Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Azetidinecarboxylic Acid: A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.TetrazolesCircadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.TetrazolesBenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in fetal tissues. Many effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor such as VASODILATION and sodium loss are the opposite of that of the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize the ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 2 RECEPTOR.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.TetrazolesAntihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.TetrazolesReceptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Primary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.TetrazolesHypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Masked Hypertension: Phenomenon where increased BLOOD PRESSURE readings taken in non-clinical settings (e.g., HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING) do not replicate in clinical settings.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Receptors, Mineralocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Juxtaglomerular Apparatus: A complex of cells consisting of juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells, the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule, and granular epithelial peripolar cells. Juxtaglomerular cells are modified SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS found in the walls of afferent glomerular arterioles and sometimes the efferent arterioles. Extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells are located in the angle between the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. Granular epithelial peripolar cells are located at the angle of reflection of the parietal to visceral angle of the renal corpuscle.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.MEDLARS: A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.United StatesInterleukin-21 Receptor alpha Subunit: An interleukin-21 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for interleukin-21. It signals via interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as JANUS KINASE 1 and JANUS KINASE 3.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Angiotensin receptor subtype 1 mediates angiotensin II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced cyclic AMP production in preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells. (1/1828)

In a previous study, we found that angiotensin (Ang) II enhances beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells (PMVSMCs) obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats. The purpose of the present investigation was to identify the Ang receptor subtypes that mediate this effect. In our first study, we compared the ability of Ang II, Ang III, Ang (3-8), and Ang (1-7) to increase cAMP production in isoproterenol (1 microM)-treated PMVSMCs. Each peptide was tested at 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 nM. Both Ang II and Ang III increased intracellular (EC50s, 1 and 11 nM, respectively) and extracellular (EC50s, 2 and 14 nM, respectively) cAMP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. In contrast, Ang (3-8) and Ang (1-7) did not enhance either intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels at any concentration tested. In our second study, we examined the ability of L 158809 [a selective Ang receptor subtype 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist] to inhibit Ang II (100 nM) and Ang III (100 nM) enhancement of isoproterenol (1 microM)-induced cAMP production in PMVSMCs. L 158809 (10 nM) abolished or nearly abolished (p <.001) Ang II and Ang III enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular and extracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, PD 123319 (300 nM; a selective AT2 receptor antagonist) did not significantly alter Ang II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels. We conclude that AT1 receptors, but not AT2, Ang (3-8), nor Ang (1-7) receptors mediate Ang II and Ang III enhancement of beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured PMVSMCs.  (+info)

Angiotensin II antagonist prevents electrical remodeling in atrial fibrillation. (2/1828)

BACKGROUND: The blockade of angiotensin II (Ang II) formation has protective effects on cardiovascular tissue; however, the role of Ang II in atrial electrical remodeling is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of candesartan and captopril on atrial electrical remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 24 dogs, the atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was measured before, during, and after rapid atrial pacing. Rapid atrial pacing at 800 bpm was maintained for 180 minutes. The infusion of saline (n=8), candesartan (n=5), captopril (n=6), or Ang II (n=5) was initiated 30 minutes before rapid pacing and continued throughout the study. In the saline group, AERP was significantly shortened during rapid atrial pacing (from 149+/-11 to 132+/-16 ms, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in AERP shortening between the saline group and the Ang II group. However, in the candesartan and captopril groups, shortening of the AERP after rapid pacing was completely inhibited (from 142+/-9 to 147+/-12 ms with candesartan, from 153+/-15 to 153+/-14 ms with captopril, P=NS). Although rate adaptation of the AERP was lost in the saline group, this phenomenon was preserved in the candesartan and captopril groups. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of endogenous Ang II prevented AERP shortening during rapid atrial pacing. These results indicate for the first time that Ang II may be involved in the mechanism of atrial electrical remodeling and that the blockade of Ang II may lead to the better therapeutic management of human atrial fibrillation.  (+info)

Angiotensin II inhibits rat arterial KATP channels by inhibiting steady-state protein kinase A activity and activating protein kinase Ce. (3/1828)

We used whole-cell patch clamp to investigate steady-state activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP) of rat arterial smooth muscle by protein kinase A (PKA) and the pathway by which angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibits these channels. Rp-cAMPS, an inhibitor of PKA, did not affect KATP currents activated by pinacidil when the intracellular solution contained 0.1 mM ATP. However, when ATP was increased to 1.0 mM, inhibition of PKA reduced KATP current, while the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A caused a small increase in current. Ang II (100 nM) inhibited KATP current activated by the K+ channel opener pinacidil. The degree of inhibition was greater with 1.0 mM than with 0.1 mM intracellular ATP. The effect of Ang II was abolished by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan. The inhibition of KATP currents by Ang II was abolished by a combination of PKA inhibitor peptide 5-24 (5 microM) and PKC inhibitor peptide 19-27 (100 microM), while either alone caused only partial block of the effect. In the presence of PKA inhibitor peptide, the inhibitory effect of Ang II was unaffected by the PKC inhibitor Go 6976, which is selective for Ca2+-dependent isoforms of PKC, but was abolished by a selective peptide inhibitor of the translocation of the epsilon isoform of PKC. Our results indicate that KATP channels are activated by steady-state phosphorylation by PKA at normal intracellular ATP levels, and that Ang II inhibits the channels both through activation of PKCepsilon and inhibition of PKA.  (+info)

Reactive oxygen species-mediated homologous downregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor mRNA by angiotensin II. (4/1828)

Recent studies suggest a crucial role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for the signaling of angiotensin (Ang) II through Ang II type 1 receptor (AT(1)-R). However, the role of ROS in the regulation of AT(1)-R expression has not been explored. In this study, we examined the effect of an antioxidant on the homologous downregulation of AT(1)-R by Ang II. Ang II (10(-6) mol/L) decreased AT(1)-R mRNA with a peak suppression at 6 hours of stimulation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Preincubation of vascular smooth muscle cells with N:-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, almost completely inhibited the Ang II-induced downregulation of AT(1)-R mRNA. The effect of NAC was due to stabilization of the AT(1)-R mRNA that was destabilized by Ang II. The Ang II-induced AT(1)-R mRNA downregulation was also blocked by PD98059, an extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinase inhibitor. Ang II-induced ERK activation was inhibited by NAC as well as by PD98059. Exogenous H(2)O(2) also suppressed AT(1)-R mRNA. These results suggest that the production of ROS and the activation of ERK are critical for the downregulation of AT(1)-R mRNA. The generation of ROS through stimulation of AT(1)-R not only mediates signaling of Ang II but also may play a crucial role in the adaptation process of AT(1)-R to the sustained stimulation of Ang II.  (+info)

Use of positron emission tomography to study AT1 receptor regulation in vivo. (5/1828)

Increased sodium intake and enhanced sodium sensitivity are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and in the control of a major regulator of BP, the type 1 angiotensin receptor (AT(1) receptor). An in vivo technique to study changes of renal AT(1) receptors by dietary sodium was developed that uses positron emission tomography (PET). PET revealed that renal cortical AT(1) receptor binding was increased in sodium-loaded compared with sodium-deprived dogs, which correlated with ex vivo estimations of AT(1) receptor numbers. Plasma renin activity, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were inversely related to changes in AT(1) receptor binding. These results demonstrate, for the first time in vivo, that the renal AT(1) receptor is inversely related to the activity of the renin angiotensin system, which may provide a compensatory mechanism to prevent inappropriate fluctuations in arterial BP. The ability to measure AT(1) receptor binding in vivo has potential significance for clinical studies of AT(1) receptors, because PET is a noninvasive imaging technique that is readily applicable in humans.  (+info)

Angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors in conduit arteries of normal developing microswine. (6/1828)

OBJECTIVE: To identify vascular cells capable of responding to angiotensin II (Ang II) generated in conduit arteries, we examined the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) in the thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) and branches in 90-day fetal, 3-week postnatal, and 6-month adult microswine. METHODS AND RESULTS: By autoradiography ((125)I-[Sar(1)Ile(8)]-Ang II with or without AT1R- or AT2R-selective analogues or (125)I-CGP 42112), there were striking rostrocaudal differences in (1) AT2R binding at all ages (prominent in AA wall and branches, sparse in TA wall and branches) and (2) a non-AT2R binding site for CGP 42112 (consistently evident in postnatal TA and branches but absent in AA and branches). Furthermore, patterns of AT2R distribution in infradiaphragmatic arteries were developmentally distinct. In fetal AAs, high-density AT2Rs occupied the inner 60% of the medial-endothelial wall. In postnatal AAs, AT2Rs were sparse in the medial-endothelial wall but prominent in a circumferential smooth muscle alpha-actin-negative cell layer at the medial-adventitial border, occupying approximately 20% to 25% of the AA cross-sectional area. AT1R density in the TA and AA medial-endothelial wall increased with age, whereas AT2R density decreased after birth. CONCLUSIONS: A novel AT2R-positive cell layer confined to postnatal infradiaphragmatic arteries physically links adventitial and medial layers, appears optimally positioned to transduce AT2R-dependent functions of local Ang II, and suggests that adventitial Ang II may elicit regionally distinct vascular responses.  (+info)

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade to control blood pressure in postmenopausal women: influence of hormone replacement therapy. (7/1828)

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is twice as common in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with candesartan cilexetil (CC) to control blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive menopausal women, and the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). METHODS: This was designed as a prospective, open-label and non-comparative study. Included were 618 hypertensive menopausal women grade I/II according to the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee (VI-JNC), with an average age 52+/-4.7 years (95% CI 52.3-53.0) and with a last menstrual period (LMP) at least one year before. BP was determined by measurement in four visits during six months of follow-up, according to the recommendations of the OMS/SIH. Optimal control of BP was considered as BP <140/90 mm Hg. RESULTS: A statistically significant decrease in systolic (SBP; 19.9+/-11.2) and diastolic (DBP; 11.5+/-7.3) blood pressure mm Hg values was observed (P<0.01). The control of BP increased significantly over time to 61.2% (P<0.01). In multivariate analysis, only age was associated with control of BP (beta= -0.062; P=0.004). Of the women not controlled in the second visit, 12.5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) were added to 31.5% (N=122), with 80% more BP control achieved in visit 3 than in the non-supplement group (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.04-3.05; P<0.03). One hundred and three (16.7%) patients were receiving HRT for 2.01+/-2.23 years (95% CI 1.55-2.46). HRT did not affect the control of BP. No severe adverse reactions were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Candesartan cilexetil significantly reduced SBP and DBP and increased control (61.2%) of BP in hypertensive menopausal women. Only age had an inverse association with control of BP. In this study, HRT did not affect the control of BP.  (+info)

Effects of dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in primary proteinuric nephropathies. (8/1828)

BACKGROUND: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or with angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers has been shown to reduce proteinuria and to slow down the progression of renal disease in diabetic and non-diabetic primary proteinuric nephropathies. Additionally, this beneficial effect is not dependent on blood pressure control. METHODS: To assess and compare the effects of lisinopril (up to 40 mg/day), candesartan (up to 32 mg/day) and combination therapy (lisinopril up to 20 mg/day plus candesartan up to 16 mg/day) on urinary protein excretion, 45 patients with primary proteinuric nephropathies (urinary protein/creatinine ratio 3.8+/-2.4 g/g) and normal or slightly reduced renal function (CCr 95+/-33 mL/min) were enrolled in a six month multicenter, prospective, open, randomized, active-controlled and parallel-group trial with 1:1:1 allocation. Blood pressure goal was set at or below 125/75 mm Hg for all patients, with additional antihypertensive medication prescribed if required. RESULTS: Renal function, estimated by creatinine clearance, remained stable throughout the study. Hyperkalemia (K>5.5 mmol/L) was detected in 3.1% of all measurements in follow-up, and was more frequent in patients treated with lisinopril alone or lisinopril plus candesartan (P<0.001) than in those on candesartan alone. No other relevant adverse event was recorded. The blood pressure goal (<125/75 mm Hg) was achieved by week 4 in all treatment groups (P<0.005 when compared to baseline), and afterwards the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure remained below these values until the end of the trial with no statistically significant differences between groups. Urinary protein/creatinine ratio (percentage reduction 95% confidence intervals CI) decreased in patients treated with lisinopril alone to -33% (CI -12-56) to -31% (CI 0-68) and to -50% (CI -9-90), in patients treated with candesartan to -28% (CI -12-45), to -41% (CI -30-52) and to -48% (CI -32-63), in patients treated with the combination of both to -60% (CI -44-77) to -54% (CI -38-69) and to -70% (CI -57-83) at two, three, and six months, respectively. All comparisons with baseline achieved statistical significance and treatment with combination therapy was statistically more effective in proteinuria reduction than treatment with candesartan alone at two and six months (P=0.004 and P=0.023, respectively) and than treatment with lisinopril only at two months (P=0.03). CONCLUSION: Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with ACE inhibitors and AT1 receptor blockers produces a beneficial antiproteinuric effect that could not be explained only by the systemic blood pressure reduction. All treatments were well tolerated.  (+info)

*Angiotensin II receptor blocker

Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists , AT1 receptor antagonists or ... They block the activation of AT1 receptors, preventing the binding of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are used ... In a study comparing beta-blocker carvedilol with valsartan, the angiotensin II receptor blocker not only had no deleterious ...

*Angiotensin II receptor type 1

... angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are associated with fewer traumatic stress symptoms ... The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in turn couples to ... Angiotensin II receptor type 1 has been shown to interact with Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 16. The protein's ... "Entrez Gene: AGTR1 angiotensin II receptor, type 1". Senbonmatsu T, Saito T, Landon EJ, Watanabe O, Price E, Roberts RL, ...

*Pathophysiology of heart failure

May 2007). "Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker attenuates myocardial remodeling and preserves diastolic function in ... December 2005). "Increased gene expression of collagen Types I and III is inhibited by beta-receptor blockade in patients with ... usually with a pharmacological agent that slows down AV conduction such as a calcium channel blocker or a beta-blocker) is, ... which is a common downstream target of the signal transduction cascade initiated by catecholamines and angiotensin II, and also ...

*Telmisartan

... is an angiotensin II receptor blocker that shows high affinity for the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1), with a ... Telmisartan (INN) /tɛlmɪˈsɑːrtən/ is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (angiotensin receptor blocker, ARB) used in the ... "Angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan enhances running endurance of skeletal muscle through activation of the PPAR-δ/AMPK ... Side effects are similar to other angiotensin II receptor antagonists and include tachycardia and bradycardia (fast or slow ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... angiotensin ii type 1 receptor blockers MeSH D27.505.519.170 --- antacids MeSH D27.505.519.186 --- antimetabolites MeSH D27.505 ... calcium channel blockers MeSH D27.505.519.562.374 --- ionophores MeSH D27.505.519.562.500 --- potassium channel blockers MeSH ... estrogen receptor modulators MeSH D27.505.696.399.450.360.315 --- estrogen antagonists MeSH D27.505.696.399.450.360.315.300 ... sodium channel blockers MeSH D27.505.954.411.793 --- vasoconstrictor agents MeSH D27.505.954.411.793.205 --- calcium channel ...

*Discovery and development of angiotensin receptor blockers

"The distribution of angiotensin II type 1 receptors, and the tissue renin-angiotensin systems" (PDF), Molecular Medicine Today ... The angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), also called angiotensin (AT1) receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of ... no matter how high the concentration of Ang II is. The angiotensin receptor blockers can inhibit the receptor in a competitive ... the main focus was on angiotensin peptide analogues. Saralasin and other Ang II analogues were potent Ang II receptor blockers ...

*Angiotensin (1-7)

... expression whereas Angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonists increase its expression. This pharmacological interplay between ... Ang II and AT1 blockers favors Ang (1-7) formation. Santos, R. A. S.; Ferreira, A. J.; Verano-Braga, T.; Bader, M. (23 October ... binds and activates the G-protein coupled receptor Mass receptor leading to opposite effects of those of Ang II. Action of the ... neprilysin on Angiotensin I. Action of the Prolyl endopeptidase on Angiotensin I. Action of the ACE on Angiotensin 1-9. Action ...

*Fimasartan

Through oral administration, fimasartan blocks angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 receptors), reducing pro-hypertensive ... Klabunde, Richard E. Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs).CV Pharmacology. N.p., 15 Mar. 2007. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. Neal, B., ... Remodeling and Improved Survival After Myocardial Infarction Angiotensin II Type 1A Receptor Knockout Mice Display Less Left ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) then catalyzes the reaction that forms angiotensin II, which acts on AT1 receptors on the ...

*Forasartan

... is a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB, AT1 receptor blocker). Forasartan is indicated for the treatment of ... Naik, P; Murumkar P (2010). "Angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) selective nonpeptidic antagonists-A perspective". Bioorganic ... "an Orally Active Angiotensin II-Receptor Antagonist: Inhibition of Blood Pressure Response to Angiotensin II Challenges and ... Angiotensin II binds to AT1 receptors, increases contraction of vascular smooth muscle, and stimulates aldosterone resulting in ...

*Calcium channel blocker

ACE inhibitor Angiotensin II receptor antagonist Nitrate Tfelt-Hansen, P; Tfelt-Hansen, J (2009). "Verapamil for cluster ... N-type, L-type, and T-type voltage-dependent calcium channels are present in the zona glomerulosa of the human adrenal, and ... Several types of calcium channels occur, with a number of classes of blockers, but almost all of them preferentially or ... Ziconotide, a peptide compound derived from the omega-conotoxin, is a selective N-type calcium channel blocker that has potent ...

*Diabetes mellitus

"Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers on All-Cause Mortality, Cardiovascular ... Several other groups of drugs, mostly given by mouth, may also decrease blood sugar in type II DM. These include agents that ... improve outcomes in those with DM while the similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not. Aspirin is also ... Weight loss surgery in those with obesity and type two diabetes is often an effective measure. Many are able to maintain normal ...

*Antagonism (chemistry)

Kalaitzidis, R; Bakris, G. L. (2009). "Effects of angiotensin II receptor blockers on diabetic nephropathy". Journal of ... "Renoprotective Effect of the Angioplasty-Receptor Antagonist Irbesartan in Patients with Nephropathy Due to Type 2 Diabetes". ... For example, not only do angiotensin receptor blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors work to lower blood ... For instance, a receptor antagonist is an agent that reduces the response that a ligand produces when the receptor antagonist ...

*Corneal neovascularization

Some evidence exists to suggest that the Angiotensin II receptor blocker drug telmisartan will prevent corneal ... "Inhibition of Corneal Neovascularization by Blocking the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual ... 8 (1): 182. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Usui, T.; Sugisaki, K.; Iriyama, A.; Yokoo, S.; Yamagami, S.; Nagai ... This is especially true of lenses made with older hydrogel materials such as HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) for both daily ...

*Losartan

... is a selective, competitive angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonist, reducing the end organ responses to ... Discovery and development of angiotensin receptor blockers "Losartan Potassium". The American Society of Health-System ... It is in the angiotensin II receptor antagonist family of medication and works by blocking angiotensin II. Losartan was ... As with all angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonists, losartan is used to treatment hypertension. It may also delay ...

*Sacubitril/valsartan

Valsartan blocks the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1). This receptor is found on both vascular smooth muscle cells, and on ... Sacubitril/valsartan can be used instead of an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker in people with heart failure ... Changing 100 people from an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor antagonist to sacubitril/valsartan for 2.3 years would ... It consists of the neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril and the angiotensin receptor blocker, valsartan, in a 1:1 mixture by ...

*Antihypertensive drug

... angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), and beta blockers. Which type of medication to use initially for hypertension has ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonists work by antagonizing the activation of angiotensin receptors. azilsartan candesartan ... thiazide-type diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor antagonists. The largest study, ... On the other hand, β-blockers, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone receptor antagonists ...

*Polycystic kidney disease

Hypertension is treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). ... PKD is a general term for two types, each having their own pathology and genetic cause: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney ... PKD is a general term for two types, each having their own pathology and genetic cause: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney ... is the lesser common of the two types of PKD, with an incidence of 1:20,000 live births and is typically identified in the ...

*Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy

... or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) along with symptomatic management with diuretics. Beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors ... In patients with TIC due to other types of SVT, RF catheter ablation is recommended as a first-line treatment. In patients with ... The treatment of heart failure commonly involves neurohormonal blockade with beta-blockers and angiotensin convertase ... The types of SVT associated with TIC include atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, incessant atrial tachycardia, permanent ...

*Renin-angiotensin system

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers, can be used to prevent angiotensin II from ... Emphasis on Blockade of the Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor". Medscape Cardiology. 9 (2). Paul M, Poyan Mehr A, Kreutz R (July ... The decapeptide is known as angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is then converted to an octapeptide, angiotensin II by angiotensin- ... Angiotensin II is the major bioactive product of the renin-angiotensin system, binding to receptors on intraglomerular ...

*Ramipril

... was found to have similar results as telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ... Remuzzi, Giuseppe (April 2006). "Prevention and Treatment of Diabetic Renal Disease in Type 2 Diabetes: The BENEDICT Study". ... thereby lowering the production of angiotensin II and decreasing the breakdown of bradykinin. The decrease in angiotensin II ... Ramipril, sold under the brand name Altace among others, is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, used to treat ...

*Alzheimer's disease research

Those patients taking angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were 35-40% less likely to develop AD than those using other anti- ... Phase II results indicate that it is the first therapy that has success in modifying the course of disease in mild to moderate ... Wozniak M, Mee A, Itzhaki R (2008). "Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA is located within Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaques". J ... "Angiotensin receptor blockers are lower incidence, progression of Alzheimer's disease" Choi Y, Kim HS, Shin KY, et al. ( ...

*Fostamatinib

... have been treated with an Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and/or an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker (ARB) for at ... mixed type AIHA, or paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. Fostamatinib as a treatment for IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is in Phase II ... A phase II study of rheumatoid arthritis patients failing to respond to a biologic agent showed little efficacy as compared to ... When FcγRs I, IIA, and IIIA bind to their ligands, the receptor complex becomes activated and triggers the phosphorylation of ...

*Valsartan

It is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (commonly called an ARB, or angiotensin receptor blocker), that is selective for ... The drug binds to angiotensin type I receptors (AT1), working as an antagonist. This mechanism of action is different than that ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonist Discovery and development of angiotensin receptor blockers Valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide ... As valsartan acts at the receptor, it can provide more complete angiotensin II antagonism since angiotensin II is generated by ...

*Hyperkalemia

Examples of medications that can cause hyperkalemia include ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, and ... pseudohypoaldosteronism type II) ("familial hypertension with hyperkalemia"), a rare genetic disorder caused by defective ... Therefore, beta blockers can raise potassium levels by blocking beta-2 receptors. However, the rise in potassium levels is not ... Examples of drugs that can raise the serum potassium are non-selective beta-blockers such as propanolol and labetalol. Beta-1 ...

*Alström syndrome

Heart medications: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, diuretics, digoxin, and beta-blockers may help with the ... The likelihood of two carrier parents both passing the gene and therefore having a child affected by the syndrome is 25% with ... It has a role in the proper function, maintenance, and formation of cilia which are found in all types of cells in the body. ... Some of the types of genetic testing are molecular, biochemical, and chromosomal. Other laboratory tests performed may measure ...

*Pharmaceutical industry

... beta blockers (ICI Pharmaceuticals, 1964) ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers. ACE inhibitors reduce the risk of ... Phase II can include pharmacokinetics and dosing in patients, and Phase III is a very large study of efficacy in the intended ... By the 1890s, the profound effect of adrenal extracts on many different tissue types had been discovered, setting off a search ... US congress signed into law a bill which requires phase II and phase III clinical trials to be registered by the sponsor on the ...
This study is a multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind randomized clinical trial. The design scheme is depicted in Figure 1. (see below). At the time of screening, all pentoxifylline-naïve participants must have been receiving angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) per day for no less than 8 weeks and have stable renal function with serum creatinine elevation , 25% in the preceding 8 weeks. For patients taking maximal dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) for more than 8 weeks, randomization will be started after recruitment. For patients taking submaximal, fixed dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB)for ≥ 8 weeks, with good BP(blood pressure), i.e., ≤ 130/80 mmHg, randomization can also be started after recruitment. However, for patients taking submaximal dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) with suboptimal BP, i.e., ?130/80 mmHg, patients can be recruited but will not be randomized until the dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) has been fixed for ≥ 8 weeks, or a ...
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists , AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin-angiotensin system. Their main uses are in the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage due to diabetes) and congestive heart failure. They block the activation of AT1 receptors, preventing the binding of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are used primarily for the treatment of hypertension where the patient is intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy. They do not inhibit the breakdown of bradykinin or other kinins, and are thus only rarely associated with the persistent dry cough and/or angioedema that limit ACE inhibitor therapy.[citation needed] More recently, they have been used for the treatment of heart failure in patients intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy, in particular candesartan. Irbesartan and losartan have trial data showing benefit in ...
Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Angiotensin receptor blocker such as losartan, candensartan and valsartan are useful in treating patient with congestive heart failure and hypertension. Angiotensin receptor blocker will act by binding and blocking angioten
Background; Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) is being extensively used to control hypertension. But, there have been limited data whether ARB is associated with increased incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose intolerance (IGT).. Methods; We investigated total 13,561 patients (pts) that was glycerate hemoglobin level , 6.0% and fasting glucose level , 124 mg/dL (ARB therapy group=3421 and control group=9808) from January 2004 to February 2012. To adjust potential confounders, a propensity score matched analysis was performed using the logistic regression model. The primary end-point was the cumulative incidence of new-onset DM, IGT, and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Also, multivariable cox-regression analysis by adjusted by aforementioned variables was performed to determine the impact of statin therapy on the incidence of new-onset DM, IGT, and IFG.. Results; Mean follow-up duration was 534±604 days in all-pt group, and 608±607 days in propensity score matching ...
The study aims to investigate the effect of acute angiotensin receptor blockade on insulin action/insulin resistance and expressions of selected adipocytokines in subcutaneous adipose tissue in insulin-resistant subjects with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls.. Hypothesis: Changes in adipocytokine concentrations and/or expressions and different reactions to acute in vivo induced hyperinsulinemia and angiotensin receptor blockade will be found in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy subjects. A significant relationships between insulin sensitivity and selected adipokines and intracellular fat content and high energy phosphates in soleus muscle will be documented in healthy individuals, while no significant relation will be found in patients with type 2 diabetes. ...
Two recent trials of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) were performed in children 0-5 years of age. Data from the published reports of these trials together with additional information from the sponsoring drug companies were obtained. Three deaths occurred in the 183 (1.6%) hypertensive children participating in the two trials. At least two of these deaths occurred in children known to be susceptible to drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system, that is, children with ongoing nephrotic syndrome and acute gastroenteritis. Clinicians who prescribe ARBs in preschool children need to be aware of the risk of drug toxicity especially in children susceptible to intravascular dehydration. Clinicians should consider discontinuing the drugs in the presence of acute diarrhoea.. ...
Learn about the drug Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs). Includes generic and brand name examples, dosage, how the drug works, why it is used and side effects.
Cheng J, Zhang W, Zhang X, et al. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174:773-85. 24687000 ...
OGIHARA Toshio , SARUTA Takao , SHIMAMOTO Kazuaki , MATSUOKA Hiroaki , RAKUGI Hiromi Hypertension research : clinical and experimental : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 31(2), 281-287, 2008-02-01 医中誌Web 参考文献36件 被引用文献2件 ...
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) act as antagonists of the AngiotensinII Type1 receptor (AT2R1) [Swiss-Prot:P30556], and were designed to treat moderate hypertension. Although ARBs have been marketed for nearly a decade, their mode of action is not fully understood, and debate still rages whether Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) or ARBs are superior at reducing ultimate mortality due to cardiovascular dysfunction.. An editorial in the New England Journal of Medicine concluded [1]:. "in two recently reported clinical trials in which the investigators were allowed to increase the dose of Losartan gradually to 100 mg per day, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of heart failure among high-risk patients; this finding raises the important question of whether higher doses of Losartan might have been more effective in reducing the rates of cardiovascular events" Yet in-vitro studies [2] have shown that the ARBs produce an efficient and total blockade of the Angiotensin ...
A randomized controlled study to compare the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (telmisartan vs candesartan vs valsartan) on the markers of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ...
Angiotensin receptor blockers for the reduction of proteinuria in diabetic patients with overt nephropathy: results from the AMADEO study Prasad Bichu1, Ravi Nistala1, Asma Khan2, James R Sowers2, Adam Whaley-Connell11Divisions of Nephrology and Endocrinology; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia Missouri, USAAbstract: Diabetic kidney disease is characterized by persistent albuminuria (>300 mg/dl or >200 μg/min) that is confirmed on at least 2 occasions 3 to 6 months apart, with a progressive decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), elevated arterial blood pressure, and an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) prompting investigators to evaluate mechanisms by which to slow disease progression. One such mechanism is to block the activity of angiotensin II at the receptor site and agents that follow this mechanism are referred to as
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, specifically angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), have confirmed renoprotective benefits in patients with proteinuria and hypertension. However, it remains controversial whether these agents are beneficial to kidney recipients. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of ACEI/ARB treatment on patient and allograft survival after kidney transplant. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible articles from before May 2016, and we included 24 articles (9 randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and 15 cohort studies with 54,096 patients), in which patient or graft survival was compared between an ACEI/ARB treatment arm and a control arm ...
Angiotensin receptor blocker shield blood vessels from angiotensin II, which result in relaxed blood vessels and thus lower blood pressure.
In this systematic review, we identified a significantly increased risk of hyperkalaemia among people prescribed aliskiren (Rasilez; Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Switzerland) in combination with an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker compared with those prescribed monotherapy using aliskiren, an ACE inhibitor, or angiotensin receptor blocker. This risk was about 50% greater in those prescribed combination therapy than among those receiving ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blocker monotherapy, and was about 70% greater in those prescribed combination therapy than among those receiving aliskiren monotherapy. We found no evidence of a significant difference in the risk of acute kidney injury between the study groups.. To date, no published systematic reviews or meta-analyses have evaluated the safety of combination therapy with aliskiren and ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Previously published pooled analyses of the safety of aliskiren have provided discordant ...
Receptor Blockers - MedHelps Receptor Blockers Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Receptor Blockers. Find Receptor Blockers information, treatments for Receptor Blockers and Receptor Blockers symptoms.
We observed that two months of candesartan therapy significantly improved the percent flow-mediated dilator response to hyperemia and reduced levels of oxidant stress and inflammatory and impaired fibrinolysis markers in hypertensive patients, independent of lipoprotein and BP changes.. Our finding of improved endothelium-dependent vasomotor responsiveness is consistent with other groups results (23-25). Thus, Schiffrin et al. (24)demonstrated that, in contrast with atenolol, losartan corrected endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension, and Ghiadoni et al. (25)also demonstrated similar improvement in endothelial function with candesartan. We reasoned that candesartan might improve endothelium-dependent vasomotor responsiveness by reducing oxidant stress and augmenting NO bioactivity, considering that AII is a potent vasoconstrictor that also promotes oxidant stress. We observed that two months of candesartan therapy significantly reduced plasma levels of MDA, compared with ...
The guidelines above are for the general population, but seniors health needs and benchmarks differ from those of younger individuals in many ways. While 130/80 mmHg is the generic threshold for beginning BP medications, there have been many disagreements among medical professionals regarding the threshold for older adults. Age, frailty and other comorbidities like diabetes and chronic kidney disease complicate this matter even further.. The Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) issued guidelines in 2013 recommending that individuals over age 60 aim for a reading below 150/90 mmHg. The JNC 8 recommendation for patients of any age with diabetes or chronic kidney disease is to aim for BP readings below 140/90 mmHg. These are not hard and fast rules, though, because each seniors health needs are unique.. "The JNC 8 guidelines support what we geriatricians have believed for quite some time: many older adults are taking too much BP medication," says Dr. Leslie Kernisan, M.D., M.P.H. In addition ...
The FDA has approved azilsartan medoxomil (Edarbi), an oral angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) for hypertension, expanding the ranks of ARBs now available to U.S. patients.
This large population based study is the first to use data from routine clinical care to examine long term outcomes associated with changes in renal function after the start of ACEI/ARB treatment. It represents an important complement to clinical trials, the participants of which may not be representative of treated patients in clinical practice.6 The studys size and long follow-up also permitted examination of a full range of outcomes, beyond those evaluated in individual clinical trials. Importantly, this is the first study to examine the association with end stage renal disease, as clinical trials are rarely powered to examine this outcome.. Patients who had a greater fall in renal function after starting ACEI/ARB treatment had a higher proportion of comorbidities and concurrent drugs that are themselves associated with adverse renal outcomes. However, our findings were robust after adjustment for a range of potential confounders, including comorbidity, co-medication use, lifestyle factors, ...
The increasing burden on health care providers from chronic kidney disease (CKD) is due to the escalating prevalence of obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The gradual decline in kidney function in the presence of these risk factors is also as
The Food and Drugs Administration has completed a safety review of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) after they were linked with an increased risk of cancer.. This review of 31 randomised clinical trials involving almost 156,000 participants, of whom 84,461 were treated with an ARB, found no increased risk. The review analysed the data for new cancer cases, cancer-related death, breast cancer, lung cancer and prostate cancer. There was no increase in risk for any of these outcomes.. Action: Clinicians and patients can be reassured by this safety review. It is important to note that the overall evidence still places ARBs are still second line to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). ...
Chaoiya, C.; Berenguier, D.; Keating, S. M.; Naldi, A.; van Iersel, M. P.; Rodriguez, N.; Dräger, A.; Büchel, F.; Cokelaer, T.; Kowal, B. et al.; Wicks, B.; Gonçalves, E.; Dorier, J.; Page, M.; Monteiro, P. T.; Kamp von, A.; Xenarius , I.; de Jong, H.; Hucka, M.; Klamt, S.; Thieffrey, D.; Le Novère, N.; Saez-Rodriguez, J.; Helikar, T.: SBML qualitative models: a model representation format and infrastructure to foster interactions between qualitative modelling formlisms and tools. BMC Systems Biology 7, p. 135 (2013 ...
ACE inhibitors reduce the production of the enzyme angiotensin, which makes blood vessels constrict.Healthy Food: Top Blood Thinning Foods Before we begin mentioning blood thinning foods, there is a major thumb rule that should not be ignored.Blood clots stop the flow of blood to the heart, lungs, or brain and can cause a.. ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).The foods you choose to eat can affect your heart health in many ways. If you are on warfarin or another blood-thinning medication ...
Riva-Irbesartan: Irbesartan belongs to a family of medicines known as angiotensin II receptor blockers. These medicines are used to lower high blood pressure and work by relaxing blood vessels. Irbesartan is used to lower blood pressure and decrease the rate of the progression of kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Several recent clinical trials have demonstrated that angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have cardiovascular as well as renal protective effects. However, it is a problem that the number of Asian patients is very little in these trials. The researchers examine the treatment meaning by ARB about the prognosis of the patient who amalgamates either among high blood pressure, the ischemic heart disease, and congestive heart failures. ...
The new on this front at the European Society of Hypertension meeting in Oslo last week was that the addition of the VALUE data to the analysis removed the over-prevalence of new diagnosis cancers. Of related interest is that both beta-blockers and calcium-antagonists went through episodes when they were though to cause cancer, but where more data and more rigorous analysis disproved this. This is probably what we are facing with ARBs too, but that will of course take more data and more analysis. As of today, there is no indication to stop ARB treatment for fear of cancer.. ReplyDelete ...
Septa-Losartan: Losartan belongs to a family of medications known as angiotensin II receptor blockers. These medications are used in adults and children over the age of six to lower mild-to-moderate hypertension (high blood pressure).
Can you pick the Adrenergic Receptor Blockers Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by poorvichhabra
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists (or blockers) are a newer class of antihypertensive agents. These drugs are selective for angiotensin II (type 1 receptor); unlike angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, they do not inhibit bradykinin metabolism or enhance prostaglandin synthesis. Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are well tolerated. Cough occurs much less often with these agents than with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and they do not adversely affect lipid profiles or cause rebound hypertension after discontinuation. Clinical trials indicate that angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are effective and safe in the treatment of hypertension. Their use in congestive heart failure and renal disease is under investigation.
Reduce the impact of angiotensin II receptor blocker drugs recalls on your patients by switching them from ARB to other appropriate drug therapies.
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists work in a similar way to ACE inhibitors. But instead of stopping the production of angiotensin II, they block its action. This allows the blood vessels to expand, improving blood flow and reducing blood pressure. Angiotensin II is a very potent chemical that causes muscles surrounding blood vessels to contract, thereby narrowing blood vessels. This narrowing increases the pressure within the vessels and can cause high blood pressure (hypertension). Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are medications that block the action of angiotensin II by preventing angiotensin II from binding to angiotensin II receptors on blood vessels. As a result, blood vessels enlarge (dilate) and blood pressure is reduced. Reduced blood pressure makes it easier for the heart to pump blood and can improve heart failure. In addition, the progression of kidney disease due to high blood pressure or diabetes is slowed. ARBs have effects that are similar to angiotensin converting enzyme ...
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, specifically angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), have confirmed renoprotective benefits in patients with proteinuria and hypertension. However, it remains controversial whether these agents are beneficial to kidney recipients. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of ACEI/ARB treatment on patient and allograft survival after kidney transplant. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible articles from before May 2016, and we included 24 articles (9 randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and 15 cohort studies with 54,096 patients), in which patient or graft survival was compared between an ACEI/ARB treatment arm and a control arm ...
Initial studies suggested that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and (possibly) aldosterone antagonists might either prevent new onset and recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) or reduce the rate of ma
ACE inhibitors reduce the production of the enzyme angiotensin, which makes blood vessels constrict. ACE inhibitors allow blood vessels to expand so that blood can flow more easily and the heart can work more efficiently. Examples of commonly prescribed ACE inhibitors are benazepril, captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, and others.. Angiotensin II receptor blockers block the effects of angiotensin, preventing it from affecting the heart and blood vessels. Examples of angiotensin II receptor blockers are candesartan, losartan, telmisartan, valsartan, and others.. Pregnant women should not take ACE inhibitors or ARBs. These medicines can cause a risk of birth defects. If you have high blood pressure and plan to become pregnant or are pregnant, contact your healthcare provider right away.. ...
Accumulated evidence suggests that an altered ambulatory blood pressure (BP) profile, particularly elevated nighttime BP, reflects target organ injury and is a better predictor of further cardiorenal risk than the clinic BP or daytime BP in hypertens
Choice of angiotensin receptor blocker affects mortality in heart failure - analysis of 5823 patients in the swedish heart failure registry in EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, vol 31, issue , pp 848-848 ...
Any medication that lowers blood pressure can cause dizziness. Frequent dizziness or lightheadedness may be an indication that your blood pressure is too low. If this occurs, you should speak with your doctor. You may find that changing positions slowly (such as going from lying down to standing up) may minimize dizziness. In very rare cases, patients receiving this class of medication have developed swelling of the lips, tongue, or face. You should contact your physician immediately if you experience any facial swelling or trouble breathing. You should also notify your physician if you have experienced facial swelling or difficulty breathing with any other medications in the past.. In some susceptible individuals, angiotensin receptor blockers can cause increases in potassium and changes in kidney function. To monitor for these side effects, your doctor may do routine blood work. Many patients with high blood pressure are told to minimize their use of sodium. Some of these patients use salt ...
Looks at ARB medicines used to treat high blood pressure. Lists generic and brand names such as candesartan (Atacand) and irbesartan (Avapro). Covers how well they work and possible side effects. Warns against pregnant women taking ARBs. State of Nebraska, Nebraska
Looks at ARB medicines used to treat high blood pressure. Lists generic and brand names such as candesartan (Atacand) and irbesartan (Avapro). Covers how well they work and possible side effects. Warns against pregnant women taking ARBs. New Mexico, New Mexico
Abstract of Paper: Effect Of Angiotensin-II Receptor Blockade On Experimental Portal hypertension In Rabbits , Author: Sherif w. Mansour, Mohamed Abd El Homed and Mohamed Adel El-Sayed * , Year: 2003 , Faculty of Medicine, Benha University
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS ...
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2,177例の参加者を対象とした4件のRCTが選択基準を満たした。これらのうち、3件はACEiをプラセボと比較し、1件はACEiをARBと比較していた。2件の研究は全体的に低バイアスリスクであり、他の2件のバイアスリスクは中等度から高度と考えられた。質が低~中等度のエビデンス(1,906例の患者を対象とした2件の研究による)では、ステージ3のCKD患者における総死亡(RR 1.80、95%CI 0.17~19.27、P = 0.63)および心血管系イベント(RR 0.87、95%CI 0.66~1.14、P = 0.31)に対しACEiによる影響はないと示唆された。総死亡では、結果にかなりの異質性を認めた。1件の研究(質評価:バイアス低リスク)では、ACEi投与を受けたeGFR , 45 mL/min/1.74 m2の患者において、プラセボに比べて末期腎疾患リスクに差はみられなかった(RR 1.00、95%CI 0.09~1.11、P = ...
Learn more about Olmesartan to Lower Blood Pressure at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker used for the treatment of ...
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We thank Koh and Quon1 for their interest in our article2 and thoughtful feedback. They have discussed the interesting scientific rational for recommending the combination of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α or PPAR-γ and angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs) to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. We agree with Koh and Quon,1 particularly that the combination of candesartan with pioglitazone may be a promising therapeutic strategy for coronary heart disease in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.. Previously, we have found that candesartan, independent of blood pressure, prevents stroke in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat by ameliorating reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-mediated oxidative stress.3 Furthermore, we have shown recently that pioglitazone also directly prevents stroke in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat via the similar mechanisms to candesartan.4 Thus, the reduction ...
Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Olmesartan keeps blood vessels from narrowing, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow. Olmesartan is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) in adults and children who are at least 6 years old. It is sometimes given together with other blood...
Nineteen controlled trials with 31,569 patients were included in the review.. Agreement on study inclusion, as measured by the kappa statistic, was 0.75. There was no evidence of publication bias.. Nine trials received the maximum quality score of 5. Allocation concealment was adequate in 8trials. With the exception of one trial, treatment was randomised. Blinding of the participants was achieved in all 19 trials, investigators in 17 trials and outcome assessors in 18. Intention-to-treat analysis was used in 15 trials.. ARBs did not lead to a statistically significant increase in the risk of MI when compared with placebo (OR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.16), based on 11 trials (n=21,062). However statistically significant heterogeneity was noted. When compared with ACE inhibitors, the OR was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.16), based on 9 trials (n=10,625). The OPTIMAAL trial of losartan versus captopril in patients with recent MI or ischaemic syndrome accounted for 86.8% of the weighted OR. Analyses using the ...
MONDAY, Jan. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Newer blood pressure drugs are as safe and effective as older medications, new research suggests.. Scientists at the NYU Langone Medical Center in New York City said their findings settle a longstanding debate about which of two types blood-pressure lowering medications studied are better.. An analysis of 106 randomized trials involving more than 250,000 patients examined the effects of newer angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and older angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Although ACE inhibitors were developed 10 years earlier, both types of drugs showed similar effects in the analysis, challenging previous findings that suggest ACE inhibitors have greater benefits.. According to the new analysis, published online Jan. 4 in the Mayo Clinic Proceedings, the only difference between the medications is that ARBs are more easily tolerated.. "There has been debate for many years over the safety and efficacy of ACE inhibitors compared to ARBs, with ...
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Olvance Contain Olmesartan as active ingredient. It belong to the group of drug called angiotensin II receptor antagonists.Olmesartan keep blood vessel from narrowing & lower blood pressure and improve blood flow.
After two separate studies showed higher-than-expected death rates from cardiovascular problems for patients taking the blood pressure medicine Benicar (olmesartan), the FDA has said the agency will investigate. FDA is evaluating data from two clinical trials in which patients with type 2 diabetes taking the blood pressure medication, Benicar (olmesartan), an angiotensin II receptor blocker ...
-- First and Only Fixed-Dose Combination of a Beta Blocker and Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker for Treatment of Hypertension DUBLIN, June 6, 2016 ...
published in Circulation may revive the debate.. In both articles the authors have conducted reviews of available evidence using different inclusion criteria. One article concludes that MI event risk is increased in ARB users, the other finds no difference between ARB users and control subjects.. The common ground shared by the two papers is that Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) are superior to ARBs. Furthermore, neither paper demonstrated that ARBs actually reduce MI risk; ARBs may not be "ACEIs without a cough".. Action: ACEIs remain the first line drug choice in this class of medicines. ARBs should only be used when ACEIs are not tolerated and in these cases patients should be informed of the differences in MI risk.. ...
Study flow chart. Grey boxes represent study population eligible for stratified analysis (n=139). AAR, area-at-risk; ARBs, angiotensin II receptor blockers; FIS
Various conditions can be treated with the medication captopril, which this eMedTV segment lists. This Web page also provides information on possible side effects and includes a link to a full-length article on this angiotensin II receptor blocker.
ROADMAP is the first-ever, large-scale clinical trial, being conducted in 19 European countries to evaluate whether the angiotensin II receptor blocker (AR
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Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) alone or in combination have similar effects on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with...
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You have mild CKD insofar as your GFR is concerned. Regarding the protein levels in your urine, could you kindly post the units of both measurements as each lab uses different expressions for albuminuria and creatinine around the world, and I want to be sure what we are referring to. If your urinary protein is elevated, but only mildly so, then again, this would fall under the mild CKD category. The priority moving forward would be maintaining a blood pressure of less than 140/90 as an absolute maximum and some authorities would recommend even lower, 130/80. As well, it would be important to maintain urinary proteins in a low range with adequate BP control and possible use of ACE inhibitors or Angiotensin Receptor blockers. Once I know the precise urinary protein measurements, I will have a better handle on the degree to which this is the case at present ...
The use of blood pressure drugs called angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is associated with lower incidence and slower progression of Alzheimer s disease, re
ATLANTA -- Two strategies aimed at preventing cardiovascular events in high-risk patients -- use of an angiotensin receptor blocker or a short-acting insulin secretagogue for five years -- failed to r
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FROM PR NEWSWIRE DALLAS 888-776-3971/. STK. IN HEA PHA MTC. SU PDT. TO BUSINESS, HEALTH, AND MEDICAL EDITORS:. EDARBYCLOR (azilsartan medoxomil and chlorthalidone) Now Available in. U.S. Pharmacies for Patients with Hypertension. DEERFIELD, Ill., and OSAKA, Japan, Feb. 6, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Takeda. Pharmaceutical Company Limited (Takeda) and its wholly-owned. subsidiary, Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc., today announced. EDARBYCLOR (azilsartan medoxomil and chlorthalidone) is now available. by prescription in U.S. pharmacies for the treatment of hypertension. to lower blood pressure in adults. It is the only fixed-dose therapy. in the U.S. to combine an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) with. chlorthalidone in a once-daily, single tablet. In a phase 3 clinical. trial, the systolic blood pressure reductions of the maximum dose of. EDARBYCLOR (40/25 mg), by both clinic and trough 24-hour ambulatory. blood pressure monitoring, were shown to be statistically superior to. those of the ...
In this study, we evaluated and compared the effects of olmesartan and candesartan monotherapy on lipid metabolism and renal function. We found that the reduction of serum TG level in olmesartan users was significantly greater than that in candesartan users, although there were no significant differences in the mean values of all test results between baseline and during the exposure period in both users. These results suggest minimal effects of olmesartan monotherapy on lipid metabolism and renal function, the same as with candesartan monotherapy. The results also suggest that olmesartan monotherapy may have a more beneficial effect on TG metabolism than candesartan monotherapy. Stratified analysis showed the same outcome in patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia as that in the overall population, with a significant reduction of serum TG level in olmesartan users in comparison with candesartan users. These results suggest a more beneficial effect of olmesartan monotherapy on TG metabolism than ...
I recently reviewed a paper that indicated that angiotensin blockade with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) did not protect against the development of diabetic nephropathy in diabetic patients with normal renal function. Despite what that paper concluded angiotensin blockade with and an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor offered protection.. Two papers in the July 7 Annals of Internal Medicine looked at the effect of ARBs in patients with renal disease. The first study included patients with high vascular risk but who did not have microalbuminuria; about a third were diabetic. In these patients the ARB telmisartan had no effect on major renal outcomes.. The second study was of normotensive diabetic patients. Candesartan (another ARB given at a maximum dose of 32 mg daily) did not prevent microalbuminuria in patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. This makes three studies which indicate no salutary renal effect of ARBs.. The clinician is left wondering if ACE inhibitors are ...
Olmesartan Medoxomil is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Olmesartan Medoxomil is available on the Drugs.com website.
Results Compared with baseline value, AngII (0.1μmol/l), Telmisartan (0.01 μmol/l) and AngII plus Telmisartan group significantly decreased the peak density of Ito in SD rat atrial myocytes (22.48±2.75 vs 15.71±2.06 pA/pF, p,0.01), (24.16±2.36 vs 16.15±1.82 pA/pF, p,0.01) and (24.41±2.27 vs 21.35±1.46 pA/pF, p,0.05), respectively. AngII (0.1 μmol/l) significantly increased the peak density of ICa-L in SD rat atrial myocytes (−4.51±0.38 vs −5.16±0.29 pA/pF, p,0.01). Telmisartan (0.01 μmol/l) had no significant effect on ICa-L in the rat atrial myocytes (−4.35±0.27 vs −4.29±0.34 pA/pF, p,0.05), but it could antagonise the effects of AngII. In the Ang IIcombined telmisartan group, the peak density of ICa-L was (−4.08±0.28 vs −4.20±0.31 pA/pF, p,0.05), which was significantly different from that of AngII group (p,0.05).. ...
For ischemic heart disease with refractory angina that cannot be revascularized, Dr. Miller said options include optimizing medical therapy, such as beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, nitrates, ranolazine, allopurinol, L-arginine, opioids, and perhaps some investigational agents (if you can get the patient enrolled in a clinical trial). In this setting, the heart team may include the patients general cardiologist, primary doctor, family, nurses, and perhaps other office staff.. While the medical record may suggest the patient is on appropriate therapy, adherence may be a factor. After MI, a large proportion of patients discontinue use of medications over time. Indeed, by 3 years, more than half of patients in one community-based study had already stopped taking statins, beta-blockers, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers.4. Also, its important to target risk factors through statin therapy, antihypertensives, antiplatelets, smoking cessation, weight ...
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Volume depletion due to persistent glucosuria-induced osmotic diuresis is a significant problem in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM). Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), such as candesartan, slow the progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with DM. However, mice with genetic knockout of components of the renin-angiotensin system have urine concentrating defects, suggesting that ARBs may exacerbate the volume depletion. Therefore, the effect of candesartan on UT-A1, UT-A3, NKCC2, and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) protein abundances was determined in control and 3-wk DM rats. Aldosterone levels in control rats (0.36 ± 0.06 nM) and candesartan-treated rats (0.34 ± 0.14 nM) were the same. DM rats had higher aldosterone levels (1.48 ± 0.37 nM) that were decreased by candesartan (0.97 ± 0.26 nM). Western analysis showed that UT-A1 expression was increased in DM rats compared with controls in inner medullary (IM) tip (158 ± 13%) and base (120 ± 25%). UT-A3 abundance was increased in IM tip ...
Prehypertension: Systolic falls between 120 and 139; diastolic falls between 80 and 89.. Stage 1 High Blood Pressure: Systolic falls between 140 and 159; diastolic falls between 90 and 99.. Stage 2 High Blood Pressure: Systolic is higher than 159; diastolic is higher than 99.. Hypertensive Crisis: Systolic is higher than 180; diastolic is higher than 110. Seek immediate emergency care.. High blood pressure occurs as one of two types: primary, which has no determined cause, and secondary, which means its a symptom of another condition. Whether its primary or secondary, high blood pressure can lead to numerous health issues and must be controlled. Thats where Olmesartan can help.. Technically, Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker, also referred to as ARB. Your body contains a substance that causes your blood vessels to tighten. Olmesartan blocks the substance, and your blood vessels, in turn, relax. With relaxed blood vessels, your blood pressure lowers and your hearts supply of ...
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a fundamental role in cardiovascular pathophysiology. In particular, angiotensin II (AII) has been identified as a culprit in endothelial and vascular damage, elevated blood pressure, and cardiac failure. Pharmacological inhibition of this system is available through two mechanisms; the reduction of AII formation by inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and by direct blockade of the type 1 angiotensin II receptor by angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs ...
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Azilsartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). It works by blocking a substance in the body that causes blood vessels to tighten. As a result, azilsartan relaxes the blood vessels. This lowers blood pressure and increases the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. Chlorthalidone is a thiazide-like diuretic (water pill). It reduces the amount of water in the body by increasing the flow of urine, which helps lower the blood pressure. This medicine is available only with your doctors prescription. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
Our results demonstrate that good adherence to statin in the first 6 months after discharge is associated with subsequent lower incidence of MACE (including all-cause mortality, MI, and stroke) in a large unselected Chinese ACS patient population. This relationship was independent of other treatments which have been shown to be associated with outcomes in ACS such as receipt of coronary interventions, and adherence to antiplatelets, aspirin, beta-blocker, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, as well as other known personal prognostic factors such as age, sex, education level, and cardiovascular risk factors and other hospital level characteristics. In addition, the effect of adherence was not modified by the characteristics of patients such as dose of statins, subtypes of ACS, gender, age, social economic status, etc.. It has been well established that good statin adherence is associated with reduced the risk of MACE and all-cause mortality in the primary ...
This gene encodes a transmembrane protein localized to the plasma membrane and perinuclear vesicular structures. The gene product interacts with the angiotensin II type I receptor and negatively regulates angiotensin II signaling. Alternative splicing of this gene generates multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Results In total, 975 deaths occurred during 1 year follow-up, culminating to 3247 by 11 years. 1-year risk of death was significantly reduced for all drug combinations, but not for drugs dispensed in isolation. Out to 11 years, only combinations of β-blockers and statins (with or without ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACEi/ARB)) provided significant reductions in risk of all-cause mortality. In men, the greatest reduction in risk was associated with being dispensed β-blockers and statins (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.58), whereas women benefited most from being dispensed β-blockers, statins and ACEi/ARBs (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.99).. ...
Irbesartan is also used to treat high blood pressure with diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is a complication of type 2 diabetes which causes the kidneys to not work properly. Irbesartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). It works by blocking a substance in the body that causes blood vessels to tighten. As a result, irbesartan relaxes the blood vessels. This lowers blood pressure and increases the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. This medicine is available only with your doctors prescription. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
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A study presented at ACC.11, the American College of Cardiologys 60th Annual Scientific Session, revealed that administering a combination of aldosterone and angiotensin blockade for 4 months improves endothelial function compared with angiotensin blockade alone in women with signs and symptoms of ischemia and endothelial dysfunction.
Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Olmesartan keeps blood vessels from narrowing, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow. Olmesartan is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) in adults and children who are at least 6 years old. It is sometimes given together with other blood...
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Hypercholesterolemia and an activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are well-established independent cardiovascular risk factors. Several lines of evidence support an important role of modified LDLs and angiotensin II in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Angiotensin II is not only a potent vasoconstrictor, but it also promotes proinflammatory and prothrombotic properties of vascular cells. A growing body of in vitro studies shows the induction of cellular adhesion molecules and cytokines by angiotensin II in endothelial cells.1 In vivo, angiotensin II promotes leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in the microcirculation. This proinflammatory mechanism involves the redox-sensitive mobilization of adhesion molecules such as P-selectin.2,3 These and several additional findings in cell systems and large vessels support a crucial role of the angiotensin II type-1 (AT1) receptor-mediated formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.4,5 ...
B,Accumulating evidence shows that inhibition of the vascular renin-angiotensin system results in suppression of injury-elicited neointima formation. We attempted to determine whether or not combined treatment with an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) has an additive inhibitory effect on balloon-injury-elicited neointima formation in the carotid artery. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an ARB (valsartan: 3 mg/kg/day) and/or an ACEI (benazepril: 0.3 mg/kg/day) from 1 week before until 2 weeks after balloon injury. Experiments were also conducted with one-third of the dose combination used in the original experiments. Both ARB and ACEI inhibited neointima formation without any blood pressure changes. The full-dose combination lowered blood pressure and suppressed neointima formation significantly compared with the levels in the groups treated with either ACEI or ARB alone. The low-dose combination without blood pressure ...
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1-PAGE KEY MESSAGES Background Hypertension increases the risk of developing cardiovascular dis-eases, in particular myocardial infarction and stroke. Several types of drugs lower blood pressure and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) constitute one drug class. These drugs are also found in combination with thiazide diuretics. This report aimed to compare the different drugs within the ARB class with regard to efficacy and safety in patients with hypertension, heart failure and diabetic nephropathy. Method The report is an overview of systematic reviews. We have examined the effect of ARB on clinical endpoints like death, cardiovascular events (myocardial in-farct, stoke) and end stage renal disease. We performed systematic searches in Cochrane Library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, Medline (Ovid) and Embase (Ovid). Results We did not identify systematic reviews where drugs within the ARB class were directly compared. Neither did we find systematic reviews in which the ...
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The pharmacokinetics of amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil from amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil tablets are equivalent to the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil when administered separately. The bioavailability of both components is well below 100%, but neither component is affected by food. The effective half-lives of amlodipine (45 ± 11 hours) and olmesartan (7 ± 1 hours) result in a 2- to 3-fold accumulation for amlodipine and negligible accumulation for olmesartan with once-daily dosing. Amlodipine. After oral administration of therapeutic doses of amlodipine, absorption produces peak plasma concentrations between 6 and 12 hours. Absolute bioavailability is estimated as between 64% and 90%. Olmesartan medoxomil. Olmesartan medoxomil is rapidly and completely bioactivated by ester hydrolysis to olmesartan during absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. The absolute bioavailability of olmesartan medoxomil is approximately 26%. After oral administration, the peak ...
Olmesartan medoxomil. Olmesartan was not carcinogenic when administered by dietary administration to rats for up to 2 years. The highest dose tested (2000 mg/kg/day) was, on a mg/m 2 basis, about 480 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 40 mg/day. Two carcinogenicity studies conducted in mice, a 6-month gavage study in the p53 knockout mouse and a 6-month dietary administration study in the Hras2 transgenic mouse, at doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day (about 120 times the MRHD), revealed no evidence of a carcinogenic effect of olmesartan. Both olmesartan medoxomil and olmesartan tested negative in the in vitro Syrian hamster embryo cell transformation assay and showed no evidence of genetic toxicity in the Ames (bacterial mutagenicity) test. However, both were shown to induce chromosomal aberrations in cultured cells in vitro (Chinese hamster lung) and tested positive for thymidine kinase mutations in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay. Olmesartan medoxomil tested negative in vivo for ...
Angiotensin II receptor type 1 or AT1 receptor is the best characterized angiotensin receptor. It has vasopressor effects and regulates aldosterone secretion. It is an important effector controlling blood pressure and volume in the cardiovascular system. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists are drugs indicated for hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and congestive heart failure. The AT1 receptor mediates the major cardiovascular effects of angiotensin II. Effects include vasoconstriction, aldosterone synthesis and secretion, increased vasopressin secretion, cardiac hypertrophy, augmentation of peripheral noradrenergic activity, vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation, decreased renal blood flow, renal renin inhibition, renal tubular sodium reuptake, modulation of central sympathetic nervous system activity, cardiac contractility, central osmocontrol and extracellular matrix formation. The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in ...
Angiotensin II exerts positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on the mammalian heart by binding to specific membrane receptors. Recently, two subtypes of angiotensin II receptors (AT1 and AT2) have been distinguished by using the nonpeptide antagonists losartan (previously known as DuP 753) and PD123177. To evaluate the tissue distribution and subtypes of angiotensin II receptors in rat heart, we performed a 125I-[Sar1,Ile8]angiotensin II in situ binding assay on tissue sections obtained from adult Sprague-Dawley rats (10 and 14 weeks old). Binding specificity was verified by competition with unlabeled [Sar1]angiotensin II. Distribution of AT1 and AT2 receptors was determined by competition with losartan and PD123177, respectively, and the density of the receptors was quantified by emulsion autoradiography. Angiotensin II receptors were widely distributed throughout the heart, with each receptor subtype accounting for approximately 50% of the specific binding. Binding density was comparable ...
The meta-analysis by Etminan and colleagues addresses an interesting question. Do angiotensin II receptor antagonists, similar to β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (1, 2), reduce the frequency of headaches in patients with hypertension? The pooled results show a reduction in headache frequency with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. The findings should be interpreted with caution, however, because headache was not the primary outcome in any of the individual studies; the angiotensin II receptor antagonists chosen were not standardized; doses were not equivalent; and the definitions and types of headaches were not specified. Did the patients in these studies have tension headaches, migraine headaches, nasosinus headaches, or cluster headaches? Meta-analysis of secondary study endpoints should be considered hypothesis-generating, and the authors rightly call for a clinical trial to confirm the findings of this meta-analysis. The mechanism of ...
Indirect evidence has implicated a role for central angiotensin II in blood pressure control. To answer directly the question of whether angiotensin II exists in the brain, independent of blood-borne angiotensin, and to quantify the amounts in different parts of the central nervous system, a sensitive radioimmunoassay was used to measure extracts of male adult rat brain hypothalamus and cortex after purification with high pressure liquid chromatography with a high recovery. The fractions coeluted with authentic angiotensin. Rats were nephrectomized bilaterally, and 24 hours later the brains were extracted in acetic acid and boiled. SepPak C-18 purification preceded reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography. High pressure liquid chromatography revealed two peaks, one which comigrated precisely with [Ile5] angiotensin II, and another smaller peak which overlapped with [Ile5] angiotensin III. The highest levels were found in the hypothalamus (125 pg/g tissue), pituitary (190 pg/g tissue), ...
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Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. - Semantic ScholarAngiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. - Semantic Scholar

3-9 With saralasin, it became possible to demonstrate that angiotensin II receptor blockade, alone or in combination with salt ... angiotensin II-like effects. The next major breakthrough in the understanding of the renin-angiotensin system was triggered by ... a nonselective peptidic antagonist of angiotensin II receptors. ... heart failure by a specific blockade of the renin-angiotensin ... the development of orally active angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.10-15 Studies performed with these agents ...
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The angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker olmesartan preferentially improves nocturnal hypertension and proteinuria in chronic...The angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker olmesartan preferentially improves nocturnal hypertension and proteinuria in chronic...

The angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker olmesartan preferentially improves nocturnal hypertension and proteinuria in chronic ... an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), on ambulatory BP profiles and renal function in hypertensive CKD patients. ... 1.50±1.37, P=0.005; urinary type IV collagen excretion, 0.87±0.42 vs. 1.48±0.87, P=0.014) despite comparable A/B ratios for the ... Furthermore, the A/B ratios of urinary protein, albumin and type IV collagen excretion in the olmesartan add-on group were ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/angiotensin-II-type-1-receptor/23154587.html

Randomized trial of an increased dose of calcium channel blocker or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker as an add-on...Randomized trial of an increased dose of calcium channel blocker or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker as an add-on...

... a lack of data on how to treat hypertensive patients with diabetes when treatment with medium doses of calcium channel blocker ... and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) is... ... combined with angiotensin II receptor blocker in type 2 ... Randomized trial of an increased dose of calcium channel blocker or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker as an add-on ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker Calcium channel blocker Essential Hypertension Home blood pressure Type 2 diabetes ...
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Class- and Molecule-specific Differential Effects of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers | Bentham ScienceClass- and Molecule-specific Differential Effects of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers | Bentham Science

Keywords: Angiotensin II type receptor blocker, cardiovascular disease, molecular structures, class-specific effects, molecule- ... Keywords:Angiotensin II type receptor blocker, cardiovascular disease, molecular structures, class-specific effects, molecule- ... Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and contains 359 amino ... Abstract:Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and contains ...
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Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers lower IOP in mice and reduce TGFβ signaling in retinal ganglion cells | IOVS | ARVO...Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers lower IOP in mice and reduce TGFβ signaling in retinal ganglion cells | IOVS | ARVO...

Purpose : Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) are commonly used to treat systemic hypertension. In addition to ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers lower IOP in mice and reduce TGFβ signaling in retinal ganglion cells ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers lower IOP in mice and reduce TGFβ signaling in retinal ganglion cells ... Ralph J Hazlewood, John Kuchtey, Rachel W Kuchtey; Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers lower IOP in mice and reduce TGFβ ...
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Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers | Circulation- stonel.infoAngiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers | Circulation- stonel.info

Angiotensin II receptors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Pharmacol Rev.1993;45:205-251.Medline ... An elective-titration study of the comparative effectiveness of two angiotensin II-receptor blockers irbesartan and losartan. ... Angiotensin II type 1a receptor-deficient mice with hypotension and hyperreninemia. J Biol Chem.1995;270:18719-18722.Crossref ... Blood pressure effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker, losartan. Arch Intern Med.1995;155:405-411.CrossrefMedline ...
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        Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers,  Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors,  ATC:C09CA07Altex - Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, ATC:C09CA07

Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I in a reaction catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, kininase II). ... Angiotensin II is the principal pressor agent of the renin-angiotensin system, with effects that include vasoconstriction, ... Telmisartan is an orally active nonpeptide angiotensin II antagonist that acts on the AT1 receptor subtype. New studies suggest ... Telmisartan works by blocking the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone secretory effects of angiotensin II. ...
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Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I in a reaction catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, kininase II). ... Angiotensin II is the principal pressor agent of the renin-angiotensin system, with effects that include vasoconstriction, ... Telmisartan is an orally active nonpeptide angiotensin II antagonist that acts on the AT1 receptor subtype. New studies suggest ... Telmisartan works by blocking the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone secretory effects of angiotensin II. ...
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The Impact of ACE Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers on the Development of New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes -...The Impact of ACE Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers on the Development of New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes -...

... or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) may experience a decreased incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes. ... The Impact of ACE Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers on the Development of New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes. 7 ... The Impact of ACE Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers on the Development of New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes. ... two trials), or heart failure (two trials), reductions in new-onset type 2 diabetes were maintained (0.79 [0.72-0.85], 0.76 [ ...
more infohttp://www.thaiendocrine.org/en/2017/08/07/the-impact-of-ace-inhibitors-or-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockers-on-the-development-of-new-onset-type-2-diabetes/

A randomized controlled study to compare the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (telmisartan vs candesartan vs...A randomized controlled study to compare the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (telmisartan vs candesartan vs...

A randomized controlled study to compare the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (telmisartan vs candesartan vs ... A randomized controlled study to compare the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (telmisartan vs candesartan vs ... on the markers of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Next Previous ... on the markers of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Completed ...
more infohttp://adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700041375?error=cookies_not_supported&code=65c246fb-b801-4768-b74e-eae74cada74a

Clinical Study to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety of Aliskiren (150mg & 300mg) Administered Alone and in Combo With Valsartan ...Clinical Study to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety of Aliskiren (150mg & 300mg) Administered Alone and in Combo With Valsartan ...

Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00219180

Nifedipine vs Telmisartan on Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation (AF) Recurrence in Hypertensive Patients With AF - Full Text...Nifedipine vs Telmisartan on Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation (AF) Recurrence in Hypertensive Patients With AF - Full Text...

Blocking the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (Telmisartan) reduces the incidence of episodes of atrial fibrillation in ... Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Calcium Channel Blockers. Membrane Transport ... A total of 160 subjects will be included in two study groups. The Group 1 will receive 80-160mg Telmisartan per day, the ... Concomitant therapy with B-blocker and acethydrazide are allowed for the target blood pressure during the study. ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01435161?term=NIFEDIPINE&rank=35

Effects of Angiotensin Receptor Antagonist on Prohibiting Cardiovascular Events on Hemodialysis Patients - Full Text View -...Effects of Angiotensin Receptor Antagonist on Prohibiting Cardiovascular Events on Hemodialysis Patients - Full Text View -...

Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. Antihypertensive Agents. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Molecular Mechanisms of ... Although angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are effective for patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease in reducing ... Suzuki H, Kanno Y, Sugahara S, Ikeda N, Shoda J, Takenaka T, Inoue T, Araki R. Effect of angiotensin receptor blockers on ... Effects of Angiotensin Receptor Antagonist on Prohibiting Cardiovascular Events on Hemodialysis Patients. The safety and ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00530595

DIabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govDIabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ... Genetics Home Reference related topics: Type 1 diabetes MedlinePlus related topics: Diabetes Type 1 Diabetic Eye Problems ... This study is part of the DIRECT Programme also including a primary prevention study of diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes ... Male or female aged 18 - 55 years with type 1 diabetes diagnosed before age of 36 years and in need for continuous insulin ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00252720?term=DIRECT+candesartan&rank=1

Crossover Bioequivalence Study of Irbesartan Hydrochlorothiazide 300/25 mg Tablets Under Fed Conditions - Full Text View -...Crossover Bioequivalence Study of Irbesartan Hydrochlorothiazide 300/25 mg Tablets Under Fed Conditions - Full Text View -...

Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. To Top. *For Patients and Families ... A Single Dose, 2-Period, 2-Treatment, 2-Way Crossover Bioequivalency Study of Irbesartan / Hydrochlorothiazide 300/25 mg ... Female subjects of childbearing potential - not surgically sterile or at least 2 years postmenopausal - must agree to utilize ... 1 x 7 mL) before dose and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.25, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01712126

Effectiveness and Safety of Valsartan in Children Aged 6 to 16 Years With Hypertension - Wells - 2011 - The Journal of Clinical...Effectiveness and Safety of Valsartan in Children Aged 6 to 16 Years With Hypertension - Wells - 2011 - The Journal of Clinical...

Pool JL, Glazer R, Chiang YT, et al. Dose-response efficacy of valsartan, a new angiotensin II receptor blocker. J Hum ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. Circulation. 2001;103:904-912. *CrossRef, ... a new angiotensin II-receptor blocker. Clin Ther. 1998;20:1106-1114. *CrossRef, ... Flynn JT, Meyers KE, Neto JP, et al. Efficacy and safety of the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan in children with ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1751-7176.2011.00432.x/references

Hyperaldosteronism: Background, Pathophysiology, EtiologyHyperaldosteronism: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology

Angiotensin receptor blockers. ↓. ↑↑. ↓. DHPs (It is a shared opinion that dihydropyridinic calcium channel blockers do not ... Elevation of angiotensin-II type-1-receptor autoantibodies titer in primary aldosteronism as a result of aldosterone-producing ... which is then converted in the lungs into the octapeptide angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin II ... The mechanism and gene locus have not yet been identified, though CYP11B and the renin and angiotensin II receptor genes have ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/920713-overview

Integrating drug pharmacokinetics for phenotyping individual renin response to angiotensin II blockade in humans.Integrating drug pharmacokinetics for phenotyping individual renin response to angiotensin II blockade in humans.

... system inhibition because it is proportional to the interruption of the permanent negative feedback loop of angiotensin II on ... Renin release into plasma has been used to investigate the drug dose-dependence of renin-angiotensin ... Angiotensin II / antagonists & inhibitors*. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers*. Area Under Curve. Benzimidazoles / ... of renin release abnormalities in patients with hypertension and for the comparison of renin-angiotensin system blockers.. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Integrating-drug-pharmacokinetics-phenotyping-individual/15023936.html

Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy and Circadian Misalignment in Type 1 Diabetes | IntechOpenDiabetic Autonomic Neuropathy and Circadian Misalignment in Type 1 Diabetes | IntechOpen

Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy and Circadian Misalignment in Type 1 Diabetes , IntechOpen, Published on: 2013-02-27. Authors: ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. eprosartan. x. losartan. x. α-adrenoceptor antagonists. doxazosin. x. ... However, the receptors activating muscle afferent fibres as well as the factors contributing to a decrease in reflex activity ... In patients over 70 years of age, smokers, diabetics, those receiving β-blockers, and women, the morning and the evening peaks ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/books/type-1-diabetes/diabetic-autonomic-neuropathy-and-circadian-misalignment-in-type-1-diabetes/

EPO - T 0025/10 (PPAR Ligands for insulin resistant hypertension/BETHESDA) of 16.2.2011EPO - T 0025/10 (PPAR Ligands for insulin resistant hypertension/BETHESDA) of 16.2.2011

an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker. which also increases the activity of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ... blocker compound. - which also increases the activity of. - peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ... an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker compound. which also increases the activity of peroxisome proliferator activated ... an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker compound. which also increases the activity of peroxisome proliferator activated ...
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Molecular and Clinical OncologyMolecular and Clinical Oncology

Angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockers enhance the effects of bevacizumab-based chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer ... CXCL10/CXCR3 overexpression as a biomarker of poor prognosis in patients with stage II colorectal cancer. Ming Bai, Xia Chen, ...
more infohttps://www.spandidos-publications.com/mco/mostcitedbylastyear

Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine - Quick Access to Quality Drug InformationDrug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine - Quick Access to Quality Drug Information

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker. Detailed Summary. * Info References from scientific journals (Medline/PubMed) ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/rn/153804-05-8

Effects of a benidipine-based combination therapy on the risk of stroke according to stroke subtype: the COPE trial. |...Effects of a benidipine-based combination therapy on the risk of stroke according to stroke subtype: the COPE trial. |...

L-type calcium channel blocker benidipine-based therapies when combined with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), a β-blocker ... incidence of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in the benidipine-ARB regimen was not different compared with the other two ... The incidence of lacunar stroke was 1.1, large-artery stroke was 0.6, cardioembolic stroke was 0.3, unknown ischemic type was ... 23985703 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt) ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed23985703.do

Telmisartan modulates mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cells. | CureHunterTelmisartan modulates mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cells. | CureHunter

Eprosartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker that lacks the ability to activate PPARγ, had no effect on these mitochondria- ... 23254392 (Publication Type: Journal Article) Chemical References. *Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers ... we studied effects of the partial PPARγ agonist and angiotensin receptor blocker telmisartan, on mitochondria-related cellular ... are potentially relevant to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and that involve more than just angiotensin receptor ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed23254392.do

Aldosteronism | ARUPConsult Lab Test SelectionAldosteronism | ARUPConsult Lab Test Selection

Beta blockers, methyldopa, clonidine, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers ... Test for familial hyperaldosteronism type 1 (FH-I) *Patients with onset of confirmed PA earlier than 20 years of age and in ... Test for germline mutations in KCNJ5 causing familial hyperaldosteronism type 3 (FH-III) ... 2012; 41(1): 31-9. PubMed. Tomaschitz A, Pilz S. Aldosterone to renin ratio--a reliable screening tool for primary ...
more infohttps://arupconsult.com/content/aldosteronism
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  • Oral angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in long-term treatment of hypertensive patients. (stonel.info)
  • Patients who utilize either an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) may experience a decreased incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes. (thaiendocrine.org)
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  • There is a lack of data on how to treat hypertensive patients with diabetes when treatment with medium doses of calcium channel blocker and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) is insufficient to achieve the target blood pressure (BP). (springer.com)
  • An increased dose of amlodipine, but not ARB, reduced home morning BP in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes who were already receiving combination therapy with medium doses of amlodipine and ARB. (springer.com)
  • Documented hypertensive patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: ECG documentation of atrial fibrillation at least in one ECG recorded during the last 2 months prior to randomization plus additional ECG recording of sinus rhythm at least 12 hours after the above mentioned ECG documentation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The physiological actions of BNP include the regulation of vascular tone by activation of the particulate isoform of guanyl cyclase after binding to natriuretic peptide receptor A and by direct endothelium-dependent nitric oxide production [ 2 , 3 ]. (clinsci.org)
  • Adler AI, Stratton IM, Neil HA, Yudkin JS, Matthews DR, Cull CA, Wright AD, Turner RC, Holman RR (2000) Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study. (springer.com)
  • The incidence of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in the benidipine -ARB regimen was not different compared with the other two treatment regimens. (curehunter.com)
  • Serum leptin, a cytokine-type peptide hormone mainly produced by adipocytes, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of steatosis. (medscape.com)
  • Female subjects of childbearing potential - not surgically sterile or at least 2 years postmenopausal - must agree to utilize one of the following forms of contraception from screening through completion of the study: abstinence, hormonal (oral, implant, transdermal, or injection) for at least 3 months prior to the first dose of the study, barrier (condom with spermicide, diaphragm with spermicide), IUD, or vasectomized partner (6 months minimum). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • [ 2 ] The investigators speculated that this imbalance could play a role in the risk for cardiovascular disease and liver fibrosis, conditions commonly associated with NAFLD. (medscape.com)
  • Although baseline allograft estimated glomerular filtration rates tended to be lower in the FX group than in the NFX group (40±14 mL/min/1.73 m 2 versus 47±19 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ), changes in allograft estimated glomerular filtration rate were similar (+1.0±4.9 mL/min/1.73 m 2 versus -0.2±6.9 mL/min/1.73 m 2 per year, P =0.50). (dovepress.com)