angiotensin receptor type was investigated using the non-selective receptor antagonist saralasin (AT1/AT2) and the AT1 and AT2 selective receptor antagonists losartan and PD 123319, respectively. In atrial and splenic preparations, angiotensin II (0.01 nM-0.1 microM) and angiotensin III (0.01 and 0.1 nM-1 microM) increased the stimulation-induced overflow of tritium in a concentration-dependent manner. Angiotensin IV, only at high concentrations (1 and 10 pM), enhanced tritium overflow in the atria, while angiotensin-(1-7) (0.1 nM-10 microM) was without effect in both preparations. In preparations of hippocampus, occipito-parietal cortex and hypothalamus, none of the angiotensin peptides altered the evoked overflow of tritium. In atrial and splenic preparations, saralasin (0.1 microM) and losartan (0.1 and 1 microM), but not PD 123319 (0.1 microM), shifted the concentration-response curves of angiotensin II and angiotensin III to the right. In conclusion, in mouse atria and spleen, angiotensin II and angiotensin III facilitate the action potential induced release of noradrenaline via a prejunctional AT1 receptor. Only high concentrations of angiotensin IV are effective in the atria and angiotensin-(1-7) is without effect in both preparations. In mouse brain areas, angiotensin II, angiotensin III, angiotensin IV and angiotensin-(1-7) do not modulate the release of noradrenaline.  (+info)

Aminopeptidase A activity and angiotensin III effects on [Ca2+]i along the rat nephron. (3/90)

BACKGROUND: This study examined the specific effects of angiotensin III (Ang III) along the nephron. METHODS: We examined the distribution of aminopeptidase A (APA) activity by using a specific APA inhibitor and by immunostaining with an antirat kidney APA antibody, the Ang III-induced variations of [Ca2+]i by using fura-2 and the characterization of the receptor subtype involved in the response to Ang III in cortical thick ascending limb (CTAL). RESULTS: APA activity was found all along the nephron but was higher in the cortex than in the medulla. This was confirmed by immunostaining. Increases in [Ca2+]i elicited by 10(-7) mol/liter Ang III were observed all along the nephron. The characterization of the receptor subtype involved in the [Ca2+]i response to Ang III in CTAL indicated that EC50 values for Ang III and Ang II were similar (13.5 and 10.3 nmol/liter, respectively), and Ang III-induced responses were totally abolished by AT1 receptor but not by AT2 receptor antagonists. There was a cross-desensitization of [Ca2+]i responses to 10(-7) mol/liter Ang III and Ang II, and the [Ca2+]i responses to 10(-7) mol/liter Ang II and Ang III were not additive. CONCLUSION: These results show that in CTAL, the [Ca2+]i responses to Ang II and Ang III occur through the same AT1a receptor because this subtype is predominant in this segment. Taken together, these data suggest that APA could be a key enzyme to generate Ang III from Ang II in the kidney.  (+info)

Aminopeptidase A inhibitors as potential central antihypertensive agents. (4/90)

Overactivity of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the development and maintenance of hypertension in several experimental models, such as spontaneously hypertensive rats and transgenic mice expressing both human renin and human angiotensinogen transgenes. We recently reported that, in the murine brain, angiotensin II (AngII) is converted to angiotensin III (AngIII) by aminopeptidase A (APA), whereas AngIII is inactivated by aminopeptidase N (APN). If injected into cerebral ventricles (ICV), AngII and AngIII cause similar pressor responses. Because AngII is metabolized in vivo into AngIII, the exact nature of the active peptide is not precisely determined. Here we report that, in rats, ICV injection of the selective APA inhibitor EC33 [(S)-3-amino-4-mercaptobutyl sulfonic acid] blocked the pressor response of exogenous AngII, suggesting that the conversion of AngII to AngIII is required to increase blood pressure (BP). Furthermore, ICV injection, but not i.v. injection, of EC33 alone caused a dose-dependent decrease in BP by blocking the formation of brain but not systemic AngIII. This is corroborated by the fact that the selective APN inhibitor, PC18 (2-amino-4-methylsulfonyl butane thiol), administered alone via the ICV route, increases BP. This pressor response was blocked by prior treatment with the angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonist, losartan, showing that blocking the action of APN on AngIII metabolism leads to an increase in endogenous AngIII levels, resulting in BP increase, through interaction with AT(1) receptors. These data demonstrate that AngIII is a major effector peptide of the brain RAS, exerting tonic stimulatory control over BP. Thus, APA, the enzyme responsible for the formation of brain AngIII, represents a potential central therapeutic target that justifies the development of APA inhibitors as central antihypertensive agents.  (+info)

Primary and secondary locations of charge sites in angiotensin II (M + 2H)2+ ions formed by electrospray ionization. (5/90)

High-energy tandem mass spectrometry and molecular dynamics calculations are used to determine the locations of charge in metastably decomposing (M + 2H)2+ ions of human angiotensin II. Charge-separation reactions provide critical information regarding charge sites in multiple charged ions. The most probable kinetic energy released (Tm.p.) from these decompositions are obtained using kinetic energy release distributions (KERDs) in conjunction with MS/MS (MS2), MS/MS/MS (MS3), and MS/MS/MS/MS (MS4) experiments. The most abundant singly and doubly charged product ions arise from precursor ion structures in which one proton is located on the arginine (Arg) side chain and the other proton is located on a distal peptide backbone carbonyl oxygen. The MS3 KERD experiments show unequivocally that neither the N-terminal amine nor the aspartic acid (Asp) side chain are sites of protonation. In the gas phase, protonation of the less basic peptide backbone instead of the more proximal and basic histidine (His) side chain is favored as a result of reduced coulomb repulsion between the two charge sites. The singly and doubly charged product ions of lesser abundance arise from precursor ion structures in which one proton is located on the Arg side chain and the other on the His side chain. This is demonstrated in the MS3 and MS4 mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy spectrometry experiments. Interestingly, (b7" + OH)2+ product ions, like the (M + 2H)2+ ions of angiotensin II, are observed to have at least two different decomposing structures in which charge sites have a primary and secondary location.  (+info)

Angiotensin III depressor action in the conscious rabbit is blocked by losartan but not PD 123319. (6/90)

Vasodilator and vasodepressor properties of angiotensins have been reported, and mediation by prostaglandins or nitric oxide has been proposed. Other studies indicate that angiotensin AT(2) receptors might mediate a depressor action, and the present study was designed to delineate and explore this possibility in a conscious rabbit model. Large intravenous boluses of angiotensin III (15 nmol/kg) produced a predictable pressor peak (82+/-4 mm Hg) followed by a depressor phase (20+/-3 mm Hg), whereas equipressor doses of angiotensin II were less effective at producing depressor responses. Angiotensin-(1-7) did not exert a depressor action, and the reduced potency of angiotensin IV (relative to angiotensin III) was similar for both the pressor and depressor phases ( approximately 100-fold). It is clear that specific angiotensin IV or angiotensin-(1-7) receptors do not mediate depressor effects in this model. The AT(1) antagonist losartan (1 mg/kg) blocked both the pressor and depressor components of the angiotensin III response, whereas the AT(2) antagonist PD 123319 (35 mg/kg) had no effect on either element of the response. The data obtained with the angiotensin receptor subtype-selective compounds, losartan and PD 123319, suggest that the depressor action is an AT(1)-mediated effect and give no indication that AT(2) receptors could be involved. Paradoxically, the greater potency of angiotensin III as a vasodepressor belies the conclusion that the response is AT(1)-mediated, because AT(1) receptors have a greater affinity for angiotensin II versus angiotensin III.  (+info)

Enhancement of noradrenaline release by angiotensin II and bradykinin in mouse atria: evidence for cross-talk between G(q/11) protein- and G(i/o) protein-coupled receptors. (7/90)

1. The interaction between alpha(2)-autoreceptors and receptors for angiotensin (AT(1)) and bradykinin (B(2)) was studied in mouse isolated atria. The preparations were labelled with [(3)H]-noradrenaline and then superfused with desipramine-containing medium and stimulated electrically. 2. Angiotensin II (10(-11) - 10(-7) M), angiotensin III (10(-10) - 10(-6) M) and bradykinin (10(-11) - 10(-7) M) enhanced the evoked overflow of tritium when preparations were stimulated with conditions that led to marked alpha(2)-autoinhibition (120 pulses at 3 Hz), but not when stimulated with conditions that led to little alpha(2)-autoinhibition (20 pulses at 50 Hz). 3. Blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors by phentolamine (1 or 10 microM) reduced or abolished the effect of angiotensin II and bradykinin on the overflow response to 120 pulses at 3 Hz. 4. Addition of the delta-opioid agonist [D-Ser(2)]-leucine enkephalin-Thr (DSLET, 0.1 microM), or of neuropeptide Y (0.1 microM), together with phentolamine, restored the effect of angiotensin II and bradykinin. 5. The beta-adrenoceptor agonist terbutaline (10(-9) - 10(-4) M) enhanced the evoked overflow of tritium irrespective of the degree of autoinhibition. 6. The experiments show that (i) a marked prejunctional facilitatory effect of angiotensin and bradykinin in mouse isolated atria requires prejunctional alpha(2)-autoinhibition; (ii) in the absence of alpha(2)-autoinhibition, activation of other prejunctional G(i/o) protein-coupled receptors, namely opioid and neuropeptide Y receptors, restores a marked effect of angiotensin II and bradykinin; and (iii) the facilitatory effect of terbutaline is not dependent upon the degree of alpha(2)-autoinhibition. The findings indicate that the major part of the release-enhancing effect elicited through prejunctional G(q/11) protein-coupled receptors is due to disruption of an ongoing, alpha(2)-autoreceptor-triggered G(i/o) protein mediated inhibition.  (+info)

Angiotensin III increases MCP-1 and activates NF-kappaB and AP-1 in cultured mesangial and mononuclear cells. (8/90)

BACKGROUND: Monocyte infiltration is a common feature of renal diseases. Angiotensin II (Ang II) participates in inflammatory cell infiltration in the kidney. However, the influence of other peptides of the renin-angiotensin system, such as the N-terminal Ang II degradation product Ang III, has not been addressed. METHODS: In cultured renal and mononuclear cells, we investigated whether Ang III is involved in monocyte recruitment through the regulation of the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1; Northern blot, Western blot, immunofluorescence, and chemotaxis), and the activation of transcription factors, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1; electrophoretic mobility shift assay). RESULTS: In cultured rat mesangial and mononuclear cells, Ang III increased MCP-1 gene expression and protein levels. Supernatants from Ang III-treated mesangial cells showed increased chemoattractant activity for monocytes, which was partially inhibited by the addition of anti-MCP-1 antibody. Ang III elicited a rapid NF-kappaB activation (8-fold, after 30 min), showing a kinetics and intensity similar to that observed with Ang II and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The maximal NF-kappaB activation was correlated with nuclear translocation of p50 and p65 subunits and disappearance of cytosolic IkappaB. Ang III also activated AP-1 (5-fold, after 18 h), while SP-1 was unchanged. Two NF-kappaB inhibitors abolished the Ang III-induced MCP-1 mRNA expression, suggesting that overexpression of this chemokine is mediated, at least in part, by NF-kappaB activation. CONCLUSIONS: Ang III activates the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 and increases the expression of related genes, such as MCP-1. Our study describes a novel and potent proinflammatory action of this Ang degradation product, expanding the present view of the renin-angiotensin system.  (+info)

*Nesiritide

This may be increased every three hours for a maximum of 0.03 µg/kg/min. In 2005, after several academic papers published by ... Nesiritide works to facilitate cardiovascular fluid homeostasis through counterregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone ...

*Angiotensin II receptor blocker

Efficacy requires three key PD/PK areas at an effective level; the parameters of the three characteristics will need to be ... "Angiotensin FDA Drug Safety Communication: No increase in risk of cancer with certain blood pressure drugs--Angiotensin ... Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists , AT1 receptor antagonists or ... They block the activation of AT1 receptors, preventing the binding of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are used ...

*Angiotensin II receptor type 1

... or AT1 receptor is the best characterized angiotensin receptor. It has vasopressor effects and ... The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in turn couples to ... angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are associated with fewer traumatic stress symptoms ... Angiotensin II receptor type 1 has been shown to interact with Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 16. The protein's ...

*Angiotensin II receptor

The angiotensin II receptors, (AGTR1) and (AGTR2), are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensin II as their ... The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in turn couples to ... The AT4 receptor is activated by the angiotensin II metabolite angiotensin IV, and may play a role in regulation of the CNS ... angiotensin II. The AT1 and AT2 receptors share a sequence identity of ~30%, but have a similar affinity for angiotensin II, ...

*Angiotensin II receptor type 2

The human AGTR2 gene is composed of three exons and spans at least 5 kb. Exons 1 and 2 encode for 5' untranslated mRNA sequence ... Angiotensin II receptor type 2 has been shown to interact with MTUS1. Angiotensin II receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "The angiotensin II type 2 receptor causes constitutive growth of cardiomyocytes and does not antagonize angiotensin II type 1 ... Angiotensin II receptor type 2, also known as the AT2 receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AGTR2 gene. ...

*Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism

... by increase in the plasma concentration of angiotensin III. by increased plasma angiotensin II, ACTH, or potassium levels. The ... Control of aldosterone release from the adrenal cortex: The role of the renin-angiotensin system: Angiotensin is involved in ... Angiotensin II acts synergistically with potassium. The role of sympathetic nerves: Aldosterone production is also affected to ... Aldosterone synthase normally is not ACTH sensitive, and only activated by angiotensin II. Aldosterone causes the tubules of ...

*Glutamyl aminopeptidase

The enzyme degrades vasoconstricting angiotensin II into angiotensin III and therefore helps to regulate blood pressure. Reaux ... which generates one of the main effector peptides of the brain renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin III, has a key role in ...

*C9orf3

Also able to cleave angiotensin III to generate angiotensin IV, a bioactive peptide of the renin-angiotensin pathway. Due to ... Chromosome 9 open reading frame 3 (C9ORF3) also known as aminopeptidase O (APO) is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the ...

*Aldosterone

... increase in the plasma concentration of angiotensin III, a metabolite of angiotensin II increase in plasma angiotensin II, ACTH ... Angiotensin II acts synergistically with potassium, and the potassium feedback is virtually inoperative when no angiotensin II ... The level of angiotensin II is regulated by angiotensin I, which is in turn regulated by renin, a hormone secreted in the ... Aldosterone is part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. It has a plasma half-life of under 20 minutes. Drugs that ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

1-sarcosine-8-isoleucine angiotensin ii MeSH D23.469.050.050.075 --- angiotensin iii MeSH D23.469.050.175 --- eicosanoids MeSH ... angiotensin i MeSH D23.469.050.050.050 --- angiotensin ii MeSH D23.469.050.050.050.050 --- angiotensin amide MeSH D23.469. ... ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D23.050.285.050.119 --- ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.050.285.050.225 --- ca-125 antigen MeSH D23.050.285.062 ... ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.325.119 --- ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.325.225 --- ca-125 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.395 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.641)

... angiotensin i MeSH D12.776.641.650.070.078 -- angiotensin ii MeSH D12.776.641.650.070.080 -- angiotensin iii MeSH D12.776. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.644)

... angiotensin i MeSH D12.644.400.070.078 --- angiotensin ii MeSH D12.644.400.070.080 --- angiotensin iii MeSH D12.644.400.085 ... 1-sarcosine-8-isoleucine angiotensin ii MeSH D12.644.456.073.055 --- angiotensin iii MeSH D12.644.456.073.070 --- ... angiotensin i MeSH D12.644.456.073.041 --- angiotensin ii MeSH D12.644.456.073.041.050 --- angiotensin amide MeSH D12.644. ... map kinase kinase 3 MeSH D12.644.360.440.400 --- map kinase kinase 4 MeSH D12.644.360.440.500 --- map kinase kinase 5 MeSH ...

*Reabsorption

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II. 5. Angiotensin II stimulates the release of ... Renin-angiotensin system: 1. The kidneys sense low blood pressure. 2. Release renin into the blood. 3. Renin causes production ...

*Spinorphin

It does so by inhibiting the enzymes aminopeptidase N (APN), dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP3), angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ... 3) receptor antagonist". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 50 (18): 4543-7. doi:10.1021/jm070114m. PMID 17676725. ...

*DUSP6

Smith A, Price C, Cullen M, Muda M, King A, Ozanne B, Arkinstall S, Ashworth A (Jun 1997). "Chromosomal localization of three ... Rössig L, Hermann C, Haendeler J, Assmus B, Zeiher AM, Dimmeler S (Jan 2002). "Angiotensin II-induced upregulation of MAP ... Smith A, Price C, Cullen M, Muda M, King A, Ozanne B, Arkinstall S, Ashworth A (Jun 1997). "Chromosomal localization of three ... Upregulation of MKP-3 has been shown to alleviate chronic postoperative pain. DUSP6 has been shown to interact with MAPK3. ...

*Bradykinin

In humans, bradykinin is broken down by three kininases: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), aminopeptidase P (APP), and ... Bradykinin is also thought to be the cause of the dry cough in some patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ... This refractory cough is a common cause for stopping ACE inhibitor therapy, in which case angiotensin II receptor antagonists ( ... Bradykinin was discovered in 1948 by three Brazilian physiologists and pharmacologists working at the Instituto Biológico, in ...

*DCP

... is a three letter abbreviation, which can have various meanings: Des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, a liver cancer marker ... 3-Dichloropropene Dicycloplatin Angiotensin-converting enzyme, an enzyme Dicalcium phosphate, a misnomer for dibasic calcium ...

*Endothelin

There are three isoforms (identified as ET-1, -2, -3) with varying regions of expression and binding to at least four known ... Agapitov AV, Haynes WG; Haynes (March 2002). "Role of endothelin in cardiovascular disease". J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone ... Some 3'-UTR AU-rich elements (AREs) play important regulatory roles in cytokine and proto-oncogene expression by influencing ... 3 (5): 256-63. doi:10.1038/ncpneuro0490. PMID 17479073. Hasue F, Kuwaki T, Kisanuki YY, Yanagisawa M, Moriya H, Fukuda Y, ...

*PTP4A3

Overexpression of this gene in mammalian cells was reported to inhibit angiotensin-II induced cell calcium mobilization and ... in angiotensin-II signaling". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 283 (5): 1061-8. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.4881. PMID 11355880. Saha S ... 565 (1-3): 181-7. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2004.03.062. PMID 15135076. Wu X, Zeng H, Zhang X, et al. (2004). "Phosphatase of ... 2004). "PRL-3 expression in metastatic cancers". Clin. Cancer Res. 9 (15): 5607-15. PMID 14654542. Kozlov G, Cheng J, Ziomek E ...

*Glycocalyx

Angiotensin converting enzyme Antithrombin-III Lipoprotein lipase Apolipoproteins Growth factors Chemokines The enzymes and ... 3. p. 345-359 Ebong, Eno; Macaluso FP; Spray DC; Tarbell JM (August 2011). "Imaging the Endothelial Glycocalyx In Vitro By ...

*Discovery and development of angiotensin receptor blockers

Pharmacophore There are three functional groups that are the most important parts for the bioactivity of ARBs, see figure 1 for ... The angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), also called angiotensin (AT1) receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of ... "The distribution of angiotensin II type 1 receptors, and the tissue renin-angiotensin systems" (PDF), Molecular Medicine Today ... Renin and Angiotensin; Jackson E.K., 789-821) Editors; Brunton L.L., Lazo J.S., Parker K.L. New York McGraw Hill 2006. ISBN 0- ...

*Effective arterial blood volume

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. http://edemainformation.blogspot.ca/2005/11/edema-pathophysiology-and-treatment.html ...

*Angiotensin-converting enzyme

Proteopedia Angiotensin-converting_enzyme - the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Structure in Interactive 3D Angiotensin ... Angiotensin II binds to the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1), which sets off a number of actions that result in ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1), or ACE, is a central component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which ... In addition, inhibiting angiotensin II formation diminishes angiotensin II-mediated aldosterone secretion from the adrenal ...

*Renin-angiotensin system

The decapeptide is known as angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is then converted to an octapeptide, angiotensin II by angiotensin- ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers, can be used to prevent angiotensin II from ... Angiotensin I is subsequently converted to angiotensin II by the enzyme angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) found in the lungs ... It is believed that angiotensin I may have some minor activity, but angiotensin II is the major bio-active product. Angiotensin ...

*Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2

"A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9". Circulation ... "A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9". Circulation ... Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) is an exopeptidase that catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to the nonapeptide ... Keidar S, Kaplan M, Gamliel-Lazarovich A (Feb 2007). "ACE2 of the heart: From angiotensin I to angiotensin (1-7)". ...

*List of DuPont Experimental Station inventions

... image intensifier phosphors and screens Building 400 Hyzaar combination drug to treat hypertension Cozaar Losartan angiotensin ... Building 328 Nylon intermediates TiPure Titanium dioxide process Ink jet ink technology H2SO4 process New Harvest omega-3 fatty ...

*Lisinopril

... in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), keeping Angiotensin I from being converted to Angiotensin II. The ... Lisinopril is a drug of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class used primarily in treatment of high blood ... 1980). "A new class of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors". Nature. 288 (5788): 280-3. Bibcode:1980Natur.288..280P. doi: ... Lisinopril is an ACE Inhibitor, meaning it blocks the actions of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) ...
The results confirm an angiotensin-induced depressor response in the conscious rabbit model as described previously.5 The response is evident at high concentrations of angiotensin (,0.5 nmol/kg), and we confirm the observation of Scheuer and Perrone10 that angiotensin III is a more potent depressor than is angiotensin II. The depressor phase follows the well-known pressor response after an intravenous bolus of the peptide. The depressor phase was reproducible with repeated administration of angiotensin III at the smaller doses, but the magnitude of the response to the larger dose (15 nmol/kg) fell significantly from an initial value of 20±3 mm Hg to 11±2 and 11±3 mm Hg. The accompanying pressor components were well maintained, which suggests that the mechanisms for the pressor and depressor responses are different. A qualitative inspection of the responses in Figure 1⇑ indicates that a large depressor component of the angiotensin III response is associated with a truncated pressor phase. It ...
These studies demonstrate that RI Ang II, an AT2R ligand, does not induce a natriuresis in the presence of systemic AT1R blockade. However, a natriuretic response to Ang II, mediated by the AT2R, is unmasked by the intrarenal addition of PC-18, an APN inhibitor. Because the metabolism of Ang III to Ang IV by APN is inhibited by PC-18, these data suggest that Ang III is a significant mediator of Ang II-induced natriuresis. This conclusion is further supported by the ability of APA inhibition to abolish the natriuretic response to Ang II+PC-18.. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that in the presence of AT1R blockade, RI Ang III infusion results in natriuresis that is abolished by concomitant PD infusion, implicating the renal AT2R in the response.21 Furthermore, addition of RI PC-18 to Ang III infusion causes a 1.8- to 2.8-fold increase in Na+ excretion compared with RI Ang III infusion alone.22 These findings prompted the present set of investigations to determine whether renal ...
A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40 ...
Biotin偶联Angiotensin III抗体(ab47841)可与人样本反应并经ELISA, RIA实验严格验证,实验条件参看说明书。Abcam对所有产品均提供质保服务和专属技术支持,中国75%以上现货。
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Assaypro \ Angiotensin III, anti_human IgG \ 10461-05015 for more molecular products just contact us
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. angiotensin III ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically improved to sole anti-TSLPR chimeric antigen receptors can cure B-ALL in xenograft kinds. Philadelphia chromosomeClike (Ph-like) leukemias react badly to regular chemotherapy RICTOR and possess Angiotensin III (human, mouse) high prices of relapse.17 Multiple groupings have got Angiotensin III (human, mouse) now demonstrated that rearrangements accounts for fifty percent of Ph-like ALL genomic alterations and are also highly associated with concomitant and stage mutations.17,18,20,21,32 We keep that the TSLPR features as an ALL oncoprotein provided its cell surface area reflection and association with poor scientific outcomes and thus might be an ideal immunotherapeutic focus on. Furthermore, TSLPR phrase in regular tissue shows up to end up being limited. We demonstrate that a TSLPR CAR may eradicate individual Web site Angiotensin III (human, mouse) completely. For structure of the lengthy CAR constructs, the CH2CH3 websites from IGHG1 ...
Creative Peptides offers (Des-Asp1,Ile8)-Angiotensin II for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
Life/form CPARLENE Full Manikin w/Memory & Printer-Life/form® CPARLENE® is flexible and adaptable because it was designed with modular components that require no conversion kits. Manikin is completely upgradable and interchangeable. Individu
1. Competitive or non-competitive inhibition of the myotropic and pressor response of angiotensin II is dependent on the nature of the substituent in position 8 of the antagonist peptide analogue. Substituents in other positions of the molecule, particularly position 1, contribute greatly to the potency of these antagonists.. 2. As is evidenced after adrenalectomy or after blockade with phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine, the initial pressor activity observed with all the antagonistic peptides is partially due to the release of catecholamines and partially to a direct myotropic effect.. 3. [Sar1, Thr8]angiotensin II has been found to possess the lowest agonist to antagonist ratio of all antagonists tested.. 4. [Des-Asp1, Ile8]angiotensin II selectively and specifically inhibits the release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex. Thus, unlike angiotensin II, this heptapeptide has pronounced organ specificity, suggesting that the heptapeptide (angiotensin III) is the aldosterone-releasing ...
... definition, any of three oligopeptides occurring in plasma, an inactive form (angiotensin I) and two varieties (angiotensin II and angiotensin III) that elevate blood pressure and stimulate the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone. See more.
Angiotensin II released serotonin from neuron terminals and accelerated synthesis of the serotonin. This increase in synthesis depended on the activation of tryptophan hydroxylase. A biphasic effect was observed: at high doses the stimulatory effect depended on conversion of angiotensin II to angiotensin III. At low doses an inhibitory effect was found, possible dependent on an angiotensin II metabolite. These actions represent a subtle regulation of the open-loop serotonin system. ...
Indirect evidence has implicated a role for central angiotensin II in blood pressure control. To answer directly the question of whether angiotensin II exists in the brain, independent of blood-borne angiotensin, and to quantify the amounts in different parts of the central nervous system, a sensitive radioimmunoassay was used to measure extracts of male adult rat brain hypothalamus and cortex after purification with high pressure liquid chromatography with a high recovery. The fractions coeluted with authentic angiotensin. Rats were nephrectomized bilaterally, and 24 hours later the brains were extracted in acetic acid and boiled. SepPak C-18 purification preceded reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography. High pressure liquid chromatography revealed two peaks, one which comigrated precisely with [Ile5] angiotensin II, and another smaller peak which overlapped with [Ile5] angiotensin III. The highest levels were found in the hypothalamus (125 pg/g tissue), pituitary (190 pg/g tissue), ...
This is a revised application, for which we have now developed the mice that were requested in the previous reviews: floxed angiotensinogen and AT1a receptors....
1. The angiotensin analogues Sar1-Ala8-angiotensin II (AII), Sar1-Ile8-AII, Sar1-Leu8-AII, Sar1-Thr8-AII, [Des1-Asp]-Ile8-AII and [Des1-Asp]-Sar2-Ile8-AII and converting enzyme inhibitor (SQ 80221) infused by intra-adrenal arterial infusion had no effect on aldosterone secretion in sodium-deficient sheep at doses in excess of those shown to block exogenous angiotensin II or III infusion.. 2. It is suggested that the intrinsic agonist activity of the analogues may fulfil the requirements for a permissive role for angiotensin in the aldosterone response to sodium deficiency.. ...
Broad specificity aminopeptidase. Plays a role in the final digestion of peptides generated from hydrolysis of proteins by gastric and pancreatic proteases. May play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease. May be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides of diverse cell types, responsible for the processing of peptide hormones, such as angiotensin III and IV, neuropeptides, and chemokines. Found to cleave antigen peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of presenting cells and to degrade neurotransmitters at synaptic junctions. Is also implicated as a regulator of IL-8 bioavailability in the endometrium, and therefore may contribute to the regulation of angiogenesis. Is used as a marker for acute myeloid leukemia and plays a role in tumor invasion. In case of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) infection, serves as receptor for HCoV-229E spike glycoprotein. Mediates as well human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation Research.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
目前胃癌的细胞毒药物治疗已进入一个平台期。随着分子生物学研究的深入开展,胃癌的诊断及治疗进入了分子水平。大量的基础和临床研究正在探索胃癌的分子靶点包括:人表皮生长因子受体2、人表皮生长因子受体1、哺乳动物雷帕霉素靶蛋白、血管内皮生长因子、血管内皮生长因子2、纤维母细胞生长因子受体2、肝细胞生长因子受体以及聚腺苷酸二磷酸核糖转移酶等。目前,仅有人表皮生长因子受体2的靶向药物曲妥珠单抗及血管内皮生长因子受体2靶向药物ramucirumab被III期临床研究证实在晚期胃癌中有显著疗效,针对上述靶点的其他药物需进一步研究和开发。
The compound 4-tert-butyl-2,6-bis(thiomorpholin-4-ylmethyl)phenol (TBTIF) has molecular characteristics similar to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors of the sulfhydryl subclass. To assess its value as a new therapeutic agent, we performed
Published Online: 1 JAN 2011. DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp070304. Copyright © 2010 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved. ...
Peptides , Angiotensins and Related Peptides , ClearPoint Angiotensin I, human, 13C and 15N labeled; This peptide is angiontensin I (Ang I) with valine and isoleucine universally labeled with 13C and N. Ang I is a precursor to Ang II, which has been implicated in cardiovascular functions, cell proliferation, fibrosis, and apoptosis. The 10-mer Ang I peptide is converted to Ang II through the cleavage of the Phe8-His9 bond of Ang I by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or human chymase.; DR-V*-Y-I*-HPFHL [Val* = Val(U-13C5,15N); Ile* = Ile(U-13C6,15N)]; H-Asp-Arg-Val*-Tyr-Ile*-His-Pro-Phe-His-Leu-OH [Val* = Val(U-13C5,15N); Ile* = Ile(U-13C6,15N)]
Microvillar membranes derived from the brush border of the renal proximal tubule are very rich in peptidases. Pig kidney microvilli contain endopeptidase-24.11 associated with a battery of exopeptidases. The manner by which some neuropeptides are degraded by the combined attack of the peptidases of this membrane has been investigated. The contribution of individual peptidases was assessed by including inhibitors (phosphoramidon, captopril, amastatin and di-isopropyl fluorophosphate) with the membrane fraction when incubated with the peptides. Substance P, bradykinin and angiotensins I, II and III and insulin B-chain were rapidly hydrolysed by kidney microvilli. Oxytocin was hydrolysed much more slowly, but no products were detected from [Arg8]vasopressin or insulin under the conditions used for other peptides. The peptide bonds hydrolysed were identified and the contributions of the different peptidases were quantified. For each of the susceptible peptides, the main contribution came from ...
Peptides , Angiotensins and Related Peptides , ClearPoint Angiotensin II, human, 13C and 15N-labeled; The octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) exerts a wide range of effects on the cardiovascular system. It is also implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, fibrosis and apoptosis. Ang II is formed through cleavage of Ang I by the angiotensin-conve; DRVY-I*-HPF [I*= I(U13C6,15N)]; H-Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-*Ile-His-Pro-Phe-OH [Ile*= Ile(U13C6,15N)]
Angiotensin convertaza, cunoscuta si sub numele de kinaza II sau peptidil-dipeptidaza A, este o enzima din clasa hidrolazelor implicate in hidroliza legaturilor peptidice la nivelul C-terminal. Are localizare transmembranara si este alcatuita dintr-un singur lant polipeptidic cu doua situsuri catalitice ce contin zinc. Clivajul proteolitic elibereaza din membrana celulara in spatiul extracelular enzima functionala, circulanta6.. Majoritatea angiotensin convertazei (~90%) se gaseste legata in tesuturi si doar o mica parte circula libera in plasma. Sursa principala a enzimei este endoteliul pulmonar.. Enzima participa in cascada sistemului renina-angiotensina-aldosteron ca raspuns la hipovolemie, fiind responsabila de conversia angiotensinei I in angiotensina II, vasoconstrictor puternic care creste tensiunea arteriala. De asemenea angiotensin convertaza este responsabila si de inactivarea bradikininei (in sistemul kalikreina-kinina)3;6.. Activitatea angiotensin convertazei este crescuta in ...
Alamandine | [Ala1]-Angiotensin (1-7), Angiotensin A (1-7) (Human, Rat, Mouse)4475-v 0.5 mg | 25.00 EURAla-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro (M.W.
The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc metalloprotease that displays some activity against angiotensin-3. The encoded protein is inhibited by the aminopeptidase inhibitor amastatin, as well as by the general inhibitors o-phenanthroline and batimastat. Defects in this gene may be associated with lung tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016 ...
Discuss the medication that may have caused him to deteriorate - What is the enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II and where is this normally
Ac-Angiotensinogen (1-14) (Porcine), 1 mg. Renin cleavage of Ac-DRVYIHPFHLLVYS yields N-terminally acetylated angiotensin I and LVYS.
sp:ACE_MOUSE] Ace, AW208573, CD143; angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 1; K01283 peptidyl-dipeptidase A [EC:3.4.15.1] ...
sp:ACE_MOUSE] Ace, AW208573, CD143; angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 1; K01283 peptidyl-dipeptidase A [EC:3.4.15.1] ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Sodium atom in PDB 2gg5: Novel Bacterial Methionine Aminopeptidase Inhibitors
This study demonstrates the potent vasopressor activity of homologous dogfish angiotensin (A) I and II. The AII competitive binding inhibitors [Sar1-Val5-Ala8]-AII and [Sar1-IIe8]-AII did not inhibit the pressor action of dogfish AII but the converting enzyme inhibitor captopril effectively blocked conversion of AI to AII.
Angiotensin 1 converting enzyme - 67 yrs. Angiotensin 1 converting enzyme (ace) serum 126.7, what should be done? Bad? What does this mean? Life style changes. Medication? Thank you ACE levels. 51 M Notes: 67 yrs angiotensin 1 converting enzyme (ace) serum 126.7, what should be done? Bad? What does this mean? Life style changes. Medication? Thank you ANS: not enough information to help at this point. Are you 51 or 67? Need to know why it was measured, what meds, other illnesses, & what is normal in that lab. Get this information & will be happy to do 2nd opinion as I specialize in RAAS
an antihypertensive drug that blocks the formation of angiotensin II in the kidney, leading to relaxation of the arteries; promotes the excretion of salt and water by inhibiting the activity of the angiotensin converting enzyme; also used to treat congestive heart failure. ...
Monoklonale und polyklonale Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 1 Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 1 Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
製藥大廠Cytokinetics最近宣布,公司開發的用於治療肌萎縮性脊髓側索硬化症(ALS)新藥tirasemtiv,在臨床 III 期研究中未能達到目標而宣告失敗。受這一結果影響,公司宣布將暫停該藥物的研發,公司股價應聲下跌 33%。 Cytoki...
Two themes were addressed in the 2013-14 academic year: curriculum development and teaching professionalism.. Organizer & Sponsor. AMES sponsored these MEJC activities. Helen Amerongen, PhD, served as the the MEJC Organizer. She is a member of the Academy of Medical Education Scholars (AMES*) and the Block Director for Foundations, as well as the Associate Department Head and Professor of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine.. Given the enthusiastic participation of faculty in these journal club activities, the articles are posted here as resources for faculty instructional development.. ...

Angiotensin III Depressor Action in the Conscious Rabbit Is Blocked by Losartan but not PD 123319 | HypertensionAngiotensin III Depressor Action in the Conscious Rabbit Is Blocked by Losartan but not PD 123319 | Hypertension

The half-lives of angiotensin II, angiotensin II-amide, angiotensin III, Sar1-Ala8-angiotensin II and renin in the circulatory ... Effects of des-Asp-angiotensin I on the contractile action of angiotensin II and angiotensin III. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995;278:175 ... Angiotensin-(1-7) did not exert a depressor action, and the reduced potency of angiotensin IV (relative to angiotensin III) was ... Comparative effects of angiotensin II and its degradation products angiotensin III and angiotensin IV in rat aorta. Br J ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/35/1/130

ENPEP Gene - GeneCards | AMPE Protein | AMPE AntibodyENPEP Gene - GeneCards | AMPE Protein | AMPE Antibody

Angiotensin III (human, mouse). Aldosterone stimulator. 13602-53-4. Bestatin. Aminopeptidase inhibitor. 58970-76-6. ... angiotensin catabolic process in blood. NAS. 19608358. GO:0003081. regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by renin- ... The GeneCards human gene database index: 2 3 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... Appears to have a role in the catabolic pathway of the renin-angiotensin system. Probably plays a role in regulating growth and ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=ENPEP

Aminopeptidase N (Myeloid Plasma Membrane Glycoprotein CD13 or Alanyl Aminopeptidase or Aminopeptidase M or Microsomal...Aminopeptidase N (Myeloid Plasma Membrane Glycoprotein CD13 or Alanyl Aminopeptidase or Aminopeptidase M or Microsomal...

It also involved in the processing of various peptides including peptide hormones, such as angiotensin III and IV, ... Hours: Monday - Thursday: 3:00am - 6:30pm EST. Fridays: 3:00am - 5:30pm EST. Email: [email protected] ...
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IJMS  | Free Full-Text | Angiotensin-Converting Enzymes Play a Dominant Role  in Fertility | HTMLIJMS | Free Full-Text | Angiotensin-Converting Enzymes Play a Dominant Role in Fertility | HTML

Moreover, alterations in the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-1, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, and angiotensin- ... An accumulating body of evidence has shown that the renin-angiotensin system is involved in the fertility problems observed in ... However, as a pseudogene in humans, further studies are needed to explore whether the abnormal angiotensin-converting enzyme-3 ... In this review, the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzymes and fertile ability is summarized, and a new procedure ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/10/21071/htm

Renin-angiotensin system inhibition is not associated with increased sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular mortality or all...Renin-angiotensin system inhibition is not associated with increased sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular mortality or all...

Aortic stenosis, Renin-angiotensin system inhibition, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, Angiotensin receptor blocker, ... We evaluated if RASI with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) increased ... Background: Renin-angiotensin system inhibition (RASI) is frequently avoided in aortic stenosis (AS) patients because of fear ... Renin-angiotensin system inhibition is not associated with increased sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular mortality or all- ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:774284

Exploring the Link between ACE Insertion/Deletion (I/D) Polymorphism and Uterine Leiomyomas -  SSU JournalsExploring the Link between ACE Insertion/Deletion (I/D) Polymorphism and Uterine Leiomyomas - SSU Journals

ACE gene encodes a convertase enzyme mainly secreted in vascular endothelial cells which is involved in the renin-angiotensin ... Keywords: ACE1 Gene, Leiomyoma, Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism, Renin-Angiotensin System. Full-Text [PDF 602 kb] (458 ... Rigat B, Hubert C, Alhenc-Gelas F, Cambien F, Corvol P, Soubrier F. An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I- ... Zhang Z, Xu G, Liu D, Fan X, Zhu W, Liu X. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism contributes to ...
more infohttp://jssu.ssu.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=3564&sid=1&slc_lang=en

Systolic blood pressure responses to enalapril maleate (MK 421, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) and...Systolic blood pressure responses to enalapril maleate (MK 421, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) and...

N2 - Systolic blood pressure responses to enalapril maleate (MK 421, a new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI) and ... AB - Systolic blood pressure responses to enalapril maleate (MK 421, a new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI) and ... Systolic blood pressure responses to enalapril maleate (MK 421, a new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI) and ... abstract = "Systolic blood pressure responses to enalapril maleate (MK 421, a new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI ...
more infohttps://qfrd.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/systolic-blood-pressure-responses-to-enalapril-maleate-mk-421-an-

Anti-Angiotensin III antibody (Biotin) (ab47841) | AbcamAnti-Angiotensin III antibody (Biotin) (ab47841) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal Angiotensin III antibody conjugated to Biotin. Validated in ELISA, RIA and tested in Human. Immunogen ... Angiotensin III is an eptapeptide drived from cleavage of full length angiotensin (AGT). AGT is a polypeptide vasopressor ... Angiotensin III (heptapeptide) is a degradation product of angiotensin II, and has less vasopressor activity than the parent ... However, Angiotensin III does stimulate aldosterone release. The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/angiotensin-iii-antibody-biotin-ab47841.html

Val4]-Angiotensin III acetate salt hydrate ≥97% (HPLC) | Sigma-AldrichVal4]-Angiotensin III acetate salt hydrate ≥97% (HPLC) | Sigma-Aldrich

Angiotensin III acetate salt hydrate for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols ... Angiotensins, Cell Biology, Cell Signaling and Neuroscience, Neuropeptides, Peptides and Proteins, Peptides for Cell Biology ...
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Conversion of Renal Angiotensin II to Angiotensin III Is Critical for AT2 Receptor-Mediated Natriuresis In Rats | HypertensionConversion of Renal Angiotensin II to Angiotensin III Is Critical for AT2 Receptor-Mediated Natriuresis In Rats | Hypertension

In the kidney, angiotensin II (Ang II) is metabolized to angiotensin III (Ang III) by aminopeptidase A (APA). In turn, Ang III ... Renal angiotensin type 2 receptors mediate natriuresis via angiotensin III in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor-blocked rat. ... and angiotensin converting-enzyme mRNA.5-8 Interstitial fluid concentrations of angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin III ( ... Important role for angiotensin III and IV in the brain renin-angiotensin system. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1997; 25: 96-124. ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/51/2/460

angiotensin III | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGYangiotensin III | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

angiotensin III ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ... Ang, AngII, angiotensin II, angiotensinogen, angiotensinogen (PAT), angiotensinogen (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A, ... angiotensinogen (serpin peptidase inhibitor, angiotensinogen (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A, member 8), angiotensin ...
more infohttps://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/LigandDisplayForward?ligandId=585

Gentaur Molecular :Assaypro \ Angiotensin III, anti human IgG \ 10461-05015Gentaur Molecular :Assaypro \ Angiotensin III, anti human IgG \ 10461-05015

Angiotensin III, anti_human IgG \ 10461-05015 for more molecular products just contact us ... Angiotensin 2-8) (Angiotensin III) (Ang III) (Des-Asp[1]-angiotensin II); Angiotensin-4 (Angiotensin 3-8) (Angiotensin IV) (Ang ... Angiotensin 2-8) (Angiotensin III) (Ang III) (Des-Asp[1]-angiotensin II); Angiotensin-4 (Angiotensin 3-8) (Angiotensin IV) (Ang ... Angiotensin 2-8) (Angiotensin III) (Ang III) (Des-Asp[1]-angiotensin II); Angiotensin-4 (Angiotensin 3-8) (Angiotensin IV) (Ang ...
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Angiotensin III increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cellsAngiotensin III increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells

Angiotensin III (Ang III, 10−7M) significantly stimulates p38 phosphorylation. Cells were incubated with Ang III (10−7 M) for ... Angiotensin III (Ang III)-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in HK-2 cells via the Ang II type-1 ( ... 1. Angiotensin III (Ang III) increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 synthesis in HK-2 cells by stimulating p38 and c-Jun ... Conversion of renal angiotensin II to angiotensin III is critical for AT2 receptor-mediated natriuresis in rats. Hypertension ...
more infohttp://www.kjim.org/journal/view.php?number=169540

Angiotensin 2 [3-8] Peptide | AbbiotecAngiotensin 2 [3-8] Peptide | Abbiotec

In response to lowered blood pressure, the renin enzyme cleaves angiotensin-1 from angiotensin. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ... Peptide binds specifically to a new angiotensin binding site distinct from angiotensin 2 receptors. ... ACE) then removes a dipeptide to yield the physiologically active peptide angiotensin-2, the most potent pressor substance ...
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ClC-3 promotes angiotensin II-induced reactive oxygen species production in endothelial cells by facilitating Nox2 NADPH...ClC-3 promotes angiotensin II-induced reactive oxygen species production in endothelial cells by facilitating Nox2 NADPH...

ClC-3 promotes angiotensin II-induced reactive oxygen species production in endothelial cells by facilitating Nox2 NADPH ... Treatment with angiotensin II (Ang II, 1 μmol/L) significantly elevated ClC-3 expression in cultured human umbilical vein ... Recent evidence suggests that ClC-3, a member of the ClC family of Cl− channels or Cl−/H+ antiporters, plays a critical role in ... ClC-3 promotes angiotensin II-induced reactive oxygen species production in endothelial cells by facilitating Nox2 NADPH ...
more infohttp://www.chinaphar.com/article/view/9871

PulmCrit- Angiotensin II: five cautions & three comparisonsPulmCrit- Angiotensin II: five cautions & three comparisons

However, it was alarming to hear that the FDA has approved angiotensin II for use based on it. Precious little evidence is ... With angiotensin II arriving at hospitals soon, some cautions are in order. ... Upon first reading the ATHOS-3 trial, I was pleasantly optimistic. Who wouldnt be interested in a shiny new vasopressor? The ... PulmCrit- Angiotensin II: five cautions & three comparisons. PulmCrit- Angiotensin II: five cautions & three comparisons. ...
more infohttps://emcrit.org/pulmcrit/angiotensin-ii/

Cas No. 4474-91-3,Angiotensin II Acetate,1Creative PeptidesCas No. 4474-91-3,Angiotensin II Acetate,1Creative Peptides

Angiotensin II Acetate,1Creative Peptides-21chemnet.com is a leading B2B chemical business platform,and chemical from China are ... Angiotensin II is an octapeptide that produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ... angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin II is mediated by AT1 and AT2 receptors, which are seven transmembrane ... CAS No.:4474-91-3. Please post your buying leads! Our suppliers will contact you later!. * Required Fields ...
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anti-AGT antibody | Mouse anti-Human ANGIOTENSIN I/II/III Monoclonal Antibody-NP 000020.1anti-AGT antibody | Mouse anti-Human ANGIOTENSIN I/II/III Monoclonal Antibody-NP 000020.1

Mouse anti-Human ANGIOTENSIN I/II/III Monoclonal Antibody-NP_000020.1 (MBS211345) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary ... ANGIOTENSIN I/II/III. This item recognizes Angiotensin I, Angiotensin II and Angiotensin III in ELISA.. Incomplete mapping ... Angiotensin 2-8; Angiotensin III; Ang III; Des-Asp[1]-angiotensin IIAngiotensin-4; Alternative name(s):; Angiotensin 3-8; ... Angiotensin 1-10; Angiotensin I; Ang IAngiotensin-2; Alternative name(s):; Angiotensin 1-8; Angiotensin II; Ang IIAngiotensin-3 ...
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Angiotensins II and III prevent captopril-induced renin release in the rat - DROAngiotensins II and III prevent captopril-induced renin release in the rat - DRO

Angiotensin II. Angiotensin III. Animals. Blood Pressure. Captopril. Female. Norepinephrine. Rats. Rats, Inbred Strains. Renin ... Angiotensins II and III prevent captopril-induced renin release in the rat. Moldenhauer, G. K., Smith, M. D., Di Nicolantonio, ... Angiotensins II and III prevent captopril-induced renin release in the rat ... Angiotensins II and III prevent captopril-induced renin release in the rat, Clinical and experimental pharmacology and ...
more infohttp://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30075224

Effect of Renin Angiotensin System Blockade on Pentraxin 3 Levels in Type-2 Diabetic Patients With Proteinuria | American...Effect of Renin Angiotensin System Blockade on Pentraxin 3 Levels in Type-2 Diabetic Patients With Proteinuria | American...

Effect of Renin Angiotensin System Blockade on Pentraxin 3 Levels in Type-2 Diabetic Patients With Proteinuria. Mahmut Ilker ... After three washing intervals, 100 μl enzyme conjugate (peroxidase-labeled anti-CRP) was added on each micro well for ... Three adjacent measurements of end-diastolic brachial artery diameter were made from single two-dimensional frames. All ... Peng N, Liu JT, Gao DF, Lin R, Li R: Angiotensin II-induced C-reactive protein generation: Inflammatory role of vascular smooth ...
more infohttps://cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/4/3/535

3,4-Di-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid Inhibits Angiotensin-II-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration by...3,4-Di-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid Inhibits Angiotensin-II-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration by...

O-Caffeoylquinic Acid Inhibits Angiotensin-II-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration by Downregulating ... O-Caffeoylquinic Acid Inhibits Angiotensin-II-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration by Downregulating ... 3Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. ... Wen-Fei Chiou,1,2,3 Chien-Chih Chen,1 and Bai-Luh Wei2 ... Wen-Fei Chiou, Chien-Chih Chen, and Bai-Luh Wei, "3,4-Di- ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2011/634502/cta/

ELISA Kits (A-Z) - ELISA Kits - ProductsELISA Kits (A-Z) - ELISA Kits - Products

Angiotensin III (Ang III)(Human) ELISA Kit. Catalog #: E4536 , Datasheet $695.00 Add to Cart. ...
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Monistat-3 Combination Pack
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        Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors,  ATC:C09AA13Monistat-3 Combination Pack - Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, ATC:C09AA13

Moexipril is a non-sulfhydryl containing precursor of the active angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor moexiprilat. It ... Monistat-3 Combination Pack LogP 3.31 Monistat-3 Combination Pack Dosage Forms Tablets (scored, coated, containing 7.5 mg or 15 ... Monistat-3 Combination Pack Melting Point No information avaliable Monistat-3 Combination Pack H2O Solubility Soluble (about 10 ... Monistat-3 Combination Pack msds (material safety sheet) Monistat-3 Combination Pack Synthesis Reference No information ...
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A novel phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent pathway for angiotensin II/AT-1 receptor-mediated induction of collagen synthesis...A novel phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent pathway for angiotensin II/AT-1 receptor-mediated induction of collagen synthesis...

Chronic activation of the angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1 receptor (AT-1R) is critical in the development of chronic kidney ... a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor), an Akt inhibitor, and stable transfection of dominant negative-Akt1. ANG II ... Angiotensin II Induces Endothelin-1 Expression in Human Hepatic Stellate Cells. *Chao He, Xiongying Miao, Jiequn Li, Haizhi Qi ... Angiotensin II Protects Primary Rat Hepatocytes against Bile Salt-Induced Apoptosis. *Golnar Karimian, Manon Buist-Homan, ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/A-novel-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-dependent-pathway-Yano-Suzuki/0dcf281756f6d312802abde60798f86bd36b1b7e

Histamine 3 Receptor Activation Reduces the Expression of Neuronal Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors in the Heart | Journal of...Histamine 3 Receptor Activation Reduces the Expression of Neuronal Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors in the Heart | Journal of...

angiotensin. AT1R. ANG II type 1 receptor. H3R. histamine 3 receptor. H4R. histamine 4 receptor. I/R. ischemia/reperfusion. l- ... angiotensin II, formed locally by mast cell-derived renin, stimulates NHE via angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors, ... 2003) Angiotensin-(1-7) is an endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor Mas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8258-8263. ... angiotensin I converting enzyme 2. CBP. clobenpropit. EXP3174. 2-n-butyl-4-chloro-1-((2′-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) biphenyl-4-yl) ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/340/1/185
  • Renin (called angiotensinogenase) is an enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes cleavage of the leucine leucine bond in angiotensinogen (a serum globulin) to generate angiotensin I in the liver. (abcam.com)
  • We found that H 3 receptor blockade with clobenpropit increased norepinephrine overflow and arrhythmias in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 13,14 As shown in Figure 1 , APA preferentially cleaves the N-terminal acidic amino acid (aspartate) from Ang II to generate Ang III, which serves as the rate-limiting step in Ang II metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • Angiotensin III, anti_human IgG antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of Angiotensin III, anti_human IgG. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Large intravenous boluses of angiotensin III (15 nmol/kg) produced a predictable pressor peak (82±4 mm Hg) followed by a depressor phase (20±3 mm Hg), whereas equipressor doses of angiotensin II were less effective at producing depressor responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • Angiotensin-(1-7) did not exert a depressor action, and the reduced potency of angiotensin IV (relative to angiotensin III) was similar for both the pressor and depressor phases (≈100-fold). (ahajournals.org)
  • Early in vitro work showed vasorelaxation by angiotensins in some vascular beds, 1 2 3 and Campbell et al 4 reported a vasodepressor phase after the characteristic pressor response to angiotensin II in conscious rabbits. (ahajournals.org)
  • This may be a signal of angiotensin II causing digital ischemia. (emcrit.org)
  • The purpose of this investigation was therefore to elucidate the H 3 /AT 1 receptor interaction in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Accordingly, we hypothesize that the activation of H 3 R in myocardial ischemia serves a protective function in opposing the NE-releasing proarrhythmogenic actions of ANG II. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We report that H 3 R activation at the level of sympathetic nerve endings in myocardial ischemia opposes the deleterious effects of locally formed ANG II, not only by counteracting the NHE-stimulating effect of ANG II, but also by reducing the expression of AT 1 R. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Higher doses over the first three hours were used to prove efficacy , whereas safety was achieved by dropping the infusion dose to a lower level after three hours. (emcrit.org)
  • The phosphorylation states of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases were measured in Ang III-treated cells to explore the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. (kjim.org)
  • The various reports prompted us to reevaluate the angiotensin depressor response with the use of the conscious rabbit model described previously. (ahajournals.org)
  • The purpose of this investigation was therefore to ascertain whether enhanced ischemic cardiac dysfunction, which is manifest when H 3 Rs are blocked or deleted, results from an unimpeded AT 1 R-NHE activation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Total phosphorylated JNK protein levels tended to increase 20 minutes after stimulation with Ang III. (kjim.org)
  • Ang III increases MCP-1 synthesis via stimulation of intracellular p38 and JNK MAPK signaling activity and subsequent activated protein-1 transcriptional activity in HK-2 cells. (kjim.org)
  • Wen-Fei Chiou, Chien-Chih Chen, and Bai-Luh Wei, "3,4-Di- O -Caffeoylquinic Acid Inhibits Angiotensin-II-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration by Downregulating the JNK and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , vol. 2011, Article ID 634502, 8 pages, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Angiotensin II increases thrombin formation and impairs thrombolysis ( Celi 2010 , Dielis 2007 ). (emcrit.org)
  • Treatment with angiotensin II (Ang II, 1 μmol/L) significantly elevated ClC-3 expression in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). (chinaphar.com)
  • We further showed that Ang II treatment increased the translocation of p47phox and p67phox from the cytosol to membrane, accompanied by elevated Nox2 and p22phox expression, which was significantly attenuated by knockdown of ClC-3 and potentiated by overexpression of ClC-3. (chinaphar.com)
  • Moreover, the role of novel, putatively more endothelium-specific inflammatory cytokines such as long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) ( 8 - 10 ) is also unclear. (asnjournals.org)
  • Angiotensin III, anti_human IgG Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • We investigated whether angiotensin III (Ang III) is involved in monocyte recruitment through regulation of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). (kjim.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that ClC-3, a member of the ClC family of Cl− channels or Cl−/H+ antiporters, plays a critical role in NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. (chinaphar.com)
  • The ATHOS-3 manuscript didn't report an increase in thrombotic risk when various types of thrombosis were examined separately. (emcrit.org)
  • It is tantalizing that angiotensin II improved the cardiovascular component of the SOFA score despite making zero difference in the composite SOFA score - arithmetic requires that angiotensin II must have impaired the function of some other organ(s) not reported in the manuscript (1). (emcrit.org)
  • Thus, the magnitude of carrier-mediated NE release and associated arrhythmias may depend on a balance between the respective NHE-modulating effects of H 3 R and AT 1 R. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The present study addresses the hypotheses that Ang II conversion to Ang III is critical for the natriuretic response. (ahajournals.org)
  • The fact that opposite hypotheses are being investigated reveals weakness in the basic science behind using angiotensin II for septic shock. (emcrit.org)
  • Angiotensin III (heptapeptide) is a degradation product of angiotensin II, and has less vasopressor activity than the parent compound. (abcam.com)
  • Furthermore, Ang II treatment increased ROS production and NADPH oxidase activity, an effect that could be significantly inhibited by knockdown of ClC-3, and further enhanced by overexpression of ClC-3. (chinaphar.com)