An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.
An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.
Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in fetal tissues. Many effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor such as VASODILATION and sodium loss are the opposite of that of the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
Agents that antagonize the ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 2 RECEPTOR.
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40%).
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (VASOCONSTRICTION) and fluid homeostasis via the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. These include angiotensins derived naturally from precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, and those synthesized.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An ANGIOTENSIN II analog which acts as a highly specific inhibitor of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.
A constitutively expressed subtype of bradykinin receptor that may play a role in the acute phase of the inflammatory and pain response. It has high specificity for intact forms of BRADYKININ and KALLIDIN. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.
Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.
Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.
Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.
Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A synthetic nonapeptide (Pyr-Trp-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro-Pro) which is identical to the peptide from the venom of the snake, Bothrops jararaca. It inhibits kininase II and ANGIOTENSIN I and has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The octapeptide amide of bovine angiotensin II used to increase blood pressure by vasoconstriction.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.
A structure, situated close to the intraventricular foramen, which induces DRINKING BEHAVIOR after stimulation with ANGIOTENSIN II.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
Excision of kidney.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is used in patients with hypertension and heart failure.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLINES which contain no double bonds in the ring.
A condition characterized by the thickening of the ventricular ENDOCARDIUM and subendocardium (MYOCARDIUM), seen mostly in children and young adults in the TROPICAL CLIMATE. The fibrous tissue extends from the apex toward and often involves the HEART VALVES causing restrictive blood flow into the respective ventricles (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE).
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The consumption of liquids.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An inbred strain of Long-Evans rats that develops hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild obesity, mostly in males, that resembles non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in humans. It was developed from outbred Long-Evans stock in 1983.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.

Angiotensin receptor subtype 1 mediates angiotensin II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced cyclic AMP production in preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells. (1/1828)

In a previous study, we found that angiotensin (Ang) II enhances beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells (PMVSMCs) obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats. The purpose of the present investigation was to identify the Ang receptor subtypes that mediate this effect. In our first study, we compared the ability of Ang II, Ang III, Ang (3-8), and Ang (1-7) to increase cAMP production in isoproterenol (1 microM)-treated PMVSMCs. Each peptide was tested at 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 nM. Both Ang II and Ang III increased intracellular (EC50s, 1 and 11 nM, respectively) and extracellular (EC50s, 2 and 14 nM, respectively) cAMP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. In contrast, Ang (3-8) and Ang (1-7) did not enhance either intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels at any concentration tested. In our second study, we examined the ability of L 158809 [a selective Ang receptor subtype 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist] to inhibit Ang II (100 nM) and Ang III (100 nM) enhancement of isoproterenol (1 microM)-induced cAMP production in PMVSMCs. L 158809 (10 nM) abolished or nearly abolished (p <.001) Ang II and Ang III enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular and extracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, PD 123319 (300 nM; a selective AT2 receptor antagonist) did not significantly alter Ang II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels. We conclude that AT1 receptors, but not AT2, Ang (3-8), nor Ang (1-7) receptors mediate Ang II and Ang III enhancement of beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured PMVSMCs.  (+info)

Angiotensin II antagonist prevents electrical remodeling in atrial fibrillation. (2/1828)

BACKGROUND: The blockade of angiotensin II (Ang II) formation has protective effects on cardiovascular tissue; however, the role of Ang II in atrial electrical remodeling is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of candesartan and captopril on atrial electrical remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 24 dogs, the atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was measured before, during, and after rapid atrial pacing. Rapid atrial pacing at 800 bpm was maintained for 180 minutes. The infusion of saline (n=8), candesartan (n=5), captopril (n=6), or Ang II (n=5) was initiated 30 minutes before rapid pacing and continued throughout the study. In the saline group, AERP was significantly shortened during rapid atrial pacing (from 149+/-11 to 132+/-16 ms, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in AERP shortening between the saline group and the Ang II group. However, in the candesartan and captopril groups, shortening of the AERP after rapid pacing was completely inhibited (from 142+/-9 to 147+/-12 ms with candesartan, from 153+/-15 to 153+/-14 ms with captopril, P=NS). Although rate adaptation of the AERP was lost in the saline group, this phenomenon was preserved in the candesartan and captopril groups. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of endogenous Ang II prevented AERP shortening during rapid atrial pacing. These results indicate for the first time that Ang II may be involved in the mechanism of atrial electrical remodeling and that the blockade of Ang II may lead to the better therapeutic management of human atrial fibrillation.  (+info)

Angiotensin II inhibits rat arterial KATP channels by inhibiting steady-state protein kinase A activity and activating protein kinase Ce. (3/1828)

We used whole-cell patch clamp to investigate steady-state activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP) of rat arterial smooth muscle by protein kinase A (PKA) and the pathway by which angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibits these channels. Rp-cAMPS, an inhibitor of PKA, did not affect KATP currents activated by pinacidil when the intracellular solution contained 0.1 mM ATP. However, when ATP was increased to 1.0 mM, inhibition of PKA reduced KATP current, while the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A caused a small increase in current. Ang II (100 nM) inhibited KATP current activated by the K+ channel opener pinacidil. The degree of inhibition was greater with 1.0 mM than with 0.1 mM intracellular ATP. The effect of Ang II was abolished by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan. The inhibition of KATP currents by Ang II was abolished by a combination of PKA inhibitor peptide 5-24 (5 microM) and PKC inhibitor peptide 19-27 (100 microM), while either alone caused only partial block of the effect. In the presence of PKA inhibitor peptide, the inhibitory effect of Ang II was unaffected by the PKC inhibitor Go 6976, which is selective for Ca2+-dependent isoforms of PKC, but was abolished by a selective peptide inhibitor of the translocation of the epsilon isoform of PKC. Our results indicate that KATP channels are activated by steady-state phosphorylation by PKA at normal intracellular ATP levels, and that Ang II inhibits the channels both through activation of PKCepsilon and inhibition of PKA.  (+info)

Reactive oxygen species-mediated homologous downregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor mRNA by angiotensin II. (4/1828)

Recent studies suggest a crucial role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for the signaling of angiotensin (Ang) II through Ang II type 1 receptor (AT(1)-R). However, the role of ROS in the regulation of AT(1)-R expression has not been explored. In this study, we examined the effect of an antioxidant on the homologous downregulation of AT(1)-R by Ang II. Ang II (10(-6) mol/L) decreased AT(1)-R mRNA with a peak suppression at 6 hours of stimulation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Preincubation of vascular smooth muscle cells with N:-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, almost completely inhibited the Ang II-induced downregulation of AT(1)-R mRNA. The effect of NAC was due to stabilization of the AT(1)-R mRNA that was destabilized by Ang II. The Ang II-induced AT(1)-R mRNA downregulation was also blocked by PD98059, an extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinase inhibitor. Ang II-induced ERK activation was inhibited by NAC as well as by PD98059. Exogenous H(2)O(2) also suppressed AT(1)-R mRNA. These results suggest that the production of ROS and the activation of ERK are critical for the downregulation of AT(1)-R mRNA. The generation of ROS through stimulation of AT(1)-R not only mediates signaling of Ang II but also may play a crucial role in the adaptation process of AT(1)-R to the sustained stimulation of Ang II.  (+info)

Use of positron emission tomography to study AT1 receptor regulation in vivo. (5/1828)

Increased sodium intake and enhanced sodium sensitivity are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and in the control of a major regulator of BP, the type 1 angiotensin receptor (AT(1) receptor). An in vivo technique to study changes of renal AT(1) receptors by dietary sodium was developed that uses positron emission tomography (PET). PET revealed that renal cortical AT(1) receptor binding was increased in sodium-loaded compared with sodium-deprived dogs, which correlated with ex vivo estimations of AT(1) receptor numbers. Plasma renin activity, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were inversely related to changes in AT(1) receptor binding. These results demonstrate, for the first time in vivo, that the renal AT(1) receptor is inversely related to the activity of the renin angiotensin system, which may provide a compensatory mechanism to prevent inappropriate fluctuations in arterial BP. The ability to measure AT(1) receptor binding in vivo has potential significance for clinical studies of AT(1) receptors, because PET is a noninvasive imaging technique that is readily applicable in humans.  (+info)

Angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors in conduit arteries of normal developing microswine. (6/1828)

OBJECTIVE: To identify vascular cells capable of responding to angiotensin II (Ang II) generated in conduit arteries, we examined the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) in the thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) and branches in 90-day fetal, 3-week postnatal, and 6-month adult microswine. METHODS AND RESULTS: By autoradiography ((125)I-[Sar(1)Ile(8)]-Ang II with or without AT1R- or AT2R-selective analogues or (125)I-CGP 42112), there were striking rostrocaudal differences in (1) AT2R binding at all ages (prominent in AA wall and branches, sparse in TA wall and branches) and (2) a non-AT2R binding site for CGP 42112 (consistently evident in postnatal TA and branches but absent in AA and branches). Furthermore, patterns of AT2R distribution in infradiaphragmatic arteries were developmentally distinct. In fetal AAs, high-density AT2Rs occupied the inner 60% of the medial-endothelial wall. In postnatal AAs, AT2Rs were sparse in the medial-endothelial wall but prominent in a circumferential smooth muscle alpha-actin-negative cell layer at the medial-adventitial border, occupying approximately 20% to 25% of the AA cross-sectional area. AT1R density in the TA and AA medial-endothelial wall increased with age, whereas AT2R density decreased after birth. CONCLUSIONS: A novel AT2R-positive cell layer confined to postnatal infradiaphragmatic arteries physically links adventitial and medial layers, appears optimally positioned to transduce AT2R-dependent functions of local Ang II, and suggests that adventitial Ang II may elicit regionally distinct vascular responses.  (+info)

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade to control blood pressure in postmenopausal women: influence of hormone replacement therapy. (7/1828)

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is twice as common in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with candesartan cilexetil (CC) to control blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive menopausal women, and the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). METHODS: This was designed as a prospective, open-label and non-comparative study. Included were 618 hypertensive menopausal women grade I/II according to the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee (VI-JNC), with an average age 52+/-4.7 years (95% CI 52.3-53.0) and with a last menstrual period (LMP) at least one year before. BP was determined by measurement in four visits during six months of follow-up, according to the recommendations of the OMS/SIH. Optimal control of BP was considered as BP <140/90 mm Hg. RESULTS: A statistically significant decrease in systolic (SBP; 19.9+/-11.2) and diastolic (DBP; 11.5+/-7.3) blood pressure mm Hg values was observed (P<0.01). The control of BP increased significantly over time to 61.2% (P<0.01). In multivariate analysis, only age was associated with control of BP (beta= -0.062; P=0.004). Of the women not controlled in the second visit, 12.5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) were added to 31.5% (N=122), with 80% more BP control achieved in visit 3 than in the non-supplement group (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.04-3.05; P<0.03). One hundred and three (16.7%) patients were receiving HRT for 2.01+/-2.23 years (95% CI 1.55-2.46). HRT did not affect the control of BP. No severe adverse reactions were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Candesartan cilexetil significantly reduced SBP and DBP and increased control (61.2%) of BP in hypertensive menopausal women. Only age had an inverse association with control of BP. In this study, HRT did not affect the control of BP.  (+info)

Effects of dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in primary proteinuric nephropathies. (8/1828)

BACKGROUND: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or with angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers has been shown to reduce proteinuria and to slow down the progression of renal disease in diabetic and non-diabetic primary proteinuric nephropathies. Additionally, this beneficial effect is not dependent on blood pressure control. METHODS: To assess and compare the effects of lisinopril (up to 40 mg/day), candesartan (up to 32 mg/day) and combination therapy (lisinopril up to 20 mg/day plus candesartan up to 16 mg/day) on urinary protein excretion, 45 patients with primary proteinuric nephropathies (urinary protein/creatinine ratio 3.8+/-2.4 g/g) and normal or slightly reduced renal function (CCr 95+/-33 mL/min) were enrolled in a six month multicenter, prospective, open, randomized, active-controlled and parallel-group trial with 1:1:1 allocation. Blood pressure goal was set at or below 125/75 mm Hg for all patients, with additional antihypertensive medication prescribed if required. RESULTS: Renal function, estimated by creatinine clearance, remained stable throughout the study. Hyperkalemia (K>5.5 mmol/L) was detected in 3.1% of all measurements in follow-up, and was more frequent in patients treated with lisinopril alone or lisinopril plus candesartan (P<0.001) than in those on candesartan alone. No other relevant adverse event was recorded. The blood pressure goal (<125/75 mm Hg) was achieved by week 4 in all treatment groups (P<0.005 when compared to baseline), and afterwards the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure remained below these values until the end of the trial with no statistically significant differences between groups. Urinary protein/creatinine ratio (percentage reduction 95% confidence intervals CI) decreased in patients treated with lisinopril alone to -33% (CI -12-56) to -31% (CI 0-68) and to -50% (CI -9-90), in patients treated with candesartan to -28% (CI -12-45), to -41% (CI -30-52) and to -48% (CI -32-63), in patients treated with the combination of both to -60% (CI -44-77) to -54% (CI -38-69) and to -70% (CI -57-83) at two, three, and six months, respectively. All comparisons with baseline achieved statistical significance and treatment with combination therapy was statistically more effective in proteinuria reduction than treatment with candesartan alone at two and six months (P=0.004 and P=0.023, respectively) and than treatment with lisinopril only at two months (P=0.03). CONCLUSION: Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with ACE inhibitors and AT1 receptor blockers produces a beneficial antiproteinuric effect that could not be explained only by the systemic blood pressure reduction. All treatments were well tolerated.  (+info)

This study is a multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind randomized clinical trial. The design scheme is depicted in Figure 1. (see below). At the time of screening, all pentoxifylline-naïve participants must have been receiving angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) per day for no less than 8 weeks and have stable renal function with serum creatinine elevation , 25% in the preceding 8 weeks. For patients taking maximal dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) for more than 8 weeks, randomization will be started after recruitment. For patients taking submaximal, fixed dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB)for ≥ 8 weeks, with good BP(blood pressure), i.e., ≤ 130/80 mmHg, randomization can also be started after recruitment. However, for patients taking submaximal dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) with suboptimal BP, i.e., ?130/80 mmHg, patients can be recruited but will not be randomized until the dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) has been fixed for ≥ 8 weeks, or a ...
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists , AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin-angiotensin system. Their main uses are in the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage due to diabetes) and congestive heart failure. They block the activation of AT1 receptors, preventing the binding of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are used primarily for the treatment of hypertension where the patient is intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy. They do not inhibit the breakdown of bradykinin or other kinins, and are thus only rarely associated with the persistent dry cough and/or angioedema that limit ACE inhibitor therapy.[citation needed] More recently, they have been used for the treatment of heart failure in patients intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy, in particular candesartan. Irbesartan and losartan have trial data showing benefit in ...
In recent years, increased attention has been paid to vitamin D biofunctions not inherently associated with calcium metabolism. As a result, it has been found that low vitamin D levels, a common clinical problem in Northern Europe, are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Stiffening of large arteries (including the aorta) is a manifestation of structural and functional changes within the arterial wall that occur with increasing age and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes mellitus significantly increases the risk of arterial damage which highlights the importance of early detection and treatment of diabetic vascular complications. Sustained high blood glucose levels induce irreversible glycation of proteins within tissues including the arterial wall. This impairs the biomechanical properties of the main structural proteins, collagen and elastin, and increases arterial stiffness. Glycation of proteins is exacerbated by persistent high-grade oxidative stress. Diabetes is also ...
Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Angiotensin receptor blocker such as losartan, candensartan and valsartan are useful in treating patient with congestive heart failure and hypertension. Angiotensin receptor blocker will act by binding and blocking angioten
Background; Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) is being extensively used to control hypertension. But, there have been limited data whether ARB is associated with increased incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose intolerance (IGT).. Methods; We investigated total 13,561 patients (pts) that was glycerate hemoglobin level , 6.0% and fasting glucose level , 124 mg/dL (ARB therapy group=3421 and control group=9808) from January 2004 to February 2012. To adjust potential confounders, a propensity score matched analysis was performed using the logistic regression model. The primary end-point was the cumulative incidence of new-onset DM, IGT, and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Also, multivariable cox-regression analysis by adjusted by aforementioned variables was performed to determine the impact of statin therapy on the incidence of new-onset DM, IGT, and IFG.. Results; Mean follow-up duration was 534±604 days in all-pt group, and 608±607 days in propensity score matching ...
Animation showing: Physiology of the renin angiotensin aldosteone system (RAAS). Mechanism of action of ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).
Learn Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) - Antihypertensives for Nursing RN faster and easier with Picmonics unforgettable videos, stories, and quizzes! Picmonic is research proven to increase your memory retention and test scores. Start learning today for free!
Cheng J, Zhang W, Zhang X, et al. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174:773-85. 24687000 ...
Angiotensin II receptor blockers, or ARBs, are an option for people with heart failure. WebMD explains what they are and how they work.
If you miss a dose of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers, take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, take only the usual dose. Do not double the dosage.
OGIHARA Toshio , SARUTA Takao , SHIMAMOTO Kazuaki , MATSUOKA Hiroaki , RAKUGI Hiromi Hypertension research : clinical and experimental : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 31(2), 281-287, 2008-02-01 医中誌Web 参考文献36件 被引用文献2件 ...
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are medications. They are most often prescribed to treat high blood pressure, but can be used to treat other conditions. This sheet tells you how ARBs work and how to use them effectively.
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are medications. They are most often prescribed to treat high blood pressure, but can be used to treat other conditions. This sheet tells you how ARBs work and how to use them effectively.
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are medications. They are most often prescribed to treat high blood pressure, but can be used to treat other conditions. This sheet tells you how ARBs work and how to use them effectively.
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are medications. They are most often prescribed to treat high blood pressure, but can be used to treat other conditions. This sheet tells you how ARBs work and how to use them effectively.
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are medications. They are most often prescribed to treat high blood pressure, but can be used to treat other conditions. This sheet tells you how ARBs work and how to use them effectively.
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are medications. They are most often prescribed to treat high blood pressure, but can be used to treat other conditions. This sheet tells you how ARBs work and how to use them effectively.
A randomized controlled study to compare the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (telmisartan vs candesartan vs valsartan) on the markers of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ...
Angiotensin receptor blockers for the reduction of proteinuria in diabetic patients with overt nephropathy: results from the AMADEO study Prasad Bichu1, Ravi Nistala1, Asma Khan2, James R Sowers2, Adam Whaley-Connell11Divisions of Nephrology and Endocrinology; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia Missouri, USAAbstract: Diabetic kidney disease is characterized by persistent albuminuria (>300 mg/dl or >200 μg/min) that is confirmed on at least 2 occasions 3 to 6 months apart, with a progressive decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), elevated arterial blood pressure, and an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) prompting investigators to evaluate mechanisms by which to slow disease progression. One such mechanism is to block the activity of angiotensin II at the receptor site and agents that follow this mechanism are referred to as
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, specifically angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), have confirmed renoprotective benefits in patients with proteinuria and hypertension. However, it remains controversial whether these agents are beneficial to kidney recipients. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of ACEI/ARB treatment on patient and allograft survival after kidney transplant. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible articles from before May 2016, and we included 24 articles (9 randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and 15 cohort studies with 54,096 patients), in which patient or graft survival was compared between an ACEI/ARB treatment arm and a control arm ...
In this systematic review, we identified a significantly increased risk of hyperkalaemia among people prescribed aliskiren (Rasilez; Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Switzerland) in combination with an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker compared with those prescribed monotherapy using aliskiren, an ACE inhibitor, or angiotensin receptor blocker. This risk was about 50% greater in those prescribed combination therapy than among those receiving ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blocker monotherapy, and was about 70% greater in those prescribed combination therapy than among those receiving aliskiren monotherapy. We found no evidence of a significant difference in the risk of acute kidney injury between the study groups.. To date, no published systematic reviews or meta-analyses have evaluated the safety of combination therapy with aliskiren and ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Previously published pooled analyses of the safety of aliskiren have provided discordant ...
Angiotensin II receptor blockers, also known as ARB blockers or angiotensin 2 receptor blockers, are drugs used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. They do not interfere with the bodys production of angiotensin. Instead, they block the effects of angiotensin, preventing the hormone from narrowing the blood vessels. By relaxing the coronary arteries, blood flow to the heart increases, blood pressure goes down and the hearts workload is reduced. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are often used in patients who cannot tolerate a common type of drugs known as ACE inhibitors.. ...
We observed that two months of candesartan therapy significantly improved the percent flow-mediated dilator response to hyperemia and reduced levels of oxidant stress and inflammatory and impaired fibrinolysis markers in hypertensive patients, independent of lipoprotein and BP changes.. Our finding of improved endothelium-dependent vasomotor responsiveness is consistent with other groups results (23-25). Thus, Schiffrin et al. (24)demonstrated that, in contrast with atenolol, losartan corrected endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension, and Ghiadoni et al. (25)also demonstrated similar improvement in endothelial function with candesartan. We reasoned that candesartan might improve endothelium-dependent vasomotor responsiveness by reducing oxidant stress and augmenting NO bioactivity, considering that AII is a potent vasoconstrictor that also promotes oxidant stress. We observed that two months of candesartan therapy significantly reduced plasma levels of MDA, compared with ...
Primary Hypothesis:. To evaluate the combination of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) vs. standard treatment with angiotensin receptor blocker on the progression of kidney disease in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and overt nephropathy.. The primary outcome is a composite endpoint of reduction in estimated GFR of 30 ml/min/1.73m*m in individuals with an estimated baseline GFR greater than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m*m; reduction in estimated GFR of greater than 50% in individuals with an estimated baseline GFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73m*m; progression to end-stage renal disease (defined as need for dialysis, renal transplant or an eGFR less than 15 ml/min/1.73m*m) or death.. Secondary outcome: a renal composite endpoint, defined as; reduction in estimated GFR of more than 50% (for individuals with a baseline estimated GFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73m*m); reduction in estimated GFR of more than 30 ml/min/1.73m*m (for individuals with a ...
The guidelines above are for the general population, but seniors health needs and benchmarks differ from those of younger individuals in many ways. While 130/80 mmHg is the generic threshold for beginning BP medications, there have been many disagreements among medical professionals regarding the threshold for older adults. Age, frailty and other comorbidities like diabetes and chronic kidney disease complicate this matter even further.. The Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) issued guidelines in 2013 recommending that individuals over age 60 aim for a reading below 150/90 mmHg. The JNC 8 recommendation for patients of any age with diabetes or chronic kidney disease is to aim for BP readings below 140/90 mmHg. These are not hard and fast rules, though, because each seniors health needs are unique.. The JNC 8 guidelines support what we geriatricians have believed for quite some time: many older adults are taking too much BP medication, says Dr. Leslie Kernisan, M.D., M.P.H. In addition ...
ARBs (Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers) NCLEX questions for nursing students! ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers) are medications used to help lower the blood pressure. The nurse should be aware of how the drug works, why it is ordered, nursing implications, adverse reactions, and how to teach the patient how to take the medication. This quiz is part of a pharmacology NCLEX question review series and will include various medications. This series will test your knowledge on nursing implications, side effects, patient teaching, therapeutic effects, and more.
The FDA has approved azilsartan medoxomil (Edarbi), an oral angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) for hypertension, expanding the ranks of ARBs now available to U.S. patients.
This large population based study is the first to use data from routine clinical care to examine long term outcomes associated with changes in renal function after the start of ACEI/ARB treatment. It represents an important complement to clinical trials, the participants of which may not be representative of treated patients in clinical practice.6 The studys size and long follow-up also permitted examination of a full range of outcomes, beyond those evaluated in individual clinical trials. Importantly, this is the first study to examine the association with end stage renal disease, as clinical trials are rarely powered to examine this outcome.. Patients who had a greater fall in renal function after starting ACEI/ARB treatment had a higher proportion of comorbidities and concurrent drugs that are themselves associated with adverse renal outcomes. However, our findings were robust after adjustment for a range of potential confounders, including comorbidity, co-medication use, lifestyle factors, ...
Candesartan belongs to a family of medications known as angiotensin II receptor blockers. It is used to lower high blood pressure in adults and children over 6 years of age, and to treat heart failure in adults. It works by relaxing blood vessels. Angiotensin II is a chemical that the…
Hypotension, syncope, stroke, hyperkalaemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) have been reported in susceptible individuals, especially if combining medicinal products that affect this system. Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by combining aliskiren with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) is therefore not recommended ...
The Food and Drugs Administration has completed a safety review of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) after they were linked with an increased risk of cancer.. This review of 31 randomised clinical trials involving almost 156,000 participants, of whom 84,461 were treated with an ARB, found no increased risk. The review analysed the data for new cancer cases, cancer-related death, breast cancer, lung cancer and prostate cancer. There was no increase in risk for any of these outcomes.. Action: Clinicians and patients can be reassured by this safety review. It is important to note that the overall evidence still places ARBs are still second line to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). ...
Chaoiya, C.; Berenguier, D.; Keating, S. M.; Naldi, A.; van Iersel, M. P.; Rodriguez, N.; Dräger, A.; Büchel, F.; Cokelaer, T.; Kowal, B. et al.; Wicks, B.; Gonçalves, E.; Dorier, J.; Page, M.; Monteiro, P. T.; Kamp von, A.; Xenarius , I.; de Jong, H.; Hucka, M.; Klamt, S.; Thieffrey, D.; Le Novère, N.; Saez-Rodriguez, J.; Helikar, T.: SBML qualitative models: a model representation format and infrastructure to foster interactions between qualitative modelling formlisms and tools. BMC Systems Biology 7, p. 135 (2013 ...
Valsartan is a potent, orally active angiotensin II receptor blocker and is widely used in the treatment of hypertension and chronic heart failure. Herein,
ACE inhibitors reduce the production of the enzyme angiotensin, which makes blood vessels constrict.Healthy Food: Top Blood Thinning Foods Before we begin mentioning blood thinning foods, there is a major thumb rule that should not be ignored.Blood clots stop the flow of blood to the heart, lungs, or brain and can cause a.. ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).The foods you choose to eat can affect your heart health in many ways. If you are on warfarin or another blood-thinning medication ...
Ratio-Irbesartan: Irbesartan belongs to a family of medicines known as angiotensin II receptor blockers. These medicines are used to lower high blood pressure and work by relaxing blood vessels. Irbesartan is used to lower blood pressure and decrease the rate of the progression of kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Riva-Irbesartan: Irbesartan belongs to a family of medicines known as angiotensin II receptor blockers. These medicines are used to lower high blood pressure and work by relaxing blood vessels. Irbesartan is used to lower blood pressure and decrease the rate of the progression of kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Dom-Irbesartan: Irbesartan belongs to a family of medicines known as angiotensin II receptor blockers. These medicines are used to lower high blood pressure and work by relaxing blood vessels. Irbesartan is used to lower blood pressure and decrease the rate of the progression of kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Auro-Irbesartan: Irbesartan belongs to a family of medicines known as angiotensin II receptor blockers. These medicines are used to lower high blood pressure and work by relaxing blood vessels. Irbesartan is used to lower blood pressure and decrease the rate of the progression of kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes.
The US Food and Drug Administration is warning of a shortage of a class of drugs used by millions to treat high blood pressure. The drugs known as ARBs, or angiotensin II receptor blockers, contain valsartan.
The new on this front at the European Society of Hypertension meeting in Oslo last week was that the addition of the VALUE data to the analysis removed the over-prevalence of new diagnosis cancers. Of related interest is that both beta-blockers and calcium-antagonists went through episodes when they were though to cause cancer, but where more data and more rigorous analysis disproved this. This is probably what we are facing with ARBs too, but that will of course take more data and more analysis. As of today, there is no indication to stop ARB treatment for fear of cancer.. ReplyDelete ...
Can you pick the Adrenergic Receptor Blockers Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by poorvichhabra
2017 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Background. Although statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are generally well tolerated, the impact of these therapies individually or in combination on the change in neurocognitive function in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection is unknown. Methods. The study included participants in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials cohort participants not receiving a statin or ACEI/ARB within 30 days of first neurologic assessment (baseline), with assessments by NPZ-3 (z score of averaged Trailmaking A and B tests and digit symbol test [DST]) from ≥2 measurements. Marginal structural models estimated the causal effect of statin or ACEI/ARB initiation on neurocognitive function; initial constant slope was assumed during the first year of treatment and a second constant slope thereafter. Results. Of ...
Randomised controlled trial of a Calcium Channel or Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor/Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Regime to Reduce Blood Pressure Variability following Ischaemic Stroke (CAARBS): a protocol for a feasibility study.
The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reducing risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs) and preserving kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease is well-documented. However, the efficacy and safety of these agents in dialysis patients is still a controversial issue. We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and Wanfang for randomized trials. The relative risk (RR) reductions were calculated with a random-effects model. Major cardiovascular events, changes in GFR and drug-related adverse events were analyzed. Eleven trials included 1856 participants who were receiving dialysis therapy. Compared with placebo or other active agents groups, ARB therapy reduced the risk of heart failure events by 33% (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.93) with similar decrement in blood pressure in dialysis patients. Indirect comparison suggested that fewer cardiovascular events happened during treatment with ARB (0.77, 0.63 to 0.94). The
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use is associated with reduced major adverse cardiovascular events among patients with critical limb ischemia. AU - Armstrong, Ehrin J.. AU - Chen, Debbie C.. AU - Singh, Gagan. AU - Amsterdam, Ezra A. AU - Laird, John R.. PY - 2015/6/5. Y1 - 2015/6/5. N2 - Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are recommended for secondary prevention in peripheral artery disease, but their effectiveness in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) is uncertain. We reviewed 464 patients with CLI who underwent diagnostic angiography or endovascular intervention from 2006-2013 at a multidisciplinary vascular center. ACEI or ARB use was assessed at the time of angiography. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), mortality, and major adverse limb events (MALE) were assessed during three-year follow-up. Propensity weighting was used to adjust for baseline differences between ...
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists (or blockers) are a newer class of antihypertensive agents. These drugs are selective for angiotensin II (type 1 receptor); unlike angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, they do not inhibit bradykinin metabolism or enhance prostaglandin synthesis. Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are well tolerated. Cough occurs much less often with these agents than with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and they do not adversely affect lipid profiles or cause rebound hypertension after discontinuation. Clinical trials indicate that angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are effective and safe in the treatment of hypertension. Their use in congestive heart failure and renal disease is under investigation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical and economic implications of therapeutic switching of Angiotensin receptor blockers to Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. T2 - a population-based study. AU - Kurdi, Amanj. AU - Elliott, Rachel A.. AU - Chen, Li-Chia. PY - 2019/6/1. Y1 - 2019/6/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and cost impact of switching angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in patients with hypertension. METHODS: This study used the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, linking with the Hospital Episode Statistics (April 2006 to March 2012). Adults with hypertension (n = 470) were followed from the first ARB prescription date to the switching date (preswitching period); then from the switching date to the date when study ended, patient left the dataset or died (postswitching period). Patients were divided into ACEIs-combined (n = 369) and ACEIs-monotherapy (n = 101) groups by whether additional antihypertensive drugs were prescribed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Discontinuation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in Chronic Kidney Disease. AU - Qiao, Yao. AU - Shin, Jung Im. AU - Sang, Yingying. AU - Inker, Lesley A.. AU - Secora, Alex. AU - Luo, Shengyuan. AU - Coresh, Josef. AU - Alexander, G. Caleb. AU - Jackson, John W.. AU - Chang, Alex R.. AU - Grams, Morgan E.. PY - 2019/11/1. Y1 - 2019/11/1. N2 - Objective: To assess the patterns of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) discontinuation in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in real-world clinical practice. Patients and Methods: We identified incident ACE-I/ARB users with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥15 mL/min/1.73 m2 and without end-stage renal disease in the Geisinger Health System between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2015. We investigated the associations of CKD stage, hospitalizations with and without acute kidney injury (AKI), serum ...
Reduce the impact of angiotensin II receptor blocker drugs recalls on your patients by switching them from ARB to other appropriate drug therapies.
We read with interest the paper by Komiyama and Hasegawa on the need for smoking cessation as a public health measure to limit the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.1 It seems obvious to reiterate that smoking cessation is advisable to reduce many other severe conditions, such as chronic lung and cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer, which are leading causes of morbidity and mortality.
Dr. James Lohr, Division of Nephrology, VAMC, 3495 Bailey Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14215. Phone: 716-862-3204; Fax: 716-862-6784; E-mail: James.Lohr{at}med.va.gov ...
Both angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce angiotensin action. Angiotensin, a powerful hormone, has many actions, the most important of which is constriction of small blood vessels, leading to a rise in blood pressure and therefore in the pressure of blood within the glomerular capillaries in the kidneys. Lowering this pressure may well be the mechanism by which these drugs tend to slow progression of kidney failure.. The effects of ACEIs differ from those of ARBs in several important respects. It is even conceivable that taking drugs from both classes is more effective than taking just one or the other alone. Unfortunately, side-to-side comparisons of these two classes of drugs have not been performed, because the drug industry has no interest in such trials. These drugs are also effective in reducing urinary protein excretion in the nephrotic syndrome, and they also slow progression of chronic renal failure even when added to a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in Myocardial Infarction. AU - Kostis, John. PY - 2019/7/1. Y1 - 2019/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85065221731&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85065221731&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - https://doi.org/10.1177/1074248419841636. DO - https://doi.org/10.1177/1074248419841636. M3 - Letter. C2 - 31035789. VL - 24. JO - Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. JF - Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. SN - 1074-2484. IS - 4. ER - ...
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists work in a similar way to ACE inhibitors. But instead of stopping the production of angiotensin II, they block its action. This allows the blood vessels to expand, improving blood flow and reducing blood pressure. Angiotensin II is a very potent chemical that causes muscles surrounding blood vessels to contract, thereby narrowing blood vessels. This narrowing increases the pressure within the vessels and can cause high blood pressure (hypertension). Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are medications that block the action of angiotensin II by preventing angiotensin II from binding to angiotensin II receptors on blood vessels. As a result, blood vessels enlarge (dilate) and blood pressure is reduced. Reduced blood pressure makes it easier for the heart to pump blood and can improve heart failure. In addition, the progression of kidney disease due to high blood pressure or diabetes is slowed. ARBs have effects that are similar to angiotensin converting enzyme ...
The goal of this request was to estimate the number of prevalent users and dispensings of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) among pediatric pop
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, specifically angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), have confirmed renoprotective benefits in patients with proteinuria and hypertension. However, it remains controversial whether these agents are beneficial to kidney recipients. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of ACEI/ARB treatment on patient and allograft survival after kidney transplant. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible articles from before May 2016, and we included 24 articles (9 randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and 15 cohort studies with 54,096 patients), in which patient or graft survival was compared between an ACEI/ARB treatment arm and a control arm ...
Comparative assessment of environmental risk when using angiotensin II antagonists candesartan, losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, eprosartan and telmisartan from a Swedish perspective (Report Goodpoint 2019).. Angiotensin receptor blockers are relatively stable and can reach the aquatic environment at concentrations higher than that of many other pharmaceuticals. They are all fat-soluble, suggesting high potential for bioconcentration in biota, which has been documented for irbesartan, since telmisartan does not bioconcentrate in proportion to its very high fat solubility. Bioconcentration data for the other substances are missing. The target is preserved in fish but not invertebrates and algae. However, growth studies (28-32 days) of fish for four of the substances (candesartan, losartan, valsartan, irbesartan) show low toxicity, but mechanism-based efficacy data are completely lacking for all.. Based on the information, none of the angiotensin receptor blockers can be attributed to high ...
Initial studies suggested that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and (possibly) aldosterone antagonists might either prevent new onset and recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) or reduce the rate of ma
ACE inhibitors reduce the production of the enzyme angiotensin, which makes blood vessels constrict. ACE inhibitors allow blood vessels to expand so that blood can flow more easily and the heart can work more efficiently. Examples of commonly prescribed ACE inhibitors are benazepril, captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, and others.. Angiotensin II receptor blockers block the effects of angiotensin, preventing it from affecting the heart and blood vessels. Examples of angiotensin II receptor blockers are candesartan, losartan, telmisartan, valsartan, and others.. Pregnant women should not take ACE inhibitors or ARBs. These medicines can cause a risk of birth defects. If you have high blood pressure and plan to become pregnant or are pregnant, contact your healthcare provider right away.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiotensin receptor blockers. T2 - Clinical relevance and new opportunities. AU - Volpe, Massimo. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Effective treatment of high blood pressure (BP) is a key strategy for reducing the burden of hypertension-related cardiovascular diseases, ie, mainly stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular death. Despite these well-established concepts, however, hypertension remains poorly controlled worldwide. In addition, patients treated for hypertension often remain at a higher risk as compared to the normotensive population, even when a satisfactory BP control is achieved. This is due to the concomitant presence of metabolic abnormalities and/or organ damage, thus accounting for the high or very high added cardiovascular risk profile often observed in patients with hypertension. An emerging strategy to improve general BP control and achieve this unmet target for cardiovascular disease prevention in patients with hypertension is represented by ...
Accumulated evidence suggests that an altered ambulatory blood pressure (BP) profile, particularly elevated nighttime BP, reflects target organ injury and is a better predictor of further cardiorenal risk than the clinic BP or daytime BP in hypertens
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of olmesartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes with overt nephropathy. T2 - A multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study. AU - Imai, E.. AU - Chan, J. C.N.. AU - Ito, S.. AU - Yamasaki, T.. AU - Kobayashi, F.. AU - Haneda, M.. AU - Makino, H.. N1 - Funding Information: Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00141453 Funding: The ORIENT study was supported by a research grant from Daiichi Sankyo. Funding Information: Acknowledgement The ORIENT study was supported by a research grant from Daiichi Sankyo.. PY - 2011/12. Y1 - 2011/12. N2 - Aims/hypothesis: The renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) remain controversial in type 2 diabetic patients treated with a contemporary regimen including an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI). Methods: We examined the effects of olmesartan, an ARB, on primary composite outcome of doubling of serum creatinine, endstage renal disease and death in type 2 ...
Looks at ARB medicines used to treat high blood pressure. Lists generic and brand names such as candesartan (Atacand) and irbesartan (Avapro). Covers how well they work and possible side effects. Warns against pregnant women taking ARBs. State of Nebraska, Nebraska
Looks at ARB medicines used to treat high blood pressure. Lists generic and brand names such as candesartan (Atacand) and irbesartan (Avapro). Covers how well they work and possible side effects. Warns against pregnant women taking ARBs. New Mexico, New Mexico
Abstract of Paper: Effect Of Angiotensin-II Receptor Blockade On Experimental Portal hypertension In Rabbits , Author: Sherif w. Mansour, Mohamed Abd El Homed and Mohamed Adel El-Sayed * , Year: 2003 , Faculty of Medicine, Benha University
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS ...
Compare & find the top performing anti-Mouse (Murine) Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)).
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We would like to thank Dr. Fakheri and colleagues for their extremely helpful comments on our recent review of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).1. We agree entirely with their suggestion on the lack of current data on any superiority of ACE inhibitors or ARBs in patients with diabetes without proteinuria and diabetes with normal renal function.2,3 As mentioned, the sentence perhaps lacks clarity.. In the United Kingdom, ACE inhibitors and ARBs are commonly prescribed for diabetic microalbuminuria, proteinuric renal disease, and hypertension, as well as after myocardial infarction and in heart failure.4 We therefore also concur that heart failure with reduced ejection fraction could be added to the list of conditions that are indications for inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system irrespective of the initial blood pressure level.. Interestingly, chronic kidney disease is associated with significantly increased risk of ...
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The July 2 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine has an article on the prevention of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy that will elicit much attention. It concludes Early blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with type 1 diabetes did not slow nephropathy progression but slowed the progression of retinopathy. An accompanying editorial reached the same conclusion. This finding is surprising. Angiotensin blockade is standard treatment for patients with diabetic nephropathy at any stage and is often given to diabetic patients before they show signs of kidney disease.. Ill just focus on the renal findings. The conclusion is misleading on two counts. The first is that the design of the study excluded patients who were most likely to benefit from angiotensin blockade and the second is that the data are, in my view, improperly interpreted.. The exclusion criteria were microalbuminuria, hypertension, and a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 90 ml/min. Thus the ...
Azilsartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (sometimes called an ARB) that is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Azilsartan may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Learn more about Olmesartan to Lower Blood Pressure at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker used for the treatment of ...
Our review demonstrated that there is currently insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of ACEi or ARB in patients with stage 1 to 3 CKD who do not have diabetes mellitus. We have identified an area of significant uncertainty for a group of patients who account for most of those labelle …
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This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Angiotensin 2 Receptor Blocking Agent, Angiotensin Receptor Blocker, Angiotensin Blocker, Losartan, Cozaar, Irbesartan, Avapro, Candesartan, Atacand, Eprosartan, Teveten, Telmisartan, Micardis, Valsartan, Diovan, Olmesartan, Benicar, Entresto, Exforge, Azor.
Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Olmesartan keeps blood vessels from narrowing, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow. Olmesartan is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) in adults and children who are at least 6 years old. It is sometimes given together with other blood...
MONDAY, Jan. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Newer blood pressure drugs are as safe and effective as older medications, new research suggests.. Scientists at the NYU Langone Medical Center in New York City said their findings settle a longstanding debate about which of two types blood-pressure lowering medications studied are better.. An analysis of 106 randomized trials involving more than 250,000 patients examined the effects of newer angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and older angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Although ACE inhibitors were developed 10 years earlier, both types of drugs showed similar effects in the analysis, challenging previous findings that suggest ACE inhibitors have greater benefits.. According to the new analysis, published online Jan. 4 in the Mayo Clinic Proceedings, the only difference between the medications is that ARBs are more easily tolerated.. There has been debate for many years over the safety and efficacy of ACE inhibitors compared to ARBs, with ...
Results We identified 100 043 patients with a first-time stroke. Of these, 83 736 patients had ischaemic stroke, 11 779 had ICH, and 4528 had SAH. For ischaemic stroke, the adjusted 30-day MRR was reduced in current users compared with non-users (0.85, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.89). There was no reduction in the adjusted 30-day MRR for ICH (0.95, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.03) or SAH (1.01, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.21), comparing current users with non-users. No association with mortality was found among former users compared with non-users. No notable modification of the association was observed within sex or age strata. ...
Pain management information for pain medicine healthcare professionals in treating and caring for their patients. Clinical Pain Advisor offers news, case studies and more.
Olvance Contain Olmesartan as active ingredient. It belong to the group of drug called angiotensin II receptor antagonists.Olmesartan keep blood vessel from narrowing & lower blood pressure and improve blood flow.
After two separate studies showed higher-than-expected death rates from cardiovascular problems for patients taking the blood pressure medicine Benicar (olmesartan), the FDA has said the agency will investigate. FDA is evaluating data from two clinical trials in which patients with type 2 diabetes taking the blood pressure medication, Benicar (olmesartan), an angiotensin II receptor blocker ...
-- First and Only Fixed-Dose Combination of a Beta Blocker and Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker for Treatment of Hypertension DUBLIN, June 6, 2016 ...
published in Circulation may revive the debate.. In both articles the authors have conducted reviews of available evidence using different inclusion criteria. One article concludes that MI event risk is increased in ARB users, the other finds no difference between ARB users and control subjects.. The common ground shared by the two papers is that Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) are superior to ARBs. Furthermore, neither paper demonstrated that ARBs actually reduce MI risk; ARBs may not be ACEIs without a cough.. Action: ACEIs remain the first line drug choice in this class of medicines. ARBs should only be used when ACEIs are not tolerated and in these cases patients should be informed of the differences in MI risk.. ...
Patients with underlying cardiovascular diseases appear to have an increased risk for adverse outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are dominated by respiratory symptoms, some patients also may have severe cardiovascular damage. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors have been shown to be the entry point into human cells for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. In a few experimental studies with animal models, both angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to upregulate ACE2 expression in the heart. Though these have not been shown in human studies, or in the setting of COVID-19, such potential upregulation of ACE2 by ACE inhibitors or ARBs has resulted in a speculation of potential increased risk for COVID-19 infection in patients with background treatment of these medications.. ACE2 is a homolog of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE2 negatively ...
Various conditions can be treated with the medication captopril, which this eMedTV segment lists. This Web page also provides information on possible side effects and includes a link to a full-length article on this angiotensin II receptor blocker.
ROADMAP is the first-ever, large-scale clinical trial, being conducted in 19 European countries to evaluate whether the angiotensin II receptor blocker (AR
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Previous studies have also linked hypertension to severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Now, a new study by researchers at the University of East Anglias Norwich Medical School has found that the risk of severe COVID-19 and death was reduced for patients with high blood pressure who were taking Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB).. ...
Harada K, Sugaya T, Murakami K, Yazaki Y, Komuro I (November 1999). "Angiotensin II type 1A receptor knockout mice display less ... Lee HY, Oh BH (July 2016). "Fimasartan: A New Angiotensin Receptor Blocker". Drugs. 76 (10): 1015-22. doi:10.1007/s40265-016- ... Through oral administration, fimasartan blocks angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 receptors), reducing pro-hypertensive ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) then catalyzes the reaction that forms angiotensin II, which acts on AT1 receptors on the ...
... angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers along with beta blockers are recommended.[4] For ... "Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker attenuates myocardial remodeling and preserves diastolic function in diabetic heart". ... or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) if the person develops a long term cough as a side effect of the ACE-I.[60] Use of ... Heart failure is divided into two types based on ejection fraction, which is the proportion of blood pumped out of the heart ...
May 2007). "Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker attenuates myocardial remodeling and preserves diastolic function in ... December 2005). "Increased gene expression of collagen Types I and III is inhibited by beta-receptor blockade in patients with ... usually with a pharmacological agent that slows down AV conduction such as a calcium channel blocker or a beta-blocker) is, ... which is a common downstream target of the signal transduction cascade initiated by catecholamines and angiotensin II, and also ...
Losartan is an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker known to antagonise TGF-ß signalling via inhibiting the expression ... ß-blocker medication for aortic protection and prophylactic replacement of the aortic root.[14] In MFS affected adults, it is ... ß forms a complex with its dimer receptors, to initiate a phosphorylation cascade.[23] This phosphorylation can cause failures ... 139 (1): 2-8. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.30981. PMID 16222666.. *^ a b c d e f g h i von Kodolitsch Y, Robinson PN (June 2007). "Marfan ...
... angiotensin ii type 1 receptor blockers MeSH D27.505.519.170 - antacids MeSH D27.505.519.186 - antimetabolites MeSH D27.505. ... calcium channel blockers MeSH D27.505.519.562.374 - ionophores MeSH D27.505.519.562.500 - potassium channel blockers MeSH ... estrogen receptor modulators MeSH D27.505.696.399.450.360.315 - estrogen antagonists MeSH D27.505.696.399.450.360.315.300 - ... potassium channel blockers MeSH D27.505.954.411.700 - sclerosing solutions MeSH D27.505.954.411.720 - sodium channel blockers ...
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), formally angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonists, also known as angiotensin ... also known as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), are a family of agents that bind to and inhibit the angiotensin II type 1 ... Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)". blood pressure medication. Retrieved 2020-03-21. "ARBs", Angiotensin II Receptor ... receptor blockers, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, or AT1 receptor antagonists, are a group of pharmaceuticals that bind ...
"The distribution of angiotensin II type 1 receptors, and the tissue renin-angiotensin systems", Molecular Medicine Today, 1 (1 ... The angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), also called angiotensin (AT1) receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of ... no matter how high the concentration of Ang II is. The angiotensin receptor blockers can inhibit the receptor in a competitive ... the main focus was on angiotensin peptide analogues. Saralasin and other Ang II analogues were potent Ang II receptor blockers ...
... is an angiotensin II receptor blocker that shows high affinity for the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1), with a ... It is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and works by blocking the effects of angiotensin II. Telmisartan was patented in ... It has the longest half-life of any angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) (24 hours) and the largest volume of distribution ... July 2011). "Angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan enhances running endurance of skeletal muscle through activation of ...
... tabletop wargame Angiotensin II receptor blocker (AT1 blocker) All pages with titles beginning with AT1 All pages with titles ... AT1 may refer to: Angiotensin II receptor type 1 Additional Tier 1 capital, see Contingent convertible bond Yamaha AT1 (1969- ... 1971) motorcycle Ekspress AT1, communications satellite AT1 in the Ekspress network AeroTech Release 1; ...
... is a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB, AT1 receptor blocker). Forasartan is indicated for the treatment of ... Naik P, Murumkar P, Giridhar R, Yadav MR (December 2010). "Angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) selective nonpeptidic ... an orally active angiotensin II-receptor antagonist: inhibition of blood pressure response to angiotensin II challenges and ... Angiotensin II binds to AT1 receptors, increases contraction of vascular smooth muscle, and stimulates aldosterone resulting in ...
... angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are associated with fewer traumatic stress symptoms ... The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in turn couples to ... Angiotensin II receptor type 1 has been shown to interact with Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 16. The protein's ... "Entrez Gene: AGTR1 angiotensin II receptor, type 1". Senbonmatsu T, Saito T, Landon EJ, Watanabe O, Price E, Roberts RL, ...
Kalaitzidis, R; Bakris, G. L. (2009). "Effects of angiotensin II receptor blockers on diabetic nephropathy". Journal of ... "Renoprotective Effect of the Angioplasty-Receptor Antagonist Irbesartan in Patients with Nephropathy Due to Type 2 Diabetes". ... For example, not only do angiotensin receptor blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors work to lower blood ... For instance, a receptor antagonist is an agent that reduces the response that a ligand produces when the receptor antagonist ...
Some evidence exists to suggest that the Angiotensin II receptor blocker drug telmisartan will prevent corneal ... "Inhibition of Corneal Neovascularization by Blocking the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual ... 8 (1): 182.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Usui, T.; Sugisaki, K.; Iriyama, A.; Yokoo, S.; Yamagami, S.; Nagai, ... This is especially likely with lenses made with older hydrogel materials such as HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) for both ...
Hypertension is treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). ... PKD is a general term for two types, each having their own pathology and genetic cause: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney ... PKD is a general term for two types, each having their own pathology and genetic cause: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney ... Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) (OMIM #263200) is the lesser common of the two types of PKD, with an ...
Dual administration of neprilysin inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers has been shown to be advantageous to ACE ... Activates adipocyte plasma membrane type A guanylyl cyclase receptors NPR-A Increases intracellular cGMP levels that induce the ... influence of angiotensin II and diastolic fiber length". Circulation. 102 (25): 3074-9. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.102.25.3074. PMID ... "Receptor selectivity of natriuretic peptide family, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and C-type ...
... or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) along with symptomatic management with diuretics. Beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors ... In patients with TIC due to other types of SVT, RF catheter ablation is recommended as a first-line treatment. In patients with ... The treatment of heart failure commonly involves neurohormonal blockade with beta-blockers and angiotensin convertase ... The types of SVT associated with TIC include atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, incessant atrial tachycardia, permanent ...
Heart medications: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, diuretics, digoxin and beta-blockers may help with the ... It has a role in the proper function, maintenance and formation of cilia, which are found in all types of cells in the body. At ... Some of the types of genetic testing are molecular, biochemical and chromosomal. Other laboratory tests performed may measure ... Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in early childhood. Hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance-development of high level of insulin in ...
... have been treated with an Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and/or an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker (ARB) for at ... mixed type AIHA, or paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. Fostamatinib as a treatment for IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is in Phase II ... A phase II study of rheumatoid arthritis patients failing to respond to a biologic agent showed little efficacy as compared to ... When FcγRs I, IIA, and IIIA bind to their ligands, the receptor complex becomes activated and triggers the phosphorylation of ...
... angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), and beta blockers. Which type of medication to use initially for hypertension has ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonists work by antagonizing the activation of angiotensin receptors. azilsartan candesartan ... thiazide-type diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor antagonists. The first large ... On the other hand, β-blockers, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone receptor antagonists ...
... or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), and a calcium channel blocker, the addition of amiloride (or spironolactone) was ... or angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonists like losartan, may lead to high levels of potassium in the blood, requiring ... Note that amiloride is not an angiotensin II receptor blocker (like losartan, for example). The Na-H transporter is also found ... The risk of developing hyperkalemia is increased in patients who are also taking ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor ...
Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), as well as angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), are particularly helpful ... RAGE is a signal transduction receptor found on a number of cell types including macrophages, endothelial cells, renal ... Treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), which dilates the ... "Effects of renin-angiotensin system blockers on renal outcomes and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetic nephropathy: ...
Examples of medications that can cause hyperkalemia include ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, and ... pseudohypoaldosteronism type II) ("familial hypertension with hyperkalemia"), a rare genetic disorder caused by defective ... Therefore, beta blockers can raise potassium levels by blocking beta-2 receptors. However, the rise in potassium levels is not ... Note that 12-40% of patients do not respond to salbutamol therapy for reasons unknown, especially if on beta-blockers, so it ...
... though another view is that increasing ACE2 using angiotensin II receptor blocker medications could be protective. As the ... which is most abundant in type II alveolar cells of the lungs. The virus uses a special surface glycoprotein called a "spike" ( ... Theoretically the usage of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and ACE inhibitors upregulating ACE2 expression might increase ... is the viral component that attaches to the host receptor via the ACE2 receptors. It includes two subunits: S1 and S2. S1 ...
... was found to have similar results as telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. "Ramipril Monograph for ... Remuzzi, Giuseppe (April 2006). "Prevention and Treatment of Diabetic Renal Disease in Type 2 Diabetes: The BENEDICT Study". ... thereby lowering the production of angiotensin II and decreasing the breakdown of bradykinin. The decrease in angiotensin II ... It is an ACE inhibitor and works by decreasing renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity. Ramipril was patented in 1981 and ...
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers, can be used to prevent angiotensin II from ... Emphasis on Blockade of the Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor". Medscape Cardiology. 9 (2). Paul M, Poyan Mehr A, Kreutz R (July ... Angiotensin I may have some minor activity, but angiotensin II is the major bio-active product. Angiotensin II has a variety of ... The decapeptide is known as angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is then converted to an octapeptide, angiotensin II by angiotensin- ...
It is in the angiotensin receptor blocker family of medication. It works by blocking angiotensin II. Losartan was patented in ... competitive angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonist, reducing the end organ responses to angiotensin II. Losartan ... angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II; angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction and ... angiotensin II, and ultimately decreasing blood pressure. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists include losartan, valsartan, ...
... and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (e.g., captopril) and possibly angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, e.g., ... Immunosuppressive drugs ii. Anti-inflammatory drugs 3. Biologic therapy i. Intravenous immunoglobulin ii. Rituximab Among all, ... It is the most common type of the pemphigoid group, representing 80% of sub-epidermal immunobullous cases. It is more commonly ... Two European studies have also suggested the increased risk of bullous pemphigoid with advancing age. According to the results ...
... calcium-channel blockers, and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. Most of these findings come from one type of beta-blocker ... thiazide diuretics and angiotensin receptor blockers, particularly in the elderly. Atenolol was the main β-blocker identified ... However, beta-blockers are a diverse group of medicines with different properties, and we need more well-conducted research in ... The role for β-blockers in general in hypertension was downgraded in June 2006 in the United Kingdom, and later in the United ...
... and decreases angiotensin II, microvascular leakage, and vasospasm through its function similar to calcium channel blockers.[ ... Gommers LM, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ, de Baaij JH (January 2016). "Hypomagnesemia in Type 2 Diabetes: A Vicious Circle?". ... Furthermore, it makes skeletal and muscle receptors less sensitive to parathyroid hormone. Magnesium is needed for the adequate ... In two trials of magnesium oxide, one of the most common forms in magnesium dietary supplements because of its high magnesium ...
... such as an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), which has a similar mechanism but does not affect bradykinin. However, this ... The three types of hereditary angioedema are: Type I - decreased levels of C1INH (85%); Type II - normal levels, but decreased ... type I HAE) or dysfunctional forms of the same protein (type II HAE). Type III HAE has been linked with mutations in the F12 ... of angioedema associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers". Annals of ...
"Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular ... are superior to other inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system such as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs),[115] or ... 37 (2): 99-105. PMID 18939392.. *^ a b c d e f g "Causes of Diabetes". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney ... Type 2 diabetes (T2D), formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, is a form of diabetes that is characterized by high blood sugar ...
Hosie AM, Wilkins ME, da Silva HM, Smart TG (Nov 2006). "Endogenous neurosteroids regulate GABAA receptors through two discrete ... Angiotensin receptor blockers. *Antiandrogens. *Beta-blockers. *Beta2 agonists. *Cephalosporins. *c-Met inhibitors ... of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone are potent and selective positive allosteric modulators of the γ-aminobutyric acid type ... The GABAA receptors are made up of subunits which form a receptor complex. Humans have 19 receptor subunits and are classified ...
Ballew JR, Fink GD (September 2001). "Characterization of the antihypertensive effect of a thiazide diuretic in angiotensin II- ... TypesEdit. High ceiling/loop diureticEdit. High ceiling diuretics may cause a substantial diuresis - up to 20%[3] of the ... receptor 2 antagonists amphotericin B, lithium[13][14]. Inhibits vasopressin's action 5. collecting duct ... Epithelial sodium channel blockers: amiloride and triamterene.. Calcium-sparing diureticsEdit. The term "calcium-sparing ...
The renal effect of fenoldopam and dopamine may involve physiological antagonism of the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney. ... Hughes AD, Sever PS (1989). "Action of fenoldopam, a selective dopamine (DA1) receptor agonist, on isolated human arteries". ... Fenoldopam mesylate contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may rarely cause allergic-type reactions including ... Concomitant use of fenoldopam with a beta-blocker should be avoided if possible, as unexpected hypotension can result from beta ...
ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors and aldosterone antagonists, are pharmacological ... Type I RPG/Type II hypersensitivity. *Goodpasture's syndrome. Type II RPG/Type III hypersensitivity. *Post-streptococcal ... The two proposed mechanisms of HN's pathophysiology[7] both centre around how the glomerulus, a network of dense capillaries ... However, this type of procedure is likely to be preceded with a provisional diagnosis based on laboratory investigations. ...
... angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, α blockers, calcium channel blockers, thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, ... Types of medicinesEdit. For the digestive systemEdit. *Upper digestive tract: antacids, reflux suppressants, antiflatulents, ... The drug requires very expensive Phase I, II and III clinical trials, and most of them fail. Small companies have a critical ... General: β-receptor blockers ("beta blockers"), calcium channel blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, antiarrhythmics, ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... Types[edit]. *5-HT3 receptor antagonists block serotonin receptors in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. As ... NK1 receptor antagonist *Aprepitant (Emend) is a commercially available NK1 Receptor antagonist ... Mirtazapine (Remeron) is an antidepressant that also has antiemetic effects[4][5] it is also a potent histamine H1 receptor ...
... such as an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB)[17] which has a similar mechanism but does not affect bradykinin. However, ... type I HAE) or dysfunctional forms of the same protein (type II HAE). Type III HAE has been linked with mutations in the F12 ... Type II - normal levels, but decreased function of C1INH (15%);. *Type III - no detectable abnormality in C1INH, occurs in an X ... of angioedema associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers". Annals of ...
Angiotensin II receptor antagonist. *ACE inhibitor. *Alpha-adrenergic agonist. *Beta blocker. *Dopamine agonist ... The definition of a mechanism of action also includes the type of activity at that biological target. For receptors, these ... Ion channel modulators include opener or blocker. The following are specific examples of drug classes whose definition is based ... In several dominant drug classification systems, these four types of classifications form a hierarchy. For example, the ...
Angiotensin receptor blockers in Marfan syndrome & Loeys-Dietz. *Bone marrow transplantation. *Gene therapy ... Examples include Gaucher disease, Fabry disease, Mucopolysaccharidoses and Glycogen storage disease type II. Such treatments ... Medical genetics was a late developer, emerging largely after the close of World War II (1945) when the eugenics movement had ... Genetic information provides a unique type of knowledge about an individual and his/her family, fundamentally different from a ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... N-type calcium-channel blocker.. Intrathecal.. Protein binding = 50%; half-life = 2.9-6.5 hours; excretion = urine (,1%).[122] ... Partial agonist at the mu opioid receptor; agonist at delta opioid receptor; antagonist at kappa opioid receptor.. Sublingual, ... Full agonist at kappa opioid receptors, partial agonist/antagonist at the mu opioid receptors.[39]. IM, IV, SC.. Protein ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2007). Preventing Amphetamine-type Stimulant Use Among Young People: A Policy and ... as well as inhibit the inhibitory effect of adenosine receptors on dopamine receptors,[67] however the implications for humans ... Amphetamines-type stimulants are often used for their therapeutic effects. Physicians sometimes prescribe amphetamine to treat ...
The NMDA receptor is one of three types of ionotropic glutamate receptors, the other two being AMPA and kainate receptors. ... Uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists, or channel blockers, enter the channel of the NMDA receptor after it has been ... NMDA receptors are heterotetramers with two GluN1 subunits and two variable subunits.[49][62] Two of these variable subunits, ... The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel found in ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... Types[edit]. Two DNA bases that are cross-linked by a nitrogen mustard. Different nitrogen mustards will have different ... Drugs that target topoisomerase II can be divided into two groups. The topoisomerase II poisons cause increased levels enzymes ... Topoisomerase inhibitors are drugs that affect the activity of two enzymes: topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II. When the DNA ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper ... α-Adrenergic receptor agonists[edit]. Main article: α-Adrenergic receptor agonist. Common or widely marketed[edit]. * ... Expectorants such as guaifenesin are a related type of drug which help to clear mucus. ...
"Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular ... Redirected from Type II diabetes). Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder ... The similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not.[92] A 2016 review recommended treating to a systolic blood ... 37 (2): 99-105. PMID 18939392.. *^ a b c d e f g "Causes of Diabetes". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney ...
Angiotensin receptor blockers. *Antiandrogens. *Beta-blockers. *Beta2 agonists. *Cephalosporins. *c-Met inhibitors ... An Analysis of FDA Drug Approvals from a Perspective of the Molecule Type". Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 22 (3): 368. doi: ... However, now, after two decades of combinatorial chemistry, it has been pointed out that despite the increased efficiency in ... The majority of targets selected for drug discovery efforts are proteins, such as G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ...
Beta blockers (e.g., alprenolol, carteolol, cyanopindolol, iodocyanopindolol, isamoltane, oxprenolol, penbutolol, pindobind, ... There is no 5-HT1C receptor, as it was reclassified as the 5-HT2C receptor.[2] For more information, please see the respective ... 5-HT7 receptor. References[edit]. *^ Hoyer D, Clarke DE, Fozard JR, Hartig PR, Martin GR, Mylecharane EJ, Saxena PR, Humphrey ... "HTR2C 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". NCBI. 19 Mar 2017. Retrieved 26 Mar 2017.. ...
"A combined role of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers in stroke prevention". Vascular Health and Risk ... Benazepril adalah inhibitor ACE dan menghambat konversi angiotensin I menjadi angiotensin II pada jalur RAAS. ... type Cav1.3 di zona glomerulosa kelenjar adrenal. [33] [34] ... yang mana valsartan adalah antagonis reseptor angiotensin II.. ... Amlodipin/telmisartan, yang mana telmisartan adalah antagonis reseptor angiotensin II.. *Amlodipin/valsartan atau amlodipin/ ...
In this context, "thiazide" is taken to refer to a drug which acts at a "thiazide receptor", which is believed to be a sodium- ... Thiazide (/ˈθaɪəzaɪd/) is a type of molecule and a class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) ... Thiazides have also been replaced by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in Australia due to their propensity to ... Hypokalemia - Thiazide diuretics reduces potassium concentration in blood through two indirect mechanisms: inhibition of sodium ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... At this time, PPI-induced dysbiosis is considered a type of SIBO.. ... doi:10.1007/s00228-006-0131-1. PMID 16758264.. *^ a b c d e f g Corleto VD, Festa S, Di Giulio E, Annibale B (February 2014). " ... Two recent studies showed that 26% (24/94) and 25.3% (38/150) of a series of patients with unexplained GI symptoms had SIFO. ...
Below are two ways to calculate one's THR. In each of these methods, there is an element called "intensity" which is expressed ... Among these receptors are various proprioreceptors, baroreceptors, and chemoreceptors, plus stimuli from the limbic system ... Drugs known as calcium channel blockers slow HR by binding to these channels and blocking or slowing the inward movement of ... "Effect of legumes as part of a low glycemic index diet on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... Types[edit]. High ceiling/loop diuretic[edit]. High ceiling diuretics may cause a substantial diuresis - up to 20%[3] of the ... Ballew JR, Fink GD (September 2001). "Characterization of the antihypertensive effect of a thiazide diuretic in angiotensin II- ... receptor 2 antagonists amphotericin B, lithium[12][13] Inhibits vasopressin's action 5. collecting duct ...
ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers may be effective in reducing proteinuria when given at the early stage of ... "Cleavage of human and mouse cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. Actin, desmin ... Like all class II myosins, the two NMHC IIAs dimerize producing an asymmetric molecular structure recognizable by two heads and ... "Ablation of nonmuscle myosin II-B and II-C reveals a role for nonmuscle myosin II in cardiac myocyte karyokinesis". Molecular ...
... while ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers) actually decrease the risk of ... β-adrenergic receptors and others are selective for one of the three known types of beta receptors, designated β1, β2 and β3 ... 978-0-632-05077-2. . Retrieved March 11, 2011.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Comparison of Oral Beta-Blockers". ... Beta blockers (beta-blockers, β-blockers, etc.) are a class of medications that are predominantly used to manage abnormal heart ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... Type B fibers (sympathetic tone) are the most sensitive followed by type C (pain), type A delta (temperature), type A gamma ( ... and type A alpha (motor). Although type B fibers are thicker than type C fibers, they are myelinated, thus are blocked before ... A report of two cases". British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 56 (5): 478-83. doi:10.1016/S0007-1226(03)00180-2. PMID 12890461.. ...
A more recent example is the N-type calcium channel blocker ziconotide analgesic which is based on a cyclic peptide cone snail ... These first messengers interact with cellular receptors which are composed of proteins. Cellular receptors in turn activate ... Two examples developed for clinical use include ω-conotoxin (from the marine snail Conus magus) and ecteinascidin 743 (from the ... These include the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. Captopril is based on the peptidic bradykinin potentiating ...
There are two major types of drug design. The first is referred to as ligand-based drug design and the second, structure-based ... Acetylcholine receptor agonists. *Angiotensin receptor antagonists. *Bcr-Abl tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. *Cannabinoid receptor ... or ion channel openers or blockers)[11] will be designed that are complementary to the binding site of target.[12] Small ... Receptor. ]. [. Complex. ]. Δ. G. bind. =. Δ. G. desolvation. +. Δ. G. motion. +. Δ. G. configuration. +. Δ. G. interaction. {\ ...
ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are contraindicated as they affect fetal development.[33] ... Blood pressure ≥140 mmHg systolic or ≥90 mmHg diastolic on two separate readings taken at least four to six hours apart after ... Associated adult diseases of the fetus due to IUGR include, but are not limited to, coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 ... 6 (1): 1-7. doi:10.4021/jocmr1682w. PMC 3881982. PMID 24400024.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m American College of Obstetricians ...
Therapeutic effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker at an advanced stage of hypertensive diastolic heart failure. ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor BlockersAnimalsChemokine CCL2Heart FailureHypertensionHypertrophy, Left VentricularImidazoles ... Therapeutic effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker at an advanced stage of hypertensive diastolic heart failure.. J ... Therapeutic effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker at an advanced stage of hypertensive diastolic heart failure. J ...
The angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker olmesartan preferentially improves nocturnal hypertension and proteinuria in chronic ... an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), on ambulatory BP profiles and renal function in hypertensive CKD patients. ... 1.50±1.37, P=0.005; urinary type IV collagen excretion, 0.87±0.42 vs. 1.48±0.87, P=0.014) despite comparable A/B ratios for the ... Furthermore, the A/B ratios of urinary protein, albumin and type IV collagen excretion in the olmesartan add-on group were ...
... a lack of data on how to treat hypertensive patients with diabetes when treatment with medium doses of calcium channel blocker ... and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) is... ... combined with angiotensin II receptor blocker in type 2 ... Randomized trial of an increased dose of calcium channel blocker or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker as an add-on ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker Calcium channel blocker Essential Hypertension Home blood pressure Type 2 diabetes ...
3-9 With saralasin, it became possible to demonstrate that angiotensin II receptor blockade, alone or in combination with salt ... angiotensin II-like effects. The next major breakthrough in the understanding of the renin-angiotensin system was triggered by ... a nonselective peptidic antagonist of angiotensin II receptors. ... heart failure by a specific blockade of the renin-angiotensin ... the development of orally active angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.10-15 Studies performed with these agents ...
Purpose : Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) are commonly used to treat systemic hypertension. In addition to ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers lower IOP in mice and reduce TGFβ signaling in retinal ganglion cells ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers lower IOP in mice and reduce TGFβ signaling in retinal ganglion cells ... Ralph J Hazlewood, John Kuchtey, Rachel W Kuchtey; Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers lower IOP in mice and reduce TGFβ ...
Keywords: Angiotensin II type receptor blocker, cardiovascular disease, molecular structures, class-specific effects, molecule- ... Keywords:Angiotensin II type receptor blocker, cardiovascular disease, molecular structures, class-specific effects, molecule- ... Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and contains 359 amino ... Abstract:Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and contains ...
Angiotensin II receptors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Pharmacol Rev.1993;45:205-251.Medline ... An elective-titration study of the comparative effectiveness of two angiotensin II-receptor blockers irbesartan and losartan. ... Angiotensin II type 1a receptor-deficient mice with hypotension and hyperreninemia. J Biol Chem.1995;270:18719-18722.Crossref ... Blood pressure effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker, losartan. Arch Intern Med.1995;155:405-411.CrossrefMedline ...
Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I in a reaction catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, kininase II). ... Angiotensin II is the principal pressor agent of the renin-angiotensin system, with effects that include vasoconstriction, ... Telmisartan is an orally active nonpeptide angiotensin II antagonist that acts on the AT1 receptor subtype. New studies suggest ... Telmisartan works by blocking the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone secretory effects of angiotensin II. ...
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers increase tolerance of cells to copper and cisplatin - INTRODUCTION The human pathology ... setting is typically based on its ability to block the interaction between Angiotensin II and the Angiotensin II Receptor Type ... S. Saleh, A.A. Ain-Shoka, E. El-Demerdash, and M.M. Khalef, "Protective Effects of the Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Losartan ... Among them were two members of the drug class of Angiotensin II Type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) [34], namely Candesartan and ...
Angiotensin II. Angiotensinogen. Antihypertensive Agents. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor ... GISSI-AF - Use of Valsartan an Angiotensin II AT1-Receptor Blocker in the Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence. The ... an angiotensin II AT1-receptor blocker, in the prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrence. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). ... Multi-Center Study on the Use of Valsartan an Angiotensin II AT1-Receptor Blocker in the Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation ...
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ... Randomized Open Label Study of Standard of Care Plus an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Compared to Standard of Care Alone to ... Do Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Mitigate Progression to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome With SARS-CoV-2 Infection. The ... The purpose of this research is to identify whether or not Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB) can halt the progression to ...
... function and outcome in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction and the impact of angiotensin receptor blocker ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / therapeutic use* * Biphenyl Compounds / therapeutic use* ... Kevin Damman 1 , Ana C Perez 2 , Inder S Anand 3 , Michel Komajda 4 , Robert S McKelvie 5 , Michael R Zile 6 , Barrie Massie 7 ... Background: Worsening renal function (WRF) associated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibition does not ...
Receptors, Leukotriene/antagonists & inhibitors. Leukotriene Antagonists. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/antagonists & ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Uroporphyrinogen III Synthetase/deficiency. Porphyria, Erythropoietic ... Publication Type Change. Review, Academic [Publication Type] and Review, Literature [Publication Type] are deleted in 2005 MeSH ... These types of changes suggest the importance of routinely using the Details button when searching in PubMed to see how terms ...
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers. ARBs. Disclaimer: Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. ...
A randomized controlled study to compare the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (telmisartan vs candesartan vs ... A randomized controlled study to compare the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (telmisartan vs candesartan vs ... on the markers of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Next Previous ... on the markers of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Completed ...
Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockers on cardiac angiotensin-converting ... Clinical pharmacokinetics of angiotensin II (AT1) receptor blockers in hypertension. Z H Israili Journal of Human Hypertension ... Comparison of angiotensin II type 1-receptor blockers to regress pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Lei Li ... The effects of different angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers on the regulation of the ACE-AngII-AT1 and ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas ...
... or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) may experience a decreased incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes. ... The Impact of ACE Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers on the Development of New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes. 7 ... The Impact of ACE Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers on the Development of New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes. ... two trials), or heart failure (two trials), reductions in new-onset type 2 diabetes were maintained (0.79 [0.72-0.85], 0.76 [ ...
... an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in elderly and hypertensive subjects. Ten subjects with ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / adverse effects, therapeutic use*. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*. Blood ... We evaluated the effects of olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in elderly and ... 0/Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers; 0/Antihypertensive Agents; 0/Imidazoles; 0/Organotechnetium Compounds; 0/Tetrazoles ...
Pool JL, Glazer R, Chiang YT, et al. Dose-response efficacy of valsartan, a new angiotensin II receptor blocker. J Hum ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. Circulation. 2001;103:904-912. *CrossRef, ... a new angiotensin II-receptor blocker. Clin Ther. 1998;20:1106-1114. *CrossRef, ... Flynn JT, Meyers KE, Neto JP, et al. Efficacy and safety of the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan in children with ...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether a treatment for diabetic nephropathy, the angiotensin receptor blocker ... Angiotensin II. Angiotensinogen. Antihypertensive Agents. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor ... Angiotensin II Antagonism of TGF-Beta 1: A Candesartan Dose - TGF-Beta 1 Response Relationship Study. ... Angiotensin II Antagonism of TGF-Beta 1. This study has been completed. ...
Blocking the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (Telmisartan) reduces the incidence of episodes of atrial fibrillation in ... Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Calcium Channel Blockers. Membrane Transport ... A total of 160 subjects will be included in two study groups. The Group 1 will receive 80-160mg Telmisartan per day, the ... Concomitant therapy with B-blocker and acethydrazide are allowed for the target blood pressure during the study. ...
... and study design of the Prospective comparison of Angiotensin Receptor neprilysin inhibitor with Angiotensin receptor blocker ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. Diuretics. Natriuretic Agents. Sodium Chloride ... Two pulse wave velocity measures, meeting all quality control criteria were captured at baseline, week 12 and week 52. ... Two pulse waveform measurements, meeting all quality control criteria were captured at baseline and at week 12 visits. ...
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. To Top. *For Patients and Families ... A Single Dose, 2-Period, 2-Treatment, 2-Way Crossover Bioequivalency Study of Irbesartan / Hydrochlorothiazide 300/25 mg ... Female subjects of childbearing potential - not surgically sterile or at least 2 years postmenopausal - must agree to utilize ... 1 x 7 mL) before dose and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.25, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours ...
Because WNK4 was previously shown to be a negative regulator of NCC, it has been postulated that angiotensin II converts WNK4 ... We and others have recently shown that angiotensin II can activate the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) through a WNK4-SPAK- ... To do so, we infused vehicle or aldosterone in adrenalectomized rats that also received the angiotensin receptor blocker ... Angiotensin II / physiology* * Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / pharmacology * Animals * Diuretics / pharmacology ...
Angiotensin receptor blockers. ↓. ↑↑. ↓. DHPs (It is a shared opinion that dihydropyridinic calcium channel blockers do not ... Elevation of angiotensin-II type-1-receptor autoantibodies titer in primary aldosteronism as a result of aldosterone-producing ... which is then converted in the lungs into the octapeptide angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin II ... The mechanism and gene locus have not yet been identified, though CYP11B and the renin and angiotensin II receptor genes have ...
Elevation of angiotensin-II type-1-receptor autoantibodies titer in primary aldosteronism as a result of aldosterone-producing ... Angiotensin receptor blockers. ↓. ↑↑. ↓. DHPs (It is a shared opinion that dihydropyridinic calcium channel blockers do not ... angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers; DHPs, dihydropyridines; PHA-2, pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2; PRA, plasma renin ... Familial hyperaldosteronism type II: description of a large kindred and exclusion of the aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene. J ...
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), that is frequently prescribed. October 27, 2017. by Erin Watts·0 Comments ... Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), that is frequently prescribed in sufferers with glomerulonephritis (GN), is ... 65-29-2 GATA1. Post navigation. Previous Previous post: Background Elderly patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC ... The mean age group at biopsy was 41.4 yr in every sufferers 65-29-2 and was the cheapest in the non-e group (Desk 1). The male ...
Indeed, interruption of the RAS with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor ... Indeed, interruption of the RAS with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor ... Indeed, interruption of the RAS with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor ... Indeed, interruption of the RAS with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor ...
Angiotensin II / Angiotensins / Blotting, Western / Cellular Senescence / Coronary Vessels / Myocytes, Smooth Muscle / Receptor ... Aging , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Blotting, Western , Cellular Senescence , ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blocker, Fimasartan, Reduces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Senescence by Inhibiting the CYR61 ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blocker, Fimasartan, Reduces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Se ...
Clinical profile of the novel angiotensin II type I blocker candesartan cilexetil. Sever, Peter S. ... Involvement of angiotensin II in cardiovascular and renal injury: effects of an AT1-receptor antagonist on gene expression and ... Renin-angiotensin system and myocardial collagen matrix: modulation of cardiac fibroblast function by angiotensin II type 1 ... Influence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein on vascular angiotensin II receptor expression. Nickenig, Georg; Sachinidis, ...
  • The angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker olmesartan preferentially improves nocturnal hypertension and proteinuria in chronic kidney disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A total of 121 participants with type 2 diabetes and uncontrolled essential hypertension, who were receiving medium doses of amlodipine (5 mg/day) and ARB, were enrolled. (springer.com)
  • Thereafter, the development of pharmacological probes that block the renin-angiotensin system helped define the contribution of this system to blood pressure control and to the pathogenesis of diseases such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, and chronic renal failure. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Angiotensin II antagonists for hypertension: are there differences in efficacy? (semanticscholar.org)
  • A comparison of the angiotensin II antagonists valsartan and losartan in the treatment of essential hypertension. (semanticscholar.org)
  • AT1-receptor blockers in hypertension and heart failure: clinical experience and future directions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) are commonly used to treat systemic hypertension. (arvojournals.org)
  • Hypertension of renal origin: evidence for two different mechanisms. (stonel.info)
  • Hypertension in man, exposure of the renin and sodium components using angiotensin II blockade. (stonel.info)
  • Angiotensin II inhibition: treatment of congestive cardiac failure in a high-renin hypertension. (stonel.info)
  • Chronic Hypertension (as determined by current antihypertensive therapy and/or an average of diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mmHg or greater or systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg confirmed on at least two subsequent visits over one week or more). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The additive effect of angiotensin II may favor electroneutral sodium reabsorption during hypovolemia and may contribute to hypertension in diseases with an activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. (nih.gov)
  • Angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have been effectively used in hypertension and cardiac remodeling. (qxmd.com)
  • Clinical pharmacokinetics of angiotensin II (AT1) receptor blockers in hypertension. (qxmd.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS -ACEIs or ARBs may decrease patients' odds of developing new-onset type 2 diabetes but does not reduce the odds of mortality, cardiovascular, or cerebrovascular outcomes over the study follow-up periods among patients with hypertension. (thaiendocrine.org)
  • Olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, restores cerebral hypoperfusion in elderly patients with hypertension. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The examining division considered that in this claim the combination of the three features of (i) compounds with a particular activity, (ii) a diuretic and (iii) the treatment of hypertension in insulin-resistant patients had introduced a new specific teaching to the skilled man with respect to the parent application. (epo.org)
  • Fimasartan is a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB) used for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypertension , has an anti-inflammatory property in addition to being an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Telmisartan (TEL), an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker and PPARγ partial agonist, has been used for to treat hypertension. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Telmisartan is an angiotensin receptor blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers are used primarily for the treatment of hypertension where the patient is intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy primarily because of persistent and/or dry cough. (wikipedia.org)
  • To assess and compare the effects of candesartan or lisinopril, or both, on blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in patients with microalbuminuria, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • 4 7 8 We compared the effects of candesartan 9 (a type 1 receptor blocker) and lisinopril 10 on blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion and evaluated the effects of the combination of both drugs in patients with hypertension, microalbuminuria, and type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (aldosterone antagonists) are cornerstones in the treatment of both patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and high-risk hypertension as these drug classes lower morbidity and mortality. (springer.com)
  • Gustafsson F, Torp-Pedersen C, Kober L, Hildebrandt P. Effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition after acute myocardial infarction in patients with arterial hypertension. (springer.com)
  • Rights & permissions for article What can we expect from the binding characteristics of azilsartan, a newly available angiotensin II blocker, in hypertension? (nature.com)
  • Cough occurs much less often with these agents than with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and they do not adversely affect lipid profiles or cause rebound hypertension after discontinuation. (aafp.org)
  • Clinical trials indicate that angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are effective and safe in the treatment of hypertension. (aafp.org)
  • Since the first angiotensin-II receptor antagonists were introduced a few years ago, numerous clinical trials have been conducted on their use in patients with hypertension and their potential use in patients with congestive heart failure. (aafp.org)
  • The angiotensin-II receptor antagonists that have been labeled for use in hypertension by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), irbesartan (Avapro), candesartan (Atacand) and telmisartan (Micardis). (aafp.org)
  • The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays an integral role in the pathophysiology of hypertension because it affects the regulation of fluid volume, electrolyte balance and blood volume. (aafp.org)
  • 3 Thus, they inhibit the actions of A-II that are associated with hypertension. (aafp.org)
  • There were no significant differences in age, sex, and prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and history of smoking between patients with and without beta-blockers, while those with beta blockers had higher prevalence of hypertension and prescription of ACE inhibitors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension are major public health problems that are frequently treated with fenofibrate and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT 1 R) blockers (ARBs), respectively. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hypertension and coronary heart disease are frequently associated with insulin resistance and disorders of metabolic homeostasis such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Proinflammatory adipocytokines contribute to ROS generation and endothelial dysfunction through upregulation of Nox, leading to insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes (DM), hypertension, and a variety of CVDs. (hindawi.com)
  • Angiotensin II via its type 1 (AT 1 ) receptor stimulation may contribute to the pathogenesis of CNS disorders and cognitive decline by promoting hypertension, vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and neuronal damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • Angiotensin II causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy through its receptors in the kidney," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 103, no. 47, pp. 17985-17990, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Modulating angiotensin II-induced inflammation by HMG Co-A reductase inhibition," American Journal of Hypertension , vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 55S-61S, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Angiotensin II type-1 receptor blocker valsartan enhances insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscles of diabetic mice," Hypertension , vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1003-1010, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • A six month, treat-to-target, open study was conducted on subjects with grade 1-2 hypertension. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Fimasartan is safe and effective in Mexican subjects with grade 1-2 essential hypertension. (scielo.org.mx)
  • With reports of potential cardiomodulatory properties of CA and CAF, we sought to investigate if proportional combinations of CA and CAF could influence the antihypertensive properties of each compounds by assessing their effect on activities of enzymes [angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE), acetylcholinesterase, arginase, monoamine oxidase, phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5)] relevant to hypertension in vitro. (deepdyve.com)
  • Losartan is an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) that may be used alone or with other agents to treat hypertension. (rcsb.org)
  • The trial included 947 patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and either systolic hypertension while taking two or more antihypertensive drugs or chronic kidney disease. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Angiotensin II receptors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. (stonel.info)
  • Sympatho-inhibitory properties of various AT1 receptor antagonists. (qxmd.com)
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), formally angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, or AT1 receptor antagonists, are a group of pharmaceuticals that bind to and inhibit the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) and thereby block the arteriolar contraction and sodium retention effects of renin-angiotensin system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The issue of whether angiotensin II receptor antagonists slightly increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI or heart attack) is currently being investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiment in isolated renal proximal tubules of OZR revealed that both the agonists C21 and Ang-(1-7) stimulated NO which was blocked by either of the receptor antagonists. (bireme.br)
  • These antagonists, however, block only one subtype of the angiotensin II receptor, the type 1 subtype, and in contrast with ACE inhibitors do not promote accumulation of vasodilatory substances such as bradykinin. (bmj.com)
  • Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists (or blockers) are a newer class of antihypertensive agents. (aafp.org)
  • Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are well tolerated. (aafp.org)
  • Other angiotensin-II receptor antagonists currently under investigation include eprosartan, tasosartan and zolarsartan. (aafp.org)
  • Two systems of nomenclature are used in reference to angiotensin-II receptor antagonists: one system employs Roman numerals, and the other is based on the amino acids that make up the A-I and A-II receptors (AT 1 receptor and AT 2 receptor). (aafp.org)
  • 2 Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists act by binding to specific membrane-bound receptors that displace A-II from its type 1-receptor subtype (AT 1 ). (aafp.org)
  • Components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sites at which angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors work and angiotensin-II receptor antagonists interrupt the type 1-receptor subtype (AT 1 ) of angiotensin II. (aafp.org)
  • At a symposium at the 61st Scientific Sessions of the ADA in June 2001, the results of three recent diabetic nephropathy trials with angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor antagonists were presented. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Losartan and its longer acting active metabolite, E-3174, are specific and selective type-1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) antagonists which block the blood pressure increasing effects angiotensin II via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). (rcsb.org)
  • We show that aortic aneurysm in a mouse model of MFS is associated with increased TGF-β signaling and can be prevented by TGF-β antagonists such as TGF-β-neutralizing antibody or the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) blocker, losartan. (elsevier.com)
  • Effect of losartan compared with captopril on mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure: randomised trial--the Losartan Heart Failure Survival Study ELITE II. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We identified 2 members of the drug class of Angiotensin II Type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) that could increase yeast tolerance to Cu, namely Candesartan and Losartan. (microbialcell.com)
  • Standard of care plus the starting dose of losartan 12.5mg (investigator has option to increase dose on days 2-10 based on tolerance of SBP) of losartan taken twice daily for up to 10 days. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To do so, we infused vehicle or aldosterone in adrenalectomized rats that also received the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan. (nih.gov)
  • To study whether angiotensin II could have an additive effect, rats receiving aldosterone with losartan were compared with rats receiving aldosterone only. (nih.gov)
  • We designed this study to examine and compare the effects of several ARBs widely used in clinics, including Olmesartan, Candesartan, Telmisartan, Losartan, Valsartan and Irbesartan, on the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis and the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis during the development of cardiac remodeling after pressure overload. (qxmd.com)
  • Although all of the six ARBs, attenuated the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 2 or 4weeks in the wild-type mice evaluated by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements, the degree of attenuation by Olmesartan, Candesartan and Losartan tended to be larger than that of the other three drugs tested. (qxmd.com)
  • Additionally, the degree of downregulation of the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis and upregulation of the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis was higher in response to Olmesartan, Candesartan and Losartan administration in vivo and in vitro. (qxmd.com)
  • Our data suggest that Olmesartan, Candesartan and Losartan could effectively inhibit pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling even when with knockdown of Ang II, possibly through upregulation of the expression of the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis and downregulation of the expression of the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis. (qxmd.com)
  • In animal study, telmisartan administration caused a significant attenuation of weight gain and reduced glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels in rats fed a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, compared with treatments of losartan, another type of ARB. (elsevier.com)
  • Irbesartan and losartan have trial data showing benefit in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes,[citation needed] and may delay the progression of diabetic nephropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A two-wave cascade of ROS production is active in nigral dopaminergic neurons in response to neurotoxicity-induced superoxide.Our findings allow us to conclude that superoxide generated by NADPH oxidase present in nigral neurons contributes to the loss of such neurons in PD.Losartan suppression of nigral-cell superoxide production suggests that angiotensin receptor blockers have potential as PD preventatives. (nih.gov)
  • Cells were treated with MPP+ (MPTP metabolite) following siRNA silencing of the Nox2-stabilizing subunit p22phox, or simultaneously with NADPH oxidase pharmacological inhibitors or with losartan to antagonize angiotensin II type 1 receptor-induced NADPH oxidase activation. (nih.gov)
  • Losartan suppression of nigral-cell superoxide production suggests that angiotensin receptor blockers have potential as PD preventatives. (nih.gov)
  • A model of MPP+ induced generation of two waves of ROS in dopaminergic neurons and mechanisms of blockade by losartan. (nih.gov)
  • The Second Wave of ROS can be blocked by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of NADPH oxidase, as well as inhibition of protein synthesis by cyclohexamide (c-hex), and by losartan blockade of AT1 receptor. (nih.gov)
  • 1. This study investigates the influence of quercetin on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174 in rats. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 2. The pharmacokinetic profiles of losartan and EXP3174 of orally administ. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Losartan, the first angiotensin receptor blocker, was shown to exert signific. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Large-scale clinical studies have demonstrated that micronized fenofibrate, fibric acid, and losartan, an ARB, prevent and retard the progression of coronary heart disease ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, administration of another angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, was less effective compared with telmisartan in terms of preventing BBB permeability and astroglial end-foot swelling, and coadministration of GW9662 did not affect the effects of losartan. (ahajournals.org)
  • Barry Brenner, Boston, MA, discussed the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial of 1,513 patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy from 250 centers in 29 countries. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • What was not available in 1993 was "hard end point data" in type 2 diabetic subjects with nephropathy that showed losartan could slow the progression of advancing renal disease to nephropathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The losartan renal protection study-rationale, study design and baseline characteristics of RENAAL (Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan)," Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System , vol. 1, pp. 328-335, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • The angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker losartan could fully inhibit this response. (asnjournals.org)
  • The investigators found that 1-year survival was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89%-91%) for patients receiving candesartan and 83% (95% CI, 81%-84%) for patients receiving losartan, and 5-year survival was 61% (95% CI, 54%-68%) and 44% (95% CI, 41%-48%), respectively (log-rank p (acc.org)
  • Myocardial protection by preconditioning of heart with losartan, an angiotensin II type 1-receptor blocker: implication of bradykinin-dependent and bradykinin-independent mechanisms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To evaluate the role for AT1-R and AT2-R in Ang-II sensitivity, full concentration response curves were obtained for Ang-II in the presence of losartan or PD123319. (rug.nl)
  • Losartan is the first of a class of antihypertensive agents called angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). (rcsb.org)
  • Losartan competitively inhibits the binding of angiotensin II to AT1 in many tissues including vascular smooth muscle and the adrenal glands. (rcsb.org)
  • Losartan, which is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, could function as a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor c activator. (oatext.com)
  • ACE inhibition and ANG II receptor blockade improve glomerular size-selectivity in IgA nephropathy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Addition of angiotensin II receptor blockade to maximal angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition improves exercise capacity in patients with severe congestive heart failure. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Angiotensin-II blockade in man by Sar 1 -Ala 8 -angiotensin II for understanding and treatment of high blood pressure. (stonel.info)
  • Congestive heart failure in normotensive man: hemodynamics, renin and angiotensin II blockade. (stonel.info)
  • Possible role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and activation of angiotensin II type 2 receptor by angiotensin-(1-7) in improvement of vascular remodeling by angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade. (qxmd.com)
  • Indeed, as a consequence of AT1 blockade, ARBs increase angiotensin II levels several-fold above baseline by uncoupling a negative-feedback loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • ET or P2 receptor blockade did not attenuate the natriuretic effect of medullary NaCl loading in intact females, whereas ET or P2 receptor blockade attenuated the natriuretic response to NaCl loading in OVX rats. (bireme.br)
  • Combined ET receptor blockade significantly inhibited the natriuretic response to UTP observed in OVX rats. (bireme.br)
  • These findings demonstrate that telmisartan can have significant effects on mitochondrial metabolism in VSMC that are potentially relevant to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and that involve more than just angiotensin receptor blockade and activation of PPARγ. (curehunter.com)
  • These findings are consistent with the possibility that, in type 2 diabetic mice, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation by telmisartan may help with protection against cognitive decline by preserving the integrity of the BBB. (ahajournals.org)
  • Deficiency or blockade of angiotensin II type 2 receptor delays tumorigenesis by inhibiting malignant cell proliferation and angiogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Angiotensin-receptor blockade reduces border zone myocardial monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression and macrophage infiltration in post-infarction ventricular remodeling," Circulation Journal , vol. 72, no. 10, pp. 1685-1692, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Angiotensin II at1 receptor blockade decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the rat adrenal gland," Endocrinology , vol. 149, no. 10, pp. 5177-5188, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • These findings may explain clinical trial results in humans that demonstrated beneficial renal effects of blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in proteinuric patients, but not in patients with nonproteinuric kidney disease. (asnjournals.org)
  • In addition to interfering with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), ARBs attenuate signaling via TGFβ. (arvojournals.org)
  • Currently, there are eight ARBs in clinical use in the US, each with different chemical structures, active metabolites, and different modes of binding to angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). (arvojournals.org)
  • Indeed, interruption of the RAS with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) has been shown to prevent the onset of diabetes in hypertensive patients. (elsevier.com)
  • 2) When adjusted for blood pressure, is the effect of telmisartan superior to other ARBs? (elsevier.com)
  • Angiotensin II, through AT1 receptor stimulation, is a major stress hormone and, because (ARBs) block these receptors, in addition to their eliciting anti-hypertensive effects, may be considered for the treatment of stress-related disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those patients taking angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were 35-40% less likely to develop AD than those using other antihypertensives. (wikipedia.org)
  • AT 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) could reduce the incidence and progression of stroke, Alzheimer disease, and dementia. (ahajournals.org)
  • It covers topics related to angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and nephropathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT 1 ) receptor blockers (ARBs), first introduced in 1995, also inhibit the renin angiotensin system (RAS) in a mechanistically distinct fashion from ACEIs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Compared with ACEIs, which reduce the synthesis of Ang II, ARBs competitively and selectively bind to the AT 1 receptor, preventing its activation by Ang II. (ahajournals.org)
  • Unlike angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, ARBs do not have the adverse effect of dry cough. (rcsb.org)
  • Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are non-peptide competitive inhibitors of AT1. (rcsb.org)
  • ARBs block the ability of angiotensin II to stimulate pressor and cell proliferative effects. (rcsb.org)
  • Contribution of kinins to the cardiovascular actions of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. (stonel.info)
  • [6] In those with heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers along with beta blockers are recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • They selectively block the activation of the AT1 receptor, preventing the binding of angiotensin II compared to ACE inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 - 3 In many people with evidence of diabetic renal disease, however, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors alone fail to achieve blood pressure targets. (bmj.com)
  • unlike angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, they do not inhibit bradykinin metabolism or enhance prostaglandin synthesis. (aafp.org)
  • The effect of A-II is likely to be more completely blocked by the AT 1 receptor antagonism of angiotensin-II receptor blockers than by ACE inhibitors. (aafp.org)
  • This second wave was eliminated by pharmacological inhibitors and a blocker of protein synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between the use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers and the risk of cancer. (cmaj.ca)
  • We found no significant association between the use of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers and the overall risk of cancer (relative risk [RR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.03). (cmaj.ca)
  • No significant association was found between the use of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers and overall risk of cancer. (cmaj.ca)
  • Recent meta-analyses have shown a possible increased risk of cancer associated with angiotensin-receptor blockers used alone or combined with angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. (cmaj.ca)
  • We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library up to January 2011 using common keywords related to ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers and cancer. (cmaj.ca)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) play an important role in the management of patients at increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. (ahajournals.org)
  • Telmisartan is an orally active nonpeptide angiotensin II antagonist that acts on the AT 1 receptor subtype. (pharmacycode.com)
  • An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cotreatment with GW9662, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ antagonist, interfered with these protective effects of telmisartan against cognitive function. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of olmesartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), on ambulatory BP profiles and renal function in hypertensive CKD patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Acute renal failure, tubular necrosis and myocardial infarction induced in the rabbit by intravenous angiotensin II. (stonel.info)
  • Angiotensin-sodium interaction in blood pressure maintenance of renal hypertensive and normotensive rats. (stonel.info)
  • Angiotensin II is the principal pressor agent of the renin-angiotensin system, with effects that include vasoconstriction, stimulation of synthesis and release of aldosterone, cardiac stimulation, and renal reabsorption of sodium. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Worsening renal function (WRF) associated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibition does not confer excess risk in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). (nih.gov)
  • This study evaluates prospectively the effects of an anti-angiotensin II regimen on renal outcome in patients with mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis followed-up for 10 years. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Never treated patients with non-nephrotic proteinuria (1-3 g/day), microhematuria, no-evidence of renal failure or other relevant diseases and with diagnosis of I-II stage IgA- or pauciimmune-MsPGN were considered eligible. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There have been 87 sufferers with cancers diagnosed before renal biopsy as well as the proportion of these sufferers weren't different one of 65-29-2 the groupings. (mln4924.com)
  • Table 1 Features of sufferers at renal biopsy Kidney pathology Probably the most regular medical diagnosis was IgA nephropathy (44.9%) (Desk 2). (mln4924.com)
  • Renal prostaglandin secretion is stimulated by catecholamines and angiotensin II. (medscape.com)
  • Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ;313(2):F361-F369, 2017 Aug 01. (bireme.br)
  • We recently reported that natriuresis produced by renal medullary salt loading is dependent on endothelin (ET)-1 and purinergic (P2) receptors in male rats. (bireme.br)
  • Because sex differences in ET-1 and P2 signaling have been reported, we decided to test whether ovarian sex hormones regulate renal medullary ET-1 and P2-dependent natriuresis. (bireme.br)
  • In OVX, activation of medullary P2 receptors promotes ET-dependent natriuresis, suggesting that ovarian hormones may regulate the interplay between the renal ET-1 and P2 signaling systems to facilitate Na excretion. (bireme.br)
  • In light of some reports suggesting a potential positive interaction between these receptors, we tested hypothesis that renal AT R and MasR physically interact and are interdependent to stimulate cell signaling and promote natriuresis in obese rats. (bireme.br)
  • Urinary NOx production is reduced in nondiabetic renal disease ( 16 ), although also increased plasma nitrate concentrations have been reported in type 2 diabetes, as well as in the Metabolic Syndrome ( 17 , 18 ), thus questioning the validity of urinary methods to assess whole-body NOx production. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hans-Henrik Parving, Gentofte, Denmark, pointed out that kidney disease develops in 40% of patients with type 2 diabetes, with 25% of patients in Europe and 46% in the U.S. with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) having diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Involvement of angiotensin II in progression of renal injury in rats with genetic non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Wistar fatty rats)," Japanese Journal of Pharmacology , vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 416-422, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Renal physiology JO - Am J Physiol Renal Physiol VL - 295 IS - 5 N2 - The differential roles of circulating and intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in glomerulonephritis have not been elucidated. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Journal Article] Interacting molecule of AT1 receptor, ATRAP, is colocalized with AT1 receptor in the mouse renal tubules. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Likewise, two randomized studies published in 2009 -- the ASTRAL trial and the STAR trial -- failed to show a clear benefit for renal artery stenting with respect to kidney function. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Telmisartan works by blocking the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone secretory effects of angiotensin II. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Recently, telmisartan, an ARB, was found to act as a partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). (elsevier.com)
  • 1) Does telmisartan reduce the development of Af in insulin resistant hypertensive patients? (elsevier.com)
  • Telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, attenuates Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and interleukin-1β in murine macrophages. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Telmisartan treatment of LPS-activated cells significantly up-regulated arginase 1 (Arg-1) and chitinase-like 3 (Ym-1), which are specific markers of M2 macrophages. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Telmisartan caused a significant increase in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cells stimulated with LPS, and its inhibitory action against NO production was reversed by treatment with SnPP, an HO-1 inhibitor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Telmisartan inhibited LPS-induced generation of NO and IL-1β independently of PPAR-γ activation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In summary, telmisartan is a potent inhibitor of P. intermedia LPS-induced generation of NO and IL-1β in RAW264.7 cells and promotes macrophage phenotype switching toward the M2 phenotype. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Apart from its blood pressure-lowering effect by blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), exhibits various ancillary effects inc. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Telmisartan (TLM), a highly selective angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) and partial PPAR-γ agonist, has versatile beneficial effects against oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammatory respo. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Hypothesis: The angiotensin receptor blocker telmisartan is effective at reduction of albumin excretion rate(AER) in patients with type1 diabetes and micro or macroalbuminuria. (bioportfolio.com)
  • As peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has a potentially important role in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, we studied effects of the partial PPARγ agonist and angiotensin receptor blocker telmisartan , on mitochondria-related cellular responses in VSMC. (curehunter.com)
  • Therefore, we examined the possibility that telmisartan could attenuate BBB impairment with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation to improve diabetes mellitus-induced cognitive decline. (ahajournals.org)
  • Type 2 diabetic mice KKA y exhibited impairment of cognitive function, and telmisartan treatment attenuated this. (ahajournals.org)
  • Antihypertensive effect of the oral angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor SQ 14225 in man. (stonel.info)
  • Oral angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in long-term treatment of hypertensive patients. (stonel.info)
  • The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The search terms were as follows: "angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor" or "angiotensin receptor blocker" or trade names of the medications AND "cancer" or "carcinoma" or "neoplasm" or "malignancy" or names of specific types of cancer. (cmaj.ca)
  • Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been suggested to accelerate vascular senescence, however the molecular mechanism(s) remain unknown. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ang II induced vascular senescence by the ERK/p38 MAPK-CYR61 pathway and ARB, fimasartan, protected against Ang II-induced vascular senescence. (bvsalud.org)
  • BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) has been reported to be elevated in preclinical states of vascular damage. (clinsci.org)
  • BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) possesses complementary functions in regulating BV (blood volume) and vascular smooth muscle tone and is vital to the maintenance of cardiovascular homoeostasis [ 1 ]. (clinsci.org)
  • The physiological actions of BNP include the regulation of vascular tone by activation of the particulate isoform of guanyl cyclase after binding to natriuretic peptide receptor A and by direct endothelium-dependent nitric oxide production [ 2 , 3 ]. (clinsci.org)
  • Folkow B, Johansson B, Mellander S. The comparative effects of angiotensin and noradrenaline on consecutive vascular sections. (springer.com)
  • These receptors are widespread in organs and tissues but are found predominately in vascular and myocardial tissue, the liver, the adrenal cortex (i.e., the zona glomerulosa tissue, which secretes aldosterone) and some areas of the brain. (aafp.org)
  • Cardiovascular complications including coronary heart disease and peripheral vascular disease are regarded as primary causes of morbidity and mortality in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes ( 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulatory molecule with extensive metabolic, vascular, and cellular effects ( 1 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Expression of an angiotensin-(1-7)-producing fusion protein in rats induced marked changes in regional vascular resistance. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1 , 2 Diabetic vascular complications including diabetic nephropathy represent the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in affected patients. (asnjournals.org)
  • Journal Article] Effect of azelnidipine on angiotensin II-mediated growth-promoting signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • abstract = "Aortic aneurysm and dissection are manifestations of Marfan syndrome (MFS), a disorder caused by mutations in the gene that encodes fibrillin-1. (elsevier.com)
  • Patients with a history of atrial fibrillation will be centrally randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either valsartan or placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In a study comparing beta-blocker carvedilol with valsartan, the angiotensin II receptor blocker not only had no deleterious effect on sexual function, but actually improved it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forty-eight hypercholesterolemic patients (23 had metabolic syndrome) were given pravastatin 40 mg and placebo, pravastatin 40 mg and valsartan 160 mg, or valsartan 160 mg and placebo daily during each 2-month treatment period in a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with three treatment arms and two washout periods (each 2 months). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Central and peripheral hemodynamic effects of angiotensin inhibition in patients with refractory congestive heart failure. (stonel.info)
  • The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. (stonel.info)
  • Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockers on cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. (qxmd.com)
  • ERK and p38 inhibition both regulated Ang II-induced CYR61 expression. (bvsalud.org)
  • The role of inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system in preventing microvascular complications, particularly nephropathy, in patients with daibetes has been clearly shown. (bmj.com)
  • Angiotensin II type 1 receptor inhibition markedly improves the blood perfusion, oxygen tension and first phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in revascularised syngeneic mouse islet grafts. (diva-portal.org)
  • While relevant preclinical, experimental models to date favour a protective effect of RAAS-SCoV axis inhibition on both lung injury and survival, clinical data related to the role of RAAS modulation in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 remain limited. (ersjournals.com)
  • This study also underscores the importance of inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with podocyte damage and proteinuria. (asnjournals.org)
  • Background Inhibition of angiotensin II (AngII) signaling, a therapeutic mainstay of glomerular kidney diseases, is thought to act primarily through regulating glomerular blood flow and reducing filtration pressure. (asnjournals.org)
  • Cyclooxygenase mediates cardioprotection of angiotensin-(1-7) against ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury through the inhibition of oxidative stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • urinary type IV collagen excretion, 0.87±0.42 vs. 1.48±0.87, P=0.014) despite comparable A/B ratios for the estimated glomerular filtration rate in the two groups. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effect of medullary NaCl loading on Na excretion was determined in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female Sprague-Dawley rats with and without ET-1 or P2 receptor antagonism. (bireme.br)
  • Activation of medullary P2Y and P2Y receptors by UTP infusion had no significant effect in intact females but enhanced Na excretion in OVX rats. (bireme.br)
  • Similarly, infusion of MasR agonist Ang-(1-7) in OZR increased urine flow and urinary Na excretion, which were attenuated by simultaneous infusion of A-779 or PD123319. (bireme.br)
  • A reduced urinary excretion of NO products (NOx) is frequently found in type 2 diabetes, particularly in association with nephropathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, whether the decreased NOx excretion in type 2 diabetes is caused by a defective NOx production from arginine in response to hyperinsulinemia has never been studied. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A reduced urinary excretion of nitric oxide-related products, such as nitrites and nitrates, collectively termed as [NOx], has been reported in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy ( 12 , 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The levels of glomerular AGT mRNA, intrarenal ANG II, and urinary AGT excretion in the ATS group were increased significantly at day 7 compared with the control group. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In addition, the levels of urinary AGT excretion correlated with the levels of glomerular damage, urinary protein excretion, and immunoreactivity for AGT and ANG II in kidney. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • they compete with angiotensin II for binding to the type-1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) subtype and prevents the blood pressure increasing effects of angiotensin II. (rcsb.org)
  • Here, we ask whether aldosterone requires angiotensin II to activate NCC and if their effects are additive. (nih.gov)
  • Together, our results demonstrate that aldosterone does not require angiotensin II to activate NCC and that WNK4 appears to act as a positive regulator in this pathway. (nih.gov)
  • The principal regulators of aldosterone synthesis and secretion are the renin-angiotensin system and the potassium ion concentration. (medscape.com)
  • The major factors stimulating aldosterone production and release by the zona glomerulosa are angiotensin II and the serum potassium concentration. (medscape.com)
  • Physiologic regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis. (medscape.com)
  • Angiotensin II is both a stimulator of aldosterone secretion and a potent vasopressor. (medscape.com)
  • Angiotensin II is metabolized to angiotensin III, a heptapeptide that is also a stimulator of aldosterone secretion. (medscape.com)
  • Renin, an enzyme produced primarily by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney, catalyzes the conversion of angiotensinogen into an inactive substance, angiotensin I (A-I). Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) then converts A-I to the physiologically active angiotensin II (A-II), which causes potent vasoconstriction, aldosterone secretion and sympathetic activation. (aafp.org)
  • 1 , 4 Angiotensin-II receptor blockers antagonize A-II-induced biologic actions, including smooth muscle contraction, sympathetic pressor mechanisms and aldosterone secretion. (aafp.org)
  • A cross talk between renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nerve system could play some roles in the cardiovascular system. (ahajournals.org)
  • J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. (springer.com)
  • The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is crucial to the homeostasis of both the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. (ersjournals.com)
  • Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 utilises and interrupts this pathway directly, which could be described as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-SARS-CoV (RAAS-SCoV) axis. (ersjournals.com)
  • The interplay of SARS-CoV-2 with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system probably accounts for much of its unique pathology. (ersjournals.com)
  • Angiotensin II increases blood pressure by increasing total peripheral resistance, increasing sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys via aldosterone secretion, and altering cardiovascular structure. (rcsb.org)
  • AT1 is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates the vasoconstrictive and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II. (rcsb.org)
  • Through oral administration, fimasartan blocks angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 receptors), reducing pro-hypertensive actions of angiotensin II, such as systemic vasoconstriction and water retention by the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cardiovascular actions of angiotensin II (Ang II) are mainly mediated by the Ang II type 1 (AT_1) receptor. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A retrospective analysis of five million patient records with the US Department of Veterans Affairs system found different types of commonly used antihypertensive medications had very different AD outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5 - 9 The antihypertensive effects of these drugs should become apparent within two to four weeks after the initiation of therapy. (aafp.org)
  • The present findings indicate that AT1R antagonism improves beta-cell function and glucose tolerance in young type 2 diabetic mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • Furthermore, only Olmesartan and Candesartan could downregulate the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis and upregulate the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas axis in vitro. (qxmd.com)
  • We evaluated the effects of olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in elderly and hypertensive subjects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effect of olmesartan, an angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), on the development of nephritis was also examined (ATS+ARB group). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Journal Article] Inhibitory effects of AT1 receptor blocker, olmesartan, and estrogen on atherosclerosis via anti-oxidative stress. (nii.ac.jp)
  • When you have documented [that] the patient has microalbuminuria, you start lifelong treatment with agents interfering with the renin-angiotensin system. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Diabetic nephropathy is a frequent microvascular complication that occurs in approximately 40% of patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether a treatment for diabetic nephropathy, the angiotensin receptor blocker candesartan, modifies mediators of kidney injury independent of blood pressure and the relationships to drug dose. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured NOx fractional (FSR) and absolute (ASR) synthesis rates in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy and in control subjects, after l -[ 15 N 2 -guanidino]-arginine infusion, and use of precursor-product relationships. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS In type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy, intravascular NOx synthesis from arginine is decreased under both basal and hyperinsulinemic states. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conversely, microalbuminuria is associated with impaired endothelial function in type 2 diabetic subjects ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Because the stimulation of NOS activity by insulin is impaired in muscle of type 2 diabetic patients ( 19 ), investigations on the response to the hormone of whole-body NO production in type 2 diabetes is of key relevance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1 ) to measure NOx production rate (both fractional and absolute), as well as the rate of arginine conversion to NOx, in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy and 2 ) to study the effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on these parameters. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Changes in Retinal Microcirculation Precede the Clinical Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Change in peripapillary and macular choroidal thickness change in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus without visual impairment or diabetic retinopathy. (tripdatabase.com)
  • To study the characteristics of choroid thickness (CT) of the optic disc and macula in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without visual impairment and diabetic retinopathy (DR) and analyse associated factors.A square area of 6 × 6 mm around the centre of the optic disc and macula was scanned. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Sustained effect of intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus on development and progression of diabetic nephropathy: the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study," The Journal of the American Medical Association , vol. 290, pp. 2159-2167, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • A. E. Raptis and G. Viberti, "Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy," Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes , vol. 109, supplement 2, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • In dilated cardiomyopathy, eccentric hypertrophy, and myocardial infarction ( 20 - 22 ), transgenic IGF-1 expression limited structural abnormalities such as myocyte necrosis and fibrosis ( 21 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We investigated an association between DNA polymorphisms of the genes involved in RAAS and development of heart failure in patients treated with beta-blockers after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). (ahajournals.org)
  • Angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation: a novel option of therapeutic interference with the renin-angiotensin system in myocardial infarction? (springer.com)
  • ACEIs reduce both myocardial infarction (MI) and mortality in patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure or asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction, 1 as evidenced by a class I recommendation in the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this work, we have systematically investigated the potential application of functionalized Ag 2 S nanodots for accurate imaging of damaged myocardium tissues after a myocardial infarction induced by either partial or global ischemia. (springer.com)
  • The potential application of Ag 2 S nanodots in the near future for in vivo imaging of myocardial infarction was also corroborated by performing proof of concept whole body imaging experiments. (springer.com)
  • The nonpeptide angiotensin-(1-7) receptor Mas agonist AVE-0991 attenuates heart failure induced by myocardial infarction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that beta blocker treatment in patients with the 1166C allele of the AT1R gene was associated with increased incidence of the combined endpoint (Hazard ratio 2.18, 95%CI: 1.02- 4.66). (ahajournals.org)
  • We identified an angiotensin-generating system in pancreatic islets and found that exogenously administered angiotensin II, after binding to its receptors (angiotensin II type 1 receptor [AT1R]), inhibits insulin release in a manner associated with decreased islet blood flow and (pro)insulin biosynthesis. (diva-portal.org)
  • The present study tested the hypothesis that there is a change in AT1R expression in the pancreatic islets of the obesity-induced type 2 diabetes model, the db/db mouse, which enables endogenous levels of angiotensin II to impair islet function. (diva-portal.org)
  • Whether islet AT1R activation plays a role in the pathogenesis of human type 2 diabetes remains to be determined. (diva-portal.org)
  • The angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) shares a high degree of homology with its well-known sister gene, the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), and is similarly a part of the renin-angiotensin II system (RAS). (springer.com)
  • Ag 2 S nanodots surface-functionalized with the angiotensin II peptide (ATII) have shown over 10-fold enhanced binding efficiency to damaged tissues than non-specifically (PEG) functionalized Ag 2 S nanodots due to their interaction with the upregulated angiotensin II receptor type I (AT1R). (springer.com)
  • Journal Article] The novel angiotensinII typel receptor(AT1R)-associated protein ATRAP downregulates AT1R and ameliorates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The synthesis of prorenin, its conversion to renin, and its systemic secretion are stimulated by blood volume contraction detected by stretch receptors, beta-adrenergic stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, and prostaglandins I 2 and E 2 . (medscape.com)
  • 1-3 This radically exerts multiple deleterious cardiovascular actions, such as the induction of proinflammatory genes, oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), stimulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation, or damage of endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Endothelial dysfunction by any causes including cigarette smoking, stimulation with angiotensin II, or inflammatory cytokines results in activation of xanthine oxidase and further production of ROS [ 12 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Stimulation of angiotensin AT2 receptors by the non-peptide agonist, compound 21, evokes vasodepressor effects in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats. (springer.com)
  • Reduction of infarct size by selective stimulation of prostaglandin EP(3)receptors in the reperfused ischemic pig heart. (semanticscholar.org)
  • There is a lack of data on how to treat hypertensive patients with diabetes when treatment with medium doses of calcium channel blocker and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) is insufficient to achieve the target blood pressure (BP). (springer.com)
  • An increased dose of amlodipine, but not ARB, reduced home morning BP in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes who were already receiving combination therapy with medium doses of amlodipine and ARB. (springer.com)
  • Adler AI, Stratton IM, Neil HA, Yudkin JS, Matthews DR, Cull CA, Wright AD, Turner RC, Holman RR (2000) Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study. (springer.com)
  • Patients who utilize either an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) may experience a decreased incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes. (thaiendocrine.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -Three reviewers conducted a systematic literature search of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library (1966 to present) to extract a consensus of trial data involving an ACEI or ARB with an end point of new-onset type 2 diabetes. (thaiendocrine.org)
  • The influence of either an ACEI (six trials) or an ARB (five trials) alone on new-onset type 2 diabetes was similar (0.79 [0.71-0.89] and 0.76 [0.70-0.82], respectively). (thaiendocrine.org)
  • Since there is no definite evidence to show that type 1 diabetes is at increased risk for the development of Af, insulin resistance rather than hyperglycemia per se could explain the link between diabetes and Af. (elsevier.com)
  • The linear relationship between age and heart rate response to deep breathing expressed as expiratory/inspiratory (E:I) ratio and systolic blood pressure (SBP)midline estimate statistic of rhythm (MESOR) in 20 patients with type 1 diabetes and 25 age-matched control subjects. (intechopen.com)
  • Two-way box percentile plots of heart rate response to deep breathing expressed as expiratory/inspiratory (E:I) ratio in 20 patients with type 1 diabetes (black box) and 25 age-matched control subjects (white box). (intechopen.com)
  • Two-way box percentile plots of heart rate response to standing upcalculated as the ratio of the longest R-R interval around the 30th beat to the shortest R-R interval around the 15th beat in 20 patients with type 1 diabetes (black box) and 25 age-matched control subjects (white box). (intechopen.com)
  • T1DM, type 1 diabetes mellitus. (intechopen.com)
  • Misalignment of circadian rhythms has been evidenced in patients with type 1 diabetes and there is a close relationship between alterations in neuroendocrine sleep architecture, circadian clock oscillations, glucose metabolism, autonomic function, and diurnal profiles of blood pressure and heart rate [ 1 - 5 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Candesartan 16 mg once daily is as effective as lisinopril 20 mg once daily in reducing blood pressure and microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Type 1 diabetes was induced in 7-week-old male IGF-1R transgenic mice using streptozotocin and followed for 8 weeks. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Diabetes represents a major threat to human health, with global incidence projected to reach 300 million by 2025 ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In both type 1 and 2 diabetes, this cardiomyopathy is a prognostic indicator, particularly for mortality ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The therapeutic potential of IGF-1 has thus been extensively examined in an array of cardiac pathologies, including heart failure and diabetes ( 18 , 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The regulation of NO metabolism is particularly important in type 2 diabetes, because activation of NO synthase (NOS) is under insulin control through the Akt pathway ( 3 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • An impaired NO metabolism is found in type 2 diabetes ( 7 - 10 ), in particular in the presence of nephropathy ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hyperglycemia may also play a role in the decreased NO production in type 2 diabetes, because high glucose per se inhibited endothelial NOS activity in the glomeruli, through a protein kinase C-associated mechanism ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • An impaired NO generation in type 2 diabetes may be another feature of insulin resistance ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Indeed, large-scale clinical studies have demonstrated that candesartan reduces the onset of type 2 diabetes ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been highlighted as a major risk factor for cognitive decline. (ahajournals.org)
  • Testing for type 1 diabetes autoantibodies in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): is it clinically useful? (tripdatabase.com)
  • The prevalence in gestational diabetes of these autoimmune markers of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been assessed in many studies, together with the risk of progression of AABs-positive GDM towards impaired glucose regulation (IFG or IGT) and overt diabetes after pregancy. (tripdatabase.com)
  • SKIP (Supporting Kids with diabetes In Physical activity): Feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a digital intervention for 9-12 year olds with type 1 diabetes mellitus. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Physical activity and self-monitoring are important for children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) but it is unclear whether interventions delivered online are feasible, acceptable to patients and efficacious. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Journal Article] Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin compared with α-glucosidase inhibitor in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on sulfonylurea alone (SUCCESS-2): a multicenter, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Genetic variation and activity of the renin-angiotensin system and severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. (springer.com)
  • In type 2 diabetes, microalbuminuria is associated with a 5-10% lifetime risk of progression to overt nephropathy, while patients with normoalbuminuria have a 10- to 20-fold lower risk. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). (hindawi.com)
  • Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. (hindawi.com)
  • Glomerular hemodynamics and the renin-angiotensin system in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus," Kidney International , vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 172-178, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • TUESDAY, Jan. 10, 2017 -- From Finland comes more evidence that a common group of viral infections may play a role in the development of at least some cases of type 1 diabetes . (drugs.com)
  • The study found that children who had signs indicating they might be developing type 1 diabetes had significantly more enterovirus infections occurring at least a year earlier. (drugs.com)
  • Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. (drugs.com)
  • The cells that attack the body's healthy cells are called autoantibodies, and there are specific autoantibodies for type 1 diabetes, called islet autoantibodies. (drugs.com)
  • These autoantibodies appear before the symptoms of type 1 diabetes begin. (drugs.com)
  • In type 1 diabetes, enough islet cells are destroyed that the body no longer produces enough of the hormone insulin for survival. (drugs.com)
  • About 5 percent of people with diabetes have type 1. (drugs.com)
  • The researchers suspect that at least half of type 1 diabetes cases might be linked to enteroviruses. (drugs.com)
  • But, this study, along with past evidence, suggest that vaccines for other enteroviruses might help reduce the incidence of type 1 diabetes. (drugs.com)
  • She said it's "exciting to see what this study adds to what's long been thought to contribute to type 1 diabetes in at least a subset of people. (drugs.com)
  • But, she agreed with the study authors that enteroviruses are probably not the only environmental factor in the development of type 1 diabetes. (drugs.com)
  • Type 1 diabetes is a clinical diagnosis, and it's likely that people get there from multiple pathways. (drugs.com)
  • Most youngsters who get the infections don't go on to get type 1 diabetes. (drugs.com)
  • The study authors said more research is needed to confirm their findings, and to better understand the complex cause of type 1 diabetes. (drugs.com)
  • Agunloye, Odunayo 2018-06-01 00:00:00 Caffeine (CA) and caffeic acid (CAF) are two bioactive phytochemicals found richly distributed in many plant foods such as coffee in different proportions. (deepdyve.com)
  • Unless otherwise contraindicated, medical therapy included the angiotensin II type-1 receptor blocker candesartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide, and the combination agent amlodipine-atorvastatin (Caduet), with the dose adjusted on the basis of blood pressure and lipid status. (medpagetoday.com)
  • [2] The term "congestive heart failure" is often used, as one of the common symptoms is congestion , or build-up of fluid in a person's tissues and veins in the lungs or other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I in a reaction catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, kininase II). (pharmacycode.com)
  • Macrophage infiltration was attenuated with decreased gene expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the left ventricular myocardium of the ARB-treated rats. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • MRI study demonstrated that hemorrhagic lesions were observed in two of five rats in the control group, while no hemorrhagic lesions were observed in the MKP group. (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression of an angiotensin-(1-7)-producing fusion protein produces cardioprotective effects in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Attenuation of isoproterenol-induced cardiac fibrosis in transgenic rats harboring an angiotensin-(1-7)-producing fusion protein in the heart. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Results: The role of vasodilator prostaglandins in the aorta was increased and the role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor and response of the AT1-R and AT2-R to Ang-II was decreased in pregnant saline infused rats as compared with non-pregnant rats. (rug.nl)
  • Both pre-and post-ganglionic vagal nerve functions are diminished in CHF rats, whereas M2 receptor-mediated regulation of the SA node is upregulated. (labome.org)
  • The synthesis and secretion of prostaglandins I 2 and E 2 and the normal function of the stretch receptors are dependent on the intracellular ionized calcium concentration. (medscape.com)
  • Fibrillin-1 is a large, extracellular matrix glycoprotein that serves as a structural component of 10-12 nm calcium-binding microfibrils . (wikipedia.org)
  • The vast majority of patients entering the trials were treated with multiple BP medications at study onset, with ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or ARB stopped at entry, and another drug (either α- or β-blocker, centrally acting agent, calcium channel blocker [CCB], or diuretic) substituted to lower the BP to 140/90 mm Hg. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Also, responsiveness to AngII was at least partly mediated through the transient receptor potential channel 6, which has been implicated in podocyte calcium handling. (asnjournals.org)
  • Ohinata K, Fujiwara Y, Fukumoto S, Iwai M, Horiuchi M, Yoshikawa M. Angiotensin II and III suppress food intake via angiotensin AT(2) receptor and prostaglandin EP(4) receptor in mice. (springer.com)
  • 20 Dzau VJ, Sasamura H, Hein L. Heterogeneity of angiotensin synthetic pathways and receptor subtypes: physiological and pharmacological implications. (stonel.info)
  • There is increasing evidence that angiotensin II (AII), the effector molecule of the renin-angiotensin system, can be generated not only by the ACE enzyme but also by other pathways including chymase. (bmj.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induces cerebrovascular dysfunction and astrogliosis through angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated signaling pathways. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Important in this regard is the recent discovery that many agents (some identified within the CMCR program) target newly identified molecular and physiologic pathways and, thereby, can mitigate radiation toxicity ( 2-10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Comparison of angiotensin II type 1-receptor blockers to regress pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice. (qxmd.com)
  • Fimasartan has been shown to reduce cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, remodelling, and unnecessary cell proliferation via blockage of AT1 activation conceivably through decreased Endothelin 1 production, a result of AT1 activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor (IGF-1R) promotes physiological cardiac growth and enhances contractile function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IGF-1, structurally and functionally related to insulin ( 16 ), plays a crucial role in stimulating physiological LV hypertrophy and conferring protection against cardiac dysfunction ( 17 - 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The signalling of AT2 and the influence on the collagen metabolism of AT2 receptor in adult rat cardiac fibroblasts. (springer.com)
  • In addition, we observed that cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure-overload and Ang II infusion was attenuated in ATRAP-Tg mice, and that pressor response to Ang II was also decreased in ATRAP-Tg mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We and others have recently shown that angiotensin II can activate the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) through a WNK4-SPAK-dependent pathway. (nih.gov)
  • bucindolol did not have the same benefits in HF, unlike other beta-blockers in the BEST study. (acc.org)
  • Renin angiotensin system and cardiovascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) is increasingly prescribed for the treatment of systolic heart failure with a growing body of clinical evidence. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Several clinical trials suggest that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. (elsevier.com)
  • Measurement of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels helps to uncover unsuspected CHF in patients with COPD and clinical deterioration. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are 2 commonly encountered conditions in clinical practice: 14 million Americans have COPD and 5 million have CHF ( 1,2 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Nerve or tendon transfer recipients: people who have elected to undergo nerve (N=10) or tendon (N=10) transfer surgery to restore some hand and arm function as part of their standard clinical care and their caregiver (N=20) 2. (stanford.edu)
  • Renin converts angiotensinogen, a proenzyme synthesized in the liver, into the decapeptide angiotensin I, which is then converted in the lungs into the octapeptide angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). (medscape.com)
  • Fimasartan acts on the kidney's rennin-angiotensin cascade, which begins when renin release from the kidney causes the breakdown of angiotensinogen into angiotensin I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) then catalyzes the reaction that forms angiotensin II, which acts on AT1 receptors on the blood vessels, heart, and kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renin cleaves circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is cleaved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to angiotensin II. (rcsb.org)
  • 3 AT-II pressor effects are mediated by AT 1 receptors. (aafp.org)
  • [2] [3] These cause heart failure by changing either the structure or the functioning of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Heart failure has been known since ancient times with the Ebers papyrus commenting on it around 1550 BCE. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the heart failure treated with intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), sympathetic activation and brain oxidative stress were significantly lower, and baroreflex sensitivity and volume tolerance were significantly higher than in heart failure treated with vehicle. (mdpi.com)
  • We cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCSMCs) and treated Ang II and/or fimasartan. (bvsalud.org)
  • The effect of Ang II was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, fimasartan (2.00±0.92-fold). (bvsalud.org)
  • The expression of both p53 and p16 senescence regulators was significantly increased by Ang II (p53 1.39±0.17, p16 1.19±0.10-fold vs. the control), and inhibited by fimasartan. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ang II activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, which was significantly blocked by fimasartan. (bvsalud.org)
  • In blocking the AT1 receptor, fimasartan inhibits vasoconstriction, favouring vasodilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concentration-dependent mode of interaction of angiotensin II receptor blockers with uric acid transporter. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Angiotensin II type 1 receptors and oestrogen status: interaction or dissociation? (lww.com)
  • Interaction between sympathetic and renin-angiotensin system. (springer.com)
  • The AT2R is activated after specific binding of the eight amino acid peptide angiotensin II (AngII), which is generated from angiotensin I by the angiotensin-converting enzyme. (springer.com)
  • Development of selective non-peptide angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonists. (springer.com)
  • Differential regulation of angiotensin peptide levels in plasma and kidney of the rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The depressor effects of these two regimens were monitored using a telemonitoring home BP-measuring system. (springer.com)
  • Satoshi Imaizumi, Shin-ichiro Miura, Eiji Yahiro, Yoshinari Uehara, Issei Komuro and Keijiro Saku, "Class- and Molecule-specific Differential Effects of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers", Current Pharmaceutical Design (2013) 19: 3002. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The angiotensin II receptor blockers have differing potencies in relation to blood pressure control, with statistically differing effects at the maximal doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of angiotensin II on arginine-vasopressin in physiological and pathological situations in man. (springer.com)
  • 2 Combined, these strategies have shown that many BP QTL actually contain multiple interdependent loci that can have additive, subtractive, or epistatic effects on BP. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although the mechanisms of action for these two classes of drugs differ, both classes have beneficial effects on the vasculature. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Angiotensin type 2 receptor actions contribute to angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker effects on kidney fibrosis. (springer.com)
  • Although the effects of angiotensin II (AngII) on glomerular perfusion pressure are well characterized, the relevance of AngII signaling in podocytes remains elusive. (asnjournals.org)
  • In this study we evaluate the effects of angiotensin-(1-7) on reperfusion arrhythmias in isolated rat hearts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Takeshita F, Ogawa K, Asamoto M, Shirai T. Mechanistic approach of contrasting modifying effects of caffeine on carcinogenesis in the rat colon and mammary gland induced with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. (labome.org)
  • These data demonstrate that medullary NaCl loading induces ET-1 and P2-independent natriuresis in intact females. (bireme.br)
  • Angiotensin II induces smooth muscle cell proliferation in the normal and injured rat arterial wall. (springer.com)
  • The incidence of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in the benidipine -ARB regimen was not different compared with the other two treatment regimens. (curehunter.com)
  • Systemic versus local renin angiotensin systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4 - 6 The advent of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers provides an alternative approach to blocking the renin-angiotensin system. (bmj.com)
  • Local activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) also contributes to the enhanced expression and activation of Nox [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The differential roles of circulating and intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in glomerulonephritis have not been elucidated. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, angiotensin-(1-7) and Mas: new players of the renin-angiotensin system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The regulation and importance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT 1 ) receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and contains 359 amino acids. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The patients were also prescribed a normal protein (1 gram/kg/day) and moderately salt-restricted (6-8 grams/day) diet throughout the study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cysteine-rich angiogenic protein 61 (CYR61) was rapidly induced by Ang II. (bvsalud.org)
  • FBN1 is a 230-kb gene with 65 coding exons that encode a 2,871-amino-acid long proprotein called profibrillin which is proteolytically cleaved near its C-terminus by the enzyme furin convertase to give fibrillin-1, a member of the fibrillin family, and the 140-amino-acid long protein hormone asprosin . (wikipedia.org)
  • The sequence of fibrillin-1 includes 47 six-cysteine EGF-like domains , 7 eight-cysteine domains homologous with latent TGF-beta binding protein , and a proline -rich region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attenuation of cuff-induced neointimal formation by overexpression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein 1. (springer.com)
  • Rodrigues-Ferreira S, Nahmias C. An ATIPical family of angiotensin II AT2 receptor-interacting protein. (springer.com)
  • We cloned a novel AT_1 receptor-associated protein (ATRAP) using a yeast two-hybrid screening system. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The purpose of this research is to identify whether or not Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB) can halt the progression to respiratory failure requiring transfer into the intensive care unit (ICU), as well as halt mechanical ventilation in subjects with mild to moderate hypoxia due to the corona virus that causes COVID-19. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 1 Impairment of the BBB has been suggested to play a key role in the development and progression of several CNS disorders contributing to cognitive decline. (ahajournals.org)
  • Progression to macroalbuminuria occurred in 15, 10, and 5%, respectively, of the three groups at 2 years, with adjusted risk reduction of 68% with 300 mg and 44% with 150 mg irbesartan daily. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It has long been suspected that chronic inflammation may have an important role in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer [1-3]. (termedia.pl)
  • Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor and Receptor Mas Are Colocalized and Functionally Interdependent in Obese Zucker Rat Kidney. (bireme.br)
  • Angiotensin II: a key factor in the inflammatory and fibrotic response in kidney diseases," Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation , vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 16-20, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • The juxtaglomerular apparatus is the principal site of regulation of angiotensin II production. (medscape.com)
  • Eprosartan , an angiotensin II receptor blocker that lacks the ability to activate PPARγ, had no effect on these mitochondria-related cellular responses in VSMC. (curehunter.com)
  • Downregulation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in transgenic mice overexpressing GH. (qxmd.com)
  • Cardiovascular phenotype of mice lacking all three subtypes of angiotensin II receptors. (springer.com)
  • Takasu K, Honda M, Ono H, Tanabe M. Spinal alpha(2)-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors and the NO release cascade mediate supraspinally produced effectiveness of gabapentin at decreasing mechanical hypersensitivity in mice after partial nerve injury. (labome.org)
  • Moreover, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1, and STAT3 after cuff placement were significantly reduced in ATRAP-Tg mice. (nii.ac.jp)