Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in fetal tissues. Many effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor such as VASODILATION and sodium loss are the opposite of that of the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.TetrazolesAngiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize the ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 2 RECEPTOR.Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Angiotensin I: A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Biphenyl CompoundsRenin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Angiotensin III: A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40%).Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Angiotensins: Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (VASOCONSTRICTION) and fluid homeostasis via the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. These include angiotensins derived naturally from precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, and those synthesized.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.1-Sarcosine-8-Isoleucine Angiotensin II: An ANGIOTENSIN II analog which acts as a highly specific inhibitor of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Angiotensinogen: An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Saralasin: An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.ThiazepinesEnalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Captopril: A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.Amlodipine: A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Hydralazine: A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Lisinopril: One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Chymases: A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Ramipril: A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.Receptor, Bradykinin B2: A constitutively expressed subtype of bradykinin receptor that may play a role in the acute phase of the inflammatory and pain response. It has high specificity for intact forms of BRADYKININ and KALLIDIN. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Spironolactone: A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Mice, Inbred C57BLHeart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Enalaprilat: The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.Receptors, Bradykinin: Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Rats, Inbred Dahl: Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.AcrylatesKidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Infusion Pumps, Implantable: Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.Arrestins: Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Teprotide: A synthetic nonapeptide (Pyr-Trp-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro-Pro) which is identical to the peptide from the venom of the snake, Bothrops jararaca. It inhibits kininase II and ANGIOTENSIN I and has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Kinins: A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)ThiophenesCyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Dihydropyridines: Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Angiotensin Amide: The octapeptide amide of bovine angiotensin II used to increase blood pressure by vasoconstriction.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Azetidinecarboxylic Acid: A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.Subfornical Organ: A structure, situated close to the intraventricular foramen, which induces DRINKING BEHAVIOR after stimulation with ANGIOTENSIN II.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Podocytes: Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Perindopril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is used in patients with hypertension and heart failure.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Imidazolidines: Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLINES which contain no double bonds in the ring.Endomyocardial Fibrosis: A condition characterized by the thickening of the ventricular ENDOCARDIUM and subendocardium (MYOCARDIUM), seen mostly in children and young adults in the TROPICAL CLIMATE. The fibrous tissue extends from the apex toward and often involves the HEART VALVES causing restrictive blood flow into the respective ventricles (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE).Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Collagen Type III: A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Nephrosclerosis: Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Receptors, Endothelin: Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Mineralocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Receptor, Endothelin A: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.AnilidesDown-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Rats, Inbred OLETF: An inbred strain of Long-Evans rats that develops hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild obesity, mostly in males, that resembles non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in humans. It was developed from outbred Long-Evans stock in 1983.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.AcetophenonesIndoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.

Angiotensin receptor subtype 1 mediates angiotensin II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced cyclic AMP production in preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells. (1/1828)

In a previous study, we found that angiotensin (Ang) II enhances beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells (PMVSMCs) obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats. The purpose of the present investigation was to identify the Ang receptor subtypes that mediate this effect. In our first study, we compared the ability of Ang II, Ang III, Ang (3-8), and Ang (1-7) to increase cAMP production in isoproterenol (1 microM)-treated PMVSMCs. Each peptide was tested at 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 nM. Both Ang II and Ang III increased intracellular (EC50s, 1 and 11 nM, respectively) and extracellular (EC50s, 2 and 14 nM, respectively) cAMP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. In contrast, Ang (3-8) and Ang (1-7) did not enhance either intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels at any concentration tested. In our second study, we examined the ability of L 158809 [a selective Ang receptor subtype 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist] to inhibit Ang II (100 nM) and Ang III (100 nM) enhancement of isoproterenol (1 microM)-induced cAMP production in PMVSMCs. L 158809 (10 nM) abolished or nearly abolished (p <.001) Ang II and Ang III enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular and extracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, PD 123319 (300 nM; a selective AT2 receptor antagonist) did not significantly alter Ang II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels. We conclude that AT1 receptors, but not AT2, Ang (3-8), nor Ang (1-7) receptors mediate Ang II and Ang III enhancement of beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured PMVSMCs.  (+info)

Angiotensin II antagonist prevents electrical remodeling in atrial fibrillation. (2/1828)

BACKGROUND: The blockade of angiotensin II (Ang II) formation has protective effects on cardiovascular tissue; however, the role of Ang II in atrial electrical remodeling is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of candesartan and captopril on atrial electrical remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 24 dogs, the atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was measured before, during, and after rapid atrial pacing. Rapid atrial pacing at 800 bpm was maintained for 180 minutes. The infusion of saline (n=8), candesartan (n=5), captopril (n=6), or Ang II (n=5) was initiated 30 minutes before rapid pacing and continued throughout the study. In the saline group, AERP was significantly shortened during rapid atrial pacing (from 149+/-11 to 132+/-16 ms, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in AERP shortening between the saline group and the Ang II group. However, in the candesartan and captopril groups, shortening of the AERP after rapid pacing was completely inhibited (from 142+/-9 to 147+/-12 ms with candesartan, from 153+/-15 to 153+/-14 ms with captopril, P=NS). Although rate adaptation of the AERP was lost in the saline group, this phenomenon was preserved in the candesartan and captopril groups. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of endogenous Ang II prevented AERP shortening during rapid atrial pacing. These results indicate for the first time that Ang II may be involved in the mechanism of atrial electrical remodeling and that the blockade of Ang II may lead to the better therapeutic management of human atrial fibrillation.  (+info)

Angiotensin II inhibits rat arterial KATP channels by inhibiting steady-state protein kinase A activity and activating protein kinase Ce. (3/1828)

We used whole-cell patch clamp to investigate steady-state activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP) of rat arterial smooth muscle by protein kinase A (PKA) and the pathway by which angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibits these channels. Rp-cAMPS, an inhibitor of PKA, did not affect KATP currents activated by pinacidil when the intracellular solution contained 0.1 mM ATP. However, when ATP was increased to 1.0 mM, inhibition of PKA reduced KATP current, while the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A caused a small increase in current. Ang II (100 nM) inhibited KATP current activated by the K+ channel opener pinacidil. The degree of inhibition was greater with 1.0 mM than with 0.1 mM intracellular ATP. The effect of Ang II was abolished by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan. The inhibition of KATP currents by Ang II was abolished by a combination of PKA inhibitor peptide 5-24 (5 microM) and PKC inhibitor peptide 19-27 (100 microM), while either alone caused only partial block of the effect. In the presence of PKA inhibitor peptide, the inhibitory effect of Ang II was unaffected by the PKC inhibitor Go 6976, which is selective for Ca2+-dependent isoforms of PKC, but was abolished by a selective peptide inhibitor of the translocation of the epsilon isoform of PKC. Our results indicate that KATP channels are activated by steady-state phosphorylation by PKA at normal intracellular ATP levels, and that Ang II inhibits the channels both through activation of PKCepsilon and inhibition of PKA.  (+info)

Reactive oxygen species-mediated homologous downregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor mRNA by angiotensin II. (4/1828)

Recent studies suggest a crucial role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for the signaling of angiotensin (Ang) II through Ang II type 1 receptor (AT(1)-R). However, the role of ROS in the regulation of AT(1)-R expression has not been explored. In this study, we examined the effect of an antioxidant on the homologous downregulation of AT(1)-R by Ang II. Ang II (10(-6) mol/L) decreased AT(1)-R mRNA with a peak suppression at 6 hours of stimulation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Preincubation of vascular smooth muscle cells with N:-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, almost completely inhibited the Ang II-induced downregulation of AT(1)-R mRNA. The effect of NAC was due to stabilization of the AT(1)-R mRNA that was destabilized by Ang II. The Ang II-induced AT(1)-R mRNA downregulation was also blocked by PD98059, an extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinase inhibitor. Ang II-induced ERK activation was inhibited by NAC as well as by PD98059. Exogenous H(2)O(2) also suppressed AT(1)-R mRNA. These results suggest that the production of ROS and the activation of ERK are critical for the downregulation of AT(1)-R mRNA. The generation of ROS through stimulation of AT(1)-R not only mediates signaling of Ang II but also may play a crucial role in the adaptation process of AT(1)-R to the sustained stimulation of Ang II.  (+info)

Use of positron emission tomography to study AT1 receptor regulation in vivo. (5/1828)

Increased sodium intake and enhanced sodium sensitivity are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and in the control of a major regulator of BP, the type 1 angiotensin receptor (AT(1) receptor). An in vivo technique to study changes of renal AT(1) receptors by dietary sodium was developed that uses positron emission tomography (PET). PET revealed that renal cortical AT(1) receptor binding was increased in sodium-loaded compared with sodium-deprived dogs, which correlated with ex vivo estimations of AT(1) receptor numbers. Plasma renin activity, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were inversely related to changes in AT(1) receptor binding. These results demonstrate, for the first time in vivo, that the renal AT(1) receptor is inversely related to the activity of the renin angiotensin system, which may provide a compensatory mechanism to prevent inappropriate fluctuations in arterial BP. The ability to measure AT(1) receptor binding in vivo has potential significance for clinical studies of AT(1) receptors, because PET is a noninvasive imaging technique that is readily applicable in humans.  (+info)

Angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors in conduit arteries of normal developing microswine. (6/1828)

OBJECTIVE: To identify vascular cells capable of responding to angiotensin II (Ang II) generated in conduit arteries, we examined the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) in the thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) and branches in 90-day fetal, 3-week postnatal, and 6-month adult microswine. METHODS AND RESULTS: By autoradiography ((125)I-[Sar(1)Ile(8)]-Ang II with or without AT1R- or AT2R-selective analogues or (125)I-CGP 42112), there were striking rostrocaudal differences in (1) AT2R binding at all ages (prominent in AA wall and branches, sparse in TA wall and branches) and (2) a non-AT2R binding site for CGP 42112 (consistently evident in postnatal TA and branches but absent in AA and branches). Furthermore, patterns of AT2R distribution in infradiaphragmatic arteries were developmentally distinct. In fetal AAs, high-density AT2Rs occupied the inner 60% of the medial-endothelial wall. In postnatal AAs, AT2Rs were sparse in the medial-endothelial wall but prominent in a circumferential smooth muscle alpha-actin-negative cell layer at the medial-adventitial border, occupying approximately 20% to 25% of the AA cross-sectional area. AT1R density in the TA and AA medial-endothelial wall increased with age, whereas AT2R density decreased after birth. CONCLUSIONS: A novel AT2R-positive cell layer confined to postnatal infradiaphragmatic arteries physically links adventitial and medial layers, appears optimally positioned to transduce AT2R-dependent functions of local Ang II, and suggests that adventitial Ang II may elicit regionally distinct vascular responses.  (+info)

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade to control blood pressure in postmenopausal women: influence of hormone replacement therapy. (7/1828)

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is twice as common in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with candesartan cilexetil (CC) to control blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive menopausal women, and the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). METHODS: This was designed as a prospective, open-label and non-comparative study. Included were 618 hypertensive menopausal women grade I/II according to the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee (VI-JNC), with an average age 52+/-4.7 years (95% CI 52.3-53.0) and with a last menstrual period (LMP) at least one year before. BP was determined by measurement in four visits during six months of follow-up, according to the recommendations of the OMS/SIH. Optimal control of BP was considered as BP <140/90 mm Hg. RESULTS: A statistically significant decrease in systolic (SBP; 19.9+/-11.2) and diastolic (DBP; 11.5+/-7.3) blood pressure mm Hg values was observed (P<0.01). The control of BP increased significantly over time to 61.2% (P<0.01). In multivariate analysis, only age was associated with control of BP (beta= -0.062; P=0.004). Of the women not controlled in the second visit, 12.5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) were added to 31.5% (N=122), with 80% more BP control achieved in visit 3 than in the non-supplement group (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.04-3.05; P<0.03). One hundred and three (16.7%) patients were receiving HRT for 2.01+/-2.23 years (95% CI 1.55-2.46). HRT did not affect the control of BP. No severe adverse reactions were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Candesartan cilexetil significantly reduced SBP and DBP and increased control (61.2%) of BP in hypertensive menopausal women. Only age had an inverse association with control of BP. In this study, HRT did not affect the control of BP.  (+info)

Effects of dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in primary proteinuric nephropathies. (8/1828)

BACKGROUND: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or with angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers has been shown to reduce proteinuria and to slow down the progression of renal disease in diabetic and non-diabetic primary proteinuric nephropathies. Additionally, this beneficial effect is not dependent on blood pressure control. METHODS: To assess and compare the effects of lisinopril (up to 40 mg/day), candesartan (up to 32 mg/day) and combination therapy (lisinopril up to 20 mg/day plus candesartan up to 16 mg/day) on urinary protein excretion, 45 patients with primary proteinuric nephropathies (urinary protein/creatinine ratio 3.8+/-2.4 g/g) and normal or slightly reduced renal function (CCr 95+/-33 mL/min) were enrolled in a six month multicenter, prospective, open, randomized, active-controlled and parallel-group trial with 1:1:1 allocation. Blood pressure goal was set at or below 125/75 mm Hg for all patients, with additional antihypertensive medication prescribed if required. RESULTS: Renal function, estimated by creatinine clearance, remained stable throughout the study. Hyperkalemia (K>5.5 mmol/L) was detected in 3.1% of all measurements in follow-up, and was more frequent in patients treated with lisinopril alone or lisinopril plus candesartan (P<0.001) than in those on candesartan alone. No other relevant adverse event was recorded. The blood pressure goal (<125/75 mm Hg) was achieved by week 4 in all treatment groups (P<0.005 when compared to baseline), and afterwards the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure remained below these values until the end of the trial with no statistically significant differences between groups. Urinary protein/creatinine ratio (percentage reduction 95% confidence intervals CI) decreased in patients treated with lisinopril alone to -33% (CI -12-56) to -31% (CI 0-68) and to -50% (CI -9-90), in patients treated with candesartan to -28% (CI -12-45), to -41% (CI -30-52) and to -48% (CI -32-63), in patients treated with the combination of both to -60% (CI -44-77) to -54% (CI -38-69) and to -70% (CI -57-83) at two, three, and six months, respectively. All comparisons with baseline achieved statistical significance and treatment with combination therapy was statistically more effective in proteinuria reduction than treatment with candesartan alone at two and six months (P=0.004 and P=0.023, respectively) and than treatment with lisinopril only at two months (P=0.03). CONCLUSION: Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with ACE inhibitors and AT1 receptor blockers produces a beneficial antiproteinuric effect that could not be explained only by the systemic blood pressure reduction. All treatments were well tolerated.  (+info)

This study is a multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind randomized clinical trial. The design scheme is depicted in Figure 1. (see below). At the time of screening, all pentoxifylline-naïve participants must have been receiving angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) per day for no less than 8 weeks and have stable renal function with serum creatinine elevation , 25% in the preceding 8 weeks. For patients taking maximal dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) for more than 8 weeks, randomization will be started after recruitment. For patients taking submaximal, fixed dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB)for ≥ 8 weeks, with good BP(blood pressure), i.e., ≤ 130/80 mmHg, randomization can also be started after recruitment. However, for patients taking submaximal dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) with suboptimal BP, i.e., ?130/80 mmHg, patients can be recruited but will not be randomized until the dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) has been fixed for ≥ 8 weeks, or a ...
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists , AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin-angiotensin system. Their main uses are in the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage due to diabetes) and congestive heart failure. They block the activation of AT1 receptors, preventing the binding of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are used primarily for the treatment of hypertension where the patient is intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy. They do not inhibit the breakdown of bradykinin or other kinins, and are thus only rarely associated with the persistent dry cough and/or angioedema that limit ACE inhibitor therapy.[citation needed] More recently, they have been used for the treatment of heart failure in patients intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy, in particular candesartan. Irbesartan and losartan have trial data showing benefit in ...
Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Angiotensin receptor blocker such as losartan, candensartan and valsartan are useful in treating patient with congestive heart failure and hypertension. Angiotensin receptor blocker will act by binding and blocking angioten
Background; Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) is being extensively used to control hypertension. But, there have been limited data whether ARB is associated with increased incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose intolerance (IGT).. Methods; We investigated total 13,561 patients (pts) that was glycerate hemoglobin level , 6.0% and fasting glucose level , 124 mg/dL (ARB therapy group=3421 and control group=9808) from January 2004 to February 2012. To adjust potential confounders, a propensity score matched analysis was performed using the logistic regression model. The primary end-point was the cumulative incidence of new-onset DM, IGT, and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Also, multivariable cox-regression analysis by adjusted by aforementioned variables was performed to determine the impact of statin therapy on the incidence of new-onset DM, IGT, and IFG.. Results; Mean follow-up duration was 534±604 days in all-pt group, and 608±607 days in propensity score matching ...
Animation showing: Physiology of the renin angiotensin aldosteone system (RAAS). Mechanism of action of ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).
Cheng J, Zhang W, Zhang X, et al. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174:773-85. 24687000 ...
OGIHARA Toshio , SARUTA Takao , SHIMAMOTO Kazuaki , MATSUOKA Hiroaki , RAKUGI Hiromi Hypertension research : clinical and experimental : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 31(2), 281-287, 2008-02-01 医中誌Web 参考文献36件 被引用文献2件 ...
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are medications. They are most often prescribed to treat high blood pressure, but can be used to treat other conditions. This sheet tells you how ARBs work and how to use them effectively.
... are medications. They are most often prescribed to treat high blood pressure, but can be used to treat other conditions. This sheet tells you how ARBs work and how to use them effectively.
A randomized controlled study to compare the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (telmisartan vs candesartan vs valsartan) on the markers of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ...
Angiotensin receptor blockers for the reduction of proteinuria in diabetic patients with overt nephropathy: results from the AMADEO study Prasad Bichu1, Ravi Nistala1, Asma Khan2, James R Sowers2, Adam Whaley-Connell11Divisions of Nephrology and Endocrinology; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia Missouri, USAAbstract: Diabetic kidney disease is characterized by persistent albuminuria (>300 mg/dl or >200 μg/min) that is confirmed on at least 2 occasions 3 to 6 months apart, with a progressive decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), elevated arterial blood pressure, and an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) prompting investigators to evaluate mechanisms by which to slow disease progression. One such mechanism is to block the activity of angiotensin II at the receptor site and agents that follow this mechanism are referred to as
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, specifically angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), have confirmed renoprotective benefits in patients with proteinuria and hypertension. However, it remains controversial whether these agents are beneficial to kidney recipients. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of ACEI/ARB treatment on patient and allograft survival after kidney transplant. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible articles from before May 2016, and we included 24 articles (9 randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and 15 cohort studies with 54,096 patients), in which patient or graft survival was compared between an ACEI/ARB treatment arm and a control arm ...
In this systematic review, we identified a significantly increased risk of hyperkalaemia among people prescribed aliskiren (Rasilez; Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Switzerland) in combination with an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker compared with those prescribed monotherapy using aliskiren, an ACE inhibitor, or angiotensin receptor blocker. This risk was about 50% greater in those prescribed combination therapy than among those receiving ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blocker monotherapy, and was about 70% greater in those prescribed combination therapy than among those receiving aliskiren monotherapy. We found no evidence of a significant difference in the risk of acute kidney injury between the study groups.. To date, no published systematic reviews or meta-analyses have evaluated the safety of combination therapy with aliskiren and ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Previously published pooled analyses of the safety of aliskiren have provided discordant ...
We observed that two months of candesartan therapy significantly improved the percent flow-mediated dilator response to hyperemia and reduced levels of oxidant stress and inflammatory and impaired fibrinolysis markers in hypertensive patients, independent of lipoprotein and BP changes.. Our finding of improved endothelium-dependent vasomotor responsiveness is consistent with other groups results (23-25). Thus, Schiffrin et al. (24)demonstrated that, in contrast with atenolol, losartan corrected endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension, and Ghiadoni et al. (25)also demonstrated similar improvement in endothelial function with candesartan. We reasoned that candesartan might improve endothelium-dependent vasomotor responsiveness by reducing oxidant stress and augmenting NO bioactivity, considering that AII is a potent vasoconstrictor that also promotes oxidant stress. We observed that two months of candesartan therapy significantly reduced plasma levels of MDA, compared with ...
Primary Hypothesis:. To evaluate the combination of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) vs. standard treatment with angiotensin receptor blocker on the progression of kidney disease in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and overt nephropathy.. The primary outcome is a composite endpoint of reduction in estimated GFR of 30 ml/min/1.73m*m in individuals with an estimated baseline GFR greater than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m*m; reduction in estimated GFR of greater than 50% in individuals with an estimated baseline GFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73m*m; progression to end-stage renal disease (defined as need for dialysis, renal transplant or an eGFR less than 15 ml/min/1.73m*m) or death.. Secondary outcome: a renal composite endpoint, defined as; reduction in estimated GFR of more than 50% (for individuals with a baseline estimated GFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73m*m); reduction in estimated GFR of more than 30 ml/min/1.73m*m (for individuals with a ...
The guidelines above are for the general population, but seniors health needs and benchmarks differ from those of younger individuals in many ways. While 130/80 mmHg is the generic threshold for beginning BP medications, there have been many disagreements among medical professionals regarding the threshold for older adults. Age, frailty and other comorbidities like diabetes and chronic kidney disease complicate this matter even further.. The Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) issued guidelines in 2013 recommending that individuals over age 60 aim for a reading below 150/90 mmHg. The JNC 8 recommendation for patients of any age with diabetes or chronic kidney disease is to aim for BP readings below 140/90 mmHg. These are not hard and fast rules, though, because each seniors health needs are unique.. "The JNC 8 guidelines support what we geriatricians have believed for quite some time: many older adults are taking too much BP medication," says Dr. Leslie Kernisan, M.D., M.P.H. In addition ...
The FDA has approved azilsartan medoxomil (Edarbi), an oral angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) for hypertension, expanding the ranks of ARBs now available to U.S. patients.
This large population based study is the first to use data from routine clinical care to examine long term outcomes associated with changes in renal function after the start of ACEI/ARB treatment. It represents an important complement to clinical trials, the participants of which may not be representative of treated patients in clinical practice.6 The studys size and long follow-up also permitted examination of a full range of outcomes, beyond those evaluated in individual clinical trials. Importantly, this is the first study to examine the association with end stage renal disease, as clinical trials are rarely powered to examine this outcome.. Patients who had a greater fall in renal function after starting ACEI/ARB treatment had a higher proportion of comorbidities and concurrent drugs that are themselves associated with adverse renal outcomes. However, our findings were robust after adjustment for a range of potential confounders, including comorbidity, co-medication use, lifestyle factors, ...
The Food and Drugs Administration has completed a safety review of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) after they were linked with an increased risk of cancer.. This review of 31 randomised clinical trials involving almost 156,000 participants, of whom 84,461 were treated with an ARB, found no increased risk. The review analysed the data for new cancer cases, cancer-related death, breast cancer, lung cancer and prostate cancer. There was no increase in risk for any of these outcomes.. Action: Clinicians and patients can be reassured by this safety review. It is important to note that the overall evidence still places ARBs are still second line to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). ...
Chaoiya, C.; Berenguier, D.; Keating, S. M.; Naldi, A.; van Iersel, M. P.; Rodriguez, N.; Dräger, A.; Büchel, F.; Cokelaer, T.; Kowal, B. et al.; Wicks, B.; Gonçalves, E.; Dorier, J.; Page, M.; Monteiro, P. T.; Kamp von, A.; Xenarius , I.; de Jong, H.; Hucka, M.; Klamt, S.; Thieffrey, D.; Le Novère, N.; Saez-Rodriguez, J.; Helikar, T.: SBML qualitative models: a model representation format and infrastructure to foster interactions between qualitative modelling formlisms and tools. BMC Systems Biology 7, p. 135 (2013 ...
Valsartan is a potent, orally active angiotensin II receptor blocker and is widely used in the treatment of hypertension and chronic heart failure. Herein,
ACE inhibitors reduce the production of the enzyme angiotensin, which makes blood vessels constrict.Healthy Food: Top Blood Thinning Foods Before we begin mentioning blood thinning foods, there is a major thumb rule that should not be ignored.Blood clots stop the flow of blood to the heart, lungs, or brain and can cause a.. ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).The foods you choose to eat can affect your heart health in many ways. If you are on warfarin or another blood-thinning medication ...
Auro-Irbesartan: Irbesartan belongs to a family of medicines known as angiotensin II receptor blockers. These medicines are used to lower high blood pressure and work by relaxing blood vessels. Irbesartan is used to lower blood pressure and decrease the rate of the progression of kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Dom-Irbesartan: Irbesartan belongs to a family of medicines known as angiotensin II receptor blockers. These medicines are used to lower high blood pressure and work by relaxing blood vessels. Irbesartan is used to lower blood pressure and decrease the rate of the progression of kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Riva-Irbesartan: Irbesartan belongs to a family of medicines known as angiotensin II receptor blockers. These medicines are used to lower high blood pressure and work by relaxing blood vessels. Irbesartan is used to lower blood pressure and decrease the rate of the progression of kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Ratio-Irbesartan: Irbesartan belongs to a family of medicines known as angiotensin II receptor blockers. These medicines are used to lower high blood pressure and work by relaxing blood vessels. Irbesartan is used to lower blood pressure and decrease the rate of the progression of kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes.
The US Food and Drug Administration is warning of a shortage of a class of drugs used by millions to treat high blood pressure. The drugs known as ARBs, or angiotensin II receptor blockers, contain valsartan.
The new on this front at the European Society of Hypertension meeting in Oslo last week was that the addition of the VALUE data to the analysis removed the over-prevalence of new diagnosis cancers. Of related interest is that both beta-blockers and calcium-antagonists went through episodes when they were though to cause cancer, but where more data and more rigorous analysis disproved this. This is probably what we are facing with ARBs too, but that will of course take more data and more analysis. As of today, there is no indication to stop ARB treatment for fear of cancer.. ReplyDelete ...
Can you pick the Adrenergic Receptor Blockers Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by poorvichhabra
2017 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Background. Although statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are generally well tolerated, the impact of these therapies individually or in combination on the change in neurocognitive function in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection is unknown. Methods. The study included participants in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials cohort participants not receiving a statin or ACEI/ARB within 30 days of first neurologic assessment (baseline), with assessments by NPZ-3 (z score of averaged Trailmaking A and B tests and digit symbol test [DST]) from ≥2 measurements. Marginal structural models estimated the causal effect of statin or ACEI/ARB initiation on neurocognitive function; initial constant slope was assumed during the first year of treatment and a second constant slope thereafter. Results. Of ...
Randomised controlled trial of a Calcium Channel or Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor/Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Regime to Reduce Blood Pressure Variability following Ischaemic Stroke (CAARBS): a protocol for a feasibility study.
The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reducing risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs) and preserving kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease is well-documented. However, the efficacy and safety of these agents in dialysis patients is still a controversial issue. We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and Wanfang for randomized trials. The relative risk (RR) reductions were calculated with a random-effects model. Major cardiovascular events, changes in GFR and drug-related adverse events were analyzed. Eleven trials included 1856 participants who were receiving dialysis therapy. Compared with placebo or other active agents groups, ARB therapy reduced the risk of heart failure events by 33% (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.93) with similar decrement in blood pressure in dialysis patients. Indirect comparison suggested that fewer cardiovascular events happened during treatment with ARB (0.77, 0.63 to 0.94). The
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use is associated with reduced major adverse cardiovascular events among patients with critical limb ischemia. AU - Armstrong, Ehrin J.. AU - Chen, Debbie C.. AU - Singh, Gagan. AU - Amsterdam, Ezra A. AU - Laird, John R.. PY - 2015/6/5. Y1 - 2015/6/5. N2 - Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are recommended for secondary prevention in peripheral artery disease, but their effectiveness in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) is uncertain. We reviewed 464 patients with CLI who underwent diagnostic angiography or endovascular intervention from 2006-2013 at a multidisciplinary vascular center. ACEI or ARB use was assessed at the time of angiography. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), mortality, and major adverse limb events (MALE) were assessed during three-year follow-up. Propensity weighting was used to adjust for baseline differences between ...
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists (or blockers) are a newer class of antihypertensive agents. These drugs are selective for angiotensin II (type 1 receptor); unlike angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, they do not inhibit bradykinin metabolism or enhance prostaglandin synthesis. Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are well tolerated. Cough occurs much less often with these agents than with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and they do not adversely affect lipid profiles or cause rebound hypertension after discontinuation. Clinical trials indicate that angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are effective and safe in the treatment of hypertension. Their use in congestive heart failure and renal disease is under investigation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Discontinuation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in Chronic Kidney Disease. AU - Qiao, Yao. AU - Shin, Jung Im. AU - Sang, Yingying. AU - Inker, Lesley A.. AU - Secora, Alex. AU - Luo, Shengyuan. AU - Coresh, Josef. AU - Alexander, G. Caleb. AU - Jackson, John W.. AU - Chang, Alex R.. AU - Grams, Morgan E.. PY - 2019/11/1. Y1 - 2019/11/1. N2 - Objective: To assess the patterns of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) discontinuation in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in real-world clinical practice. Patients and Methods: We identified incident ACE-I/ARB users with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥15 mL/min/1.73 m2 and without end-stage renal disease in the Geisinger Health System between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2015. We investigated the associations of CKD stage, hospitalizations with and without acute kidney injury (AKI), serum ...
Reduce the impact of angiotensin II receptor blocker drugs recalls on your patients by switching them from ARB to other appropriate drug therapies.
Dr. James Lohr, Division of Nephrology, VAMC, 3495 Bailey Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14215. Phone: 716-862-3204; Fax: 716-862-6784; E-mail: James.Lohr{at}med.va.gov ...
Both angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce angiotensin action. Angiotensin, a powerful hormone, has many actions, the most important of which is constriction of small blood vessels, leading to a rise in blood pressure and therefore in the pressure of blood within the glomerular capillaries in the kidneys. Lowering this pressure may well be the mechanism by which these drugs tend to slow progression of kidney failure.. The effects of ACEIs differ from those of ARBs in several important respects. It is even conceivable that taking drugs from both classes is more effective than taking just one or the other alone. Unfortunately, side-to-side comparisons of these two classes of drugs have not been performed, because the drug industry has no interest in such trials. These drugs are also effective in reducing urinary protein excretion in the nephrotic syndrome, and they also slow progression of chronic renal failure even when added to a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in Myocardial Infarction. AU - Kostis, John. PY - 2019/7/1. Y1 - 2019/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85065221731&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85065221731&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - https://doi.org/10.1177/1074248419841636. DO - https://doi.org/10.1177/1074248419841636. M3 - Letter. C2 - 31035789. VL - 24. JO - Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. JF - Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. SN - 1074-2484. IS - 4. ER - ...
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists work in a similar way to ACE inhibitors. But instead of stopping the production of angiotensin II, they block its action. This allows the blood vessels to expand, improving blood flow and reducing blood pressure. Angiotensin II is a very potent chemical that causes muscles surrounding blood vessels to contract, thereby narrowing blood vessels. This narrowing increases the pressure within the vessels and can cause high blood pressure (hypertension). Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are medications that block the action of angiotensin II by preventing angiotensin II from binding to angiotensin II receptors on blood vessels. As a result, blood vessels enlarge (dilate) and blood pressure is reduced. Reduced blood pressure makes it easier for the heart to pump blood and can improve heart failure. In addition, the progression of kidney disease due to high blood pressure or diabetes is slowed. ARBs have effects that are similar to angiotensin converting enzyme ...
The goal of this request was to estimate the number of prevalent users and dispensings of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) among pediatric pop
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, specifically angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), have confirmed renoprotective benefits in patients with proteinuria and hypertension. However, it remains controversial whether these agents are beneficial to kidney recipients. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of ACEI/ARB treatment on patient and allograft survival after kidney transplant. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible articles from before May 2016, and we included 24 articles (9 randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and 15 cohort studies with 54,096 patients), in which patient or graft survival was compared between an ACEI/ARB treatment arm and a control arm ...
Initial studies suggested that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and (possibly) aldosterone antagonists might either prevent new onset and recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) or reduce the rate of ma
ACE inhibitors reduce the production of the enzyme angiotensin, which makes blood vessels constrict. ACE inhibitors allow blood vessels to expand so that blood can flow more easily and the heart can work more efficiently. Examples of commonly prescribed ACE inhibitors are benazepril, captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, and others.. Angiotensin II receptor blockers block the effects of angiotensin, preventing it from affecting the heart and blood vessels. Examples of angiotensin II receptor blockers are candesartan, losartan, telmisartan, valsartan, and others.. Pregnant women should not take ACE inhibitors or ARBs. These medicines can cause a risk of birth defects. If you have high blood pressure and plan to become pregnant or are pregnant, contact your healthcare provider right away.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiotensin receptor blockers. T2 - Clinical relevance and new opportunities. AU - Volpe, Massimo. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Effective treatment of high blood pressure (BP) is a key strategy for reducing the burden of hypertension-related cardiovascular diseases, ie, mainly stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular death. Despite these well-established concepts, however, hypertension remains poorly controlled worldwide. In addition, patients treated for hypertension often remain at a higher risk as compared to the normotensive population, even when a satisfactory BP control is achieved. This is due to the concomitant presence of metabolic abnormalities and/or organ damage, thus accounting for the high or very high added cardiovascular risk profile often observed in patients with hypertension. An emerging strategy to improve general BP control and achieve this unmet target for cardiovascular disease prevention in patients with hypertension is represented by ...
Accumulated evidence suggests that an altered ambulatory blood pressure (BP) profile, particularly elevated nighttime BP, reflects target organ injury and is a better predictor of further cardiorenal risk than the clinic BP or daytime BP in hypertens
Looks at ARB medicines used to treat high blood pressure. Lists generic and brand names such as candesartan (Atacand) and irbesartan (Avapro). Covers how well they work and possible side effects. Warns against pregnant women taking ARBs. New Mexico, New Mexico
Looks at ARB medicines used to treat high blood pressure. Lists generic and brand names such as candesartan (Atacand) and irbesartan (Avapro). Covers how well they work and possible side effects. Warns against pregnant women taking ARBs. State of Nebraska, Nebraska
Abstract of Paper: Effect Of Angiotensin-II Receptor Blockade On Experimental Portal hypertension In Rabbits , Author: Sherif w. Mansour, Mohamed Abd El Homed and Mohamed Adel El-Sayed * , Year: 2003 , Faculty of Medicine, Benha University
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS ...
May 2007). "Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker attenuates myocardial remodeling and preserves diastolic function in ... December 2005). "Increased gene expression of collagen Types I and III is inhibited by beta-receptor blockade in patients with ... usually with a pharmacological agent that slows down AV conduction such as a calcium channel blocker or a beta-blocker) is, ... which is a common downstream target of the signal transduction cascade initiated by catecholamines and angiotensin II, and also ...
... angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers along with beta blockers are recommended.[4] For ... "Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker attenuates myocardial remodeling and preserves diastolic function in diabetic heart". ... or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) if the person develops a long term cough as a side effect of the ACE-I.[60] Use of ... Heart failure is divided into two types based on ejection fraction, which is the proportion of blood pumped out of the heart ...
... is an angiotensin II receptor blocker that shows high affinity for the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1), with a ... Telmisartan (INN) /tɛlmɪˈsɑːrtən/ is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (angiotensin receptor blocker, ARB) used in the ... "Angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan enhances running endurance of skeletal muscle through activation of the PPAR-δ/AMPK ... Side effects are similar to other angiotensin II receptor antagonists and include tachycardia and bradycardia (fast or slow ...
Losartan is an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker known to antagonise TGF-ß signalling via inhibiting the expression ... ß-blocker medication for aortic protection and prophylactic replacement of the aortic root.[14] In MFS affected adults, it is ... ß forms a complex with its dimer receptors, to initiate a phosphorylation cascade.[23] This phosphorylation can cause failures ... 139 (1): 2-8. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.30981. PMID 16222666.. *^ a b c d e f g h i von Kodolitsch Y, Robinson PN (June 2007). "Marfan ...
... angiotensin ii type 1 receptor blockers MeSH D27.505.519.170 --- antacids MeSH D27.505.519.186 --- antimetabolites MeSH D27.505 ... calcium channel blockers MeSH D27.505.519.562.374 --- ionophores MeSH D27.505.519.562.500 --- potassium channel blockers MeSH ... estrogen receptor modulators MeSH D27.505.696.399.450.360.315 --- estrogen antagonists MeSH D27.505.696.399.450.360.315.300 ... sodium channel blockers MeSH D27.505.954.411.793 --- vasoconstrictor agents MeSH D27.505.954.411.793.205 --- calcium channel ...
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists , AT1 receptor antagonists or ... They block the activation of AT1 receptors, preventing the binding of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are used ... In a study comparing beta-blocker carvedilol with valsartan, the angiotensin II receptor blocker not only had no deleterious ...
"The distribution of angiotensin II type 1 receptors, and the tissue renin-angiotensin systems" (PDF), Molecular Medicine Today ... The angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), also called angiotensin (AT1) receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of ... no matter how high the concentration of Ang II is. The angiotensin receptor blockers can inhibit the receptor in a competitive ... the main focus was on angiotensin peptide analogues. Saralasin and other Ang II analogues were potent Ang II receptor blockers ...
... expression whereas Angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonists increase its expression. This pharmacological interplay between ... Ang II and AT1 blockers favors Ang (1-7) formation. Santos, R. A. S.; Ferreira, A. J.; Verano-Braga, T.; Bader, M. (23 October ... binds and activates the G-protein coupled receptor Mass receptor leading to opposite effects of those of Ang II. Action of the ... neprilysin on Angiotensin I. Action of the Prolyl endopeptidase on Angiotensin I. Action of the ACE on Angiotensin 1-9. Action ...
Through oral administration, fimasartan blocks angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 receptors), reducing pro-hypertensive ... Klabunde, Richard E. Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs).CV Pharmacology. N.p., 15 Mar. 2007. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. Neal, B., ... Remodeling and Improved Survival After Myocardial Infarction Angiotensin II Type 1A Receptor Knockout Mice Display Less Left ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) then catalyzes the reaction that forms angiotensin II, which acts on AT1 receptors on the ...
... is a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB, AT1 receptor blocker). Forasartan is indicated for the treatment of ... Naik, P; Murumkar P (2010). "Angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) selective nonpeptidic antagonists-A perspective". Bioorganic ... "an Orally Active Angiotensin II-Receptor Antagonist: Inhibition of Blood Pressure Response to Angiotensin II Challenges and ... Angiotensin II binds to AT1 receptors, increases contraction of vascular smooth muscle, and stimulates aldosterone resulting in ...
ACE inhibitor Angiotensin II receptor antagonist Nitrate Tfelt-Hansen, P; Tfelt-Hansen, J (2009). "Verapamil for cluster ... N-type, L-type, and T-type voltage-dependent calcium channels are present in the zona glomerulosa of the human adrenal, and ... Several types of calcium channels occur, with a number of classes of blockers, but almost all of them preferentially or ... Ziconotide, a peptide compound derived from the omega-conotoxin, is a selective N-type calcium channel blocker that has potent ...
... angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are associated with fewer traumatic stress symptoms ... The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in turn couples to ... Angiotensin II receptor type 1 has been shown to interact with Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 16. The protein's ... "Entrez Gene: AGTR1 angiotensin II receptor, type 1". Senbonmatsu T, Saito T, Landon EJ, Watanabe O, Price E, Roberts RL, ...
"Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers on All-Cause Mortality, Cardiovascular ... Several other groups of drugs, mostly given by mouth, may also decrease blood sugar in type II DM. These include agents that ... improve outcomes in those with DM while the similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not. Aspirin is also ... Weight loss surgery in those with obesity and type two diabetes is often an effective measure. Many are able to maintain normal ...
Kalaitzidis, R; Bakris, G. L. (2009). "Effects of angiotensin II receptor blockers on diabetic nephropathy". Journal of ... "Renoprotective Effect of the Angioplasty-Receptor Antagonist Irbesartan in Patients with Nephropathy Due to Type 2 Diabetes". ... For example, not only do angiotensin receptor blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors work to lower blood ... For instance, a receptor antagonist is an agent that reduces the response that a ligand produces when the receptor antagonist ...
Some evidence exists to suggest that the Angiotensin II receptor blocker drug telmisartan will prevent corneal ... "Inhibition of Corneal Neovascularization by Blocking the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual ... 8 (1): 182. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Usui, T.; Sugisaki, K.; Iriyama, A.; Yokoo, S.; Yamagami, S.; Nagai ... This is especially true of lenses made with older hydrogel materials such as HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) for both daily ...
... is a selective, competitive angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonist, reducing the end organ responses to ... Discovery and development of angiotensin receptor blockers "Losartan Potassium". The American Society of Health-System ... It is in the angiotensin II receptor antagonist family of medication and works by blocking angiotensin II. Losartan was ... As with all angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonists, losartan is used to treatment hypertension. It may also delay ...
Valsartan blocks the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1). This receptor is found on both vascular smooth muscle cells, and on ... Sacubitril/valsartan can be used instead of an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker in people with heart failure ... Changing 100 people from an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor antagonist to sacubitril/valsartan for 2.3 years would ... It consists of the neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril and the angiotensin receptor blocker, valsartan, in a 1:1 mixture by ...
Hypertension is treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). ... PKD is a general term for two types, each having their own pathology and genetic cause: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney ... PKD is a general term for two types, each having their own pathology and genetic cause: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney ... is the lesser common of the two types of PKD, with an incidence of 1:20,000 live births and is typically identified in the ...
... angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), and beta blockers. Which type of medication to use initially for hypertension has ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonists work by antagonizing the activation of angiotensin receptors. azilsartan candesartan ... thiazide-type diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor antagonists. The largest study, ... On the other hand, β-blockers, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone receptor antagonists ...
... or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) along with symptomatic management with diuretics. Beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors ... In patients with TIC due to other types of SVT, RF catheter ablation is recommended as a first-line treatment. In patients with ... The treatment of heart failure commonly involves neurohormonal blockade with beta-blockers and angiotensin convertase ... The types of SVT associated with TIC include atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, incessant atrial tachycardia, permanent ...
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers, can be used to prevent angiotensin II from ... Emphasis on Blockade of the Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor". Medscape Cardiology. 9 (2). Paul M, Poyan Mehr A, Kreutz R (July ... The decapeptide is known as angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is then converted to an octapeptide, angiotensin II by angiotensin- ... Angiotensin II is the major bioactive product of the renin-angiotensin system, binding to receptors on intraglomerular ...
... was found to have similar results as telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ... Remuzzi, Giuseppe (April 2006). "Prevention and Treatment of Diabetic Renal Disease in Type 2 Diabetes: The BENEDICT Study". ... thereby lowering the production of angiotensin II and decreasing the breakdown of bradykinin. The decrease in angiotensin II ... Ramipril, sold under the brand name Altace among others, is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, used to treat ...
Those patients taking angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were 35-40% less likely to develop AD than those using other anti- ... Phase II results indicate that it is the first therapy that has success in modifying the course of disease in mild to moderate ... Wozniak M, Mee A, Itzhaki R (2008). "Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA is located within Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaques". J ... "Angiotensin receptor blockers are lower incidence, progression of Alzheimer's disease" Choi Y, Kim HS, Shin KY, et al. ( ...
... have been treated with an Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and/or an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker (ARB) for at ... mixed type AIHA, or paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. Fostamatinib as a treatment for IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is in Phase II ... A phase II study of rheumatoid arthritis patients failing to respond to a biologic agent showed little efficacy as compared to ... When FcγRs I, IIA, and IIIA bind to their ligands, the receptor complex becomes activated and triggers the phosphorylation of ...
It is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (commonly called an ARB, or angiotensin receptor blocker), that is selective for ... The drug binds to angiotensin type I receptors (AT1), working as an antagonist. This mechanism of action is different than that ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonist Discovery and development of angiotensin receptor blockers Valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide ... As valsartan acts at the receptor, it can provide more complete angiotensin II antagonism since angiotensin II is generated by ...
"Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular ... are superior to other inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system such as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs),[115] or ... 37 (2): 99-105. PMID 18939392.. *^ a b c d e f g "Causes of Diabetes". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney ... Type 2 diabetes (T2D), formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, is a form of diabetes that is characterized by high blood sugar ...
Angiotensin II, vasopressin, and sympathetic activity in conscious rats with endotoxemia. Am J Physiol. 1985;249(6 Pt 2):H1086- ... angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and AT1a receptor were also measured as described previously [10]. ... Basal chymase activity in the heart and skin of 18-week-old wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the human ... angiotensin II, nitric oxide and catecholamine [5-7]. Suzuki et al. [8] showed that suffusion of LPS on the in situ hamster ...
... angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren increases the risk of hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function ( ... side effects of hydrochlorothiazide increase the hydrochlorothiazide risk of hydrochlorothiazide hyperuricemia and gout-type ... Telmisartan selectively binds the AT1 receptor. Angiotensin II is the principal pressor agent of the renin-angiotensin system, ... and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II by selectively blocking the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor ...
Therapeutic effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker at an advanced stage of hypertensive diastolic heart failure. ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor BlockersAnimalsChemokine CCL2Heart FailureHypertensionHypertrophy, Left VentricularImidazoles ... Therapeutic effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker at an advanced stage of hypertensive diastolic heart failure.. J ... Therapeutic effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker at an advanced stage of hypertensive diastolic heart failure. J ...
The angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker olmesartan preferentially improves nocturnal hypertension and proteinuria in chronic ... an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), on ambulatory BP profiles and renal function in hypertensive CKD patients. ... 1.50±1.37, P=0.005; urinary type IV collagen excretion, 0.87±0.42 vs. 1.48±0.87, P=0.014) despite comparable A/B ratios for the ... Furthermore, the A/B ratios of urinary protein, albumin and type IV collagen excretion in the olmesartan add-on group were ...
... a lack of data on how to treat hypertensive patients with diabetes when treatment with medium doses of calcium channel blocker ... and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) is... ... combined with angiotensin II receptor blocker in type 2 ... Randomized trial of an increased dose of calcium channel blocker or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker as an add-on ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker Calcium channel blocker Essential Hypertension Home blood pressure Type 2 diabetes ...
3-9 With saralasin, it became possible to demonstrate that angiotensin II receptor blockade, alone or in combination with salt ... angiotensin II-like effects. The next major breakthrough in the understanding of the renin-angiotensin system was triggered by ... a nonselective peptidic antagonist of angiotensin II receptors. ... heart failure by a specific blockade of the renin-angiotensin ... the development of orally active angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.10-15 Studies performed with these agents ...
Purpose : Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) are commonly used to treat systemic hypertension. In addition to ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers lower IOP in mice and reduce TGFβ signaling in retinal ganglion cells ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers lower IOP in mice and reduce TGFβ signaling in retinal ganglion cells ... Ralph J Hazlewood, John Kuchtey, Rachel W Kuchtey; Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers lower IOP in mice and reduce TGFβ ...
Keywords: Angiotensin II type receptor blocker, cardiovascular disease, molecular structures, class-specific effects, molecule- ... Keywords:Angiotensin II type receptor blocker, cardiovascular disease, molecular structures, class-specific effects, molecule- ... Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and contains 359 amino ... Abstract:Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and contains ...
Angiotensin II receptors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Pharmacol Rev.1993;45:205-251.Medline ... An elective-titration study of the comparative effectiveness of two angiotensin II-receptor blockers irbesartan and losartan. ... Angiotensin II type 1a receptor-deficient mice with hypotension and hyperreninemia. J Biol Chem.1995;270:18719-18722.Crossref ... Blood pressure effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker, losartan. Arch Intern Med.1995;155:405-411.CrossrefMedline ...
Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I in a reaction catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, kininase II). ... Angiotensin II is the principal pressor agent of the renin-angiotensin system, with effects that include vasoconstriction, ... Telmisartan is an orally active nonpeptide angiotensin II antagonist that acts on the AT1 receptor subtype. New studies suggest ... Telmisartan works by blocking the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone secretory effects of angiotensin II. ...
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers increase tolerance of cells to copper and cisplatin - INTRODUCTION The human pathology ... setting is typically based on its ability to block the interaction between Angiotensin II and the Angiotensin II Receptor Type ... S. Saleh, A.A. Ain-Shoka, E. El-Demerdash, and M.M. Khalef, "Protective Effects of the Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Losartan ... Among them were two members of the drug class of Angiotensin II Type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) [34], namely Candesartan and ...
Angiotensin II. Angiotensinogen. Antihypertensive Agents. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor ... GISSI-AF - Use of Valsartan an Angiotensin II AT1-Receptor Blocker in the Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence. The ... an angiotensin II AT1-receptor blocker, in the prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrence. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). ... Multi-Center Study on the Use of Valsartan an Angiotensin II AT1-Receptor Blocker in the Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation ...
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ... Randomized Open Label Study of Standard of Care Plus an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Compared to Standard of Care Alone to ... Do Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Mitigate Progression to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome With SARS-CoV-2 Infection. The ... The purpose of this research is to identify whether or not Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB) can halt the progression to ...
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers. ARBs. Disclaimer: Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. ...
A randomized controlled study to compare the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (telmisartan vs candesartan vs ... A randomized controlled study to compare the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (telmisartan vs candesartan vs ... on the markers of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Next Previous ... on the markers of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Completed ...
Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockers on cardiac angiotensin-converting ... Clinical pharmacokinetics of angiotensin II (AT1) receptor blockers in hypertension. Z H Israili Journal of Human Hypertension ... Comparison of angiotensin II type 1-receptor blockers to regress pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Lei Li ... The effects of different angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers on the regulation of the ACE-AngII-AT1 and ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas ...
... or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) may experience a decreased incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes. ... The Impact of ACE Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers on the Development of New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes. 7 ... The Impact of ACE Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers on the Development of New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes. ... two trials), or heart failure (two trials), reductions in new-onset type 2 diabetes were maintained (0.79 [0.72-0.85], 0.76 [ ...
... an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in elderly and hypertensive subjects. Ten subjects with ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / adverse effects, therapeutic use*. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*. Blood ... We evaluated the effects of olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in elderly and ... 0/Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers; 0/Antihypertensive Agents; 0/Imidazoles; 0/Organotechnetium Compounds; 0/Tetrazoles ...
Pool JL, Glazer R, Chiang YT, et al. Dose-response efficacy of valsartan, a new angiotensin II receptor blocker. J Hum ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. Circulation. 2001;103:904-912. *CrossRef, ... a new angiotensin II-receptor blocker. Clin Ther. 1998;20:1106-1114. *CrossRef, ... Flynn JT, Meyers KE, Neto JP, et al. Efficacy and safety of the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan in children with ...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether a treatment for diabetic nephropathy, the angiotensin receptor blocker ... Angiotensin II. Angiotensinogen. Antihypertensive Agents. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor ... Angiotensin II Antagonism of TGF-Beta 1: A Candesartan Dose - TGF-Beta 1 Response Relationship Study. ... Angiotensin II Antagonism of TGF-Beta 1. This study has been completed. ...
Blocking the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (Telmisartan) reduces the incidence of episodes of atrial fibrillation in ... Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Calcium Channel Blockers. Membrane Transport ... A total of 160 subjects will be included in two study groups. The Group 1 will receive 80-160mg Telmisartan per day, the ... Concomitant therapy with B-blocker and acethydrazide are allowed for the target blood pressure during the study. ...
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ... Genetics Home Reference related topics: Type 1 diabetes MedlinePlus related topics: Diabetes Type 1 Diabetic Eye Problems ... This study is part of the DIRECT Programme also including a primary prevention study of diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes ... Male or female aged 18 - 55 years with type 1 diabetes diagnosed before age of 36 years and in need for continuous insulin ...
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. To Top. *For Patients and Families ... A Single Dose, 2-Period, 2-Treatment, 2-Way Crossover Bioequivalency Study of Irbesartan / Hydrochlorothiazide 300/25 mg ... Female subjects of childbearing potential - not surgically sterile or at least 2 years postmenopausal - must agree to utilize ... 1 x 7 mL) before dose and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.25, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours ...
Because WNK4 was previously shown to be a negative regulator of NCC, it has been postulated that angiotensin II converts WNK4 ... We and others have recently shown that angiotensin II can activate the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) through a WNK4-SPAK- ... To do so, we infused vehicle or aldosterone in adrenalectomized rats that also received the angiotensin receptor blocker ... Angiotensin II / physiology* * Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / pharmacology * Animals * Diuretics / pharmacology ...
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists , AT1 receptor antagonists or ... They block the activation of AT1 receptors, preventing the binding of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are used ... In a study comparing beta-blocker carvedilol with valsartan, the angiotensin II receptor blocker not only had no deleterious ...
  • Furthermore, both chymase inhibitors and AT 1 receptor blockers abrogate LPS-induced responses [ 8 ], indicating a potential role for hamster chymase in the pathophysiology of septic shock. (medsci.org)
  • The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for LPS-induced cardiovascular dysfunction involve several mediators, including cytokines, angiotensin II, nitric oxide and catecholamine [ 5 - 7 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The experiment was performed in male transgenic mice (18-20 weeks of age) carrying the human chymase gene (Tg) [ 9 ] and male wild-type C57BL/6 mice (WT). (medsci.org)
  • Mice were maintained in a pathogen-free facility under controlled temperature (24±2°C) and humidity (55±5%), with a 12 hrs light/dark cycle. (medsci.org)
  • Patients with a history of atrial fibrillation will be centrally randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either valsartan or placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In a study comparing beta-blocker carvedilol with valsartan, the angiotensin II receptor blocker not only had no deleterious effect on sexual function, but actually improved it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forty-eight hypercholesterolemic patients (23 had metabolic syndrome) were given pravastatin 40 mg and placebo, pravastatin 40 mg and valsartan 160 mg, or valsartan 160 mg and placebo daily during each 2-month treatment period in a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with three treatment arms and two washout periods (each 2 months). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Central and peripheral hemodynamic effects of angiotensin inhibition in patients with refractory congestive heart failure. (stonel.info)
  • [2] The term "congestive heart failure" is often used, as one of the common symptoms is congestion , or build-up of fluid in a person's tissues and veins in the lungs or other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACEIs reduce both myocardial infarction (MI) and mortality in patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure or asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction, 1 as evidenced by a class I recommendation in the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines. (ahajournals.org)
  • abstract = "Aortic aneurysm and dissection are manifestations of Marfan syndrome (MFS), a disorder caused by mutations in the gene that encodes fibrillin-1. (elsevier.com)
  • Agunloye, Odunayo 2018-06-01 00:00:00 Caffeine (CA) and caffeic acid (CAF) are two bioactive phytochemicals found richly distributed in many plant foods such as coffee in different proportions. (deepdyve.com)
  • Adler AI, Stratton IM, Neil HA, Yudkin JS, Matthews DR, Cull CA, Wright AD, Turner RC, Holman RR (2000) Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study. (springer.com)
  • New class of blood pressure meds as effective as old, analysis shows - Washington Post, 1/4/16 - 'The new analysis, published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings on Monday, involves a second look at 106 randomized trials with 254,301 patients that took place after 2000 and shows that during this time period patient outcomes on the two medications were remarkably similar. (qualitycounts.com)
  • Macrophage infiltration was attenuated with decreased gene expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the left ventricular myocardium of the ARB-treated rats. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Angiotensin-sodium interaction in blood pressure maintenance of renal hypertensive and normotensive rats. (stonel.info)
  • MRI study demonstrated that hemorrhagic lesions were observed in two of five rats in the control group, while no hemorrhagic lesions were observed in the MKP group. (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression of an angiotensin-(1-7)-producing fusion protein produces cardioprotective effects in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Results: The role of vasodilator prostaglandins in the aorta was increased and the role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor and response of the AT1-R and AT2-R to Ang-II was decreased in pregnant saline infused rats as compared with non-pregnant rats. (rug.nl)
  • Both pre-and post-ganglionic vagal nerve functions are diminished in CHF rats, whereas M2 receptor-mediated regulation of the SA node is upregulated. (labome.org)
  • To examine the effect of hyperuricemia on renal disease progression, rats were fed 2% OA for 6 wk after 5/6 remnant kidney (RK) surgery with or without the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol, or the uricosuric agent, benziodarone. (asnjournals.org)
  • RK rats developed transient hyperuricemia (2.7 mg/dl at week 2), but then levels returned to baseline by week 6 (1.4 mg/dl). (asnjournals.org)
  • The incidence of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in the benidipine -ARB regimen was not different compared with the other two treatment regimens. (curehunter.com)
  • Diabetes represents a major threat to human health, with global incidence projected to reach 300 million by 2025 ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • But, this study, along with past evidence, suggest that vaccines for other enteroviruses might help reduce the incidence of type 1 diabetes. (drugs.com)
  • In this randomized controlled trial with a single-blind, cross-over design, we used dialysis liquids with two different bicarbonate (32 mmol/l in modalities A and C, and 26 mmol/l in modality B) and calcium (1.25 mmol/l in modalities A and B, and 1.50 mmol/l in modality C) concentrations, and in 27 patients, 243 dialysis sessions, compared blood pressure, heart rate and the incidence of hypotension. (karger.com)
  • 1 , 2 Several factors were reported to predispose recipients to hyperuricemia, including insufficient allograft function, 3 treatment with diuretics, immunosuppression with cyclosporine, 4 a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), and immunosuppression with mizoribine. (dovepress.com)
  • The purpose of this research is to identify whether or not Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB) can halt the progression to respiratory failure requiring transfer into the intensive care unit (ICU), as well as halt mechanical ventilation in subjects with mild to moderate hypoxia due to the corona virus that causes COVID-19. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In type 2 diabetes, microalbuminuria is associated with a 5-10% lifetime risk of progression to overt nephropathy, while patients with normoalbuminuria have a 10- to 20-fold lower risk. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Progression to macroalbuminuria occurred in 15, 10, and 5%, respectively, of the three groups at 2 years, with adjusted risk reduction of 68% with 300 mg and 44% with 150 mg irbesartan daily. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1 Impairment of the BBB has been suggested to play a key role in the development and progression of several CNS disorders contributing to cognitive decline. (ahajournals.org)
  • The prevalence in gestational diabetes of these autoimmune markers of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been assessed in many studies, together with the risk of progression of AABs-positive GDM towards impaired glucose regulation (IFG or IGT) and overt diabetes after pregancy. (tripdatabase.com)
  • It has long been suspected that chronic inflammation may have an important role in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer [1- (termedia.pl)
  • Hans-Henrik Parving, Gentofte, Denmark, pointed out that kidney disease develops in 40% of patients with type 2 diabetes, with 25% of patients in Europe and 46% in the U.S. with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) having diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Urinary NOx production is reduced in nondiabetic renal disease ( 16 ), although also increased plasma nitrate concentrations have been reported in type 2 diabetes, as well as in the Metabolic Syndrome ( 17 , 18 ), thus questioning the validity of urinary methods to assess whole-body NOx production. (diabetesjournals.org)