An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.
An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.
Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in fetal tissues. Many effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor such as VASODILATION and sodium loss are the opposite of that of the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
Agents that antagonize the ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 2 RECEPTOR.
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40%).
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (VASOCONSTRICTION) and fluid homeostasis via the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. These include angiotensins derived naturally from precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, and those synthesized.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An ANGIOTENSIN II analog which acts as a highly specific inhibitor of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.
A constitutively expressed subtype of bradykinin receptor that may play a role in the acute phase of the inflammatory and pain response. It has high specificity for intact forms of BRADYKININ and KALLIDIN. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.
Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.
Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.
Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.
Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A synthetic nonapeptide (Pyr-Trp-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro-Pro) which is identical to the peptide from the venom of the snake, Bothrops jararaca. It inhibits kininase II and ANGIOTENSIN I and has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The octapeptide amide of bovine angiotensin II used to increase blood pressure by vasoconstriction.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.
A structure, situated close to the intraventricular foramen, which induces DRINKING BEHAVIOR after stimulation with ANGIOTENSIN II.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
Excision of kidney.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is used in patients with hypertension and heart failure.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLINES which contain no double bonds in the ring.
A condition characterized by the thickening of the ventricular ENDOCARDIUM and subendocardium (MYOCARDIUM), seen mostly in children and young adults in the TROPICAL CLIMATE. The fibrous tissue extends from the apex toward and often involves the HEART VALVES causing restrictive blood flow into the respective ventricles (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE).
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The consumption of liquids.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An inbred strain of Long-Evans rats that develops hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild obesity, mostly in males, that resembles non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in humans. It was developed from outbred Long-Evans stock in 1983.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.

Angiotensin receptor subtype 1 mediates angiotensin II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced cyclic AMP production in preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells. (1/154)

In a previous study, we found that angiotensin (Ang) II enhances beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells (PMVSMCs) obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats. The purpose of the present investigation was to identify the Ang receptor subtypes that mediate this effect. In our first study, we compared the ability of Ang II, Ang III, Ang (3-8), and Ang (1-7) to increase cAMP production in isoproterenol (1 microM)-treated PMVSMCs. Each peptide was tested at 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 nM. Both Ang II and Ang III increased intracellular (EC50s, 1 and 11 nM, respectively) and extracellular (EC50s, 2 and 14 nM, respectively) cAMP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. In contrast, Ang (3-8) and Ang (1-7) did not enhance either intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels at any concentration tested. In our second study, we examined the ability of L 158809 [a selective Ang receptor subtype 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist] to inhibit Ang II (100 nM) and Ang III (100 nM) enhancement of isoproterenol (1 microM)-induced cAMP production in PMVSMCs. L 158809 (10 nM) abolished or nearly abolished (p <.001) Ang II and Ang III enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular and extracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, PD 123319 (300 nM; a selective AT2 receptor antagonist) did not significantly alter Ang II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels. We conclude that AT1 receptors, but not AT2, Ang (3-8), nor Ang (1-7) receptors mediate Ang II and Ang III enhancement of beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured PMVSMCs.  (+info)

Angiotensin II antagonist prevents electrical remodeling in atrial fibrillation. (2/154)

BACKGROUND: The blockade of angiotensin II (Ang II) formation has protective effects on cardiovascular tissue; however, the role of Ang II in atrial electrical remodeling is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of candesartan and captopril on atrial electrical remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 24 dogs, the atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was measured before, during, and after rapid atrial pacing. Rapid atrial pacing at 800 bpm was maintained for 180 minutes. The infusion of saline (n=8), candesartan (n=5), captopril (n=6), or Ang II (n=5) was initiated 30 minutes before rapid pacing and continued throughout the study. In the saline group, AERP was significantly shortened during rapid atrial pacing (from 149+/-11 to 132+/-16 ms, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in AERP shortening between the saline group and the Ang II group. However, in the candesartan and captopril groups, shortening of the AERP after rapid pacing was completely inhibited (from 142+/-9 to 147+/-12 ms with candesartan, from 153+/-15 to 153+/-14 ms with captopril, P=NS). Although rate adaptation of the AERP was lost in the saline group, this phenomenon was preserved in the candesartan and captopril groups. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of endogenous Ang II prevented AERP shortening during rapid atrial pacing. These results indicate for the first time that Ang II may be involved in the mechanism of atrial electrical remodeling and that the blockade of Ang II may lead to the better therapeutic management of human atrial fibrillation.  (+info)

Angiotensin II inhibits rat arterial KATP channels by inhibiting steady-state protein kinase A activity and activating protein kinase Ce. (3/154)

We used whole-cell patch clamp to investigate steady-state activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP) of rat arterial smooth muscle by protein kinase A (PKA) and the pathway by which angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibits these channels. Rp-cAMPS, an inhibitor of PKA, did not affect KATP currents activated by pinacidil when the intracellular solution contained 0.1 mM ATP. However, when ATP was increased to 1.0 mM, inhibition of PKA reduced KATP current, while the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A caused a small increase in current. Ang II (100 nM) inhibited KATP current activated by the K+ channel opener pinacidil. The degree of inhibition was greater with 1.0 mM than with 0.1 mM intracellular ATP. The effect of Ang II was abolished by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan. The inhibition of KATP currents by Ang II was abolished by a combination of PKA inhibitor peptide 5-24 (5 microM) and PKC inhibitor peptide 19-27 (100 microM), while either alone caused only partial block of the effect. In the presence of PKA inhibitor peptide, the inhibitory effect of Ang II was unaffected by the PKC inhibitor Go 6976, which is selective for Ca2+-dependent isoforms of PKC, but was abolished by a selective peptide inhibitor of the translocation of the epsilon isoform of PKC. Our results indicate that KATP channels are activated by steady-state phosphorylation by PKA at normal intracellular ATP levels, and that Ang II inhibits the channels both through activation of PKCepsilon and inhibition of PKA.  (+info)

Reactive oxygen species-mediated homologous downregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor mRNA by angiotensin II. (4/154)

Recent studies suggest a crucial role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for the signaling of angiotensin (Ang) II through Ang II type 1 receptor (AT(1)-R). However, the role of ROS in the regulation of AT(1)-R expression has not been explored. In this study, we examined the effect of an antioxidant on the homologous downregulation of AT(1)-R by Ang II. Ang II (10(-6) mol/L) decreased AT(1)-R mRNA with a peak suppression at 6 hours of stimulation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Preincubation of vascular smooth muscle cells with N:-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, almost completely inhibited the Ang II-induced downregulation of AT(1)-R mRNA. The effect of NAC was due to stabilization of the AT(1)-R mRNA that was destabilized by Ang II. The Ang II-induced AT(1)-R mRNA downregulation was also blocked by PD98059, an extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinase inhibitor. Ang II-induced ERK activation was inhibited by NAC as well as by PD98059. Exogenous H(2)O(2) also suppressed AT(1)-R mRNA. These results suggest that the production of ROS and the activation of ERK are critical for the downregulation of AT(1)-R mRNA. The generation of ROS through stimulation of AT(1)-R not only mediates signaling of Ang II but also may play a crucial role in the adaptation process of AT(1)-R to the sustained stimulation of Ang II.  (+info)

Chronotropic effect of angiotensin II via type 2 receptors in rat brain neurons. (5/154)

Previously, we determined that angiotensin II (Ang II) elicits an Ang II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor-mediated increase of neuronal delayed rectifier K(+) (I(KV)) current in neuronal cultures from newborn rat hypothalamus and brain stem. This requires generation of lipoxygenase (LO) metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) and activation of serine/threonine phosphatase type 2A (PP-2A). Enhancement of I(KV) results in a decrease in net inward current during the action potential (AP) upstroke as well as shortening of the refractory period, which may lead to alterations in neuronal firing rate. Thus, in the present study, we used whole-cell current clamp recording methods to investigate the AT(2) receptor-mediated effects of Ang II on the firing rate of cultured neurons from the hypothalamus and brain stem. At room temperature, these neurons exhibited spontaneous APs with an amplitude of 77.72 +/- 2.7 mV (n = 20) and they fired at a frequency of 0.8 +/- 0.1 Hz (n = 11). Most cells had a prolonged early after-depolarization that followed an initial fully developed AP. Superfusion of Ang II (100 nM) plus losartan (LOS, 1 microM) to block Ang II type 1 receptors elicited a significant chronotropic effect that was reversed by the AT(2) receptor inhibitor PD 123,319 (1 microM). LOS alone had no effect on any of the parameters measured. The chronotropic effect of Ang II was reversed by the general LO inhibitor 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (10 microM) or by the selective PP-2A inhibitor okadaic acid (1 nM) and was mimicked by the 12-LO metabolite of AA 12-(S)-hydroxy-(5Z, 8Z, 10E, 14Z)-eicosatetraynoic acid. These data indicate that Ang II elicits an AT(2) receptor-mediated increase in neuronal firing rate, an effect that involves generation of LO metabolites of AA and activation of PP-2A.  (+info)

Reversible renal impairment induced by treatment with the angiotensin II receptor antagonist candesartan in a patient with bilateral renal artery stenosis. (6/154)

BACKGROUND: It is well established that ACE-inhibitors should be avoided in patients with renal artery stenosis. In recent years it has also been recommended that caution should be demonstrated when angiotensin II blockers are used in the same type of patients but the evidence is based only on few cases. RESULTS: We describe a case where use of the angiotensin II antagonist candesartan (Atacand) induced renal failure in a patient with bilateral renal artery stenosis. The course of the case is enlighted by results from sequential renography, selective renal vein catheterisation for measurement of renin, and angiographic findings. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with renal artery stenosis the angiotensin II antagonist candesartan should be avoided.  (+info)

Use of positron emission tomography to study AT1 receptor regulation in vivo. (7/154)

Increased sodium intake and enhanced sodium sensitivity are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and in the control of a major regulator of BP, the type 1 angiotensin receptor (AT(1) receptor). An in vivo technique to study changes of renal AT(1) receptors by dietary sodium was developed that uses positron emission tomography (PET). PET revealed that renal cortical AT(1) receptor binding was increased in sodium-loaded compared with sodium-deprived dogs, which correlated with ex vivo estimations of AT(1) receptor numbers. Plasma renin activity, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were inversely related to changes in AT(1) receptor binding. These results demonstrate, for the first time in vivo, that the renal AT(1) receptor is inversely related to the activity of the renin angiotensin system, which may provide a compensatory mechanism to prevent inappropriate fluctuations in arterial BP. The ability to measure AT(1) receptor binding in vivo has potential significance for clinical studies of AT(1) receptors, because PET is a noninvasive imaging technique that is readily applicable in humans.  (+info)

Angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors in conduit arteries of normal developing microswine. (8/154)

OBJECTIVE: To identify vascular cells capable of responding to angiotensin II (Ang II) generated in conduit arteries, we examined the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) in the thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) and branches in 90-day fetal, 3-week postnatal, and 6-month adult microswine. METHODS AND RESULTS: By autoradiography ((125)I-[Sar(1)Ile(8)]-Ang II with or without AT1R- or AT2R-selective analogues or (125)I-CGP 42112), there were striking rostrocaudal differences in (1) AT2R binding at all ages (prominent in AA wall and branches, sparse in TA wall and branches) and (2) a non-AT2R binding site for CGP 42112 (consistently evident in postnatal TA and branches but absent in AA and branches). Furthermore, patterns of AT2R distribution in infradiaphragmatic arteries were developmentally distinct. In fetal AAs, high-density AT2Rs occupied the inner 60% of the medial-endothelial wall. In postnatal AAs, AT2Rs were sparse in the medial-endothelial wall but prominent in a circumferential smooth muscle alpha-actin-negative cell layer at the medial-adventitial border, occupying approximately 20% to 25% of the AA cross-sectional area. AT1R density in the TA and AA medial-endothelial wall increased with age, whereas AT2R density decreased after birth. CONCLUSIONS: A novel AT2R-positive cell layer confined to postnatal infradiaphragmatic arteries physically links adventitial and medial layers, appears optimally positioned to transduce AT2R-dependent functions of local Ang II, and suggests that adventitial Ang II may elicit regionally distinct vascular responses.  (+info)

The nucleus, being the largest sub-cellular compartment, varies in diameter from 10 to 20 micrometres. It is surrounded by a double membrane forming the nuclear envelope, about 30 nm wide. This selectively allows molecules to enter and leave the nucleus, and separates chemical reactions taking place in cytoplasm from reactions happening within the nucleus. The outer membrane has ribosomes. The inner and outer membrane fuse at regular spaces, forming nuclear pores. Similar to the cytoplasm of a cell, the nucleus contains nucleoplasm - a highly viscous solid containing the chromosomes and nucleoli. Chromosones contain information encoded in DNA attached to proteins called histones and are usually arranged in to a dense network called chromatin. Nucleoli are granular structures which make ribonucleic DNA (rDNA) and assemble it with proteins ...
I can deal with synced periods among a few friends, but the more research produced about the effect brothers and fathers have on girls, the less I want to
Highly purified CD1-3-4-8- human thymocytes were obtained by panning techniques combined with cell depletion with antibody-coated magnetic beads. Most of these cells expressed cytoplasmic CD3 antigen, as assessed by mAbs known to react with the CD3 epsilon chain. After culture with low doses of PMA (0.5 ng/ml) and subsequent addition (at 24 h) of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2; 100 U/ml) cells underwent extensive proliferation (40-60-fold of the initial cell input after 2 wk). The majority of the proliferating cells were CD3-TCR-. The remaining cells (5-40%) were represented by CD3+ TCR gamma/delta+ (BB3- A13+) cells. Further removal of CD3+ TCR-gamma/delta+ cells resulted in highly purified CD3- populations that further proliferated in culture with no substantial phenotypic changes. When CD3+ thymocytes were cultured under the same experimental conditions, only CD3+ TCR-alpha/beta+ cells could be detected, thus indicating that PMA did not affect the surface expression of the CD3/TCR complex, ...
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Buy our Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor peptide. Ab176148 is a blocking peptide for ab124505 and has been validated in BL. Abcam provides free protocols, tips…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase 2-derived thromboxane A2 reduce angiotensin II type 2 receptor vasorelaxation in diabetic rat resistance arteries. AU - Retailleau, Kevin. AU - Belin De Chantemèle, Eric J.. AU - Chanoine, Sébastien. AU - Guihot, Anne Laure. AU - Vessières, Emilie. AU - Toutain, Bertrand. AU - Faure, Sébastien. AU - Bagi, Zsolt. AU - Loufrani, Laurent. AU - Henrion, Daniel. PY - 2010/2. Y1 - 2010/2. N2 - Angiotensin II has a key role in the control of resistance artery tone and local blood flow. Angiotensin II possesses 2 main receptors. Although angiotensin II type 1 receptor is well known and is involved in the vasoconstrictor and growth properties of angiotensin II, the role of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) remains much less understood. Although AT2R stimulation induces vasodilatation in normotensive rats, it induces vasoconstriction in pathological conditions involving oxidative stress and cyclooxygenase 2 expression. Thus, we studied ...
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These studies demonstrate that RI Ang II, an AT2R ligand, does not induce a natriuresis in the presence of systemic AT1R blockade. However, a natriuretic response to Ang II, mediated by the AT2R, is unmasked by the intrarenal addition of PC-18, an APN inhibitor. Because the metabolism of Ang III to Ang IV by APN is inhibited by PC-18, these data suggest that Ang III is a significant mediator of Ang II-induced natriuresis. This conclusion is further supported by the ability of APA inhibition to abolish the natriuretic response to Ang II+PC-18.. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that in the presence of AT1R blockade, RI Ang III infusion results in natriuresis that is abolished by concomitant PD infusion, implicating the renal AT2R in the response.21 Furthermore, addition of RI PC-18 to Ang III infusion causes a 1.8- to 2.8-fold increase in Na+ excretion compared with RI Ang III infusion alone.22 These findings prompted the present set of investigations to determine whether renal ...
A randomized controlled study to compare the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (telmisartan vs candesartan vs valsartan) on the markers of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ...
Studies on the effects of angiotensin AT1-receptor antagonists and angiotensin AT2-receptor agonists and the combination thereof on vascular tone in mouse mesenteric ...
The table below shows the top 100 pain related interactions that have been reported for angiotensin type II receptor activity. They are ordered first by their pain relevance and then by number of times they were reported for angiotensin type II receptor activity. Please click on the INT link to display more detailed information on each interaction. ...
... olol for beta blockers (e.g. atenolol) -pril for ACE inhibitors (e.g. captopril) -sartan for angiotensin II receptor ... It has been defined as a form to which affixes (of any type) can be attached. Under a different and apparently more common view ... This combination of two antibiotic agents in one tablet has been available as a generic for decades, but the brand names ... Examples are: -anib for angiogenesis inhibitors (e.g. pazopanib) -anserin for serotonin receptor antagonists, especially 5-HT2 ...
"FDA Updates and Press Announcements on Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker (ARB) Recalls (Valsartan, Losartan, and Irbesartan)". ... The drug binds to angiotensin type I receptors (AT1), working as an antagonist. This mechanism of action is different than that ... It is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and works by blocking the effects of angiotensin II. Valsartan was patented in 1990 ... As valsartan acts at the receptor, it can provide more complete angiotensin II antagonism since angiotensin II is generated by ...
"Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular ... The similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not.[92] A 2016 review recommended treating to a systolic blood ... Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and ... The World Health Organization definition of diabetes (both type 1 and type 2) is for a single raised glucose reading with ...
"Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular ... are superior to other inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system such as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs),[115] or ... Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and ... The World Health Organization definition of diabetes (both type 1 and type 2) is for a single raised glucose reading with ...
... formally angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin II receptor ... also known as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), are a family of agents that bind to and inhibit the angiotensin II type 1 ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Medicine portal ... Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)". blood pressure medication. Retrieved 2020-03-21. "ARBs", Angiotensin II Receptor ...
"Clinical Efficacy of a New Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blocker, Pratosartan, in Hypertensive Patients", Hypertension ... The angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), also called angiotensin (AT1) receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of ... "The distribution of angiotensin II type 1 receptors, and the tissue renin-angiotensin systems", Molecular Medicine Today, 1 (1 ... no matter how high the concentration of Ang II is. The angiotensin receptor blockers can inhibit the receptor in a competitive ...
... angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), and beta blockers. Which type of medication to use initially for hypertension has ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonists work by antagonizing the activation of angiotensin receptors. azilsartan candesartan ... thiazide-type diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor antagonists. The first large ... On the other hand, β-blockers, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone receptor antagonists ...
Burnier M (February 2001). "Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers". Circulation. 103 (6): 904-12. doi:10.1161/01.cir.103.6. ... fimasartan blocks angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 receptors), reducing pro-hypertensive actions of angiotensin II, such as ... Harada K, Sugaya T, Murakami K, Yazaki Y, Komuro I (November 1999). "Angiotensin II type 1A receptor knockout mice display less ... an angiotensin receptor type 1 blocker, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy Korean male ...
... though another view is that increasing ACE2 using angiotensin II receptor blocker medications could be protective. As the ... which is most abundant in type II alveolar cells of the lungs. The virus uses a special surface glycoprotein called a "spike" ( ... Theoretically the usage of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and ACE inhibitors upregulating ACE2 expression might increase ... is the viral component that attaches to the host receptor via the ACE2 receptors. It includes two subunits: S1 and S2. S1 ...
... and the first combination of chlorthalidone and angiotensin-receptor blocker in India. His research has helped introduce new ... The couple have two children, Abhishek Pareek and Aditya Pareek. Pareek has published his research in scientific journals. Dr. ... It is the first anti-inflammatory agent approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. His research work also led to the ... July 2014). "Efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind, randomized ...
... angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are associated with fewer traumatic stress symptoms ... Angiotensin II receptor type 1 or AT1 receptor is the best characterized angiotensin receptor. It has vasopressor effects and ... The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in turn couples to ... spliced human type 1 angiotensin II receptor mRNAs are translated at different efficiencies and encode two receptor isoforms". ...
... was found to have similar results as telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. "Ramipril Monograph for ... Remuzzi, Giuseppe (April 2006). "Prevention and Treatment of Diabetic Renal Disease in Type 2 Diabetes: The BENEDICT Study". ... thereby lowering the production of angiotensin II and decreasing the breakdown of bradykinin. The decrease in angiotensin II ... It is an ACE inhibitor and works by decreasing renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity. Ramipril was patented in 1981 and ...
... competitive angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonist, reducing the end organ responses to angiotensin II. Losartan ... It is in the angiotensin receptor blocker family of medication. It works by blocking angiotensin II. Losartan was patented in ... angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II; angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction and ... angiotensin II, and ultimately decreasing blood pressure. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists include losartan, valsartan, ...
Previous research in laboratory mice has suggested that the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan, which appears to block ... There are five types of the syndrome, labelled types I through V, which are distinguished by their genetic cause. Type 1, Type ... a cardioselective beta-1 blocker, with or without losartan, is sometimes prescribed to reduce the heart rate to prevent any ... Type 3, Type 4 and Type 5 are caused by mutations in TGFBR1, TGFBR2, SMAD3, TGFB2, and TGFB3 respectively. These five genes ...
Receptors Regular insulin A type of insulin that is fast acting. Renal Related to the kidneys. Renal threshold When the blood ... Insulin is a hormone as are glucagon, adrenaline, and angiotensin II. Human insulin Man-made insulins that is identical to the ... ARB Angiotensisn Receptor Blocker. An agent which interferes with the renin (kidney-lung-heart blood pressure control) cycle. ... Most Type II diabetics are without clinically obvious symptoms for some time (often years) before they are diagnosed as ...
... such as an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), which has a similar mechanism but does not affect bradykinin. However, this ... The three types of hereditary angioedema are: Type I - decreased levels of C1INH (85%); Type II - normal levels, but decreased ... type I HAE) or dysfunctional forms of the same protein (type II HAE). Type III HAE has been linked with mutations in the F12 ... of angioedema associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers". Annals of ...
... spontaneous remission is much higher if anti-proteinuric therapy with ace inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers is ... One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated. Testing for these ... immunosuppressive drugs and non-specific anti-proteinuric measures such as ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers. ... "M-type phospholipase A2 receptor as target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy". The New England Journal of Medicine. ...
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers, can be used to prevent angiotensin II from ... Emphasis on Blockade of the Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor". Medscape Cardiology. 9 (2). Paul M, Poyan Mehr A, Kreutz R (July ... Angiotensin I may have some minor activity, but angiotensin II is the major bio-active product. Angiotensin II has a variety of ... The decapeptide is known as angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is then converted to an octapeptide, angiotensin II by angiotensin- ...
Finnegan PM, Gleason BL (2003). "Combination ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for hypertension". Annals of ... "Type 2 diabetes in adults: management". National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). May 2017. ... ACE (Angiotensin converting enzyme) then removes a further two residues, converting angiotensin I into angiotensin II. ACE is ... angiotensin II receptor antagonists may be useful because they act to prevent the action of angiotensin II at the AT1 receptor ...
Kalaitzidis, R; Bakris, G. L. (2009). "Effects of angiotensin II receptor blockers on diabetic nephropathy". Journal of ... An example of this is the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. The opposite of antagonism is synergy. It is a negative type of ... For example, not only do angiotensin receptor blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors work to lower blood ... For instance, a receptor antagonist is an agent that reduces the response that a ligand produces when the receptor antagonist ...
In this context, "thiazide" is taken to refer to a drug which acts at a "thiazide receptor", which is believed to be a sodium- ... Thiazide (/ˈθaɪəzaɪd/) is a type of molecule and a class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) ... Thiazides have also been replaced by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in Australia due to their propensity to ... Hypokalemia - Thiazide diuretics reduces potassium concentration in blood through two indirect mechanisms: inhibition of sodium ...
"Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular ... Redirected from Type II diabetes). Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder ... The similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not.[92] A 2016 review recommended treating to a systolic blood ... Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and ...
... angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or both ACEIs and ARBs should be used. Corticosteroids are used to suppress the immune ... ARBs block angiotensin II from acting. The patient's diet should also be changed. The patient should restrict salt intake to ... This causes damage to the kidneys and does not allow for proper filtration.[citation needed] The presentation of all types ... inhibitors versus angiotensin receptor blockers for primary hypertension". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (8): ...
... angiotensin receptor blockers, or valsartan/sacubitril along with beta blockers are recommended. For those with severe disease ... The two types of left ventricular heart failure - heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), and heart failure with ... or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) if the person develops a long-term cough as a side effect of the ACE-I. Use of ... Ejection fraction is given as a percentage with the normal range being between 50 and 75%. The two types are: 1) Heart failure ...
April 2020). "Association of Inpatient Use of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers ... ACE2 is present in most organs: ACE2 is attached to the cell membrane of mainly lung type II alveolar cells, enterocytes of the ... Both ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) that are used to treat high blood pressure have been shown in ... Patel AB, Verma A (March 2020). "COVID-19 and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers: What ...
... is prevented through angiotensin II activation of a tyrosine phosphatase". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental ... The alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α7 receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor implicated in long ... α7 subtype preferring blocker α3β2-Nicotinic receptor α3β4-Nicotinic receptor α4β2-Nicotinic receptor RIC3, a chaperone protein ... Although ethanol inhibition of the α7-receptor is likely to involve the N-terminal region of the receptor, the site of action ...
... angiotensin ii type 1 receptor blockers MeSH D27.505.519.170 - antacids MeSH D27.505.519.186 - antimetabolites MeSH D27.505. ... calcium channel blockers MeSH D27.505.519.562.374 - ionophores MeSH D27.505.519.562.500 - potassium channel blockers MeSH ... potassium channel blockers MeSH D27.505.954.411.700 - sclerosing solutions MeSH D27.505.954.411.720 - sodium channel blockers ... ganglionic blockers MeSH D27.505.696.663.050.400 - ganglionic stimulants MeSH D27.505.696.663.050.495 - miotics MeSH D27.505. ...
... is a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB, AT1 receptor blocker). Forasartan is indicated for the treatment of ... Naik P, Murumkar P, Giridhar R, Yadav MR (December 2010). "Angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) selective nonpeptidic ... an orally active angiotensin II-receptor antagonist: inhibition of blood pressure response to angiotensin II challenges and ... Angiotensin II binds to AT1 receptors, increases contraction of vascular smooth muscle, and stimulates aldosterone resulting in ...
... and decreases angiotensin II, microvascular leakage, and vasospasm through its function similar to calcium channel blockers.[ ... Gommers LM, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ, de Baaij JH (January 2016). "Hypomagnesemia in Type 2 Diabetes: A Vicious Circle?". ... Furthermore, it makes skeletal and muscle receptors less sensitive to parathyroid hormone. Magnesium is needed for the adequate ... In two trials of magnesium oxide, one of the most common forms in magnesium dietary supplements because of its high magnesium ...
Hosie AM, Wilkins ME, da Silva HM, Smart TG (Nov 2006). "Endogenous neurosteroids regulate GABAA receptors through two discrete ... Angiotensin receptor blockers. *Antiandrogens. *Beta-blockers. *Beta2 agonists. *Cephalosporins. *c-Met inhibitors ... of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone are potent and selective positive allosteric modulators of the γ-aminobutyric acid type ... The GABAA receptors are made up of subunits which form a receptor complex. Humans have 19 receptor subunits and are classified ...
Ballew JR, Fink GD (September 2001). "Characterization of the antihypertensive effect of a thiazide diuretic in angiotensin II- ... TypesEdit. High ceiling/loop diureticEdit. High ceiling diuretics may cause a substantial diuresis - up to 20%[3] of the ... receptor 2 antagonists amphotericin B, lithium[13][14]. Inhibits vasopressin's action 5. collecting duct ... Epithelial sodium channel blockers: amiloride and triamterene.. Calcium-sparing diureticsEdit. The term "calcium-sparing ...
ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors and aldosterone antagonists, are pharmacological ... Type I RPG/Type II hypersensitivity. *Goodpasture's syndrome. Type II RPG/Type III hypersensitivity. *Post-streptococcal ... The two proposed mechanisms of HN's pathophysiology[7] both centre around how the glomerulus, a network of dense capillaries ... However, this type of procedure is likely to be preceded with a provisional diagnosis based on laboratory investigations. ...
... angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, α blockers, calcium channel blockers, thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, ... Types of medicinesEdit. For the digestive systemEdit. *Upper digestive tract: antacids, reflux suppressants, antiflatulents, ... The drug requires very expensive Phase I, II and III clinical trials, and most of them fail. Small companies have a critical ... General: β-receptor blockers ("beta blockers"), calcium channel blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, antiarrhythmics, ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... Types[edit]. *5-HT3 receptor antagonists block serotonin receptors in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. As ... NK1 receptor antagonist *Aprepitant (Emend) is a commercially available NK1 Receptor antagonist ... Mirtazapine (Remeron) is an antidepressant that also has antiemetic effects[4][5] it is also a potent histamine H1 receptor ...
... such as an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB)[17] which has a similar mechanism but does not affect bradykinin. However, ... type I HAE) or dysfunctional forms of the same protein (type II HAE). Type III HAE has been linked with mutations in the F12 ... Type II - normal levels, but decreased function of C1INH (15%);. *Type III - no detectable abnormality in C1INH, occurs in an X ... of angioedema associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers". Annals of ...
Angiotensin II receptor antagonist. *ACE inhibitor. *Alpha-adrenergic agonist. *Beta blocker. *Dopamine agonist ... The definition of a mechanism of action also includes the type of activity at that biological target. For receptors, these ... Ion channel modulators include opener or blocker. The following are specific examples of drug classes whose definition is based ... In several dominant drug classification systems, these four types of classifications form a hierarchy. For example, the ...
Angiotensin receptor blockers in Marfan syndrome & Loeys-Dietz. *Bone marrow transplantation. *Gene therapy ... Examples include Gaucher disease, Fabry disease, Mucopolysaccharidoses and Glycogen storage disease type II. Such treatments ... Medical genetics was a late developer, emerging largely after the close of World War II (1945) when the eugenics movement had ... Genetic information provides a unique type of knowledge about an individual and his/her family, fundamentally different from a ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... N-type calcium-channel blocker.. Intrathecal.. Protein binding = 50%; half-life = 2.9-6.5 hours; excretion = urine (,1%).[122] ... Partial agonist at the mu opioid receptor; agonist at delta opioid receptor; antagonist at kappa opioid receptor.. Sublingual, ... Full agonist at kappa opioid receptors, partial agonist/antagonist at the mu opioid receptors.[39]. IM, IV, SC.. Protein ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2007). Preventing Amphetamine-type Stimulant Use Among Young People: A Policy and ... as well as inhibit the inhibitory effect of adenosine receptors on dopamine receptors,[67] however the implications for humans ... Amphetamines-type stimulants are often used for their therapeutic effects. Physicians sometimes prescribe amphetamine to treat ...
The NMDA receptor is one of three types of ionotropic glutamate receptors, the other two being AMPA and kainate receptors. ... Uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists, or channel blockers, enter the channel of the NMDA receptor after it has been ... NMDA receptors are heterotetramers with two GluN1 subunits and two variable subunits.[49][62] Two of these variable subunits, ... The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel found in ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... Types[edit]. Two DNA bases that are cross-linked by a nitrogen mustard. Different nitrogen mustards will have different ... Drugs that target topoisomerase II can be divided into two groups. The topoisomerase II poisons cause increased levels enzymes ... Topoisomerase inhibitors are drugs that affect the activity of two enzymes: topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II. When the DNA ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper ... α-Adrenergic receptor agonists[edit]. Main article: α-Adrenergic receptor agonist. Common or widely marketed[edit]. * ... Expectorants such as guaifenesin are a related type of drug which help to clear mucus. ...
Angiotensin receptor blockers. *Antiandrogens. *Beta-blockers. *Beta2 agonists. *Cephalosporins. *c-Met inhibitors ... An Analysis of FDA Drug Approvals from a Perspective of the Molecule Type". Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 22 (3): 368. doi: ... However, now, after two decades of combinatorial chemistry, it has been pointed out that despite the increased efficiency in ... The majority of targets selected for drug discovery efforts are proteins, such as G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ...
Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), as well as angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), are particularly helpful ... Diabetic nephropathy affects approximately a third of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. DN is responsible for ... Treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), which dilates the ... "Effects of renin-angiotensin system blockers on renal outcomes and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetic nephropathy: ...
Beta blockers (e.g., alprenolol, carteolol, cyanopindolol, iodocyanopindolol, isamoltane, oxprenolol, penbutolol, pindobind, ... There is no 5-HT1C receptor, as it was reclassified as the 5-HT2C receptor.[2] For more information, please see the respective ... The 5-HT1 receptors are a subfamily of the 5-HT serotonin receptors that bind to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin ( ... 5-HT7 receptor. References[edit]. *^ Hoyer D, Clarke DE, Fozard JR, Hartig PR, Martin GR, Mylecharane EJ, Saxena PR, Humphrey ...
"A combined role of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers in stroke prevention". Vascular Health and Risk ... Benazepril adalah inhibitor ACE dan menghambat konversi angiotensin I menjadi angiotensin II pada jalur RAAS. ... type Cav1.3 di zona glomerulosa kelenjar adrenal. [33] [34] ... yang mana valsartan adalah antagonis reseptor angiotensin II.. ... Amlodipin/telmisartan, yang mana telmisartan adalah antagonis reseptor angiotensin II.. *Amlodipin/valsartan atau amlodipin/ ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... At this time, PPI-induced dysbiosis is considered a type of SIBO.. ... Two recent studies showed that 26% (24/94) and 25.3% (38/150) of a series of patients with unexplained GI symptoms had SIFO. ... Low levels of magnesium can be found in people on PPI therapy and these can be reversed when they are switched to H2-receptor ...
Norepinephrine binds to the beta-1 receptor. High blood pressure medications are used to block these receptors and so reduce ... Below are two ways to calculate one's THR. In each of these methods, there is an element called "intensity" which is expressed ... Drugs known as calcium channel blockers slow HR by binding to these channels and blocking or slowing the inward movement of ... "Effect of legumes as part of a low glycemic index diet on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... Types[edit]. High ceiling/loop diuretic[edit]. High ceiling diuretics may cause a substantial diuresis - up to 20%[3] of the ... Ballew JR, Fink GD (September 2001). "Characterization of the antihypertensive effect of a thiazide diuretic in angiotensin II- ... receptor 2 antagonists amphotericin B, lithium[12][13] Inhibits vasopressin's action 5. collecting duct ...
ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers may be effective in reducing proteinuria when given at the early stage of ... "Identification and overlapping expression of multiple unconventional myosin genes in vertebrate cell types". Proceedings of ... Like all class II myosins, the two NMHC IIAs dimerize producing an asymmetric molecular structure recognizable by two heads and ... "Ablation of nonmuscle myosin II-B and II-C reveals a role for nonmuscle myosin II in cardiac myocyte karyokinesis". Molecular ...
... while ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers) actually decrease the risk of ... β-adrenergic receptors and others are selective for one of the three known types of beta receptors, designated β1, β2 and β3 ... 978-0-632-05077-2. . Retrieved March 11, 2011.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Comparison of Oral Beta-Blockers". ... Beta blockers (beta-blockers, β-blockers, etc.) are a class of medications that are predominantly used to manage abnormal heart ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... Type B fibers (sympathetic tone) are the most sensitive followed by type C (pain), type A delta (temperature), type A gamma ( ... and type A alpha (motor). Although type B fibers are thicker than type C fibers, they are myelinated, thus are blocked before ... A report of two cases". British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 56 (5): 478-83. doi:10.1016/S0007-1226(03)00180-2. PMID 12890461.. ...
A more recent example is the N-type calcium channel blocker ziconotide analgesic which is based on a cyclic peptide cone snail ... These first messengers interact with cellular receptors which are composed of proteins. Cellular receptors in turn activate ... Two examples developed for clinical use include ω-conotoxin (from the marine snail Conus magus) and ecteinascidin 743 (from the ... These include the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. Captopril is based on the peptidic bradykinin potentiating ...
There are two major types of drug design. The first is referred to as ligand-based drug design and the second, structure-based ... Acetylcholine receptor agonists. *Angiotensin receptor antagonists. *Bcr-Abl tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. *Cannabinoid receptor ... or ion channel openers or blockers)[11] will be designed that are complementary to the binding site of target.[12] Small ... Receptor. ]. [. Complex. ]. Δ. G. bind. =. Δ. G. desolvation. +. Δ. G. motion. +. Δ. G. configuration. +. Δ. G. interaction. {\ ...
ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are contraindicated as they affect fetal development.[33] ... Blood pressure ≥140 mmHg systolic or ≥90 mmHg diastolic on two separate readings taken at least four to six hours apart after ... Associated adult diseases of the fetus due to IUGR include, but are not limited to, coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 ... In normal early embryonic development, the outer epithelial layer contains cytotrophoblast cells, a stem cell type found in the ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... Types of medicines[edit]. For the digestive system[edit]. *Upper digestive tract: antacids, reflux suppressants, antiflatulents ... angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, α blockers, calcium channel blockers, thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, ... General: β-receptor blockers ("beta blockers"), calcium channel blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, antiarrhythmics, ...
Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the articles included and extracted data. All cost-effectiveness results ... This review aims to systematically review the cost-effectiveness of both ACEIs and ARBs in type 2 diabetic patients with ... Structured comparison of pharmacoeconomic analyses for ACEIs and ARBs in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy is still ... Economic evaluations of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers in type 2 diabetic ...
... has an anti-inflammatory property in addition to being an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antag... ... Telmisartan (TEL), an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker and PPARγ partial agonist, has been used for to treat hypertension ... Telmisartan (TLM), a highly selective angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) and partial PPAR-γ agonist, has versatile ... An ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKER that is used to manage HYPERTENSION. ...
616-P) reported decreased serum concentrations of soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor (TNF-αR) 1 in patients with type 2 ... angiotensin II receptor blocker; BP, blood pressure; CCB, calcium channel blocker; CHF, congestive heart failure; CVD, ... Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers and Nephropathy Trials Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Diabetes ... It covers topics related to angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and nephropathy. ...
Reno-protective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blockers in type 2 diabetic ... Reno-protective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blockers in type 2 diabetic ... Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality and renal ... Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on cardiovascular events in patients ...
... and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not been well characterized. ... between the two groups. Antihypertensive and antidiabetic medication use was similar in each group except calcium channel ... Provided by Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors in Combination with Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in Patients with Type 2 ... Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Diabetic Nephropathies , Drug Therapy , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Female ...
The Impact of ACE Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers on the Development of New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes. 7 ... The Impact of ACE Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers on the Development of New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes. ... or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) may experience a decreased incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes. ... two trials), or heart failure (two trials), reductions in new-onset type 2 diabetes were maintained (0.79 [0.72-0.85], 0.76 [ ...
Abbreviations: ACE-I, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; Af, atrial fibrillation; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; ... histamine type 2; N, number; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PPI, proton pump inhibitor; SLE, systemic lupus ... Alpha-blocker. 747 (6.9). 188 (7.0). 0.932. 165 (5.4). 54 (7.1). 0.082. ... Beta-blocker. 5145 (47.7). 1255 (46.5). 0.291. 1518 (49.9). 387 (50.9). 0.656. ...
II receptor blocker improves the lowered exercise capacity and impaired mitochondrial function of the skeletal muscle in type 2 ... Angiotensin II receptor blocker improves the lowered exercise capacity and impaired mitochondrial function of the skeletal ... NAD(P)H oxidase can be activated by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. We investigated whether ANG II receptor blocker ... C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, and each group of mice was divided into two groups: treatment with or without ...
Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ... Comparison of Eprosartan/HCT Versus Enalapril/HCT in Hypertensives With Type II Diabetes. The safety and scientific validity of ... and Moxonidine on Blood Pressure Levels in Patients With Hypertension and Associated Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. ...
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ... Renal responses to three types of renin-angiotensin system blockers in patients with diabetes mellitus on a high-salt diet: a ... The following angiotensin II effects were assessed:. The single dose effect (SDE) for captopril, expressed as the ratio to pre- ... Change in Plasma Angiotensin II After Captopril, Aliskiren or Irbesartan [ Time Frame: Predose (Baseline) and 5 hours post dose ...
Table 2: A Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Suppresses Macrophage Foam Cell Formation in Diabetic ,i,db/db,/i, Mice and Type 2 ... angiotensin II receptor blocker. Results are presented as mean values ± SEM and analyzed with unpaired -test. Categorical ... T2D: type 2 diabetes; BMI: body mass index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; Total-C: total ... A Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Suppresses Macrophage Foam Cell Formation in Diabetic db/db Mice and Type 2 Diabetes ...
Sudden collapses in the heat in patients on angiotensin type 2 receptor blockers. Peter Radford ...
Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt MeSH terms * Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / pharmacology* ... The endurance, the proportion of type I fibre and capillarization in the extensor digitorum longus muscle were greater in the ... Methods: Heminephrectomized Goto-Kakizaki rats were divided into four groups: (i) no exercise (control); (ii) exercise with ... Combination of exercise and losartan enhances renoprotective and peripheral effects in spontaneously type 2 diabetes mellitus ...
In patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, screening for nephropathy and treatment with a renoprotective-based ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / economics * Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / therapeutic use* ... A health economic analysis of screening and optimal treatment of nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension ... Conclusion: In patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, screening for nephropathy and treatment with a renoprotective- ...
When it comes to type 2 diabetes management, a new study finds that more is definitely better for lowering blood sugar levels. ... FDA Updates on Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker (ARB) Recalls. Investigation ongoing - This page to be updated as more ... Motegrity Motegrity (prucalopride) is a selective serotonin type 4 (5‑HT4) receptor agonist for the treatment of c... ... A1C is a blood test that estimates average blood sugar levels over two to three months. An A1C of 6.5 percent or higher ...
... was a randomized open-label clinical trial in type 2 diabetics designed to examine the effects of intensive reduction of blood ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / adverse effects, therapeutic use. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / adverse ... 0/Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers; 0/Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; 0/Antihypertensive Agents; 0/Cholesterol ... Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood, complications*, physiopathology. Drug Tolerance. Female. Humans. Hypertension / drug therapy ...
Therapeutic effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker at an advanced stage of hypertensive diastolic heart failure. ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor BlockersAnimalsChemokine CCL2Heart FailureHypertensionHypertrophy, Left VentricularImidazoles ... Therapeutic effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker at an advanced stage of hypertensive diastolic heart failure.. J ... Therapeutic effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker at an advanced stage of hypertensive diastolic heart failure. J ...
Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers. 1. 2014. 10. 0.150. Why? Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2. 2021. 31573. 0.140. Why? ... Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled. 4. 2015. 1179. 0.440. Why? Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A. 4. 2016. 337. 0.420. Why? ...
ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme; ACEi: ACE inhibitors; ARB: angiotensin receptor blocker; AT1R: type 1 angiotensin II ... to Ang II. Ang II elicits its effects by activating two receptors: the type 1 angiotensin II (AT1) receptor and the type 2 ... Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockers on cardiac angiotensin-converting ... Angiotensin II and inflammation: the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockade. J ...
Angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs) are well established antihypertensive drugs that are frequently used as the ... Both angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used antihypertensive drugs ... Comparative effect of angiotensin II type I receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers on laboratory parameters in ... Comparative effect of angiotensin II type I receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers on laboratory parameters in ...
... is a new angiotensin II receptor antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension. This paper describes the preparation of type ... the comparison of the powder diffraction data for both type I and II crystals as well as their stability and solubility in ... 2-ethoxy-1-([2-(5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl)-1H-benzimidazole-7-carboxylic acid) ... Singh, P., Fung, W.F. and Song, J.C. (2010) Focus on… Azilsartan: A Next-Generation Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker for the ...
0 (7-Ala-angiotensin (1-7)); 0 (Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers); 0 (Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers); 0 ( ... Angiotensina II/an logos & derivados. Angiotensina II/metabolismo. Angiotensina II/farmacologia. Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo ... 0 (Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1); 0 (Receptors, Drug); 0 (Slc12a3 protein, mouse); 0 (Slc9a3 protein, mouse); 0 (Sodium ... The actions of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT R) and the receptor Mas (MasR) are complex but show similar pronatriuretic ...
Calcium channel blockers, low-dose diuretics, beta blockers, and alpha blockers have also been studied in this group. Most ... Barring contraindications, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are considered first-line therapy in patients with diabetes ... Angiotensin II receptor blockers also show promise in the treatment of hypertension in diabetes. In many patients, a ... Cardioselective beta blockers are preferred over the non-selective type because the former are associated with less blunting of ...
Interaction of RAS inhibitors (angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers) and statins was ... Association of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers with keratinocyte cancer prevention in the randomized VATTC ... an angiotensin receptor blocker, has been shown to have synergistic effects in reducing atherosclerosis in animal studies (18). ... Type-II diabetes and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of 36 studies. Br J Cancer 2005; 92: 2076- 2083. ...
The angiotensin receptor blocker losartan reduces coronary arteriole remodeling in type 2 diabetic mice. Vascul Pharmacol. 2015 ... Plastic bronchitis arising from solitary influenza B infection: A report of two cases in children. Int J Pediatr ... Renin Angiotensin System Blocker Fetopathy: A Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium Report. J Pediatr. 2015 Jun 27. pii: ... Neuropharmacology of purinergic receptors in human submucous plexus: Involvement of P2X1, P2X2, P2X3 channels, P2Y and A3 ...
Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers on the Rate of New-Onset ... Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Plus Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Enhances Angiotensin II Blocking Effect - Doctors ... angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) / ace inhibitors / alpha blockers / calcium channel blockers / diuretics / beta ... Angiotensin II receptor blockers downsize adipocytes in spontaneously type 2 diabetic rats with visceral fat obesity - Am J ...
... angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, or beta blockers did not significantly ... angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, 10.0 (n=1) and 4.5±1.7 (n=2); beta blockers, (n=0) and 3.0±1.5 (n=2), respectively. ... the medication with angiotensin II type 1-receptor blockers tended to increase the levels of vascular EC-SOD expression in a ... Comparative effect of ace inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonism on bioavailability of nitric oxide in ...
Angiotensin II binds to the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor on cell membrane surfaces of a wide variety of tissues, ... evidence with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for treating early and preventing ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-dependent oxidative stress and the consequent adverse effects on endothelial function appear to ... Trials of Angiotensin-Receptor Blockers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Nephropathy * ...
... angiotensin II receptor antagonists, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers were not allowed), ... 14.2 Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients 16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING 17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION * Sections ... Irbesartan tablet is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) indicated for: • Treatment of hypertension, to lower blood ... Additional antihypertensive agents (excluding ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and calcium channel blockers ...
Aims/hypothesis In type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria not receiving antihypertensive treatment, an increase in ... Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to have a similar effect in type 2 diabetic patients with ... or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) in microalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients on progression of microalbuminuria and ... ACE inhibitors Angiotensin II receptor blockers Audit Diabetic nephropathy Microalbuminuria Prevention RAAS blockade Renin- ...
  • Structured comparison of pharmacoeconomic analyses for ACEIs and ARBs in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy is still lacking. (
  • This review aims to systematically review the cost-effectiveness of both ACEIs and ARBs in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. (
  • Treatment guidelines therefore recommended angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) as the first-choice agents for treating nephropathy in diabetic patients [ 14 ]. (
  • ARBs were suggested to be cost saving in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy versus conventional therapy, largely due to the high costs of treatment of ESRD. (
  • It covers topics related to angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and nephropathy. (
  • The monotherapy/combination of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) can retard the progression of urine albumin to creatinine ratio in diabetic nephropathy but, the data shows an inconsistency in the efficacy of these drugs. (
  • So, the present study was aimed at comparing the reno-protective effect of ACEi/ARBs in type 2 diabetics. (
  • A prospective, randomized study is conducted at Maharaja's Institute of Medical Sciences, Nellimarla, Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh, India with 100 patients, who are randomly categorised and equally distributed among the two groups and treated with Enalapril (ACEi) and Losartan (ARBs) for 6 months. (
  • [email protected]# Treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not been well characterized. (
  • CONCLUSIONS -ACEIs or ARBs may decrease patients' odds of developing new-onset type 2 diabetes but does not reduce the odds of mortality, cardiovascular, or cerebrovascular outcomes over the study follow-up periods among patients with hypertension. (
  • Both angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used antihypertensive drugs. (
  • 2016 Apr 7:1-9 - 'Among various antihypertensive drugs, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have an established efficacy and safety, making them a favourable choice. (
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers/antagonists (ARBs). (
  • AT 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) could reduce the incidence and progression of stroke, Alzheimer disease, and dementia. (
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), formally angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, or AT1 receptor antagonists, are a group of pharmaceuticals that bind to and inhibit the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) and thereby block the arteriolar contraction and sodium retention effects of renin-angiotensin system. (
  • Angiotensin II, through AT1 receptor stimulation, is a major stress hormone and, because (ARBs) block these receptors, in addition to their eliciting anti-hypertensive effects, may be considered for the treatment of stress-related disorders. (
  • Those patients taking angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were 35-40% less likely to develop AD than those using other antihypertensives. (
  • Indeed, as a consequence of AT1 blockade, ARBs increase angiotensin II levels several-fold above baseline by uncoupling a negative-feedback loop. (
  • The announcement follows the massive recall of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) used for blood pressure and ranitidine drugs - commonly known under the brand name Zantac and used for heartburn - that took place earlier this year due to concerning levels of NDMA. (
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) may be used alone or combined with other medicine-often a diuretic-to treat high blood pressure . (
  • ARBs might be used by people who have type 2 diabetes and have early signs of kidney disease or who have kidney disease from diabetes (diabetic nephropathy). (
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) lower blood pressure and help prevent a heart attack or stroke. (
  • ARBs work as well as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors but are less likely to cause the cough that is associated with ACE inhibitors. (
  • The majority of well-known Ang II actions are mediated via AT 1 receptor stimulation, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and AT 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have been widely used as antihypertensive drugs, with the expectation of cardiovascular protective effects. (
  • AT 2 receptor stimulation by unbound Ang II could also be expected during treatment with ARBs. (
  • 5,6 Recent clinical trials, such as the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertensive Study, Morbidity and Mortality After Stroke, Eprosartan Compared With Nitrendipine for Secondary Prevention, and the Jikei Heart Study, demonstrated that blockade of RAS with angiotensin (Ang) II receptor blockers (ARBs) is effective to prevent the onset of stroke, irrespective of their blood pressure-lowering effect. (
  • Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are potential options for the treatment of high blood pressure. (
  • Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) work to decrease blood pressure by preventing angiotensin II from binding to AT 1 receptors. (
  • There are few studies that directly compare the renal efficacy of two ARBs in hypertensive diabetes. (
  • The expression of ACE2 is substantially increased in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, who are treated with ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers (ARBs). (
  • At a symposium at the 61st Scientific Sessions of the ADA in June 2001, the results of three recent diabetic nephropathy trials with angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor antagonists were presented. (
  • Experiment in isolated renal proximal tubules of OZR revealed that both the agonists C21 and Ang-(1-7) stimulated NO which was blocked by either of the receptor antagonists. (
  • Blood pressure meds could raise your depression risk - CNN, 10/10/16 - 'people taking one of two classes of drugs, known beta blockers or calcium channel antagonists, had twice the risk of being admitted into the hospital with a mood disorder, such as severe depression. (
  • The issue of whether angiotensin II receptor antagonists slightly increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI or heart attack) is currently being investigated. (
  • These effects of angiotensin II receptor antagonists may contribute to their beneficial long-term renal effects in patients with type 2 diabetes. (
  • Moreover, placebo-controlled prospective trials that have evaluated chronic effects of Ang II subtype 1 receptor antagonists (AT1-RA) on (intra)renal hemodynamics in patients with type 2 diabetes are not available. (
  • If this ratio is more than 2.5mg/mmol in men or 3.5mg/mmol in women then it's regarded as significant and could require treatment with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II antagonists (these are types of blood pressure medications used commonly in diabetes). (
  • there is an increased risk of severe hypotension and renal insufficiency when patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a single functioning kidney are treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II receptor antagonists. (
  • Braszko JJ, Kulakowska A, Winnicka MM (2003) Effects of angiotensin ii and its receptor antagonists on motor activity and anxiety in rats. (
  • 4 It has also been reported that mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists prevent LV dysfunction and remodeling in several animal models of heart failure. (
  • Barry Brenner, Boston, MA, discussed the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial of 1,513 patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy from 250 centers in 29 countries. (
  • What was not available in 1993 was "hard end point data" in type 2 diabetic subjects with nephropathy that showed losartan could slow the progression of advancing renal disease to nephropathy. (
  • The angiotensin receptor blocker losartan reduces coronary arteriole remodeling in type 2 diabetic mice. (
  • In contrast, administration of another angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, was less effective compared with telmisartan in terms of preventing BBB permeability and astroglial end-foot swelling, and coadministration of GW9662 did not affect the effects of losartan. (
  • Irbesartan and losartan have trial data showing benefit in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes,[citation needed] and may delay the progression of diabetic nephropathy. (
  • Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). (
  • 470 Angiotensin-2 receptor blockade with losartan improves left ventricular function at rest and post-exercise in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction. (
  • Losartan is an angiotensin receptor blocker ( ARB ), which works by relaxing blood vessels so blood can flow more easily. (
  • Losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (AIIA), is an antihypertensive that has previously been suggested to have cognitive-enhancing potential for older adults. (
  • In experiment 2, participants were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups: placebo/placebo, placebo/scopolamine, losartan/scopolamine and losartan/placebo (50 mg losartan p.o. and 1.2 mg scopolamine hydrochloride p.o. (
  • Various trials have found more benefit and fewer adverse events from losartan compared to atenolol, a beta-blocker, in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. (
  • 2 Additionally, there is evidence that losartan can help to reduce uric acid levels in patients presenting with hyperuricemia from both medication use and a diagnosis of gout. (
  • The LIFE trial (Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study) compared losartan with atenolol, a beta-blocker, to determine whether selective blocking of angiotensin II improves left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) beyond reducing blood pressure over 4 years. (
  • To evaluate the role for AT1-R and AT2-R in Ang-II sensitivity, full concentration response curves were obtained for Ang-II in the presence of losartan or PD123319. (
  • hypertension , has an anti-inflammatory property in addition to being an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist. (
  • Reno-protective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. (
  • however, we did not see similar results in groups with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA)-treated PA vs EH. (
  • Although a long-term follow-up study with limited PA patients showed similar therapeutic effects on kidney function, [ 9 ] adrenalectomy and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) treatments have different short-term clinical impacts with respect to kidney damage, even with a similar blood pressure-lowering effect. (
  • Azilsartan (2-ethoxy-1-([2'-(5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl)-1H-benzimidazole-7-carboxylic acid) is a new angiotensin II receptor antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension. (
  • Cotreatment with GW9662, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ antagonist, interfered with these protective effects of telmisartan against cognitive function. (
  • In the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study (RALES), treatment with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone reduced overall mortality in patients with advanced heart failure. (
  • 3 This finding was recently confirmed by The Eplerenone Postacute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS) in postinfarction CHF patients with the use of a new selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, eplerenone. (
  • Telmisartan (TEL), an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker and PPARγ partial agonist, has been used for to treat hypertension. (
  • Telmisartan is an angiotensin receptor blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. (
  • [ 2 ] The reported risk of cardiovascular events was higher in patients with PA, with proinflammatory mediators and oxidative stress affecting multiple organs, than in otherwise similar patients with essential hypertension (EH). (
  • In patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, screening for nephropathy and treatment with a renoprotective-based antihypertensive agent was projected to improve patient outcomes and represent excellent value in a US setting. (
  • We evaluated and compared the effects of ARB and CCB monotherapy on clinical laboratory parameters in patients with concomitant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and July 31, 2011, to identify cohorts of new ARB users (n = 601) and propensity-score matched new CCB users (n = 601), with concomitant mild to moderate hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • Barring contraindications, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are considered first-line therapy in patients with diabetes and hypertension because of their well-established renal protective effects. (
  • However, people taking a class of drugs known as angiotensin blockers -- ACE inhibitors -- had a lower risk of developing severe mood disorders, even compared with healthy control groups with no history of hypertension or depression' - Note: It doesn't mention ARB's. (
  • Angiotensin II via its type 1 (AT 1 ) receptor stimulation may contribute to the pathogenesis of CNS disorders and cognitive decline by promoting hypertension, vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and neuronal damage. (
  • Irbesartan is projected to be cost and life saving in a Spanish setting for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and microalbuminuria. (
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers are used primarily for the treatment of hypertension where the patient is intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy primarily because of persistent and/or dry cough. (
  • It is also used to treat kidney problems in patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of hypertension. (
  • During 1994--2004, ESRD incidence with hypertension listed as the primary diagnosis was at least three times higher among blacks than among the other three racial populations ( Figure 2 ). (
  • Design, setting, participants, & measurements The role of Klotho polymorphisms and α -Klotho serum levels was evaluated in patients with hypertension who were treatment naive and underwent an acute salt-sensitivity test (discovery n =673, intravenous 2 L of 0.9% saline in 2 hours). (
  • in recent years, several studies have demonstrated an association of the DD genotype and the specific D allele with clinical cardiovascular outcomes, such as atherosclerosis ( 2 ) and increased left ventricular mass in systemic hypertension ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Treatment of Hypertension Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Lipid Lowering Therapy Olanzapine Our last update was at the end of 1996 (Letter 16). (
  • We examine the renal effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) monotherapy versus combination therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes and varying degrees of hypertension. (
  • In contrast, for stage 2 hypertension, this endpoint was reached less often for combination versus monotherapy (12.0 vs. 23.2%, p = 0.2). (
  • The story of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), hypertension, and kidney disease began nearly 2 centuries ago, 1 with report of a clinico-pathophysiologic study of albuminuria in patients followed by Goldblatt's induction of hypertension in experimental dogs in the 1930s. (
  • Cumulative evidence has indicated that the RAS, through Ang-II generated primarily by the ACE, plays a critical role in the regulation of blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte balance, cardiovascular and renal homeostasis, and pathophysiology of hypertension and cardiovascular and renal disease. (
  • Randomized clinical trials mounted to resolve well-known arguments for using AT 1 R blockers have shown benefits of both ACE inhibitors and AT 1 R blockers for controlling blood pressure in hypertension. (
  • Clinical Trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new medication in patients with Type II Diabetes with Inadequately Controlled Hypertension. (
  • The study objective was to assess the effect of single and multiple doses of aliskiren on renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate and to compare the effects of single and multiple doses of aliskiren versus captopril or irbesartan on renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and retinal blood flow in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • The authors conclude that both standard and more aggressive systolic blood pressure reduction can be achieved with excellent safety and good tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • Clinical trials show reduced cardiovascular risk and a reversal of microalbuminuria with the use of agents that affect the renin-angiotensin system: angiotensin-receptor blockers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nephropathy, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. (
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are known to have higher risk of developing dementia while aspirin use has been shown to prevent incident dementia. (
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the potential benefits of aspirin use on dementia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify the appropriate dosage of aspirin that provides the most benefit. (
  • Regular aspirin use in mean daily dosage of within 40 mg was associated with a decreased risk of developing incident Alzheimer's dementia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (adjusted HR of 0.51 with 95% CI of 0.27-0.97, value 0.041). (
  • A mean daily dosage of aspirin use within 40 mg might decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • Although many previous studies revealed a positive association between aspirin use and dementia, few of them focused on type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and did not indicate the appropriate dose needed to prevent Alzheimer's disease. (
  • So, we conducted this study using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan [ 19 ] to evaluate the effect of aspirin use on decreasing the risk of dementia in type 2 diabetes mellitus cohort and the appropriate dose of aspirin. (
  • Therefore, we examined the possibility that telmisartan could attenuate BBB impairment with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation to improve diabetes mellitus-induced cognitive decline. (
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been highlighted as a major risk factor for cognitive decline. (
  • The economic benefits of preventing end-stage renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • The renal protective effects of angiotensin II receptor blockers in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes ) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar , insulin resistance , and relative lack of insulin . (
  • [6] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes , with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes . (
  • [1] In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas . (
  • [13] A small number of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus can develop a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (a condition of very high blood sugar associated with a decreased level of consciousness and low blood pressure ). (
  • As rates of childhood obesity climb, type 2 diabetes mellitus has increasingly been diagnosed in children and adolescents, with the highest incidence occurring among youth from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds. (
  • The serious complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus make it essential for physicians to be aware of risk factors and screening guidelines, allowing for earlier patient diagnosis and treatment. (
  • Complications of obesity previously seen only in adults-atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus-are now being observed in children with increasing frequency. (
  • 1 Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a condition that has typically affected individuals older than 40 years, is increasingly common among children in the United States. (
  • 2 Studies 3 indicate that, of all US children recently diagnosed as having diabetes, up to 45% have type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • Pediatric onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications arising later in life, 5 imparting new urgency to early diagnosis and treatment. (
  • Among youth in the United States, Pima Indian adolescents have the highest reported prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • The etiologic process in type 2 diabetes mellitus begins with obesity and insulin resistance, which in turn leads to inflammation and destruction of the pancreas' β cells by various chemical mediators. (
  • Changes in Retinal Microcirculation Precede the Clinical Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. (
  • Testing for type 1 diabetes autoantibodies in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): is it clinically useful? (
  • SKIP (Supporting Kids with diabetes In Physical activity): Feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a digital intervention for 9-12 year olds with type 1 diabetes mellitus. (
  • Physical activity and self-monitoring are important for children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) but it is unclear whether interventions delivered online are feasible, acceptable to patients and efficacious. (
  • Change in peripapillary and macular choroidal thickness change in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus without visual impairment or diabetic retinopathy. (
  • To study the characteristics of choroid thickness (CT) of the optic disc and macula in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without visual impairment and diabetic retinopathy (DR) and analyse associated factors.A square area of 6 × 6 mm around the centre of the optic disc and macula was scanned. (
  • While lifestyle modifications and metformin are the cornerstone of the initial management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is an increasing array of second and third-line pharmacological agents for this condition. (
  • This review aims to provide an update on the current pharmacological management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to highlight the benefits and limitations of each treatment. (
  • Samer El-Kaissi and Suphia Sherbeeni, " Pharmacological Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Update", Current Diabetes Reviews (2011) 7: 392. (
  • Randomized clinical trials (RCT) have shown the ability of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors to prevent new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) and its vascular complications ( 6 ). (
  • 1) Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) accounts for 85-90 % of patients with diabetes mellitus. (
  • T he management of pregnancy in women who have type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus remains challenging. (
  • The St Vincent declaration of 1989 set a 5-year target to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) to a level equal to that of women without diabetes. (
  • 2 - 7 There is often a lack of awareness of the dangers posed by diabetes for pregnancy, particularly with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), which is increasingly common and often undiagnosed before pregnancy. (
  • A randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes after treatment with exenatide once weekly in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • SARS‑CoV‑2 infection seems severely affected by background diseases such as diabetes mellitus and its related complications, that seem to be favoring the most severe manifestations of SARS‑CoV‑2 and, therefore, require special attention in clinical care units. (
  • Moreover, any sickness that may pose a physiological stress could cause a difficult management of blood glucose levels in diabetics and especially type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. (
  • Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on cardiovascular events in patients with heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (
  • The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is crucial to the homeostasis of both the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. (
  • The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased worldwide, and it has become a global health burden because of its drastic cardiovascular complications ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Cardiovascular phenotype of mice lacking all three subtypes of angiotensin II receptors. (
  • The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of clinical indices that signals increased risk for cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. (
  • 408 Cardiovascular effects and angiotensin system adaptation in experimental heart failure after aldosterone synthase inhibition. (
  • An abstract of the study "Cardiovascular Effects and Angiotensin System Adaptation in Experimental Heart Failure After Aldosterone Synthase Inhibition," by V. Mellin and colleagues is presented. (
  • These findings do not necessarily apply to persons with more advanced nephropathy, but they support the clinical equivalence of angiotensin II-receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors in persons with conditions that place them at high risk for cardiovascular events. (
  • Pharmacological blockade of angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent signaling is clinically effective in reducing cardiovascular events after myocardial infarction (MI) but still fails to completely prevent remodeling. (
  • 1,2 However, cardiac dysfunction and cardiovascular deaths are still observed even when CHF patients are treated with ACE inhibitors or Ang II receptor blockers. (
  • Treatment with the AT1 receptor blocker, irbesartan rescued the systolic dysfunction, normalized altered signaling pathways, flow-mediated dilation, and the increased oxidative stress in the cardiovascular system. (
  • Regarding the cardiovascular system, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is essential for regulation of blood pressure and fluid homeostasis ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The present study aimed to investigate cardiovascular autonomic modulation and angiotensin II (Ang II) activity in diabetic mice that were genetically engineered to harbor two or three copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene. (
  • Hemodynamic, cardiovascular, and autonomic parameters as well as renal Ang II expression were evaluated. (
  • 2-9 Therefore, recent advances in studies of Ang II receptors could prove the existence of a variety of new players and targets in addition to the traditional "Ang II world" and provide a new insight into cardiovascular biology. (
  • Here, we have summarized these emerging concepts concerning Ang II receptor interacting proteins and discuss new potent therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease. (
  • 4 , 5 Ang-II was shown to stimulate release of aldosterone, which in turn stimulates inflammation, fibrosis, and cardiovascular remodeling ( Figure, A ). Evidence that most of the effects of Ang-II are mediated via AT 1 receptors provided the rationale for use of ACE inhibition and AT 1 receptor blockade ( Figure ). (
  • Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Asia seems to be almost epidemic and establishment of preventive strategy against macrovascular as well as microvascular diseases are warranted because of higher cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients even without history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. (
  • This study also compares the two drugs with regard to cardiovascular and renal outcomes in accordance with target systolic BP (SBP) (as secondary outcomes). (
  • An abstract of the article "Altered Expression of Lung Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors in Heart Failure," by F. Christofi and colleagues is presented. (
  • An abstract of the article "Angiotensins and Cell Coupling in the Failing Heart," by W. Mello is presented. (
  • An abstract of the article "Chronic Oral ET-A Receptor Antagonism in Experimental Heart Failure Activates the Renin-Angiotensin System Resulting in Persistent Sodium Retention," by J. Schirger and colleagues is presented. (
  • An abstract of the article "ACE Inhibitors and AT1-Receptor Blockers in the Treatment of Heart Failure in Hypertensive Patients," by S. K. H. Vatinyan and colleagues is presented. (
  • An abstract of the article "The Efficacy of Long-Term Treatment With ACE Inhibitor and Beta-Blocker in Old Patients With Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction," by O. V. Soya and O. V. Kuryata, is presented. (
  • An abstract of the study "Association Between the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Gene Polymorphism and Heart Failure of Ischemic Aetiology," by M. Mendonca and colleagues, is presented. (
  • The vast majority of patients entering the trials were treated with multiple BP medications at study onset, with ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or ARB stopped at entry, and another drug (either α- or β-blocker, centrally acting agent, calcium channel blocker [CCB], or diuretic) substituted to lower the BP to 140/90 mm Hg. (
  • Patients who utilize either an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) may experience a decreased incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes. (
  • In support of interactions between dyslipidemia and RAS activation in atherogenesis ( 17 ), the combined use of rosuvastatin, a hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitor, and candesartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, has been shown to have synergistic effects in reducing atherosclerosis in animal studies ( 18 ). (
  • We audited the long-term effect of blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) in microalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients on progression of microalbuminuria and development of DN. (
  • The search terms were as follows: "angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor" or "angiotensin receptor blocker" or trade names of the medications AND "cancer" or "carcinoma" or "neoplasm" or "malignancy" or names of specific types of cancer. (
  • 553 Prognostic impact of peak VO2-changes after repeated determination within six months in heart failure patients treated with the combination of an ACE-inhibitor and �-blocker. (
  • Objective: To evaluate the current use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) therapy for the treatment of chronic heart failure in elderly nursing home patients. (
  • 245 The efficacy of long-term treatment with ACE inhibitor and beta-blocker in old patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. (
  • We have identified protein kinase C beta (PKCβ) as a critical mediator of this pathway and demonstrate that the PKCβ inhibitor enzastaurin, and the clinically available anti-hypertensive agent hydralazine, both normalize aortic growth in Marfan mice, in association with reduced PKCβ and ERK1/2 activation. (
  • METHODS: In this prospective, multicenter, double-blind, five-year study, we randomly assigned 250 subjects with type 2 diabetes and early nephropathy to receive either the angiotensin II-receptor blocker telmisartan (80 mg daily, in 120 subjects) or the ACE inhibitor enalapril (20 mg daily, in 130 subjects). (
  • Treatment with FR180204, a specific ERK inhibitor, reduced T-cell activation and IL-2 secretion. (
  • According to the Eighth Joint National Committee's (JNC 8) Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults, an ACE inhibitor or ARB should be considered first-line therapy in all patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as a thiazide-type diuretic in nonblack patients when not achieving recommended blood pressure goals. (
  • There is also significant evidence to support the use of an ACE inhibitor, ARB, calcium channel blocker (CCB), or thiazide-type diuretic in the nonblack hypertensive population, including those with diabetes. (
  • Angiotensin receptor type 2 receptor inhibitor resulting in vasoconstriction. (
  • In type 2 diabetes, microalbuminuria is associated with a 5-10% lifetime risk of progression to overt nephropathy, while patients with normoalbuminuria have a 10- to 20-fold lower risk. (
  • Nephropathy is responsible for an End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) in type 2 diabetics if uncontrolled. (
  • Along with these drugs, regulation of blood glucose will assist in retarding the progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetics. (
  • Combined angiotensin inhibition for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. (
  • A Markov model simulated the lifetime impact of screening with semi-quantitative urine dipsticks in a primary care setting of hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and subsequent treatment with irbesartan 300 mg in patients identified as having nephropathy. (
  • In type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria not receiving antihypertensive treatment, an increase in urinary AER (UAER) of 6-14%/year and a risk of developing diabetic nephropathy (DN) of 3-30%/year have been reported. (
  • Microalbuminuria has previously been demonstrated to precede and predict the development of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetic patients. (
  • Treatment of diabetic nephropathy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, an elevated serum creatinine, and proteinuria. (
  • Nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients: The most common adverse reactions which were more frequent than placebo were hyperkalemia dizziness, orthostatic dizziness, and orthostatic hypotension. (
  • High blood pressure accelerates the decline in kidney function in nephropathy - in other words the two problems multiply each other's effect. (
  • Regarding the ACE polymorphism, animals harboring 3 copies of the ACE gene, which is accompanied by increased synthesis of Ang II, demonstrated left ventricular hypertrophy, higher pressure values, overt proteinuria, and risk of nephropathy, which is probably associated with autonomic imbalance ( 9 - 11 ). (
  • Telmisartan (TLM), a highly selective angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) and partial PPAR-γ agonist, has versatile beneficial effects against oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammatory respo. (
  • Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are unifying factors mediated by the renin-angiotensin system in renal disease and CVD. (
  • Key mechanisms of hyperglycemia-induced inflammation include nuclear factor-κB-dependent production of proinflammatory cytokines, Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression, increased oxidative stress, and inflammasome activation ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • 4 , 6 , 7 Several key mechanisms have been proposed and tested to explain diabetic myocardial dysfunction, some of which include increased oxidative stress, impaired calcium homeostasis, upregulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. (
  • Administration of an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, olmesartan (5.0 mg/kg per day), attenuated the increase in blood pressure and ameliorated cognitive decline with enhancement of cerebral surface blood flow and a reduction of oxidative stress in hRN/hANG-Tg mice. (
  • These results suggest that continuous activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system impairs cognitive function via stimulation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor with a decrease in cerebral surface blood flow and an increase in oxidative stress. (
  • 12-14 Our recent article showed that Ang II content is significantly increased in the brain, as well as in plasma, in hRN/hANG-Tg mice, and that activation of the human RAS in the brain is involved in exaggeration of ischemic brain damage attributed partly to enhancement of oxidative stress. (
  • 15 Ang II is known to increase oxidative stress, and several studies have demonstrated that impairment of cognitive function is associated with an increase in oxidative stress. (
  • As knowledge on the direct regulatory effect of angiotensin II in controlling immune cell functions and AGT1R signaling in immune cells remains limited, the present study aimed to provide more information regarding the role of angiotensin II and the function of AGT1R in the activation of T-lymphocytes (T-cells). (
  • Upregulated interleukin (IL)-1β maturation, IL-18 secretion, and caspase-1 cleavage were observed in MDMs from type 2 diabetic patients after stimulation with various danger molecules (ATP, high-mobility group protein B1, free fatty acids, islet amyloid polypeptide, and monosodium uric acid crystals). (
  • The synthesis of prorenin, its conversion to renin, and its systemic secretion are stimulated by blood volume contraction detected by stretch receptors, beta-adrenergic stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, and prostaglandins I 2 and E 2 . (
  • Stimulation of angiotensin AT2 receptors by the non-peptide agonist, compound 21, evokes vasodepressor effects in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats. (
  • Angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation: a novel option of therapeutic interference with the renin-angiotensin system in myocardial infarction? (
  • Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS. (
  • Telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, attenuates Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and interleukin-1β in murine macrophages. (
  • Apart from its blood pressure-lowering effect by blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), exhibits various ancillary effects inc. (
  • Hypothesis: The angiotensin receptor blocker telmisartan is effective at reduction of albumin excretion rate(AER) in patients with type1 diabetes and micro or macroalbuminuria. (
  • Type 2 diabetic mice KKA y exhibited impairment of cognitive function, and telmisartan treatment attenuated this. (
  • These findings are consistent with the possibility that, in type 2 diabetic mice, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation by telmisartan may help with protection against cognitive decline by preserving the integrity of the BBB. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Telmisartan is not inferior to enalapril in providing long-term renoprotection in persons with type 2 diabetes. (
  • 135/85 mm Hg were randomized to placebo or 150 or 300 mg irbesartan daily for 2 years. (
  • Progression to macroalbuminuria occurred in 15, 10, and 5%, respectively, of the three groups at 2 years, with adjusted risk reduction of 68% with 300 mg and 44% with 150 mg irbesartan daily. (
  • Change From Baseline in Renal Plasma Flow (RPF) After a Single Dose of Aliskiren or Irbesartan [ Time Frame: Day 2: Baseline (10 minutes and 5 minutes pre-treatment and 0 hours) and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours post-dose. (
  • The measure of the single dose effect (SDE) for aliskiren and irbesartan was calculated as Day 2 peak - Day 2 baseline RPF. (
  • Irbesartan is used to lower blood pressure and decrease the rate of the progression of kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes. (
  • Irbesartan blocks the action of angiotensin II, resulting in the relaxation of the blood vessels. (
  • We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library up to January 2011 using common keywords related to ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers and cancer. (
  • We investigated whether ANG II receptor blocker can improve exercise capacity in diabetic mice. (
  • The present findings indicate that AT1R antagonism improves beta-cell function and glucose tolerance in young type 2 diabetic mice. (
  • Ohinata K, Fujiwara Y, Fukumoto S, Iwai M, Horiuchi M, Yoshikawa M. Angiotensin II and III suppress food intake via angiotensin AT(2) receptor and prostaglandin EP(4) receptor in mice. (
  • studied the effect of two different calcium channel blockers on mice that have a mutation in Fbn1 -the mouse equivalent of FBN1 -that is similar to those found in humans with Marfan syndrome. (
  • Treating the Marfan mice with other drugs that lower the activity of these signaling molecules protected the aorta, even if they were also treated with the calcium channel blockers. (
  • Methods and Results- Acute MI was induced by coronary ligation in wild-type (WT) and angiotensin II type IA receptor-knockout (AT 1A -KO) mice. (
  • Harada et al 17 demonstrated that Ang II type 1A receptor (AT 1A ) signals play a pivotal role in the progression of post-myocardial infarction (MI) LV remodeling, using genetically AT 1A -deficient (knockout) (AT 1A -KO) mice. (
  • Diabetic state was associated with increased ACE2 in Akita mice, whereas additional loss of ACE2 in these mice leads to increased plasma and tissue angiotensin II levels, resulting in systolic dysfunction on a background of impaired diastolic function. (
  • We investigated cardiac and vascular structure and function, Ang II metabolism, signaling, and tissue reactive oxygen species generation in insulin-deficient diabetic Akita mice in response to genetic ablation of ACE2. (
  • C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and diabetic heterozygous Akita ( Ins2 WT/C96Y ) and db/db mice were purchased from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME). (
  • Diabetic and non-diabetic mice harboring 2 or 3 copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene were used in the present study. (
  • We examined the possibility that continuous activation of the human brain renin-angiotensin system causes cognitive impairment, using human renin (hRN) and human angiotensinogen (hANG) gene chimeric transgenic (Tg) mice. (
  • The avoidance rate in wild-type mice gradually increased. (
  • Additional work will be needed to confirm this risk, to find out if it extends to other similar conditions, and to explore the therapeutic potential of drugs that target the two enzymes. (
  • Approaches to treat SARS‑CoV‑2 infected patients, based on different solutions i.e. plasma therapy, use of antiviral compounds, development of vaccines or new therapeutic agents are ongoing. (
  • Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -Three reviewers conducted a systematic literature search of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library (1966 to present) to extract a consensus of trial data involving an ACEI or ARB with an end point of new-onset type 2 diabetes. (
  • The influence of either an ACEI (six trials) or an ARB (five trials) alone on new-onset type 2 diabetes was similar (0.79 [0.71-0.89] and 0.76 [0.70-0.82], respectively). (
  • OBJECTIVE To determine whether ACE inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) protect against lower-respiratory tract infections complicating type 2 diabetes. (
  • CONCLUSIONS ACEi/ARB reduce the risk of pneumonia/influenza in people with type 2 diabetes. (
  • We identified an angiotensin-generating system in pancreatic islets and found that exogenously administered angiotensin II, after binding to its receptors (angiotensin II type 1 receptor [AT1R]), inhibits insulin release in a manner associated with decreased islet blood flow and (pro)insulin biosynthesis. (
  • The present study tested the hypothesis that there is a change in AT1R expression in the pancreatic islets of the obesity-induced type 2 diabetes model, the db/db mouse, which enables endogenous levels of angiotensin II to impair islet function. (
  • Whether islet AT1R activation plays a role in the pathogenesis of human type 2 diabetes remains to be determined. (
  • The angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) shares a high degree of homology with its well-known sister gene, the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), and is similarly a part of the renin-angiotensin II system (RAS). (
  • This effect is both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) dependent and angiotensin-II type 1 receptor (AT1R) dependent. (
  • Targeting renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is the most effective way to delay renal disease progression. (
  • Hans-Henrik Parving, Gentofte, Denmark, pointed out that kidney disease develops in 40% of patients with type 2 diabetes, with 25% of patients in Europe and 46% in the U.S. with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) having diabetes. (
  • Kunz R, Friedrich C, Wolbers M, Mann JF: Meta-analysis: effect of monotherapy and combination therapy with inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system on proteinuria in renal disease. (
  • Fujita T, Ando K, Nishimura H, Ideura T, Yasuda G, Isshiki M, Takahashi K, Cilnidipine versus Amlodipine Randomised Trial for Evaluation in Renal Disease (CARTER) Study Investigators: Antiproteinuric effect of the calcium channel blocker cilnidipine added to renin-angiotensin inhibition in hypertensive patients with chronic renal disease. (
  • 2-4 However, it is not still clear which classes of antihypertensive drugs provide greater benefits than others. (
  • Media Intima Thickness Evaluation of Candesartan (MITEC), a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study assessed the effect of candesartan cilexetil (CC) versus amlodipine (AML) administered during three years, on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. (
  • Results: Candesartan significantly suppressed PMA and ionomycin-induced CD25 expression and IL-2 production. (
  • Calcium channel blockers, low-dose diuretics, beta blockers, and alpha blockers have also been studied in this group. (
  • Drugs are further sub-segmented to include ace inhibitors, angiotensin-ii receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. (
  • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are prescribed to patients with Marfan syndrome for prophylaxis against aortic aneurysm progression, despite limited evidence for their efficacy and safety in the disorder. (
  • Unfortunately, not all people with Marfan disease can tolerate these drugs and other medications called calcium channel blockers, which also lower blood pressure, are often used as an alternative. (
  • It is thought that calcium channel blockers help reduce stress on blood vessels, but there is little data to show whether these drugs are safe and helpful for patients with Marfan syndrome. (
  • The calcium channel blockers increased the activity of two signaling molecules that are regulated by TGFβ signaling. (
  • This revealed preliminary evidence that aortic tears and aortic repair surgery were more common in patients with Marfan syndrome who had received calcium channel blockers than patients who had been treated with other drugs. (
  • Together, these findings suggest that it may be dangerous to treat patients with Marfan syndrome with calcium channel blockers. (
  • Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality and renal outcomes in patients with diabetes and albuminuria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (
  • BACKGROUND: Few studies have directly compared the renoprotective effects of angiotensin II-receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in persons with type 2 diabetes. (
  • Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 utilises and interrupts this pathway directly, which could be described as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-SARS-CoV (RAAS-SCoV) axis. (
  • While relevant preclinical, experimental models to date favour a protective effect of RAAS-SCoV axis inhibition on both lung injury and survival, clinical data related to the role of RAAS modulation in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 remain limited. (
  • In our outpatient clinic, the implementation of RAAS-blocking treatment in type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria successfully reduced long-term progression to overt DN to a rate similar to those previously reported in randomised, double-blind intervention trials of shorter duration using RAAS blockade. (
  • The renoprotective effect of long-term RAAS blockade in microalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients in a clinical setting has not been evaluated previously. (
  • The aim of our 11 year observational follow-up study was to audit how successful we had been in implementing the new treatment and to audit the effect of RAAS-blocking treatment in microalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients on the progression of microalbuminuria and development of DN in the clinical setting of our outpatient clinic at SDC. (
  • Within the renin-angio-tensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), increases in blood pressure are achieved when angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which then binds to AT 1 receptors located in various muscles and tissues such as vascular and myocardial tissue and in the liver. (
  • While ACE inhib-itors also block the RAAS, their effects are seen prior to the potential for AT 1 receptor binding, which is why there are some differences seen in the frequency of adverse effects with each of these medication classes. (
  • 3 Since then, expansion of the RAS to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) system and discovery of several bioactive peptides produced through Ang-II degradation has contributed to the increasing complexity of the RAS ( Figure ), and the search continues. (
  • In patients naive to treatment or after a 2-week washout period for patients whose treatment was ineffective, the use of olmesartan was assessed in a 4-phase treatment scheme: monotherapy, addition of hydrochlorothiazide (2 phases), addition of amlodipine. (
  • Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between the use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers and the risk of cancer. (
  • We found no significant association between the use of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers and the overall risk of cancer (relative risk [RR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.03). (
  • No significant association was found between the use of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers and overall risk of cancer. (
  • Meta-analysis data agree with RCT data, showing a reduced risk of developing DM in patients taking ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blockers (ARB). (
  • They selectively block the activation of the AT1 receptor, preventing the binding of angiotensin II compared to ACE inhibitors. (
  • Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS. (
  • Valsartan is a potent, non-peptide tetrazole derivative and selectively inhibits angiotensin II receptor type 1 [2]. (
  • Deficiency or blockade of angiotensin II type 2 receptor delays tumorigenesis by inhibiting malignant cell proliferation and angiogenesis. (
  • In addition, we and others have documented enhanced renal (postglomerular) vasoconstrictor response to angiotensin II (Ang II) in patients with diabetes as compared with individuals without diabetes ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Ste20-related kinase SLK phosphorylates ser188 of rhoA to induce vasodilation in response to angiotensin II type 2 receptor activation. (
  • We recently reported that natriuresis produced by renal medullary salt loading is dependent on endothelin (ET)-1 and purinergic (P2) receptors in male rats. (
  • The effect of medullary NaCl loading on Na excretion was determined in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female Sprague-Dawley rats with and without ET-1 or P2 receptor antagonism. (
  • ET or P2 receptor blockade did not attenuate the natriuretic effect of medullary NaCl loading in intact females, whereas ET or P2 receptor blockade attenuated the natriuretic response to NaCl loading in OVX rats. (
  • Activation of medullary P2Y and P2Y receptors by UTP infusion had no significant effect in intact females but enhanced Na excretion in OVX rats. (
  • Combined ET receptor blockade significantly inhibited the natriuretic response to UTP observed in OVX rats. (
  • In light of some reports suggesting a potential positive interaction between these receptors, we tested hypothesis that renal AT R and MasR physically interact and are interdependent to stimulate cell signaling and promote natriuresis in obese rats. (
  • Braszko JJ (2002) At(2) but not at(1) receptor antagonism abolishes angiotensin ii increase of the acquisition of conditioned avoidance responses in rats. (
  • Braszko JJ, Kupryszewski G, Witczuk B, Wisniewski K (1988) Angiotensin-II-(3-8)-hexapeptide affects motor-activity, performance of passive-avoidance and a conditioned avoidance-response in rats. (
  • Results: The role of vasodilator prostaglandins in the aorta was increased and the role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor and response of the AT1-R and AT2-R to Ang-II was decreased in pregnant saline infused rats as compared with non-pregnant rats. (
  • The role of angiotensin II and the signaling of type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AGT1R) in T-lymphocyte activation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production are largely unknown. (
  • Objective: We investigated endothelial dysfunction and the role of angiotensin (Ang)-II type I (AT1-R) and type II (AT2-R) receptor in the changes in the Ang-II sensitivity in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. (
  • OBJECTIVE -Angiotensin II has been shown to increase hepatic glucose production and decrease insulin sensitivity. (
  • 2 Obesity may be a common link between the two disorders, but other factors such as insulin resistance 3 and autonomic dysfunction 4 may also be involved. (
  • Emerging evidence suggests that activation of the nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome leads to the maturation and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and is involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes development ( 7 - 11 ). (
  • Whereas the importance of IL-1β in insulin resistance has been studied in animal models and human adipose tissues ( 12 - 15 ), the expression profiling of inflammasome activation in myeloid cells from type 2 diabetic patients has remained largely unexplored. (
  • Type 2 diabetes ( T2D ), formerly known as adult-onset diabetes , is a form of diabetes that is characterized by high blood sugar , insulin resistance , and relative lack of insulin . (
  • The interplay of SARS-CoV-2 with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system probably accounts for much of its unique pathology. (
  • The principal regulators of aldosterone synthesis and secretion are the renin-angiotensin system and the potassium ion concentration. (
  • The major factors stimulating aldosterone production and release by the zona glomerulosa are angiotensin II and the serum potassium concentration. (
  • Physiologic regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis. (
  • Angiotensin II is both a stimulator of aldosterone secretion and a potent vasopressor. (
  • Angiotensin II is metabolized to angiotensin III, a heptapeptide that is also a stimulator of aldosterone secretion. (
  • J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. (
  • 597 Association between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphism and heart failure of ischemic aetiology. (
  • Background- The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure. (
  • The results suggest that spironolactone could be potentially effective in patients with MI, when used in combination with renin-angiotensin system blockade, by blocking the actions of aldosterone produced by Ang II-independent mechanisms. (
  • The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is closely involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure. (
  • The aldosterone escape phenomenon, ie, persistent production of aldosterone despite renin-angiotensin system blockade, may be responsible for the insufficient action of ACE inhibitors or Ang II receptor blockers in patients with CHF. (
  • However, there is little or no information on the regulation of cardiac synthesis of aldosterone apart from the finding of involvement of the local renin-angiotensin system. (
  • Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the principal vasoactive substance of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), having a variety of physiological actions including vasoconstriction, aldosterone release, and cell growth. (
  • This conversion from angiotensin I to angiotensin II and subsequent receptor binding leads to increases in vasoconstriction, aldosterone secretion, and sympa-thetic activation. (
  • Methods @#A total of 159 type 2 DN patients from 2013 to 2015 were enrolled retrospectively from a prospective DN cohort at the National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases , Jinling Hospital ( China ). (
  • Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) is increasingly prescribed for the treatment of systolic heart failure with a growing body of clinical evidence. (
  • Different types of crystals from the same drug can have different solubility and absorbility in our body and thus impact on its clinical efficacy and safety. (
  • OBJECTIVE Clinical and experimental studies suggest cross-talk between lipid metabolism and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in atherogenesis. (
  • What are the clinical predictors of type B aortic dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome? (
  • While 37% of patients had prophylactic ascending aortic repair during follow-up, only two patients (0.3%) experienced type A aortic dissection, which suggests that current clinical practice may be effective. (
  • The clinical relevance of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism was first described in 1990, when Rigat et al. (
  • 2 It took 7 more decades of basic, translational, and clinical research to discover the pressor effect of renal extracts (ascribed to renin) in 1898 and another 10 decades of imaginative work by many to culminate in the discovery of angiotensin II (Ang-II), the primary effector peptide of the RAS, and its receptors (AT 1 R and AT 2 R) in 2000. (
  • Since the 1990s, therapy based on inhibition of the effects of Ang-II with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and AT 1 R blockers has dominated the experimental and clinical research arenas. (
  • There is conflicting evidence from a number of randomised clinical trials performed to assess the effectiveness of SMBG in terms of blood glucose control (as measured by HbA1c) in type 2 diabetes patients on OADs [10-16]. (
  • Objective We aimed to assess differences in incidence, clinical features, current treatment strategies and outcome in patients with type 2 vs. type 1 acute myocardial infarction (AMI). (
  • In clinical practice, it may be difficult to distinguish type 2 AMI from type 1 AMI and to distinguish type 2 AMI from other non-ischaemic conditions associated with myocardial damage and troponin elevation, such as myocarditis, septic shock or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. (
  • 175 Chronic oral ET-A receptor antagonism in experimental heart failure activates the renin-angiotensin system resulting in persistent sodium retention. (
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. (
  • Loss of ACE2 disrupts the balance of the renin-angiotensin system in a diabetic state and leads to an angiotensin II/AT1 receptor-dependent systolic dysfunction and impaired vascular function. (
  • 8 - 11 Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is a carboxypeptidase that metabolizes angiotensin II (Ang II) to yield angiotensin 1 to 7 (Ang 1-7), essentially negatively regulating the RAS. (
  • says: 'Human pathogenic coronaviruses (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus [SARS-CoV] and SARS-CoV-2) bind to their target cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is expressed by epithelial cells of the lung, intestine, kidney, and blood vessels. (
  • SARS-CoV-2 uses the cell receptor for angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for cell entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for viral S (spike) protein priming ( ) ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • As therapies and interventions for coronary artery disease continue to improve, more patients with type 2 diabetes may be expected to survive long enough to develop renal failure. (
  • People with microalbuminuria are two to four times more likely to develop coronary heart disease. (
  • While normal coronary arteries were more frequently seen (42.4% vs. 7.4%), an invasive treatment was less common, and antiplatelet medications were less prescribed in patients with type 2 AMI compared with type 1 AMI. (
  • 2 Type 1 AMI is caused by an acute atherothromboembolic coronary event. (
  • Type 2 AMI, also known as secondary AMI, is a more heterogeneous entity, where a condition other than coronary artery disease (CAD) contributes to an acute imbalance between oxygen supply and demand. (
  • Types 4 and 5 are iatrogenic infarctions associated with percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting, respectively. (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective cohort of 4,160 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, free of cancer at enrollment, were analyzed using Cox models. (
  • METHODS: A validated computer model of diabetes was used to project outcomes reported from a published longitudinal study of SMBG in type 2 diabetes patients, treated with OADs and with no history of SMBG, over a 30-year time horizon and cost-effectiveness was assessed from the perspective of a third party healthcare payer. (
  • Methods and results All 20 138 hospitalisations in Sweden with a diagnosis of AMI registered during 2011 in the Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies were classified into types 1-5 in accordance with the universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI) from 2007. (
  • Rapid decline of renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes with heavy proteinuria: a report of three cases. (
  • All patients with type 1 diabetes and persistent microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/24 h) were identified ( n = 227) in 1995 at Steno Diabetes Center and followed for 11 years. (
  • Finally, 2 months of therapy with the antidiabetic drug metformin significantly inhibited the maturation of IL-1β in MDMs from patients with type 2 diabetes through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. (
  • The effect of chronic angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor blockade on (intra)renal hemodynamics in patients with type 2 diabetes was examined in a double-blind parallel group study. (
  • Short-term studies in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have revealed a striking renal vasodilator response to acute administration of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), reflecting increased renovascular resistance (RVR) possibly resulting from (intra)renal RAS activation ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Observational studies on the natural course of renal hemodynamics and the development of microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes are restricted to the measurement of GFR, however ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • We examined the effect of the AT1-RA olmesartan medoxomil on renal hemodynamics in patients with type 2 diabetes in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. (
  • The primary objective of this study will be to evaluate the effect of EQW, used in addition to the current usual care for glycemic control, on major macrovascular events when administered to patients with type 2 diabetes. (
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with oral anti-diabetic agents (OADs) in Switzerland. (
  • This high and increasing prevalence is imposing an ever greater economic burden on healthcare payers, driving efforts to optimise the management of patients with type 2 diabetes. (
  • This is reflected in the Swiss healthcare system where reimbursement for SMBG strips is currently restricted to 400 per year in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with OADs only [9]. (
  • Higher age, female sex, comorbidities, impaired renal function, anaemia and smaller extent of myocardial necrosis characterised patients with type 2 AMI. (
  • However, after adjustment, the HR for 1-year mortality in patients with type 2 AMI was 1.03 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.23). (
  • Patients with type 2 AMI had higher crude mortality compared with type 1 patients with MI. (
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the incidence, patient characteristics, pharmacological and invasive treatment, complications and 1-year mortality between patients with type 2 and type 1 AMI in a large contemporary cohort of patients with AMI included in a nationwide quality registry. (
  • Chronic angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor blockade decreases (intra)renal vascular resistance and increases renal perfusion despite significant BP reduction. (
  • 187 ACE inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers in the treatment of heart failure in hypertensive patients. (
  • 5 Other evidence indicates that angiotensin receptor blockers can also release kinins and increase bradykinin levels in hypertensive patients, 7 which may augment benefits that are offset by the risk of cough and angioedema. (
  • All had had type 2 diabetes for less than 10 years, and none had complications from the disease. (
  • There is considerable evidence that chronic low-grade inflammation caused by activation of the innate immune system plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and its major complications ( 3 ). (
  • Activation of the RAS plays a key role in the progression of diabetic complications and AT1 receptor blockers have reduced these complications. (
  • RESULTS: Once, twice or three times daily SMBG was associated with improvements in HbA1c which led to increased life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy, and reduced incidence of diabetes complications compared with no SMBG in type 2 diabetes patients on OADs. (
  • Safety and feasibility of achieving lower systolic blood pressure goals in persons with type 2 diabetes: the SANDS trial. (
  • Previous studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blockers reduce mortality and morbidity among patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. (
  • There was no statistically significant differences between the ACE DD, DI and II genotypes at the p>0.05 level by age, body mass index, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures. (
  • 4 , 5 Ang-II was implicated in increased blood pressure and vascular remodeling with vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and smooth muscle hypertrophy, as well as cardiac remodeling with myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy leading to diastolic and systolic heart failure. (
  • These include people who also have type 2 diabetes, congestive heart failure, or kidney disease. (
  • 12 In the AT 2 receptor, IC3 is also important for its function involving reduction of SHP-1 activity and inhibition of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activity, and AT 2 receptor-induced apoptosis. (
  • Development of selective non-peptide angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonists. (
  • The primary effector molecule, angiotensin II, acts through type 1 and type 2 angiotensin II receptors (AGT1R and AGT2R). (
  • In a retrospective survey, type 2 diabetic patients treated with ACE inhibitors were found to have a lower risk of cancer than those not receiving this drug ( 16 ). (
  • The prevalence in gestational diabetes of these autoimmune markers of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been assessed in many studies, together with the risk of progression of AABs-positive GDM towards impaired glucose regulation (IFG or IGT) and overt diabetes after pregancy. (
  • Researchers at the University of Kentucky are inviting you to participate in a study to examine the role of inflammation in the progression of pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes. (
  • When you have documented [that] the patient has microalbuminuria, you start lifelong treatment with agents interfering with the renin-angiotensin system. (
  • No significant changes in FBG and HbA1c were observed in the two groups after treatment . (
  • The blood pressure treatment algorithm included renin-angiotensin system blockade, with other agents added if necessary. (
  • Taken together, these data suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is elevated in myeloid cells from type 2 diabetic patients and that antidiabetic treatment with metformin contributes to modulation of inflammasome activation in type 2 diabetes. (
  • Finally, this study suggests that the use of angiotension-II receptor blockers may be associated with fewer type B dissections, although recent literature emphasizes the need for caution in interpreting treatment effects without randomized studies. (
  • Comparison of the effects of antihypertensive treatment with angiotensin II blockade and beta-blockade on carotid wall structure and haemodynamics: protocol and baseline demographics. (
  • 160/100, n = 506) and stage 2 (≥160/100, n = 94), and by treatment group. (
  • The study was based on the Kaiser Permanente diabetes registry in the US and contained over 30,000 patients in total, stratified by history of SMBG use, daily frequency of SMBG, type of diabetes and current treatment regimen. (
  • Concurrent diabetes and either angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphism resulted in a significant increase in Ang II expression in the renal cortex. (
  • In a study comparing beta-blocker carvedilol with valsartan, the angiotensin II receptor blocker not only had no deleterious effect on sexual function, but actually improved it. (
  • Valsartan inhibited Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) expressions concomitant with an improvement in myocardial injury, such as smaller infarct size, reduced release of myocardial enzymes, and proinflammatory mediators. (
  • NAD(P)H oxidase can be activated by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. (
  • Large-scale epidemiological studies have suggested that the use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is associated with a reduced risk of new onset of cancer ( 10 - 12 ), but whether statin use alters cancer risks remains controversial ( 13 , 14 ). (
  • Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. (
  • Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system: Increased risk of renal impairment, hypotension, and hyperkalemia. (
  • Renin converts angiotensinogen, a proenzyme synthesized in the liver, into the decapeptide angiotensin I, which is then converted in the lungs into the octapeptide angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). (
  • Increased (intra)renal activity of the renin-angiotensin system may cause a persistent increase in renovascular resistance and intraglomerular pressure in patients with diabetes, thus contributing to the development of diabetic renal damage. (
  • Genetic variation and activity of the renin-angiotensin system and severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. (
  • Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays major roles in elevated blood pressure and the development of cerebrovascular disorders. (
  • Following the recent Ongoing Telmistartan Alone and in Combination With Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) finding of adverse renal outcomes, dual renin-angiotensin blockade has fallen out of favour, despite antihypertensive and antiproteinuric efficacy. (
  • New class of blood pressure meds as effective as old, analysis shows - Washington Post, 1/4/16 - 'The new analysis, published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings on Monday, involves a second look at 106 randomized trials with 254,301 patients that took place after 2000 and shows that during this time period patient outcomes on the two medications were remarkably similar. (
  • A retrospective analysis of five million patient records with the US Department of Veterans Affairs system found different types of commonly used antihypertensive medications had very different AD outcomes. (
  • and (2) the target BP to reduce adverse outcomes in hypertensive diabetic CKD with overt proteinuria. (
  • Conclusion: AGT1R signaling is essential for T-cell activation and IL-2 production, and the inhibition of this pathway suppressed T-cell activation via an ERK-dependent mechanism. (
  • Beyond ONTARGET: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockade in combination, a lesser evil in some? (
  • Prior prophylactic aortic surgery or a dilated proximal descending aorta is associated with increased risk of type B dissection in these patients. (
  • This cohort experienced a much larger rate of type B aortic dissection (1.5% per year), with both prior aortic surgery and the presence of a dilated proximal descending aorta independently associated with increased risk of these events. (
  • Conclusions In this real-life study, 7.1% of myocardial infarctions were classified as type 2 AMI. (
  • the definitions of the five types have recently been updated in The Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction. (
  • Type 3 is reserved for the rare cases where death occurs in patients with symptoms suggestive of myocardial ischaemia, and with presumed new ischaemic ECG changes before blood samples could be obtained or before cardiac biomarker could rise. (
  • Type 2 diabetic subjects had significantly increased mRNA and protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), and proinflammatory cytokines in MDMs cultured with autologous sera compared with healthy controls. (
  • Attenuation of cuff-induced neointimal formation by overexpression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein 1. (
  • Rodrigues-Ferreira S, Nahmias C. An ATIPical family of angiotensin II AT2 receptor-interacting protein. (
  • Receptor dimerization of Ang II receptors such as homodimer, heterodimer, and complex formation with other G protein-coupled receptors has also been focused on as a new mechanism of their activation or inactivation. (
  • On the other hand, recent experimental studies have also demonstrated the existence of proteins interacting with Ang II receptors by screening with a yeast-based 2-hybrid protein-protein interaction assay technique and revealed their functions ( Table ). (
  • Ang II receptors are members of the 7 transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). (
  • For example, an AT 1 /AT 2 chimeric receptor-study showed that substitution of IC3 in the AT 1 receptor failed to induce AT 1 receptor function via Gq protein coupling, 11 and also revealed that IC3 is a critical determinant of the mutually antagonistic AT 1 and AT 2 receptor signaling pathways. (
  • AT 1 receptor-associated protein (ATRAP) was cloned by our group using a yeast 2-hybrid screening system. (
  • Cell entry of CoV depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. (
  • Based on our previous findings on the nonlinear relationships between lipids and cancer risk in type 2 diabetes ( 8 , 9 ), we hypothesized that the mevalonate pathway, which leads to cholesterol synthesis, can produce other molecules such as the isoprenoids farnesol and geranylgeraniol and that these small proteins are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and thus cancer ( 8 ). (
  • The synthesis and secretion of prostaglandins I 2 and E 2 and the normal function of the stretch receptors are dependent on the intracellular ionized calcium concentration. (
  • You will learn what research says about three types of medicine for high blood pressure, how well they work, how they compare to each other, and their side effects. (
  • The National Center for Health Statistics states that African Americans get high blood pressure more o en, and at an earlier age, than other races. (
  • Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and others are the common indications for the chronic kidney disease. (
  • By indication, the market is segmented into Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, polycystic kidney disease, and others. (
  • The angiotensin II receptor blockers have differing potencies in relation to blood pressure control, with statistically differing effects at the maximal doses. (
  • Calcium channel blocker (CCB), diuretics (DIU) and ACE-inhibitors (ACE-I) were the most prescribed drugs without statistical difference between patients with and without blood pressure under control. (
  • Continued interventions, such as those addressing blood-glucose and blood-pressure control ( 2,3 ), are needed to reduce the prevalence of these risk factors for kidney failure ( 4 ) and to improve care among persons with these conditions. (