A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.
Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (VASOCONSTRICTION) and fluid homeostasis via the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. These include angiotensins derived naturally from precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, and those synthesized.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in fetal tissues. Many effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor such as VASODILATION and sodium loss are the opposite of that of the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40%).
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.
A synthetic nonapeptide (Pyr-Trp-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro-Pro) which is identical to the peptide from the venom of the snake, Bothrops jararaca. It inhibits kininase II and ANGIOTENSIN I and has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.
An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.
Tetrazoles are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a 1,3,5-triazole ring with an additional nitrogen atom, often used in pharmaceuticals as bioisosteres for carboxylic acid groups due to their isoelectronic nature and similar hydrogen bonding capabilities.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.
One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors) used for hypertension. It is a prodrug that is hydrolyzed after absorption to its main metabolite cilazaprilat.
Biphenyl compounds are organic substances consisting of two phenyl rings connected by a single covalent bond, and can exhibit various properties and uses, including as intermediates in chemical synthesis, components in plastics and dyes, and as additives in fuels.
Agents that antagonize the ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 2 RECEPTOR.
An ANGIOTENSIN II analog which acts as a highly specific inhibitor of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.
One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase. It decreases the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID concentration in the brain, thereby causing convulsions.
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
A potent inhibitor of membrane metalloendopeptidase (ENKEPHALINASE). Thiorphan potentiates morphine-induced ANALGESIA and attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Excision of kidney.
**Pyridazine** is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a six-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms, which is a basic structure found in certain pharmaceuticals and natural compounds, though it does not have a specific medical definition itself as a component or condition.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
The consumption of liquids.
Methods used for the assessment of placental function.
A complex of cells consisting of juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells, the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule, and granular epithelial peripolar cells. Juxtaglomerular cells are modified SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS found in the walls of afferent glomerular arterioles and sometimes the efferent arterioles. Extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells are located in the angle between the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. Granular epithelial peripolar cells are located at the angle of reflection of the parietal to visceral angle of the renal corpuscle.
A guanidinium antihypertensive agent that acts by blocking adrenergic transmission. The precise mode of action is not clear.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The octapeptide amide of bovine angiotensin II used to increase blood pressure by vasoconstriction.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is used in patients with hypertension and heart failure.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Inflammation of the connective and adipose tissues surrounding the KIDNEY.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
A condition of markedly elevated BLOOD PRESSURE with DIASTOLIC PRESSURE usually greater than 120 mm Hg. Malignant hypertension is characterized by widespread vascular damage, PAPILLEDEMA, retinopathy, HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY, and renal dysfunction.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A structure, situated close to the intraventricular foramen, which induces DRINKING BEHAVIOR after stimulation with ANGIOTENSIN II.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A ZINC-dependent membrane-bound aminopeptidase that catalyzes the N-terminal peptide cleavage of GLUTAMATE (and to a lesser extent ASPARTATE). The enzyme appears to play a role in the catabolic pathway of the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Thiazepines are heterocyclic chemical compounds containing a seven-membered ring with one nitrogen atom, one sulfur atom, and two carbon-carbon double bonds, which are not commonly found in nature but can be synthesized for potential use in pharmaceuticals or as building blocks in organic chemistry.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
'Ethers' in a medical context are a class of organic compounds used as medication, particularly as an inhalational agent to induce and maintain general anesthesia, characterized by their ability to produce a state of unconsciousness while providing muscle relaxation and analgesia.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)

Role of aromaticity of agonist switches of angiotensin II in the activation of the AT1 receptor. (1/927)

We have shown previously that the octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) activates the AT1 receptor through an induced-fit mechanism (Noda, K., Feng, Y. H., Liu, X. P., Saad, Y., Husain, A., and Karnik, S. S. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 16435-16442). In this activation process, interactions between Tyr4 and Phe8 of Ang II with Asn111 and His256 of the AT1 receptor, respectively, are essential for agonism. Here we show that aromaticity, primarily, and size, secondarily, of the Tyr4 side chain are important in activating the receptor. Activation analysis of AT1 receptor position 111 mutants by various Ang II position 4 analogues suggests that an amino-aromatic bonding interaction operates between the residue Asn111 of the AT1 receptor and Tyr4 of Ang II. Degree and potency of AT1 receptor activation by Ang II can be recreated by a reciprocal exchange of aromatic and amide groups between positions 4 and 111 of Ang II and the AT1 receptor, respectively. In several other bonding combinations, set up between Ang II position 4 analogues and receptor mutants, the gain of affinity is not accompanied by gain of function. Activation analysis of position 256 receptor mutants by Ang II position 8 analogues suggests that aromaticity of Phe8 and His256 side chains is crucial for receptor activation; however, a stacked rather than an amino-aromatic interaction appears to operate at this switch locus. Interaction between these residues, unlike the Tyr4:Asn111 interaction, plays an insignificant role in ligand docking.  (+info)

The subtype 2 of angiotensin II receptors and pressure-natriuresis in adult rat kidneys. (2/927)

The present work examined the effects of the subtype 2 of angiotensin II (AT2) receptors on the pressure-natriuresis using a new peptide agonist, and the possible involvement of cyclic guanosine 3', 5' monophosphate (cyclic GMP) in these effects. In adult anaesthetized rats (Inactin, 100 mg kg(-1), i.p.) deprived of endogenous angiotensin II by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (quinapril, 10 mg kg(-1), i.v.), T2-(Ang II 4-8)2 (TA), a highly specific AT2 receptor agonist (5, 10 and 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1), i.v.) or its solvent was infused in four groups. Renal functions were studied at renal perfusion pressures (RPP) of 90, 110 and 130 mmHg and urinary cyclic GMP excretion when RPP was at 130 mmHg. The effects of TA (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) were reassessed in animals pretreated with PD 123319 (PD, 50 microg kg(-1) min(-1), i.v.), an AT2 receptor antagonist and the action of the same dose of PD alone was also determined. Increases in RPP from 90 to 130 mmHg did not change renal blood flow (RBF) but induced 8 and 15 fold increases in urinary flow and sodium excretion respectively. The 5 microg kg(-1) min(-1) dose of TA was devoid of action. The 10 and 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1) doses did not alter total RBF and glomerular filtration rate, but blunted pressure-diuresis and natriuresis relationships. These effects were abolished by PD. TA decreased urinary cyclic GMP excretion. After pretreatment with PD, this decrease was reversed to an increase which was also observed in animals receiving PD alone. In conclusion, renal AT2 receptors oppose the sodium and water excretion induced by acute increases in blood pressure and this action cannot be directly explained by changes in cyclic GMP.  (+info)

Contractile effects by intracellular angiotensin II via receptors with a distinct pharmacological profile in rat aorta. (3/927)

1. We studied the effect of intracellular angiotensin II (Ang II) and related peptides on rat aortic contraction, whether this effect is pharmacologically distinguishable from that induced by extracellular stimulation, and determined the Ca2+ source involved. 2. Compounds were delivered into the cytoplasm of de-endothelized aorta rings using multilamellar liposomes. Contractions were normalized to the maximum obtained with phenylephrine (10(-5) M). 3. Intracellular administration of Ang II (incorporation range: 0.01-300 nmol mg(-1)) resulted in a dose-dependent contraction, insensitive to extracellular administration (10(-6) M) of the AT1 receptor antagonist CV11947, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123319, or the non-selective AT receptor antagonist and partial agonist saralasin ([Sar1,Val5,Ala8]-Ang II (P<0.05). 4. Intracellular administration of CV11947 or PD 123319 right shifted the dose-response curve about 1000 fold or 20 fold, respectively. PD 123319 was only effective if less than 30 nmol mg(-1) Ang II was incorporated. 5. Contraction was partially desensitized to a second intracellular Ang II addition after 45 min (P<0.05). 6. Intracellular administration of Ang I and saralasin also induced contraction (P<0.05). Both responses were sensitive to intracellular CV11947 (P<0.05), but insensitive to PD 123319. The response to Ang I was independent of intracellular captopril. 7. Contraction induced by extracellular application of Ang II and of Ang I was abolished by extracellular pre-treatment with saralasin or CV11947 (P<0.05), but not with PD 123319. Extracellular saralasin induced no contraction. 8. Intracellular Ang II induced contraction was not affected by pre-treatment with heparin filled liposomes, but completely abolished in Ca2+-free external medium. 9. These results support the existence of an intracellular binding site for Ang II in rat aorta. Intracellular stimulation induces contraction dependent on Ca2+-influx but not on Ins(1,4,5)P3 mediated release from intracellular Ca2+-stores. Intracellular Ang I and saralasin induce contraction, possibly via the same binding site. Pharmacological properties of this putative intracellular receptor are clearly different from extracellular stimulated AT1 receptors or intracellular angiotensin receptors postulated in other tissue.  (+info)

In vivo enzymatic assay reveals catalytic activity of the human renin precursor in tissues. (4/927)

The aspartyl protease renin is secreted into the circulation of mammals in 2 forms: the proteolytically processed active form of the enzyme and the precursor form, prorenin. Prorenin has no detectable enzymatic activity in the circulation, but it is the exclusive form of the enzyme produced by several tissues that also produce the other components of the renin enzymatic cascade (renin-angiotensin system). To test whether prorenin might be enzymatically active in these tissues, transgenic mice expressing the human renin substrate (angiotensinogen) exclusively in the pituitary gland were mated to mice expressing either active human renin or prorenin in the same tissue. Measurement of in vivo product formation in pituitary glands of double-transgenic mice revealed that human prorenin was enzymatically active, and Western blot analysis demonstrated that this prorenin was in the precursor form with its prosegment attached. This in vivo enzymatic assay demonstrates for the first time that human prorenin can be activated within tissues by nonproteolytic means, where it could contribute to the activity of a localized renin-angiotensin system.  (+info)

Effects of aminopeptidase P inhibition on kinin-mediated vasodepressor responses. (5/927)

We studied in anesthetized rats whether aminopeptidase P (AMP) may be involved in bradykinin (BK) metabolism and responses. For this we inhibited AMP with the specific inhibitor apstatin (Aps). Studies were done with Aps alone or together with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril (Lis). Aps increased the vasodepressor response to an intravenous bolus of BK (400 ng/kg): vehicle, -3.0 +/- 0.7 mmHg; Aps, -7.8 +/- 0.7 mmHg (P < 0.01 vs. vehicle); Lis, -23.8 +/- 1.8 mmHg; Aps + Lis, -37.5 +/- 1.9 mmHg (P < 0.01 vs. Lis). Aps did not affect the vasodepressor response to BK given into the descending aorta. Plasma BK increased only in Aps + Lis-treated rats (in pg/ml): control, 48.0 +/- 1.4; Lis, 57.5 +/- 7.6; Aps + Lis, 121. 8 +/- 30.6 (P < 0.05 vs. control or Lis), whereas in rats infused with BK (400 ng. kg-1. min-1 for 5 min), Aps increased plasma BK (in pg/ml): control, 51.9 +/- 2.5; Aps, 83.5 +/- 20.5; Lis, 725 +/- 225; Aps + Lis, 1,668 +/- 318 (P < 0.05, Aps vs. control and Lis vs. Aps + Lis). In rats with aortic coarctation hypertension, the acute antihypertensive effects of Aps plus Lis were greater than Lis alone (P < 0.01). Hoe-140, a BK B2-receptor antagonist, abolished the difference. We concluded that in the rat AMP contributes to regulation of BK metabolism and responses.  (+info)

In vivo assessment of captopril selectivity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition: differential inhibition of acetyl-ser-asp-lys-pro and angiotensin I hydrolysis. (6/927)

Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metallopeptidase that plays a major role in blood pressure regulation. The demonstration that the hemoregulatory peptide acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (AcSDKP) is a natural and specific substrate of the N-active site of ACE suggests that this enzyme may have a new physiological role such as the modulation of hematopoietic stem cells. In vitro studies have shown that ACE inhibitors displayed various potencies in inhibiting the degradation of different natural or synthetic substrates of ACE, among which captopril inhibits AcSDKP hydrolysis more potently than angiotensin I hydrolysis. To look for this selectivity in vivo, we investigated the pharmacodynamic effect of increasing doses of captopril (0.01-10 mg/kg) during the 90 min after i.v. administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma and urinary AcSDKP levels were measured. The renin-angiotensin system was evaluated by measurements of ACE activity in plasma samples, using the synthetic substrate Hip-His-Leu, by determinations of plasma renin concentrations and measurements of arterial blood pressure. The results showed that captopril (0.01-0.3 mg/kg) selectively inhibited AcSDKP hydrolysis, with limited effects on the renin-angiotensin system. AcSDKP levels in plasma and urine rose to a plateau 4 times the basal level for doses more than 0.3 mg/kg. All of the parameters reflecting the renin-angiotensin system were significantly affected at doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg. The present study therefore confirms that captopril can be used to protect hematopoietic stem cells during antitumor chemotherapy while having only a limited effect on cardiovascular homeostasis.  (+info)

Angiotensin-converting enzyme-independent contraction to angiotensin I in human resistance arteries. (7/927)

BACKGROUND: In vitro studies of myocardial tissue suggest that angiotensin II (Ang II) may be generated by both ACE and chymase. A similar dual pathway may exist in the vasculature. We studied the effects of ACE and chymase inhibitors on the contractile response to angiotensin I (Ang I) in human resistance arteries to investigate ACE-independent generation of Ang II. METHODS AND RESULTS: Subcutaneous resistance arteries (250 to 350 microm) were obtained from gluteal biopsies from volunteers and New Zealand White rabbits and mounted on a wire myograph. Contractile ability was tested with high-potassium depolarization and norepinephrine 10 micromol/L and endothelial integrity by relaxation to acetylcholine 3 micromol/L. Cumulative concentration-response curves were constructed for Ang I in the presence of enalaprilat 1 micromol/L, chymostatin 10 micromol/L, or both inhibitors together. In the rabbit, enalaprilat completely inhibited the Ang I response. In human vessels, enalaprilat or chymostatin alone had no effect, but the combination of enalaprilat and chymostatin almost completely inhibited the response to Ang I. CONCLUSIONS: A dual pathway for Ang II generation exists in human resistance arteries, mediated by ACE and a chymostatin-sensitive enzyme, probably chymase. We confirm that a marked species difference exists in the mechanism of Ang II generation between the human and the rabbit. More efficacious suppression of the renin-angiotensin system may require development of novel enzyme inhibitors or combinations of currently available drugs.  (+info)

Functional evidence for subfornical organ-intrinsic conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. (8/927)

Using extracellular electrophysiological recording in an in vitro slice preparation, we investigated whether ANG I can be locally converted to the functionally active ANG II within the rat subfornical organ (SFO). ANG I and ANG II (10(-8)-10(-7) M) excited approximately 75% of all neurons tested with both peptides (n = 25); the remainder were insensitive. The increase in firing rate and the duration and the latency of the responses of identical neurons, superfused with equimolar concentrations of ANG I and ANG II, were not different. The threshold concentrations of the ANG I- and ANG II-induced excitations were both 10(-9) M. Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme by captopril (10(-4) M; n = 8) completely blocked the ANG I-induced excitation, a 10-fold lower dose was only effective in two of four neurons. The AT1-receptor antagonist losartan (10(-5) M; n = 6) abolished the excitation caused by ANG I and ANG II. Subcutaneous injections of equimolar doses of ANG I and ANG II (200 microliters; 2 x 10(-4) M) in water-sated rats similarly increased water intake by 2.4 +/- 0.5 (n = 16) and 2. 7 +/- 0.4 ml (n = 20) after 1 h, respectively. Control rats receiving saline drank 0.07 +/- 0.06 ml under these conditions. Pretreatment with a low dose of captopril (2.3 x 10(-3) M) 10 min before the injection of ANG I caused a water intake of 2.8 +/- 0.5 ml (n = 10), whereas a high dose of captopril (4.6 x 10(-1) M) suppressed the dipsogenic response of ANG I entirely (n = 11). These data provide direct functional evidence for an SFO-intrinsic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and underline the importance of the SFO as a central nervous interface connecting the peripheral with the central RAS.  (+info)

Angiotensin I is a decapeptide (a peptide consisting of ten amino acids) that is generated by the action of an enzyme called renin on a protein called angiotensinogen. Renin cleaves angiotensinogen to produce angiotensin I, which is then converted to angiotensin II by the action of an enzyme called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).

Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor, meaning it causes blood vessels to narrow and blood pressure to increase. It also stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands, which leads to increased sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys, further increasing blood volume and blood pressure.

Angiotensin I itself has little biological activity, but it is an important precursor to angiotensin II, which plays a key role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance in the body.

Angiotensin II is a potent vasoactive peptide hormone that plays a critical role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which is a crucial regulator of blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. It is formed from angiotensin I through the action of an enzyme called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).

Angiotensin II has several physiological effects on various organs, including:

1. Vasoconstriction: Angiotensin II causes contraction of vascular smooth muscle, leading to an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure.
2. Aldosterone release: Angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal glands to release aldosterone, a hormone that promotes sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys, thereby increasing water retention and blood volume.
3. Sympathetic nervous system activation: Angiotensin II activates the sympathetic nervous system, leading to increased heart rate and contractility, further contributing to an increase in blood pressure.
4. Thirst regulation: Angiotensin II stimulates the hypothalamus to increase thirst, promoting water intake and helping to maintain intravascular volume.
5. Cell growth and fibrosis: Angiotensin II has been implicated in various pathological processes, such as cell growth, proliferation, and fibrosis, which can contribute to the development of cardiovascular and renal diseases.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are two classes of medications commonly used in clinical practice to target the RAAS by blocking the formation or action of angiotensin II, respectively. These drugs have been shown to be effective in managing hypertension, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease.

The Angiotensin II Receptor Type 1 (AT1 receptor) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds and responds to the hormone angiotensin II, which plays a crucial role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The RAAS is a vital physiological mechanism that regulates blood pressure, fluid, and electrolyte balance.

The AT1 receptor is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiac myocytes, adrenal glands, kidneys, and brain. When angiotensin II binds to the AT1 receptor, it activates a series of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to vasoconstriction, increased sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys, and stimulation of aldosterone release from the adrenal glands. These effects ultimately result in an increase in blood pressure and fluid volume.

AT1 receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), are a class of drugs used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and other cardiovascular conditions. By blocking the AT1 receptor, these medications prevent angiotensin II from exerting its effects on the cardiovascular system, leading to vasodilation, decreased sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys, and reduced aldosterone release. These actions ultimately result in a decrease in blood pressure and fluid volume.

Angiotensin receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds the angiotensin peptides, which are important components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The RAAS is a hormonal system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

There are two main types of angiotensin receptors: AT1 and AT2. Activation of AT1 receptors leads to vasoconstriction, increased sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys, and cell growth and proliferation. On the other hand, activation of AT2 receptors has opposite effects, such as vasodilation, natriuresis (increased excretion of sodium in urine), and anti-proliferative actions.

Angiotensin II is a potent activator of AT1 receptors, while angiotensin IV has high affinity for AT2 receptors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are two classes of drugs that target the RAAS by blocking the formation or action of angiotensin II, leading to decreased activation of AT1 receptors and improved cardiovascular outcomes.

Angiotensins are a group of hormones that play a crucial role in the body's cardiovascular system, particularly in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance. The most well-known angiotensins are Angiotensin I, Angiotensin II, and Angiotensin-(1-7).

Angiotensinogen is a protein produced mainly by the liver. When the body requires an increase in blood pressure, renin (an enzyme produced by the kidneys) cleaves angiotensinogen to form Angiotensin I. Then, another enzyme called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), primarily found in the lungs, converts Angiotensin I into Angiotensin II.

Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor, causing blood vessels to narrow and increase blood pressure. It also stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands, which leads to increased sodium reabsorption in the kidneys, further raising blood pressure and promoting fluid retention.

Angiotensin-(1-7) is a more recently discovered member of the angiotensin family. It has opposing effects to Angiotensin II, acting as a vasodilator and counterbalancing some of the negative consequences of Angiotensin II's actions.

Medications called ACE inhibitors and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) are commonly used in clinical practice to target the renin-angiotensin system, lowering blood pressure and protecting against organ damage in various cardiovascular conditions.

Peptidyl-dipeptidase A is more commonly known as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). It is a key enzyme in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

ACE is a membrane-bound enzyme found primarily in the lungs, but also in other tissues such as the heart, kidneys, and blood vessels. It plays a crucial role in converting the inactive decapeptide angiotensin I into the potent vasoconstrictor octapeptide angiotensin II, which constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure.

ACE also degrades the peptide bradykinin, which is involved in the regulation of blood flow and vascular permeability. By breaking down bradykinin, ACE helps to counteract its vasodilatory effects, thereby maintaining blood pressure homeostasis.

Inhibitors of ACE are widely used as medications for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and diabetic kidney disease, among other conditions. These drugs work by blocking the action of ACE, leading to decreased levels of angiotensin II and increased levels of bradykinin, which results in vasodilation, reduced blood pressure, and improved cardiovascular function.

The Angiotensin II Receptor Type 2 (AT2R) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the hormone angiotensin II, which plays a crucial role in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a vital component in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance.

The AT2R is expressed in various tissues, including the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and reproductive organs. When angiotensin II binds to the AT2R, it initiates several signaling pathways that can lead to vasodilation, anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation, and neuroprotection.

In contrast to the Angiotensin II Receptor Type 1 (AT1R), which is primarily associated with vasoconstriction, sodium retention, and fibrosis, AT2R activation has been shown to have protective effects in several pathological conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, atherosclerosis, and kidney disease.

However, the precise functions of AT2R are still being investigated, and its role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes may vary depending on the tissue type and context.

Angiotensin III is a hormone that is involved in the regulation of blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. It is formed by the enzymatic breakdown of angiotensin II, another hormone in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Angiotensin III has similar physiological effects as angiotensin II, including vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels), stimulation of aldosterone release from the adrenal glands (which leads to sodium and water retention), and stimulation of thirst.

Angiotensin III is a peptide consisting of three amino acids, namely arginine-valine-tyrosine (Arg-Val-Tyr). It binds to and activates the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2), which are found in various tissues throughout the body. The activation of these receptors leads to a range of physiological responses, including increased blood pressure, heart rate, and fluid volume.

Angiotensin III is less potent than angiotensin II in its ability to cause vasoconstriction and aldosterone release, but it has been shown to have important roles in the regulation of cardiovascular function, particularly during conditions of reduced renal perfusion or low blood pressure. It may also contribute to the development of certain diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, and kidney disease.

Renin is a medically recognized term and it is defined as:

"A protein (enzyme) that is produced and released by specialized cells (juxtaglomerular cells) in the kidney. Renin is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which helps regulate blood pressure and fluid balance in the body.

When the kidney detects a decrease in blood pressure or a reduction in sodium levels, it releases renin into the bloodstream. Renin then acts on a protein called angiotensinogen, converting it to angiotensin I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) subsequently converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstrictor that narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure.

Additionally, angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal glands to release aldosterone, a hormone that promotes sodium reabsorption in the kidneys and increases water retention, further raising blood pressure.

Therefore, renin plays a critical role in maintaining proper blood pressure and electrolyte balance in the body."

Angiotensin receptor antagonists (ARAs), also known as angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), are a class of medications used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and protect against kidney damage in patients with diabetes. They work by blocking the action of angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor and hormone that increases blood pressure and promotes tissue fibrosis. By blocking the binding of angiotensin II to its receptors, ARAs cause relaxation of blood vessels, decreased sodium and water retention, and reduced cardiac remodeling, ultimately leading to improved cardiovascular function and reduced risk of organ damage. Examples of ARAs include losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, and candesartan.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are a class of medications that are commonly used to treat various cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage in people with diabetes).

ACE inhibitors work by blocking the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme, an enzyme that converts the hormone angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor, meaning it narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure. By inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, ACE inhibitors cause blood vessels to relax and widen, which lowers blood pressure and reduces the workload on the heart.

Some examples of ACE inhibitors include captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, ramipril, and fosinopril. These medications are generally well-tolerated, but they can cause side effects such as cough, dizziness, headache, and elevated potassium levels in the blood. It is important for patients to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking ACE inhibitors and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers (ARBs) are a class of medications used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and protect against kidney damage in patients with diabetes. They work by blocking the action of angiotensin II, a hormone that causes blood vessels to constrict and blood pressure to increase, at its type 1 receptor. By blocking this effect, ARBs cause blood vessels to dilate, reducing blood pressure and decreasing the workload on the heart. Examples of ARBs include losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, and candesartan.

Teprotide is not a medical condition but rather a medication. It's a synthetic peptide that acts as an inhibitor of the enzyme angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance by converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstrictor. By blocking this conversion, teprotide can help lower blood pressure and reduce the workload on the heart.

Teprotide was initially used in clinical trials for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure but has since been largely replaced by other ACE inhibitors with more favorable pharmacokinetic properties. It is still occasionally used in research settings to study the renin-angiotensin system's role in various physiological processes.

The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) is a complex hormonal system that regulates blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte balance, and vascular resistance. It plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of hypertension, heart failure, and kidney diseases.

Here's a brief overview of how it works:

1. Renin is an enzyme that is released by the juxtaglomerular cells in the kidneys in response to decreased blood pressure or reduced salt delivery to the distal tubules.
2. Renin acts on a protein called angiotensinogen, which is produced by the liver, converting it into angiotensin I.
3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), found in the lungs and other tissues, then converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor that narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure.
4. Angiotensin II also stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands, which promotes sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys, further increasing blood volume and blood pressure.
5. Additionally, angiotensin II has direct effects on the heart, promoting hypertrophy and remodeling, which can contribute to heart failure.
6. The RAS can be modulated by various medications, such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and aldosterone antagonists, which are commonly used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and kidney diseases.

Captopril is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors. It works by blocking the action of a chemical in the body called angiotensin II, which causes blood vessels to narrow and release hormones that can increase blood pressure. By blocking the action of angiotensin II, captopril helps relax and widen blood vessels, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow.

Captopril is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), congestive heart failure, and to improve survival after a heart attack. It may also be used to protect the kidneys from damage due to diabetes or high blood pressure. The medication comes in the form of tablets that are taken by mouth, usually two to three times per day.

Common side effects of captopril include cough, dizziness, headache, and skin rash. More serious side effects may include allergic reactions, kidney problems, and changes in blood cell counts. It is important for patients taking captopril to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) medication that is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), but can also be used to manage chronic heart failure and protect against kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes. It works by blocking the action of angiotensin II, a hormone that causes blood vessels to narrow and blood pressure to rise. By blocking this hormone's effects, losartan helps relax and widen blood vessels, making it easier for the heart to pump blood and reducing the workload on the cardiovascular system.

The medical definition of losartan is: "A synthetic angiotensin II receptor antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension, chronic heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy. It selectively blocks the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor, leading to vasodilation, decreased aldosterone secretion, and increased renin activity."

Saralasin is a synthetic analog of the natural hormone angiotensin II, which is used in research and medicine. It acts as an antagonist of the angiotensin II receptor, blocking its effects. Saralasin is primarily used in research to study the role of the renin-angiotensin system in various physiological processes. In clinical medicine, it has been used in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions such as hypertension and pheochromocytoma, although its use is not widespread due to the availability of more effective and selective drugs.

Angiotensinogen is a protein that is produced mainly by the liver. It is the precursor to angiotensin I, which is a molecule that begins the process of constriction (narrowing) of blood vessels, leading to an increase in blood pressure. When angiotensinogen comes into contact with an enzyme called renin, it is cleaved into angiotensin I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) then converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstrictor and a key player in the body's regulation of blood pressure and fluid balance.

Angiotensinogen is an important component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which helps to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance by controlling the volume and flow of fluids in the body. Disorders of the RAAS can lead to high blood pressure, kidney disease, and other health problems.

Tetrazoles are a class of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with four nitrogen atoms and one carbon atom. They have the chemical formula of C2H2N4. Tetrazoles are stable under normal conditions, but can decompose explosively when heated or subjected to strong shock.

In the context of medicinal chemistry, tetrazoles are sometimes used as bioisosteres for carboxylic acids, as they can mimic some of their chemical and biological properties. This has led to the development of several drugs that contain tetrazole rings, such as the antiviral drug tenofovir and the anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib.

However, it's important to note that 'tetrazoles' is not a medical term per se, but rather a chemical term that can be used in the context of medicinal chemistry or pharmacology.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Enalaprilat is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors. It is the active metabolite of Enalapril. Enalaprilat works by blocking the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme, which helps to relax and widen blood vessels, thereby reducing blood pressure and increasing blood flow.

Enalaprilat is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), heart failure, and to improve survival after a heart attack. It is administered intravenously in a hospital setting, and its effects are usually seen within 15 minutes of administration. Common side effects of Enalaprilat include hypotension (low blood pressure), dizziness, headache, and nausea.

Cilazapril is an oral antihypertensive drug, which belongs to the class of medications known as ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors. It works by blocking the action of a chemical in the body called angiotensin II that causes blood vessels to narrow, thereby helping to relax and widen blood vessels, and lower blood pressure.

Cilazapril is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), and can also be used to improve survival after a heart attack and to manage chronic heart failure. It is available under the brand name Inhibace and in generic form as well. As with any medication, it should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who will consider the individual's medical history, current medications, and other factors before prescribing it.

Biphenyl compounds, also known as diphenyls, are a class of organic compounds consisting of two benzene rings linked by a single carbon-carbon bond. The chemical structure of biphenyl compounds can be represented as C6H5-C6H5. These compounds are widely used in the industrial sector, including as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, as solvents, and in the production of plastics and dyes. Some biphenyl compounds also have biological activity and can be found in natural products. For example, some plant-derived compounds that belong to this class have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties.

Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers (AT2RBs) are a class of drugs that selectively block the activation of Angiotensin II Type 2 receptors (AT2R). These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body and play a role in regulating blood pressure, inflammation, and cell growth.

Angiotensin II is a hormone that constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure. It binds to both AT1R and AT2R, but its effects are mainly mediated through AT1R. AT2RBs work by blocking the action of Angiotensin II at the AT2R, which can help lower blood pressure and reduce inflammation.

AT2RBs have been shown to have potential benefits in various clinical settings, including heart failure, diabetes, and kidney disease. However, their use is not as widespread as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), which primarily target the AT1R.

Some examples of AT2RBs include EMA401, PD123319, and TRV120027.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for "1-Sarcosine-8-Isoleucine Angiotensin II." It is possible that this term is being used to describe an altered or modified form of the peptide hormone angiotensin II.

Angiotensin II is a powerful vasoconstrictor and plays a central role in the regulation of blood pressure and fluid balance. Its octapeptide structure consists of eight amino acids, with the sequence Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe.

Modifying this sequence by replacing one or more amino acids can result in altered biological activity. In this case, "1-Sarcosine-8-Isoleucine" suggests that the first amino acid (Aspartic Acid) has been replaced with Sarcosine (N-methylglycine), and the eighth amino acid (Phenylalanine) has been replaced with Isoleucine.

However, without further context or research, it is difficult to provide a precise medical definition for this term. If you are seeking information on a specific scientific study or application, please provide more details so that I can give a more informed response.

Bradykinin is a naturally occurring peptide in the human body, consisting of nine amino acids. It is a potent vasodilator and increases the permeability of blood vessels, causing a local inflammatory response. Bradykinin is formed from the breakdown of certain proteins, such as kininogen, by enzymes called kininases or proteases, including kallikrein. It plays a role in several physiological processes, including pain transmission, blood pressure regulation, and the immune response. In some pathological conditions, such as hereditary angioedema, bradykinin levels can increase excessively, leading to symptoms like swelling, redness, and pain.

Enalapril is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. It works by blocking the action of a hormone in the body called angiotensin II, which causes blood vessels to narrow and tighten. By blocking this hormone, Enalapril helps relax and widen blood vessels, making it easier for the heart to pump blood and reducing the workload on the heart.

Enalapril is commonly used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), congestive heart failure, and to improve survival after a heart attack. It may also be used to treat other conditions as determined by your doctor.

The medication comes in the form of tablets or capsules that are taken orally, usually once or twice a day with or without food. The dosage will depend on various factors such as the patient's age, weight, and medical condition. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking Enalapril.

Like all medications, Enalapril can cause side effects, including dry cough, dizziness, headache, fatigue, and nausea. More serious side effects may include allergic reactions, kidney problems, and low blood pressure. If you experience any concerning symptoms while taking Enalapril, it is important to contact your healthcare provider right away.

Chymases are a type of enzyme that belong to the family of serine proteases. They are found in various tissues and organs, including the heart, lungs, and immune cells called mast cells. Chymases play a role in several physiological and pathological processes, such as inflammation, tissue remodeling, and blood pressure regulation.

One of the most well-known chymases is found in the mast cells and is often referred to as "mast cell chymase." This enzyme can cleave and activate various proteins, including angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor that increases blood pressure. Chymases have also been implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and heart failure, as well as respiratory diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

In summary, chymases are a group of serine protease enzymes that play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, particularly in inflammation, tissue remodeling, and blood pressure regulation.

Lisinopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which is a type of medication used to treat various cardiovascular conditions. It works by blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in relaxation and widening of blood vessels, decreased blood pressure, and increased blood flow.

Lisinopril is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), congestive heart failure, and to improve survival after a heart attack. It may also be used to protect the kidneys from damage due to diabetes or high blood pressure. Additionally, it has been shown to reduce proteinuria (excess protein in urine) in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Common side effects of Lisinopril include dizziness, headache, fatigue, and cough. More serious side effects may include angioedema (rapid swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat), hyperkalemia (elevated potassium levels), and impaired kidney function.

It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking Lisinopril and to report any unusual symptoms promptly. Regular monitoring of blood pressure, kidney function, and electrolyte levels may be necessary during treatment with this medication.

Imidazoles are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a double-bonded nitrogen atom and two additional nitrogen atoms in the ring. They have the chemical formula C3H4N2. In a medical context, imidazoles are commonly used as antifungal agents. Some examples of imidazole-derived antifungals include clotrimazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole. These medications work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and death of the fungal cells. Imidazoles may also have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancer properties.

Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It plays a key role in regulating sodium and potassium balance and maintaining blood pressure through its effects on the kidneys. Aldosterone promotes the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons in the kidneys. This increases the osmotic pressure in the blood, which in turn leads to water retention and an increase in blood volume and blood pressure.

Aldosterone is released from the adrenal gland in response to a variety of stimuli, including angiotensin II (a peptide hormone produced as part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), potassium ions, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. The production of aldosterone is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving sodium levels in the blood. High sodium levels inhibit the release of aldosterone, while low sodium levels stimulate its release.

In addition to its role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure, aldosterone has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and primary hyperaldosteronism (a condition characterized by excessive production of aldosterone).

Vasoconstrictor agents are substances that cause the narrowing of blood vessels by constricting the smooth muscle in their walls. This leads to an increase in blood pressure and a decrease in blood flow. They work by activating the sympathetic nervous system, which triggers the release of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and epinephrine that bind to alpha-adrenergic receptors on the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessel walls, causing them to contract.

Vasoconstrictor agents are used medically for a variety of purposes, including:

* Treating hypotension (low blood pressure)
* Controlling bleeding during surgery or childbirth
* Relieving symptoms of nasal congestion in conditions such as the common cold or allergies

Examples of vasoconstrictor agents include phenylephrine, oxymetazoline, and epinephrine. It's important to note that prolonged use or excessive doses of vasoconstrictor agents can lead to rebound congestion and other adverse effects, so they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Hypertension is a medical term used to describe abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, often defined as consistently having systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) over 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) over 80 mmHg. It is also commonly referred to as high blood pressure.

Hypertension can be classified into two types: primary or essential hypertension, which has no identifiable cause and accounts for about 95% of cases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or use of certain medications.

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is important for individuals with hypertension to manage their condition through lifestyle modifications (such as healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management) and medication if necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Antihypertensive agents are a class of medications used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). They work by reducing the force and rate of heart contractions, dilating blood vessels, or altering neurohormonal activation to lower blood pressure. Examples include diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, calcium channel blockers, and direct vasodilators. These medications may be used alone or in combination to achieve optimal blood pressure control.

Oligopeptides are defined in medicine and biochemistry as short chains of amino acids, typically containing fewer than 20 amino acid residues. These small peptides are important components in various biological processes, such as serving as signaling molecules, enzyme inhibitors, or structural elements in some proteins. They can be found naturally in foods and may also be synthesized for use in medical research and therapeutic applications.

Benzimidazoles are a class of heterocyclic compounds containing a benzene fused to a imidazole ring. They have a wide range of pharmacological activities and are used in the treatment of various diseases. Some of the benzimidazoles are used as antiparasitics, such as albendazole and mebendazole, which are effective against a variety of worm infestations. Other benzimidazoles have antifungal properties, such as thiabendazole and fuberidazole, and are used to treat fungal infections. Additionally, some benzimidazoles have been found to have anti-cancer properties and are being investigated for their potential use in cancer therapy.

3-Mercaptopropionic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3SHCO2H. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a building block in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. The compound is characterized by the presence of a thiol (also called a mercaptan) group, which consists of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (-SH). This functional group makes 3-mercaptopropionic acid a strong smelling, acidic compound that can react with various substances.

In the medical field, 3-mercaptopropionic acid is not used directly as a drug or therapeutic agent. However, it may be employed in the synthesis of certain medications or as a reagent in diagnostic tests. For instance, it has been used to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for imaging and detecting brain tumors.

It is important to note that 3-mercaptopropionic acid can have adverse health effects if not handled properly. It can cause skin and eye irritation, and prolonged exposure may lead to more severe health issues. Therefore, appropriate safety measures should be taken when working with this compound in a laboratory or industrial setting.

Neprilysin (NEP), also known as membrane metallo-endopeptidase or CD10, is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a zinc-dependent metalloprotease. It is widely expressed in various tissues, including the kidney, brain, heart, and vasculature. Neprilysin plays a crucial role in the breakdown and regulation of several endogenous bioactive peptides, such as natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, substance P, and angiotensin II. By degrading these peptides, neprilysin helps maintain cardiovascular homeostasis, modulate inflammation, and regulate neurotransmission. In the context of heart failure, neprilysin inhibitors have been developed to increase natriuretic peptide levels, promoting diuresis and vasodilation, ultimately improving cardiac function.

Thiorphan is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a synthetic medication. It is a potent inhibitor of membrane-bound metalloendopeptidases, also known as neprilysin enzymes. These enzymes are responsible for breaking down certain peptides in the body, including some hormones and neurotransmitters.

Thiorphan has been used in research to study the role of these enzymes in various physiological processes. It is also being investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, and Alzheimer's disease. However, it is not currently approved for clinical use in humans.

Therefore, there is no medical definition of 'Thiorphan' as a condition or disease.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Vasoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of blood vessels due to the contraction of the smooth muscle in their walls. This process decreases the diameter of the lumen (the inner space of the blood vessel) and reduces blood flow through the affected vessels. Vasoconstriction can occur throughout the body, but it is most noticeable in the arterioles and precapillary sphincters, which control the amount of blood that flows into the capillary network.

The autonomic nervous system, specifically the sympathetic division, plays a significant role in regulating vasoconstriction through the release of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Various hormones and chemical mediators, such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and serotonin, can also induce vasoconstriction.

Vasoconstriction is a vital physiological response that helps maintain blood pressure and regulate blood flow distribution in the body. However, excessive or prolonged vasoconstriction may contribute to several pathological conditions, including hypertension, stroke, and peripheral vascular diseases.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) are an inbred strain of rats that were originally developed through selective breeding for high blood pressure. They are widely used as a model to study hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases, as well as neurological disorders such as stroke and dementia.

Inbred strains of animals are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or offspring) for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at all genetic loci. This means that the animals within an inbred strain are essentially genetically identical to one another, which makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease processes.

SHR rats develop high blood pressure spontaneously, without any experimental manipulation, and show many features of human hypertension, such as increased vascular resistance, left ventricular hypertrophy, and renal dysfunction. They also exhibit a number of behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and cognitive deficits, which make them useful for studying the neurological consequences of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

Overall, inbred SHR rats are an important tool in biomedical research, providing a valuable model for understanding the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to hypertension and related disorders.

Renal hypertension, also known as renovascular hypertension, is a type of secondary hypertension (high blood pressure) that is caused by narrowing or obstruction of the renal arteries or veins, which supply blood to the kidneys. This can lead to decreased blood flow and oxygen delivery to the kidney tissue, activating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and resulting in increased peripheral vascular resistance, sodium retention, and extracellular fluid volume, ultimately causing hypertension.

Renal hypertension can be classified into two types:

1. Renin-dependent renal hypertension: This is caused by a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys, leading to increased renin release from the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney. Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is then converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor that causes an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure.
2. Renin-independent renal hypertension: This is caused by increased sodium retention and extracellular fluid volume, leading to an increase in blood pressure. This can be due to various factors such as obstructive sleep apnea, primary aldosteronism, or pheochromocytoma.

Renal hypertension is often asymptomatic but can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, heart failure, and stroke if left untreated. Diagnosis of renal hypertension involves imaging studies such as renal artery duplex ultrasound, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to identify any narrowing or obstruction in the renal arteries or veins. Treatment options include medications such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers, and diuretics, as well as interventions such as angioplasty and stenting to improve blood flow to the kidneys.

WKY (Wistar Kyoto) is not a term that refers to "rats, inbred" in a medical definition. Instead, it is a strain of laboratory rat that is widely used in biomedical research. WKY rats are an inbred strain, which means they are the result of many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a genetically uniform population.

WKY rats originated from the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia and were established as a normotensive control strain to contrast with other rat strains that exhibit hypertension. They have since been used in various research areas, including cardiovascular, neurological, and behavioral studies. Compared to other commonly used rat strains like the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), WKY rats are known for their lower blood pressure, reduced stress response, and greater emotionality.

In summary, "WKY" is a designation for an inbred strain of laboratory rat that is often used as a control group in biomedical research due to its normotensive characteristics.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pyridines" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of organic compounds with the chemical structure of a six-membered ring containing one nitrogen atom and five carbon atoms (heterocyclic aromatic compound).

In a biological or medical context, pyridine derivatives can be found in various natural and synthetic substances. For example, some medications contain pyridine rings as part of their chemical structure. However, "Pyridines" itself is not a medical term or condition.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

A sodium-restricted diet is a meal plan designed to limit the amount of sodium (salt) intake. The recommended daily sodium intake for adults is less than 2,300 milligrams (mg), but for those with certain medical conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, or chronic kidney disease, a lower daily sodium limit of 1,500 to 2,000 mg may be recommended.

A sodium-restricted diet typically involves avoiding processed and packaged foods, which are often high in sodium, and limiting the use of salt when cooking or at the table. Fresh fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains are encouraged as they are naturally low in sodium. It is important to read food labels carefully, as some foods may contain hidden sources of sodium.

Adhering to a sodium-restricted diet can help manage blood pressure, reduce fluid retention, and decrease the risk of heart disease and stroke. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian before starting any new diet plan to ensure that it meets individual nutritional needs and medical conditions.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

A smooth muscle within the vascular system refers to the involuntary, innervated muscle that is found in the walls of blood vessels. These muscles are responsible for controlling the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn regulates blood flow and blood pressure. They are called "smooth" muscles because their individual muscle cells do not have the striations, or cross-striped patterns, that are observed in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Smooth muscle in the vascular system is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones, and can contract or relax slowly over a period of time.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Nephrectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of a kidney is removed. It may be performed due to various reasons such as severe kidney damage, kidney cancer, or living donor transplantation. The type of nephrectomy depends on the reason for the surgery - a simple nephrectomy involves removing only the affected portion of the kidney, while a radical nephrectomy includes removal of the whole kidney along with its surrounding tissues like the adrenal gland and lymph nodes.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pyridazines" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of heterocyclic organic compounds which contain a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms. These types of compounds are often used in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, but "Pyridazines" itself is not a medical concept or diagnosis. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you.

Renal circulation refers to the blood flow specifically dedicated to the kidneys. The main function of the kidneys is to filter waste and excess fluids from the blood, which then get excreted as urine. To perform this function efficiently, the kidneys receive a substantial amount of the body's total blood supply - about 20-25% in a resting state.

The renal circulation process begins when deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body returns to the right side of the heart and is pumped into the lungs for oxygenation. Oxygen-rich blood then leaves the left side of the heart through the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

A portion of this oxygen-rich blood moves into the renal arteries, which branch directly from the aorta and supply each kidney with blood. Within the kidneys, these arteries divide further into smaller vessels called afferent arterioles, which feed into a network of tiny capillaries called the glomerulus within each nephron (the functional unit of the kidney).

The filtration process occurs in the glomeruli, where waste materials and excess fluids are separated from the blood. The resulting filtrate then moves through another set of capillaries, the peritubular capillaries, which surround the renal tubules (the part of the nephron that reabsorbs necessary substances back into the bloodstream).

The now-deoxygenated blood from the kidneys' capillary network coalesces into venules and then merges into the renal veins, which ultimately drain into the inferior vena cava and return the blood to the right side of the heart. This highly specialized circulation system allows the kidneys to efficiently filter waste while maintaining appropriate blood volume and composition.

The term "drinking" is commonly used to refer to the consumption of beverages, but in a medical context, it usually refers to the consumption of alcoholic drinks. According to the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, "drinking" is defined as:

1. The act or habit of swallowing liquid (such as water, juice, or alcohol)
2. The ingestion of alcoholic beverages

It's important to note that while moderate drinking may not pose significant health risks for some individuals, excessive or binge drinking can lead to a range of negative health consequences, including addiction, liver disease, heart disease, and increased risk of injury or violence.

Placental function tests are medical assessments used to determine the adequacy and health of the placenta during pregnancy. The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy, providing oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus while removing waste products. Efficient placental function is crucial for a healthy pregnancy and normal fetal development.

There are several placental function tests available, including:

1. Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) Test: This test measures the levels of PlGF, a protein produced by the placenta. Decreased PlGF levels may indicate impaired placental function and increased risk for complications such as preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction.
2. Soluble Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase 1 (sFlt-1) Test: sFlt-1 is a protein that inhibits the activity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is essential for placental blood vessel formation. Elevated sFlt-1 levels can disrupt VEGF function, leading to poor placental perfusion and increased risk for preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction.
3. Placental Protein 13 (PP13) Test: PP13 is a protein produced by the placenta that helps maintain the integrity of blood vessels. Elevated PP13 levels may indicate placental damage and increased risk for preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction.
4. Doppler Ultrasound: This non-invasive test uses sound waves to assess blood flow in the uterine and umbilical arteries, providing information about the placenta's ability to supply oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. Reduced or abnormal blood flow may indicate impaired placental function.
5. Mean Transverse Cervical Diameter (MTCD) Measurement: This ultrasound measurement evaluates the size of the cervix, which can provide information about the risk for preterm labor and delivery. A smaller cervical diameter may indicate increased risk for preterm birth, which can be associated with placental insufficiency.

These tests help healthcare providers monitor placental health during pregnancy, identify potential complications early, and develop appropriate management strategies to ensure the best possible outcomes for both mother and baby.

The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JGA) is a specialized region located at the junction between the afferent arteriole and the distal convoluted tubule in the nephron of the kidney. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance within the body through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).

The JGA consists of three main components:

1. Juxtaglomerular Cells: These are specialized smooth muscle cells found in the media layer of the afferent arteriole. They have the ability to synthesize and release renin, an enzyme that initiates the RAAS cascade. When blood pressure decreases or when sodium levels in the distal convoluted tubule are low, these cells are stimulated to release renin.

2. Macula Densa: This is a group of specialized epithelial cells located within the wall of the distal convoluted tubule at its point of contact with the afferent arteriole. These cells monitor the concentration and flow rate of filtrate in the tubule and provide feedback to the juxtaglomerular cells regarding sodium levels and pressure changes in the nephron.

3. Lacis Cells: Also known as extraglomerular mesangial cells, lacis cells are located within the connective tissue surrounding the JGA. They help regulate blood flow to the glomerulus by contracting or relaxing in response to various stimuli.

In summary, the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus is a critical structure involved in maintaining homeostasis through its role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Bethanidine is a non-cardioselective, moderately potent, short-acting antihypertensive drug. It belongs to the class of medications known as ganglionic blockers, which work by blocking the action of certain nerves in the body, leading to a decrease in blood pressure.

Bethanidine is used to treat high blood pressure and has been used in the management of symptoms associated with congestive heart failure. However, its use has declined over the years due to the availability of safer and more effective antihypertensive medications.

Like other ganglionic blockers, bethanidine can cause side effects such as dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, difficulty urinating, dizziness, and weakness. It should be used with caution in patients with certain medical conditions, including kidney or liver disease, narrow-angle glaucoma, and bladder neck obstruction.

It is important to note that bethanidine is not commonly used in clinical practice today due to its potential for serious side effects and the availability of safer alternatives.

A dipeptide is a type of molecule that is formed by the condensation of two amino acids. In this process, the carboxyl group (-COOH) of one amino acid combines with the amino group (-NH2) of another amino acid, releasing a water molecule and forming a peptide bond.

The resulting molecule contains two amino acids joined together by a single peptide bond, which is a type of covalent bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another. Dipeptides are relatively simple molecules compared to larger polypeptides or proteins, which can contain hundreds or even thousands of amino acids linked together by multiple peptide bonds.

Dipeptides have a variety of biological functions in the body, including serving as building blocks for larger proteins and playing important roles in various physiological processes. Some dipeptides also have potential therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of hypertension or muscle wasting disorders.

Renovascular hypertension is a type of secondary hypertension (high blood pressure) that is caused by renal artery stenosis or narrowing. This condition reduces blood flow to the kidneys, leading to the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which causes an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and blood volume, resulting in hypertension.

Renovascular hypertension is often seen in people with atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia, which are the most common causes of renal artery stenosis. Other conditions that can lead to renovascular hypertension include vasculitis, blood clots, and compression of the renal artery by nearby structures.

Diagnosis of renovascular hypertension typically involves imaging studies such as duplex ultrasound, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography to visualize the renal arteries and assess for stenosis. Treatment may involve medications to control blood pressure, lifestyle modifications, and procedures such as angioplasty and stenting to open up the narrowed renal artery. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the kidney.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Ramipril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which is a type of medication used to treat various cardiovascular conditions. It works by blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, thereby causing relaxation and widening of blood vessels, decreasing blood pressure, and increasing blood flow.

Ramipril is primarily used for the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure), heart failure, and the prevention of major cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) and stroke in high-risk patients. It may also be used to improve survival after a heart attack.

The medication is available in oral tablet form and is typically taken once or twice daily, depending on the prescribed dosage. Side effects of ramipril can include cough, dizziness, headache, fatigue, nausea, and taste changes. Serious side effects are rare but may include kidney problems, hyperkalemia (high potassium levels), and angioedema (swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat).

It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking ramipril and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly. Regular monitoring of blood pressure, kidney function, and potassium levels may be necessary during treatment with this medication.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

Serine endopeptidases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds within proteins (endopeptidases) and utilize serine as the nucleophilic amino acid in their active site for catalysis. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including digestion, blood coagulation, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Examples of serine endopeptidases include trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin, and elastase.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It forms the thickest part of the heart wall and is divided into two sections: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The myocardium contains several types of cells, including cardiac muscle fibers, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The muscle fibers are arranged in a highly organized pattern that allows them to contract in a coordinated manner, generating the force necessary to pump blood through the heart and circulatory system.

Damage to the myocardium can occur due to various factors such as ischemia (reduced blood flow), infection, inflammation, or genetic disorders. This damage can lead to several cardiac conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

Angiotensin amide is not a medical term itself, but it refers to a form of angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstrictor (a substance that narrows blood vessels) in the body. Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I through the action of an enzyme called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).

Angiotensin II amide, also known as angiotensin II-amide or angiotensin II-(1-8), refers to the biologically active form of angiotensin II. It is an octapeptide with the amino acid sequence Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe, and its carboxy terminus is amidated (has an amide group instead of a free carboxyl group). This amide form of angiotensin II is more stable than the non-amidated form and has a longer half-life in circulation.

Angiotensin II amide plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance by causing vasoconstriction, stimulating aldosterone release from the adrenal glands (which leads to sodium and water retention), and promoting thirst. Drugs that inhibit ACE or block angiotensin II receptors are commonly used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Protease inhibitors are a class of antiviral drugs that are used to treat infections caused by retroviruses, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is responsible for causing AIDS. These drugs work by blocking the activity of protease enzymes, which are necessary for the replication and multiplication of the virus within infected cells.

Protease enzymes play a crucial role in the life cycle of retroviruses by cleaving viral polyproteins into functional units that are required for the assembly of new viral particles. By inhibiting the activity of these enzymes, protease inhibitors prevent the virus from replicating and spreading to other cells, thereby slowing down the progression of the infection.

Protease inhibitors are often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Common examples of protease inhibitors include saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, and atazanavir. While these drugs have been successful in improving the outcomes of people living with HIV/AIDS, they can also cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, headaches, and lipodystrophy (changes in body fat distribution).

Bradykinin receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds to and is activated by the peptide hormone bradykinin. There are two main types of bradykinin receptors, B1 and B2, which are distinguished by their pharmacological properties, distribution, and function.

Bradykinin Receptor B1 (B1R) is upregulated during tissue injury and inflammation, and it mediates pain, hyperalgesia, and vasodilation. The activation of B1R also promotes the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, contributing to the development of chronic inflammation.

Bradykinin Receptor B2 (B2R) is constitutively expressed in various tissues, including the vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, and nervous system. It mediates many of the physiological effects of bradykinin, such as vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and pain sensation. B2R also plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure, fluid balance, and tissue repair.

Both B1R and B2R are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic pain conditions. Therefore, targeting these receptors with specific drugs has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for treating various medical conditions.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Vascular resistance is a measure of the opposition to blood flow within a vessel or a group of vessels, typically expressed in units of mmHg/(mL/min) or sometimes as dynes*sec/cm^5. It is determined by the diameter and length of the vessels, as well as the viscosity of the blood flowing through them. In general, a decrease in vessel diameter, an increase in vessel length, or an increase in blood viscosity will result in an increase in vascular resistance, while an increase in vessel diameter, a decrease in vessel length, or a decrease in blood viscosity will result in a decrease in vascular resistance. Vascular resistance is an important concept in the study of circulation and cardiovascular physiology because it plays a key role in determining blood pressure and blood flow within the body.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the body. They form a network of tubes that carry blood to and from the heart, lungs, and other organs. The main types of blood vessels are arteries, veins, and capillaries. Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body, while veins return deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Capillaries connect arteries and veins and facilitate the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials between the blood and the body's tissues.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

Furosemide is a loop diuretic medication that is primarily used to treat edema (fluid retention) associated with various medical conditions such as heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease. It works by inhibiting the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter in the ascending loop of Henle in the kidneys, thereby promoting the excretion of water, sodium, and chloride ions. This increased urine output helps reduce fluid accumulation in the body and lower blood pressure.

Furosemide is also known by its brand names Lasix and Frusid. It can be administered orally or intravenously, depending on the patient's condition and the desired rate of diuresis. Common side effects include dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, hearing loss (in high doses), and increased blood sugar levels.

It is essential to monitor kidney function, electrolyte levels, and fluid balance while using furosemide to minimize potential adverse effects and ensure appropriate treatment.

Perindopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and previous myocardial infarction (heart attack). It works by blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, which leads to decreased peripheral vascular resistance and reduced blood pressure. Additionally, perindopril inhibits the breakdown of bradykinin, a vasodilator, further contributing to its hypotensive effects.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

Perinephritis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of the tissues surrounding the kidney. It is a relatively rare condition that can result from various causes, including bacterial infections, fungal infections, or chemical irritants. In some cases, perinephritis may also occur as a complication of kidney surgery or trauma to the kidney.

The symptoms of perinephritis can vary depending on the severity and cause of the inflammation. They may include fever, abdominal or back pain, nausea, vomiting, and difficulty urinating. In severe cases, perinephritis can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, kidney failure, or even death if left untreated.

Diagnosis of perinephritis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to treat any underlying infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to drain any accumulated pus or fluid in the perinephric area.

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They have thick, muscular walls that can withstand the high pressure of blood being pumped out of the heart. Arteries branch off into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further divide into a vast network of tiny capillaries where the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste occurs between the blood and the body's cells. After passing through the capillary network, deoxygenated blood collects in venules, then merges into veins, which return the blood back to the heart.

Proline is an organic compound that is classified as a non-essential amino acid, meaning it can be produced by the human body and does not need to be obtained through the diet. It is encoded in the genetic code as the codon CCU, CCC, CCA, or CCG. Proline is a cyclic amino acid, containing an unusual secondary amine group, which forms a ring structure with its carboxyl group.

In proteins, proline acts as a structural helix breaker, disrupting the alpha-helix structure and leading to the formation of turns and bends in the protein chain. This property is important for the proper folding and function of many proteins. Proline also plays a role in the stability of collagen, a major structural protein found in connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and skin.

In addition to its role in protein structure, proline has been implicated in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, apoptosis, and oxidative stress response. It is also a precursor for the synthesis of other biologically important compounds such as hydroxyproline, which is found in collagen and elastin, and glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.

The renal artery is a pair of blood vessels that originate from the abdominal aorta and supply oxygenated blood to each kidney. These arteries branch into several smaller vessels that provide blood to the various parts of the kidneys, including the renal cortex and medulla. The renal arteries also carry nutrients and other essential components needed for the normal functioning of the kidneys. Any damage or blockage to the renal artery can lead to serious consequences, such as reduced kidney function or even kidney failure.

Perfusion, in medical terms, refers to the process of circulating blood through the body's organs and tissues to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products. It is a measure of the delivery of adequate blood flow to specific areas or tissues in the body. Perfusion can be assessed using various methods, including imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and perfusion scintigraphy.

Perfusion is critical for maintaining proper organ function and overall health. When perfusion is impaired or inadequate, it can lead to tissue hypoxia, acidosis, and cell death, which can result in organ dysfunction or failure. Conditions that can affect perfusion include cardiovascular disease, shock, trauma, and certain surgical procedures.

The thoracic aorta is the segment of the largest artery in the human body (the aorta) that runs through the chest region (thorax). The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic arch, where it branches off from the ascending aorta, and extends down to the diaphragm, where it becomes the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta is divided into three parts: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta rises from the left ventricle of the heart and is about 2 inches (5 centimeters) long. The aortic arch curves backward and to the left, giving rise to the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. The descending thoracic aorta runs downward through the chest, passing through the diaphragm to become the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta supplies oxygenated blood to the upper body, including the head, neck, arms, and chest. It plays a critical role in maintaining blood flow and pressure throughout the body.

The kidney cortex is the outer region of the kidney where most of the functional units called nephrons are located. It plays a crucial role in filtering blood and regulating water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance in the body. The kidney cortex contains the glomeruli, proximal tubules, loop of Henle, and distal tubules, which work together to reabsorb necessary substances and excrete waste products into the urine.

The endothelium is the thin, delicate tissue that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. It is a single layer of cells called endothelial cells that are in contact with the blood or lymph fluid. The endothelium plays an essential role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating blood flow, coagulation, platelet activation, immune function, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). It also acts as a barrier between the vessel wall and the circulating blood or lymph fluid. Dysfunction of the endothelium has been implicated in various cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammation, and cancer.

Malignant hypertension is a severe form of hypertension (high blood pressure) that is characterized by extremely high blood pressure readings, typically greater than 180/120 mmHg, along with evidence of damage to one or more organ systems. This condition is considered a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment.

Malignant hypertension can cause rapid and severe damage to various organs in the body, including the brain, heart, kidneys, and eyes. Symptoms may include severe headache, visual disturbances, confusion, shortness of breath, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, seizures, and even coma.

The exact cause of malignant hypertension is not always known, but it can be associated with certain underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, autoimmune disorders, pregnancy-related complications, or the use of certain medications. Treatment typically involves aggressive blood pressure control using intravenous medications in a hospital setting, along with management of any underlying conditions and prevention of further organ damage.

Endopeptidases are a type of enzyme that breaks down proteins by cleaving peptide bonds inside the polypeptide chain. They are also known as proteinases or endoproteinases. These enzymes work within the interior of the protein molecule, cutting it at specific points along its length, as opposed to exopeptidases, which remove individual amino acids from the ends of the protein chain.

Endopeptidases play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as digestion, blood coagulation, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). They are classified based on their catalytic mechanism and the structure of their active site. Some examples of endopeptidase families include serine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases, and metalloproteases.

It is important to note that while endopeptidases are essential for normal physiological functions, they can also contribute to disease processes when their activity is unregulated or misdirected. For instance, excessive endopeptidase activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and inflammatory conditions.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

The mesenteric arteries are the arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the intestines. There are three main mesenteric arteries: the superior mesenteric artery, which supplies blood to the small intestine (duodenum to two-thirds of the transverse colon) and large intestine (cecum, ascending colon, and the first part of the transverse colon); the inferior mesenteric artery, which supplies blood to the distal third of the transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum; and the middle colic artery, which is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that supplies blood to the transverse colon. These arteries are important in maintaining adequate blood flow to the intestines to support digestion and absorption of nutrients.

Valine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet. It is a hydrophobic amino acid, with a branched side chain, and is necessary for the growth, repair, and maintenance of tissues in the body. Valine is also important for muscle metabolism, and is often used by athletes as a supplement to enhance physical performance. Like other essential amino acids, valine must be obtained through foods such as meat, fish, dairy products, and legumes.

The endothelium is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. The vascular endothelium, specifically, refers to the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, inflammation, and permeability of the vessel wall. They also contribute to the growth and repair of the vascular system and are involved in various pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes.

Natriuresis is the process or condition of excreting an excessive amount of sodium (salt) through urine. It is a physiological response to high sodium levels in the body, which can be caused by various factors such as certain medical conditions (e.g., kidney disease, heart failure), medications, or dietary habits. The increased excretion of sodium helps regulate the body's water balance and maintain normal blood pressure. However, persistent natriuresis may indicate underlying health issues that require medical attention.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Phosphinic Acids" is not a recognized medical term. Phosphinic acids are chemical compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to two organic groups and one hydroxyl group, making them a subclass of organophosphorus compounds. They are widely used in the production of various chemicals, but they do not have specific relevance to medical definitions or terminology. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Carboxypeptidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of peptide bonds at the carboxyl-terminal end of polypeptides or proteins. They specifically remove the last amino acid residue from the protein chain, provided that it has a free carboxyl group and is not blocked by another chemical group. Carboxypeptidases are classified into two main types based on their catalytic mechanism: serine carboxypeptidases and metallo-carboxypeptidases.

Serine carboxypeptidases, also known as chymotrypsin C or carboxypeptidase C, use a serine residue in their active site to catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. They are found in various organisms, including animals and bacteria.

Metallo-carboxypeptidases, on the other hand, require a metal ion (usually zinc) for their catalytic activity. They can be further divided into several subtypes based on their structure and substrate specificity. For example, carboxypeptidase A prefers to cleave hydrophobic amino acids from the carboxyl-terminal end of proteins, while carboxypeptidase B specifically removes basic residues (lysine or arginine).

Carboxypeptidases have important roles in various biological processes, such as protein maturation, digestion, and regulation of blood pressure. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Cathepsin G is a serine protease, which is a type of enzyme that breaks down other proteins. It is produced and released by neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that plays an important role in the body's immune response to infection. Cathepsin G helps to digest and kill microorganisms that have invaded the body. It can also contribute to tissue damage and inflammation in certain diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and cystic fibrosis.

Hydrolysis is a chemical process, not a medical one. However, it is relevant to medicine and biology.

Hydrolysis is the breakdown of a chemical compound due to its reaction with water, often resulting in the formation of two or more simpler compounds. In the context of physiology and medicine, hydrolysis is a crucial process in various biological reactions, such as the digestion of food molecules like proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Enzymes called hydrolases catalyze these hydrolysis reactions to speed up the breakdown process in the body.

Vasodilation is the widening or increase in diameter of blood vessels, particularly the involuntary relaxation of the smooth muscle in the tunica media (middle layer) of the arteriole walls. This results in an increase in blood flow and a decrease in vascular resistance. Vasodilation can occur due to various physiological and pathophysiological stimuli, such as local metabolic demands, neural signals, or pharmacological agents. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure, tissue perfusion, and thermoregulation.

A kidney glomerulus is a functional unit in the nephron of the kidney. It is a tuft of capillaries enclosed within a structure called Bowman's capsule, which filters waste and excess fluids from the blood. The glomerulus receives blood from an afferent arteriole and drains into an efferent arteriole.

The process of filtration in the glomerulus is called ultrafiltration, where the pressure within the glomerular capillaries drives plasma fluid and small molecules (such as ions, glucose, amino acids, and waste products) through the filtration membrane into the Bowman's space. Larger molecules, like proteins and blood cells, are retained in the blood due to their larger size. The filtrate then continues down the nephron for further processing, eventually forming urine.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Renal artery obstruction is a medical condition that refers to the blockage or restriction of blood flow in the renal artery, which is the main vessel that supplies oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood to the kidneys. This obstruction can be caused by various factors, such as blood clots, atherosclerosis (the buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls), emboli (tiny particles or air bubbles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), or compressive masses like tumors.

The obstruction can lead to reduced kidney function, hypertension, and even kidney failure in severe cases. Symptoms may include high blood pressure, proteinuria (the presence of protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), and a decrease in kidney function as measured by serum creatinine levels. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies like Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography to visualize the renal artery and assess the extent of the obstruction. Treatment options may include medications to control blood pressure and reduce kidney damage, as well as invasive procedures like angioplasty and stenting or surgical intervention to remove the obstruction and restore normal blood flow to the kidneys.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

Cardiomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlarged heart. It can be caused by various conditions such as high blood pressure, heart valve problems, cardiomyopathy, or fluid accumulation around the heart (pericardial effusion). Cardiomegaly can be detected through imaging tests like chest X-rays or echocardiograms. Depending on the underlying cause, treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, or in some cases, surgery. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Benzoates are the salts and esters of benzoic acid. They are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals to prevent the growth of microorganisms. The chemical formula for benzoic acid is C6H5COOH, and when it is combined with a base (like sodium or potassium), it forms a benzoate salt (e.g., sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate). When benzoic acid reacts with an alcohol, it forms a benzoate ester (e.g., methyl benzoate or ethyl benzoate).

Benzoates are generally considered safe for use in food and cosmetics in small quantities. However, some people may have allergies or sensitivities to benzoates, which can cause reactions such as hives, itching, or asthma symptoms. In addition, there is ongoing research into the potential health effects of consuming high levels of benzoates over time, particularly in relation to gut health and the development of certain diseases.

In a medical context, benzoates may also be used as a treatment for certain conditions. For example, sodium benzoate is sometimes given to people with elevated levels of ammonia in their blood (hyperammonemia) to help reduce those levels and prevent brain damage. This is because benzoates can bind with excess ammonia in the body and convert it into a form that can be excreted in urine.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule made up of one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom. In the body, it is a crucial signaling molecule involved in various physiological processes such as vasodilation, immune response, neurotransmission, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. It is produced naturally by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from the amino acid L-arginine. Inhaled nitric oxide is used medically to treat pulmonary hypertension in newborns and adults, as it helps to relax and widen blood vessels, improving oxygenation and blood flow.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Serine proteinase inhibitors, also known as serine protease inhibitors or serpins, are a group of proteins that inhibit serine proteases, which are enzymes that cut other proteins in a process called proteolysis. Serine proteinases are important in many biological processes such as blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, inflammation and cell death. The inhibition of these enzymes by serpin proteins is an essential regulatory mechanism to maintain the balance and prevent uncontrolled proteolytic activity that can lead to diseases.

Serpins work by forming a covalent complex with their target serine proteinases, irreversibly inactivating them. The active site of serpins contains a reactive center loop (RCL) that mimics the protease's target protein sequence and acts as a bait for the enzyme. When the protease cleaves the RCL, it gets trapped within the serpin structure, leading to its inactivation.

Serpin proteinase inhibitors play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including:

1. Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis regulation: Serpins such as antithrombin, heparin cofactor II, and protease nexin-2 control the activity of enzymes involved in blood clotting and dissolution to prevent excessive or insufficient clot formation.
2. Inflammation modulation: Serpins like α1-antitrypsin, α2-macroglobulin, and C1 inhibitor regulate the activity of proteases released during inflammation, protecting tissues from damage.
3. Cell death regulation: Some serpins, such as PI-9/SERPINB9, control apoptosis (programmed cell death) by inhibiting granzyme B, a protease involved in this process.
4. Embryonic development and tissue remodeling: Serpins like plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and PAI-2 regulate the activity of enzymes involved in extracellular matrix degradation during embryonic development and tissue remodeling.
5. Neuroprotection: Serpins such as neuroserpin protect neurons from damage by inhibiting proteases released during neuroinflammation or neurodegenerative diseases.

Dysregulation of serpins has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including thrombosis, emphysema, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. Understanding the roles of serpins in these processes may provide insights into potential therapeutic strategies for treating these diseases.

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes in the body, including cyclooxygenase (COX), which plays a role in producing prostaglandins, chemicals involved in the inflammatory response.

Indomethacin is available in various forms, such as capsules, suppositories, and injectable solutions, and is used to treat a wide range of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, and bursitis. It may also be used to relieve pain and reduce fever in other conditions, such as dental procedures or after surgery.

Like all NSAIDs, indomethacin can have side effects, including stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage, especially when taken at high doses or for long periods of time. It may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, it is important to use indomethacin only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

Indole is not strictly a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that can be found in the human body and has relevance to medical and biological research. Indoles are organic compounds that contain a bicyclic structure consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered pyrrole ring.

In the context of medicine, indoles are particularly relevant due to their presence in certain hormones and other biologically active molecules. For example, the neurotransmitter serotonin contains an indole ring, as does the hormone melatonin. Indoles can also be found in various plant-based foods, such as cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, kale), and have been studied for their potential health benefits.

Some indoles, like indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane, are found in these vegetables and can have anti-cancer properties by modulating estrogen metabolism, reducing inflammation, and promoting cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells. However, it is essential to note that further research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks associated with indoles.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

NADPH oxidase is an enzyme complex that plays a crucial role in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various cell types. The primary function of NADPH oxidase is to catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to molecular oxygen, resulting in the formation of superoxide radicals. This enzyme complex consists of several subunits, including two membrane-bound components (gp91phox and p22phox) and several cytosolic components (p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and rac1 or rac2). Upon activation, these subunits assemble to form a functional enzyme complex that generates ROS, which serve as important signaling molecules in various cellular processes. However, excessive or uncontrolled production of ROS by NADPH oxidase has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.

Kallikreins are a group of serine proteases, which are enzymes that help to break down other proteins. They are found in various tissues and body fluids, including the pancreas, kidneys, and saliva. In the body, kallikreins play important roles in several physiological processes, such as blood pressure regulation, inflammation, and fibrinolysis (the breakdown of blood clots).

There are two main types of kallikreins: tissue kallikreins and plasma kallikreins. Tissue kallikreins are primarily involved in the activation of kininogen, a protein that leads to the production of bradykinin, a potent vasodilator that helps regulate blood pressure. Plasma kallikreins, on the other hand, play a key role in the coagulation cascade by activating factors XI and XII, which ultimately lead to the formation of a blood clot.

Abnormal levels or activity of kallikreins have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory disorders. For example, some studies suggest that certain tissue kallikreins may promote tumor growth and metastasis, while others indicate that they may have protective effects against cancer. Plasma kallikreins have also been linked to the development of thrombosis (blood clots) and inflammation in cardiovascular disease.

Overall, kallikreins are important enzymes with diverse functions in the body, and their dysregulation has been associated with various pathological conditions.

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically, it estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute. The glomeruli are the tiny fibers in the kidneys that filter waste from the blood. A lower GFR number means that the kidneys aren't working properly and may indicate kidney disease.

The GFR is typically calculated using a formula that takes into account the patient's serum creatinine level, age, sex, and race. The most commonly used formula is the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equation. A normal GFR is usually above 90 mL/min/1.73m2, but this can vary depending on the individual's age and other factors.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Hypertrophy, in the context of physiology and pathology, refers to an increase in the size of an organ or tissue due to an enlargement of its constituent cells. It is often used to describe the growth of muscle cells (myocytes) in response to increased workload or hormonal stimulation, resulting in an increase in muscle mass. However, hypertrophy can also occur in other organs such as the heart (cardiac hypertrophy) in response to high blood pressure or valvular heart disease.

It is important to note that while hypertrophy involves an increase in cell size, hyperplasia refers to an increase in cell number. In some cases, both hypertrophy and hyperplasia can occur together, leading to a significant increase in the overall size and function of the organ or tissue.

Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body. It is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. When the body is dehydrated or experiencing low blood pressure, vasopressin is released into the bloodstream, where it causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of urine they produce and helps to constrict blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. This helps to maintain adequate fluid volume in the body and ensure that vital organs receive an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood. In addition to its role in water balance and blood pressure regulation, vasopressin also plays a role in social behaviors such as pair bonding and trust.

Hydralazine is an antihypertensive medication, which means it is used to treat high blood pressure. It works by relaxing and widening the blood vessels, making it easier for the heart to pump blood through the body. This can help reduce the workload on the heart and lower blood pressure. Hydralazine is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken several times a day.

Hydralazine belongs to a class of medications called vasodilators, which work by relaxing the muscle in the walls of the blood vessels, causing them to widen. This increases the amount of blood that can flow through the blood vessels and reduces the pressure within them. Hydralazine is often used in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure.

It's important to note that hydralazine should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can cause side effects such as headache, dizziness, and rapid heartbeat. It may also interact with certain other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor of all medications you are taking before starting hydralazine.

Vasodilator agents are pharmacological substances that cause the relaxation or widening of blood vessels by relaxing the smooth muscle in the vessel walls. This results in an increase in the diameter of the blood vessels, which decreases vascular resistance and ultimately reduces blood pressure. Vasodilators can be further classified based on their site of action:

1. Systemic vasodilators: These agents cause a generalized relaxation of the smooth muscle in the walls of both arteries and veins, resulting in a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and preload (the volume of blood returning to the heart). Examples include nitroglycerin, hydralazine, and calcium channel blockers.
2. Arterial vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in arterial vessel walls, leading to a reduction in afterload (the pressure against which the heart pumps blood). Examples include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct vasodilators like sodium nitroprusside.
3. Venous vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in venous vessel walls, increasing venous capacitance and reducing preload. Examples include nitroglycerin and other organic nitrates.

Vasodilator agents are used to treat various cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, angina, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is essential to monitor their use carefully, as excessive vasodilation can lead to orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia, or fluid retention.

The subfornical organ is a circumventricular organ located in the rostral part of the anterior wall of the third ventricle, above the fornix and posterior to the anterior commissure. It is one of the key structures involved in the regulation of fluid balance and cardiovascular function.

The subfornical organ contains specialized neurons that are sensitive to angiotensin II, a hormone that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance by stimulating thirst and vasopressin release. These neurons are not protected by the blood-brain barrier, allowing them to directly detect changes in circulating levels of angiotensin II and other substances.

The subfornical organ also contains receptors for other hormones and neurotransmitters that regulate fluid balance and cardiovascular function, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and nitric oxide. These receptors allow the subfornical organ to integrate information from multiple sources and modulate its responses accordingly.

Overall, the subfornical organ plays a critical role in maintaining fluid balance and cardiovascular homeostasis by detecting changes in circulating hormones and neurotransmitters and initiating appropriate physiological responses.

The adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands that are located on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and other vital functions. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help the body respond to stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

Edetic acid, also known as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), is not a medical term per se, but a chemical compound with various applications in medicine. EDTA is a synthetic amino acid that acts as a chelating agent, which means it can bind to metallic ions and form stable complexes.

In medicine, EDTA is primarily used in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning, such as lead or mercury toxicity. It works by binding to the toxic metal ions in the body, forming a stable compound that can be excreted through urine. This helps reduce the levels of harmful metals in the body and alleviate their toxic effects.

EDTA is also used in some diagnostic tests, such as the determination of calcium levels in blood. Additionally, it has been explored as a potential therapy for conditions like atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, although its efficacy in these areas remains controversial and unproven.

It is important to note that EDTA should only be administered under medical supervision due to its potential side effects and the need for careful monitoring of its use.

Intravenous injections are a type of medical procedure where medication or fluids are administered directly into a vein using a needle and syringe. This route of administration is also known as an IV injection. The solution injected enters the patient's bloodstream immediately, allowing for rapid absorption and onset of action. Intravenous injections are commonly used to provide quick relief from symptoms, deliver medications that are not easily absorbed by other routes, or administer fluids and electrolytes in cases of dehydration or severe illness. It is important that intravenous injections are performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection.

A hindlimb, also known as a posterior limb, is one of the pair of extremities that are located distally to the trunk in tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) and include mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In humans and other primates, hindlimbs are equivalent to the lower limbs, which consist of the thigh, leg, foot, and toes.

The primary function of hindlimbs is locomotion, allowing animals to move from one place to another. However, they also play a role in other activities such as balance, support, and communication. In humans, the hindlimbs are responsible for weight-bearing, standing, walking, running, and jumping.

In medical terminology, the term "hindlimb" is not commonly used to describe human anatomy. Instead, healthcare professionals use terms like lower limbs or lower extremities to refer to the same region of the body. However, in comparative anatomy and veterinary medicine, the term hindlimb is still widely used to describe the corresponding structures in non-human animals.

Fibrosis is a pathological process characterized by the excessive accumulation and/or altered deposition of extracellular matrix components, particularly collagen, in various tissues and organs. This results in the formation of fibrous scar tissue that can impair organ function and structure. Fibrosis can occur as a result of chronic inflammation, tissue injury, or abnormal repair mechanisms, and it is a common feature of many diseases, including liver cirrhosis, lung fibrosis, heart failure, and kidney disease.

In medical terms, fibrosis is defined as:

"The process of producing scar tissue (consisting of collagen) in response to injury or chronic inflammation in normal connective tissue. This can lead to the thickening and stiffening of affected tissues and organs, impairing their function."

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Propranolol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta blockers. Medically, it is defined as a non-selective beta blocker, which means it blocks the effects of both epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) on the heart and other organs. These effects include reducing heart rate, contractility, and conduction velocity, leading to decreased oxygen demand by the myocardium. Propranolol is used in the management of various conditions such as hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, essential tremor, anxiety disorders, and infants with congenital heart defects. It may also be used to prevent migraines and reduce the risk of future heart attacks. As with any medication, it should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and contraindications.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Isoproterenol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta-adrenergic agonists. Medically, it is defined as a synthetic catecholamine with both alpha and beta adrenergic receptor stimulating properties. It is primarily used as a bronchodilator to treat conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by relaxing the smooth muscles in the airways, thereby improving breathing.

Isoproterenol can also be used in the treatment of bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rate), cardiac arrest, and heart blocks by increasing the heart rate and contractility. However, due to its non-selective beta-agonist activity, it may cause various side effects such as tremors, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. Its use is now limited due to the availability of more selective and safer medications.

Glutamyl Aminopeptidase (GAP, or sometimes also abbreviated as GP) is an enzyme that is found in many tissues throughout the body, including the kidneys and the intestines. Its primary function is to help break down proteins into smaller peptides and individual amino acids by removing certain types of amino acids from the ends of these protein chains.

GAP is a type of exopeptidase enzyme, which means that it works on the outside edges of proteins rather than in the middle. Specifically, GAP removes the amino acid glutamic acid (or its amide form, glutamine) from the N-terminus (the beginning end) of peptides and proteins.

In clinical settings, GAP is often measured in blood or urine samples as a biomarker for various medical conditions. For example, elevated levels of GAP in the blood may indicate liver disease or kidney damage, while decreased levels may be associated with certain types of cancer or gastrointestinal disorders. However, it's important to note that GAP is just one of many factors that doctors may consider when diagnosing and treating these conditions.

Genetic polymorphism refers to the occurrence of multiple forms (called alleles) of a particular gene within a population. These variations in the DNA sequence do not generally affect the function or survival of the organism, but they can contribute to differences in traits among individuals. Genetic polymorphisms can be caused by single nucleotide changes (SNPs), insertions or deletions of DNA segments, or other types of genetic rearrangements. They are important for understanding genetic diversity and evolution, as well as for identifying genetic factors that may contribute to disease susceptibility in humans.

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a part of the autonomic nervous system that operates largely below the level of consciousness, and it functions to produce appropriate physiological responses to perceived danger. It's often associated with the "fight or flight" response. The SNS uses nerve impulses to stimulate target organs, causing them to speed up (e.g., increased heart rate), prepare for action, or otherwise respond to stressful situations.

The sympathetic nervous system is activated due to stressful emotional or physical situations and it prepares the body for immediate actions. It dilates the pupils, increases heart rate and blood pressure, accelerates breathing, and slows down digestion. The primary neurotransmitter involved in this system is norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline).

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

The proximal kidney tubule is the initial portion of the renal tubule in the nephron of the kidney. It is located in the renal cortex and is called "proximal" because it is closer to the glomerulus, compared to the distal tubule. The proximal tubule plays a crucial role in the reabsorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the filtrate that has been formed by the glomerulus. It also helps in the secretion of waste products and other substances into the urine.

The proximal tubule is divided into two segments: the pars convoluta and the pars recta. The pars convoluta is the curved portion that receives filtrate from the Bowman's capsule, while the pars recta is the straight portion that extends deeper into the renal cortex.

The proximal tubule is lined with a simple cuboidal epithelium, and its cells are characterized by numerous mitochondria, which provide energy for active transport processes. The apical surface of the proximal tubular cells has numerous microvilli, forming a brush border that increases the surface area for reabsorption.

In summary, the proximal kidney tubule is a critical site for the reabsorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the glomerular filtrate, contributing to the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in the body.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating water balance and blood pressure in the body.

AVP acts on the kidneys to promote water reabsorption, which helps maintain adequate fluid volume and osmotic balance in the body. It also constricts blood vessels, increasing peripheral vascular resistance and thereby helping to maintain blood pressure. Additionally, AVP has been shown to have effects on cognitive function, mood regulation, and pain perception.

Deficiencies or excesses of AVP can lead to a range of medical conditions, including diabetes insipidus (characterized by excessive thirst and urination), hyponatremia (low sodium levels in the blood), and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).

Thiazepines are not a recognized term in medical terminology or pharmacology. It appears that you may have misspelled "thiazepines," which also does not have a specific medical meaning. However, "thiazepine" is a chemical compound with a specific structure, and it is the core structure of some drugs such as thiazepine derivatives. These derivatives are often used for their sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.

If you meant to ask about "thiazide" or "thiazide diuretics," I would be happy to provide a definition:

Thiazides are a class of diuretic medications that act on the distal convoluted tubule in the kidney, promoting sodium and chloride excretion. This also leads to increased water excretion (diuresis) and decreased extracellular fluid volume. Thiazide diuretics are primarily used to treat hypertension and edema associated with heart failure or liver cirrhosis. Common thiazide diuretics include hydrochlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, and indapamide.

Cathepsins are a type of proteolytic enzymes, which are found in lysosomes and are responsible for breaking down proteins inside the cell. They are classified as papain-like cysteine proteases and play important roles in various physiological processes, including tissue remodeling, antigen presentation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). There are several different types of cathepsins, including cathepsin B, C, D, F, H, K, L, S, V, and X/Z, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions.

Dysregulation of cathepsins has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders. For example, overexpression or hyperactivation of certain cathepsins has been shown to contribute to tumor invasion and metastasis, while their inhibition has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer treatment. Similarly, abnormal levels of cathepsins have been linked to the progression of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, making them attractive targets for drug development.

In medical or clinical terms, "ethers" do not have a specific relevance as a single medical condition or diagnosis. However, in a broader chemical context, ethers are a class of organic compounds characterized by an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups. Ethers are not typically used as therapeutic agents but can be found in certain medications as solvents or as part of the drug's chemical structure.

An example of a medication with an ether group is the antihistamine diphenhydramine (Benadryl), which has a phenyl ether moiety in its chemical structure. Another example is the anesthetic sevoflurane, which is a fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used for inducing and maintaining general anesthesia during surgeries.

It's important to note that 'ethers' as a term primarily belongs to the field of chemistry rather than medicine.

Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, is an essential electrolyte in dietary intake. It is a chemical compound made up of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) ions. In a medical context, particularly in nutrition and dietetics, "sodium chloride, dietary" refers to the consumption of this compound in food sources.

Sodium plays a crucial role in various bodily functions such as maintaining fluid balance, assisting nerve impulse transmission, and contributing to muscle contraction. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend limiting sodium intake to less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) per day and further suggest an ideal limit of no more than 1,500 mg per day for most adults, especially those with high blood pressure. However, the average American consumes more than twice the recommended amount, primarily from processed and prepared foods. Excessive sodium intake can lead to high blood pressure and increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

A biological assay is a method used in biology and biochemistry to measure the concentration or potency of a substance (like a drug, hormone, or enzyme) by observing its effect on living cells or tissues. This type of assay can be performed using various techniques such as:

1. Cell-based assays: These involve measuring changes in cell behavior, growth, or viability after exposure to the substance being tested. Examples include proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, and cytotoxicity assays.
2. Protein-based assays: These focus on measuring the interaction between the substance and specific proteins, such as enzymes or receptors. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and pull-down assays.
3. Genetic-based assays: These involve analyzing the effects of the substance on gene expression, DNA structure, or protein synthesis. Examples include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, reporter gene assays, and northern blotting.

Biological assays are essential tools in research, drug development, and diagnostic applications to understand biological processes and evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of various substances.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Proteinuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of excess proteins, particularly albumin, in the urine. Under normal circumstances, only small amounts of proteins should be found in the urine because the majority of proteins are too large to pass through the glomeruli, which are the filtering units of the kidneys.

However, when the glomeruli become damaged or diseased, they may allow larger molecules such as proteins to leak into the urine. Persistent proteinuria is often a sign of kidney disease and can indicate damage to the glomeruli. It is usually detected through a routine urinalysis and may be confirmed with further testing.

The severity of proteinuria can vary, and it can be a symptom of various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, and other kidney diseases. Treatment for proteinuria depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to control blood pressure, manage diabetes, or reduce protein loss in the urine.

Osmolar concentration is a measure of the total number of solute particles (such as ions or molecules) dissolved in a solution per liter of solvent (usually water), which affects the osmotic pressure. It is expressed in units of osmoles per liter (osmol/L). Osmolarity and osmolality are related concepts, with osmolarity referring to the number of osmoles per unit volume of solution, typically measured in liters, while osmolality refers to the number of osmoles per kilogram of solvent. In clinical contexts, osmolar concentration is often used to describe the solute concentration of bodily fluids such as blood or urine.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

An implantable infusion pump is a small, programmable medical device that is surgically placed under the skin to deliver precise amounts of medication directly into the body over an extended period. These pumps are often used for long-term therapies, such as managing chronic pain, delivering chemotherapy drugs, or administering hormones for conditions like diabetes or growth hormone deficiency.

The implantable infusion pump consists of a reservoir to hold the medication and a mechanism to control the rate and timing of its delivery. The device can be refilled periodically through a small incision in the skin. Implantable infusion pumps are designed to provide consistent, controlled dosing with minimal side effects and improved quality of life compared to traditional methods like injections or oral medications.

It is important to note that implantable infusion pumps should only be used under the guidance and care of a healthcare professional, as they require careful programming and monitoring to ensure safe and effective use.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Phenylephrine is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as sympathomimetic amines. It primarily acts as an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist, which means it stimulates these receptors, leading to vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels). This effect can be useful in various medical situations, such as:

1. Nasal decongestion: When applied topically in the nose, phenylephrine causes constriction of the blood vessels in the nasal passages, which helps to relieve congestion and swelling. It is often found in over-the-counter (OTC) cold and allergy products.
2. Ocular circulation: In ophthalmology, phenylephrine is used to dilate the pupils before eye examinations. The increased pressure from vasoconstriction helps to open up the pupil, allowing for a better view of the internal structures of the eye.
3. Hypotension management: In some cases, phenylephrine may be given intravenously to treat low blood pressure (hypotension) during medical procedures like spinal anesthesia or septic shock. The vasoconstriction helps to increase blood pressure and improve perfusion of vital organs.

It is essential to use phenylephrine as directed, as improper usage can lead to adverse effects such as increased heart rate, hypertension, arrhythmias, and rebound congestion (when used as a nasal decongestant). Always consult with a healthcare professional for appropriate guidance on using this medication.

Zona glomerulosa is a region of the adrenal gland, specifically the outer portion of the adrenal cortex. It is responsible for producing mineralocorticoids, with the principal one being aldosterone. Aldosterone helps regulate electrolyte and fluid balance in the body by increasing the reabsorption of sodium ions and water in the distal nephron of the kidney while promoting the excretion of potassium ions. This process assists in maintaining blood pressure and volume within normal ranges. The zona glomerulosa's function is primarily under the control of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Aldosterone synthase is a steroidogenic enzyme that is primarily responsible for the production of the hormone aldosterone in the adrenal gland. It is encoded by the CYP11B2 gene and is located within the mitochondria of the zona glomerulosa cells in the adrenal cortex.

Aldosterone synthase catalyzes two key reactions in the biosynthesis of aldosterone: the conversion of corticosterone to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion of 18-hydroxycorticosterone to aldosterone. These reactions involve the sequential addition of hydroxyl groups at the C18 position of the steroid molecule, which is a critical step in the synthesis of aldosterone.

Aldosterone plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and electrolyte balance by increasing the reabsorption of sodium and water in the distal nephron of the kidney, while promoting the excretion of potassium. Disorders of aldosterone synthase can lead to conditions such as primary hyperaldosteronism, which is characterized by excessive production of aldosterone and can result in hypertension and hypokalemia.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Kinins are a group of endogenous inflammatory mediators that are involved in the body's response to injury or infection. They are derived from the decapeptide bradykinin and its related peptides, which are formed by the enzymatic cleavage of precursor proteins called kininogens.

Kinins exert their effects through the activation of specific G protein-coupled receptors, known as B1 and B2 receptors. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the body, including in the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems.

Activation of kinin receptors leads to a range of physiological responses, including vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, pain, and smooth muscle contraction. Kinins are also known to interact with other inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, to amplify the inflammatory response.

In addition to their role in inflammation, kinins have been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, including hypertension, asthma, arthritis, and pain. As such, kinin-targeted therapies are being explored as potential treatments for these and other diseases.

It is cleaved at the N-terminus by renin to result in angiotensin I, which will later be modified to become angiotensin II. ... It is part of the renin-angiotensin system, which regulates blood pressure. Angiotensin also stimulates the release of ... An oligopeptide, angiotensin is a hormone and a dipsogen. It is derived from the precursor molecule angiotensinogen, a serum ... Angiotensinogen is an α-2-globulin synthesized in the liver and is a precursor for angiotensin, but has also been indicated as ...
Proteopedia Angiotensin-converting_enzyme - the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Structure in Interactive 3D Angiotensin+ ... Angiotensin II binds to the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1), which sets off a number of actions that result in ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1), or ACE, is a central component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which ... In addition, inhibiting angiotensin II formation diminishes angiotensin II-mediated aldosterone secretion from the adrenal ...
The decapeptide is known as angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is then converted to an octapeptide, angiotensin II by angiotensin- ... Angiotensin I may have some minor activity, but angiotensin II is the major bio-active product. Angiotensin II has a variety of ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers, can be used to prevent angiotensin II from ... Angiotensin I is subsequently converted to angiotensin II (an octapeptide) by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) found on ...
The angiotensin II receptors, (ATR1) and (ATR2), are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensin II as their ... The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in turn couples to ... The AT4 receptor is activated by the angiotensin II metabolite angiotensin IV, and may play a role in regulation of the CNS ... angiotensin II. The AT1 and AT2 receptors share a sequence identity of ~30%, but have a similar affinity for angiotensin II, ...
2018). "The ACE2/Angiotensin-(1-7)/MAS Axis of the Renin-Angiotensin System: Focus on Angiotensin-(1-7)". Physiol Rev. 1 (98): ... Action of neprilysin on angiotensin I or angiotensin II. Action of prolyl endopeptidase on angiotensin I. Action of ACE on ... angiotensin 1-9. Action of neprilysin on angiotensin 1-9. Action of ACE2 on angiotensin II. Ang (1-7) has been shown to have ... Santos et al demonstrated that angiotensin (1-7) was a main product of the incubation of angiotensin I with brain micropunches ...
Angiotensin II receptor blockers, as their name implies, block the action of angiotensin II at its receptors and therefore may ... Angiotensin II is a naturally occurring hormone secreted as part of the renin-angiotensin system that results in powerful ... Angiotensin II is as a treatment option that can increase blood pressure and allow catecholamine dose reductions. Angiotensin ... "Angiotensin II". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Angiotensin II acetate". Drug Information Portal ...
September 2000). "A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1 ... March 2020). "Angiotensin II and angiotensin 1-7: which is their role in atrial fibrillation?". Heart Failure Reviews. Springer ... It is released into the bloodstream where one of sACE2's functions is to turn excess angiotensin II into angiotensin 1-7 which ... ACE2 has an opposing effect to ACE, degrading angiotensin II into angiotensin (1-7), thereby lowering blood pressure. sACE2, as ...
While angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors block the cleavage of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, the active peptide ... Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), formally angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonists, also known as angiotensin ... "Angiotensin FDA Drug Safety Communication: No increase in risk of cancer with certain blood pressure drugs - Angiotensin ... "List of Angiotensin receptor blockers (angiotensin II inhibitors)". Drugs.com. 2020-02-28. Retrieved 2020-03-21. "Blood ...
... (AT1) is the best characterized angiotensin receptor. It is encoded in humans by the AGTR1 gene ... The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in turn couples to ... "Angiotensin II receptor blocker", Wikipedia, 2022-07-26, retrieved 2022-08-10 Wilson JX (1984). "The renin-angiotensin system ... shows considerably less binding affinities in case of all angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Angiotensin II receptor type 1 ...
... has been shown to interact with MTUS1. Angiotensin II receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "The angiotensin II type 2 receptor causes constitutive growth of cardiomyocytes and does not antagonize angiotensin II type 1 ... Angiotensin II receptor type 2, also known as the AT2 receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AGTR2 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: AGTR2 angiotensin II receptor, type 2". Ewert S, Laesser M, Johansson B, Holm M, Aneman A, Fandriks L (March 2003 ...
The angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), also called angiotensin (AT1) receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of ... "The distribution of angiotensin II type 1 receptors, and the tissue renin-angiotensin systems", Molecular Medicine Today, 1 (1 ... Renin and Angiotensin; Jackson E.K., 789-821) Editors; Brunton L.L., Lazo J.S., Parker K.L. New York McGraw Hill 2006. ISBN 0- ... Two more angiotensin receptors have been described, AT3 and AT4, but their role is still unknown. AT1 receptors are mainly ...
... is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of ... Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System is abstracted and indexed in, among other databases: SCOPUS, and the Social ... Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System is a resource for biomedical professionals, including basic scientists and ... Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System also publishes research on other peptides, such as vasopressin, the ...
It is a derivative of angiotensin II. Angiotensin "Angiotensinamide". Index nominum, international drug directory = ... Angiotensinamide (INN; BAN and USAN angiotensin amide) is a potent vasoconstrictor used as a cardiac stimulant. ...
Angiotensin II -> Vasopressin) Increase PAI-1 and PAI-2 also through Angiotensin II Lipid Increase HDL, triglyceride Decrease ...
The production of aldosterone is regulated via the renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system, a system composed of baroreceptors ... Fountain JH, Kaur J, Lappin SL (2023). "Physiology, Renin Angiotensin System". StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls ...
The conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and the inactivation of bradykinin were thought to be mediated by the same ... The first breakthrough was made by Kevin K.F. Ng in 1967, when he found the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II took ... Ng KK, Vane JR (November 1967). "Conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II". Nature. 216 (5117): 762-766. Bibcode:1967Natur ... Captopril blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and prevents the degradation of vasodilatory prostaglandins ...
e.g., angiotensin IV). A heptapeptide has seven amino acids. (e.g., spinorphin). An octapeptide has eight amino acids (e.g., ... angiotensin II). A nonapeptide has nine amino acids (e.g., oxytocin). A decapeptide has ten amino acids (e.g., gonadotropin- ... releasing hormone and angiotensin I). A undecapeptide has eleven amino acids (e.g., substance P). The same words are also used ...
... which is converted by angiotensin converting enzyme to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II then signals to the adrenal cortex to ... Renin converts angiotensinogen (inactive form) to angiotensin I (active form). Angiotensin I flows in the bloodstream until it ... acts on it to convert it into angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a vasoconstrictor that will increase blood flow to the heart ... Renin-angiotensin system (RAS): This system is generally known for its long-term adjustment of arterial pressure. This system ...
Angiotensin blockers were created in order to avoid the side effects of ACE inhibitors, which were previously the drug of ... In addition, his work on angiotensin blockers has helped many patients in need of treatment for congestive heart failure, even ... Watkins left Johns Hopkins in 1973 for Harvard University where he researched the use of angiotensin blockers in cases of ... Two years after his research on angiotensin blockers at Harvard, Watkins returned to Johns Hopkins and joined the admissions ...
Angiotensin-converting-enzyme; ARB = Angiotensin-receptor-blocker). Afterload also increases with increasing blood viscosity, ...
... preventing angiotensin I from being converted to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent direct vasoconstrictor and a ... Khan MG (2015). "Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers". Cardiac Drug Therapy. New York ... Reduction in the amount of angiotensin II results in relaxation of the arterioles. Reduction in the amount of angiotensin II ... Lisinopril is an ACE inhibitor, meaning it blocks the actions of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the renin-angiotensin- ...
Reilly CF, Tewksbury DA, Schechter NM, Travis J (August 1982). "Rapid conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II by ... Other functions of cathepsin G have been reported, including cleavage of receptors, conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin ... Klickstein LB, Kaempfer CE, Wintroub BU (December 1982). "The granulocyte-angiotensin system. Angiotensin I-converting activity ...
Medical treatment involves use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) to ... The elevated blood pressure seen in Page kidney is thought to be caused by the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone ... The compression is believed to cause activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) via microvascular ischemia.[ ... In this case, medical treatment focuses on symptomatic treatment of the hypertension with an angiotensin-converting enzyme ...
Ryan, Una; Ryan, James W (April 1980). "Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme: II. Pulmonary Endothelial Cells in Culture". ... taking up a Howard Hughes Fellowship at the University of Miami to study angiotensin-converting enzymes. After completion of ...
Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACE-I), or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) if the person develops a ... Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are recommended in heart failure. The angiotensin receptor-neprilysin ... In heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, ... Vasopressin levels are usually increased, along with renin, angiotensin II, and catecholamines to compensate for reduced ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) then catalyzes the reaction that forms angiotensin II, which acts on AT1 receptors on the ... Harada K, Sugaya T, Murakami K, Yazaki Y, Komuro I (November 1999). "Angiotensin II type 1A receptor knockout mice display less ... Sun Y, Zhang JQ, Zhang J, Ramires FJ (August 1998). "Angiotensin II, transforming growth factor-beta1 and repair in the ... Fimasartan is a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB) used for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. ...
ACE inhibitor Angiotensin conversion enzyme. A class of drugs used to decrease hypertension, mainly by interfering with the ... Insulin is a hormone as are glucagon, adrenaline, and angiotensin II. Human insulin Man-made insulins that is identical to the ...
... angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, CD143); tissue factor TF (CD142, thromboplastin); decay accelerating factor (CD55); ...
Ruilope LM, Tamargo J (April 2017). "Renin-angiotensin system blockade: Finerenone". Nephrologie & Therapeutique. 13 Suppl 1: ...
Inagaki K, Iwanaga Y, Sarai N, Onozawa Y, Takenaka H, Mochly-Rosen D, Kihara Y (Oct 2002). "Tissue angiotensin II during ... Paul K, Ball NA, Dorn GW, Walsh RA (Nov 1997). "Left ventricular stretch stimulates angiotensin II--mediated ... angiotensin II and diastolic stretch; adenosine; hypoxia and Akt-induced stem cell factor; ROS generated via pharmacologic ...
It is cleaved at the N-terminus by renin to result in angiotensin I, which will later be modified to become angiotensin II. ... It is part of the renin-angiotensin system, which regulates blood pressure. Angiotensin also stimulates the release of ... An oligopeptide, angiotensin is a hormone and a dipsogen. It is derived from the precursor molecule angiotensinogen, a serum ... Angiotensinogen is an α-2-globulin synthesized in the liver and is a precursor for angiotensin, but has also been indicated as ...
The American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine features anti-aging health tips, latest health news, and anti-aging research in regenerative and functional medicine
Initial Dosage Regimens for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors inhibit ... Cardiovascular risk reduction in hypertension: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers. Where ... Health outcomes and economic consequences of using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in comparison with angiotensin ... Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Hypertension: To Use or Not to Use?. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 Apr 3. 71 (13):1474- ...
... particularly in models involving angiotensin II (Ang II). We tested the hypothesis that ER stress in the brain is causally ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) are commonly used for pediatric cardiology patients. However, studies examining ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor nephrotoxicity in neonates with cardiac disease Pediatr Cardiol. 2014 Mar;35(3):499-506 ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) are commonly used for pediatric cardiology patients. However, studies examining ...
has prepared and tested new angiotensin AT1 receptor (AGTR1) antagonists reported to be useful for the treatment of cancer, ... has prepared and tested new angiotensin AT1 receptor (AGTR1) antagonists reported to be useful for the treatment of cancer, ...
The observation was then made by Vane that these peptides could also block the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II ... and to block totally the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II.20 Therefore, the clinical importance of the escape ... The angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition in progressive renal insufficiency study group. Kidney Int Suppl 63:S63-S66. ... Also, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is not only found in the circulation, but also in tissues. All components of the ...
... angiotensin (Ang), and specific receptors (ATR). AGT acts as the precursor molecule for Ang peptides—I, II, III, and IV ... renin-angiotensin system) is the part of the endocrine system that plays a prime role in the control of essential hypertension ... Abbreviations: Ang I: angiotensin I; Ang II: angiotensin II; Ang III: angiotensin III; Ang IV: angiotensin IV; ACE: angiotensin ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) converts Ang I into angiotensin II (Ang II) which acts on an angiotensin type 1 (AT1) and ...
... "It is not the answers that enlighten, but the questions." - Ionesco ... Discuss the role of the renin-angiotensin-Aldosterone system (RAS) in development of hypertension ... The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a major hormonal autocrine/paracrine system that under normal conditions contributes to ...
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the major octapeptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). For many decades Ang II was mainly ... Zhao Y, Chen X, Cai L, Yang Y, Sui G and Fu S: Angiotensin II/angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) signaling promotes MCF-7 ... Shan T, Zhang L, Zhao C, Chen W, Zhang Y and Li G: Angiotensin-(1-7) and angiotensin II induce the transdifferentiation of ... All components of the RAS (angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin receptors) are expressed in many types ...
Angiotensin II (ANG II) is integral in regulating blood pressure and plays a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In ... Angiotensin II-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance mediated by NF-ĸB activation via NADPH oxidase. Am J Physiol ... Angiotensin II-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance mediated by NF-B activation via NADPH oxidase. ... Angiotensin II-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance mediated by NF-B activation via NADPH oxidase. ...
General availability of Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in the public health sector (Noncommunicable diseases). This ... General availability of Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in the public health sector (Noncommunicable diseases) ...
Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockers on cardiac angiotensin converting ... Angiotensin II up-regulates angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), but down-regulates ACE2 via the AT1-ERK/p38 MAP kinase ... The antagonists of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) have been shown to interfere with angiotensin converting ... Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and CoViD-19-affected patients: A two-faced Janus?. ...
Angiotensin II is a vasoactive peptide and may act as a growth factor in vascular smooth muscle cells. Experimental injury of ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme binding in the neointima was not different from that in the media of the uninjured aorta. Our ... The affinities of the neointimal receptors to angiotensin II or to the AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, were not different ... We have examined, using quantitative autoradiography, the expression of angiotensin II receptor subtypes AT1 and AT2, and ...
Non-Angiotensin Effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Wayne Sunman; Wayne Sunman ... angto-oedema, angiotensin II, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, bradykinin, cough, endothelium-derived relaxing factor, ... Wayne Sunman, Peter S. Sever; Non-Angiotensin Effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 December ...
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) help lower your blood pressure. Read about the different types of ARBs, how they work, ... Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs). Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) help relax your veins and arteries to lower ...
... , Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs), Blood, Blood Pressure, Cells, Coronavirus Disease ... ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme-2), Asia, Cells, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Europe, Genetic Mutations, Institutes ... ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme-2), Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), JAMA, New England Journal of Medicine, Nose, ... ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme-2), Biotech, Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic At least three different biotech ...
Angiotensin receptor.... *Angiotensin receptor blockers for the treatment of covid-19: pragmatic, adaptive, multicentre, phase ... These effects were reversed by angiotensin receptor blockers.5. Two studies showed that the Angiotensin II type 1 receptor ( ... Objective To determine whether disrupting the renin angiotensin system with angiotensin receptor blockers will improve clinical ... Effect of discontinuing vs continuing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin ii receptor blockers on days ...
Crystal structure of human Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme N-domain in complex with BPPb ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme. A, B. 629. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 8 Gene Names: ACE, DCP, DCP1. EC: 3.2.1 (PDB Primary Data ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metalloprotease best known for its role in blood pressure regulation. ACE ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metalloprotease best known for its role in blood pressure regulation. ACE ...
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  • Wrona W, Budka K, Filipiak KJ, Niewada M, Wojtyniak B, Zdrojewski T. Health outcomes and economic consequences of using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in comparison with angiotensin receptor blockers in the treatment of arterial hypertension in the contemporary Polish setting. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiovascular risk reduction in hypertension: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers. (medscape.com)
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Hypertension: To Use or Not to Use? (medscape.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. (medscape.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) are commonly used for pediatric cardiology patients. (nih.gov)
  • The story of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors started approximately 50 years ago, when it was discovered that human plasma incubated with the venom of the Brazilian viper, Bothrops Jararaca , generated a hypotensive compound. (bmj.com)
  • Role of ACE inhibitors in the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system. (bmj.com)
  • Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and CoViD-19-affected patients: A two-faced Janus? (bmj.com)
  • In this respect, while SARS-CoV-2-infected patients of older age with CVD comorbidities show a more severe clinical course and a worse prognosis, it should be adequately underscored that many of these patients in Italy are currently treated with ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), which are considered the drugs of first choice for hypertension and other CVD conditions (6). (bmj.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors dose optimizations (ACEIs) are essential to boost the treatment outcome in heart failure patients (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. (dovepress.com)
  • Structure-Guided Chemical Optimization of Bicyclic Peptide (Bicycle) Inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2. (acs.org)
  • Development of Potent and Selective Phosphinic Peptide Inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2. (acs.org)
  • Both ACE inhibitors and ARBs retard the decline in GFR associated with proteinuria which suggests that the renin-angiotensin system plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic renal disease. (standardofcare.com)
  • Prolonged treatment with ACE inhibitors can lead to a partial escape of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) via the ACE independent generation of angiotensin II by chymase, an enzyme secreted by the heart (Urata H). (standardofcare.com)
  • Since ACE inhibitors do not completely suppress angiotensin II production and its effects, a rationale has been set forth to use ACE inhibitors and ARB in combination for more complete blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. (standardofcare.com)
  • It raises the possibility that centrally acting amino peptidase A inhibitors (eg, firibastat), preventing the conversion of angiotensin II to angiotensin III in the brain, might be particularly useful in African Americans and patients with obesity. (nih.gov)
  • Several studies have assessed the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) on endothelial dysfunction as measured by brachial flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The binding studies revealed an increased angiotensin receptor binding in the presence of antiotensinase inhibitors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The effectiveness of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in reducing heart failure mortality 1 may be largely attributable to hormone suppression. (bmj.com)
  • Chae YK, Brown EN, Lei X, Melhem-Bertrandt A, Giordano SH, Litton JK, Hortobagyi GN, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Chavez-MacGregor M. Use of ACE Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers and Primary Breast Cancer Outcomes. (jcancer.org)
  • ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may have anti-tumor properties. (jcancer.org)
  • ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are the two widely used RAS antagonists. (jcancer.org)
  • ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are commonly prescribed to older patients with hypertension, heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may increase serum potassium (K) levels. (bmj.com)
  • With the capability of inducing elevated expression of ACE2, the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ARBs/ACEIs) treatment may have a controversial role in both facilitating virus infection and reducing pathogenic inflammation. (medrxiv.org)
  • ACE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers) work by opening blood vessels and lowering blood pressure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A new drug class called angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI's) combines an ARB drug with a new type of drug. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Drugs used include diuretics, digoxin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. (medscape.com)
  • Some medications (e.g., angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors) [NHLBI 2007]. (cdc.gov)
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have effects similar to those of ACE inhibitors. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitors (ARNIs) are a newer combination drug for the treatment of heart failure. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) is a recently identified zinc metalloprotease with carboxypeptidase activity that was identified using our genomics platform. (acs.org)
  • This review discusses novel insights (including the data of recent clinical trials) with regard to interference with the renin-angiotensin system, focusing on the enzymes aminopeptidase A and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the brain, as well as the substrate of renin- angiotensinogen-in the liver. (nih.gov)
  • Firibastat additionally upregulates brain ACE2, allowing the conversion of angiotensin II to its protective metabolite angiotensin-(1-7). (nih.gov)
  • Recombinant Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery. (proteomecommons.org)
  • responsible for AngII generation) and the angiotensin AT1 receptor (AT1 R), there also exist protective arms of the RAS that comprise the angiotensin AT2 receptor (AT2 R), Ang-(1-7), ACE2 (mainly responsible for Ang-(1-7) synthesis) and Mas, the receptor for Ang-(1-7). (monash.edu)
  • The binding of SARS-CoV spike (S) protein to cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the first step in SARS-CoV infection. (scienceopen.com)
  • We characterized the pathological findings in 72 mink from US farm s with SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, localized SARS-CoV-2 and its host cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in mink respiratory tissues, and evaluated the utility of various test methods and specimens for SARS-CoV-2 detection in necropsy tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • They identified a new association with a rare genetic variant at the Xp22.2 locus (rs190509934) that downregulates the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). (cdc.gov)
  • Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) help relax your veins and arteries to lower your blood pressure, making it easier for your heart to pump. (heartfoundation.org.nz)
  • MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched from 1996 to October 2010 on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effect of ACEIs on brachial FMD versus placebo or no treatment and ACEIs versus angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and β-blockers. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The observation was then made by Vane that these peptides could also block the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II via the angiotensin converting enzyme. (bmj.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) converts Ang I into angiotensin II (Ang II) which acts on an angiotensin type 1 (AT1) and angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor. (hindawi.com)
  • All components of the RAS (angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin receptors) are expressed in many types of tumours, including endometrial cancer ( 2 , 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We have examined, using quantitative autoradiography, the expression of angiotensin II receptor subtypes AT1 and AT2, and angiotensin-converting enzyme, in the neointima formed in the rat thoracic aorta 15 d after balloon-catheter injury. (jci.org)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme binding in the neointima was not different from that in the media of the uninjured aorta. (jci.org)
  • The antagonists of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) have been shown to interfere with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-2 receptor expression in heart and kidney tissues. (bmj.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metalloprotease best known for its role in blood pressure regulation. (rcsb.org)
  • We examined the association of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene, of the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene, and of the A1166C polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene with NAION. (molvis.org)
  • Regarding the angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism, our findings suggest that the II genotype could be a risk factor for NAION in younger male patients when compared to all cases and controls (p=0.033, odds ratio=5.71, confidence interval=1.152¨C28.35 and p=0.03, odds ratio=5.33, confidence interval=1.17¨C24.31 respectively). (molvis.org)
  • The renin-angiotensin system genes exhibit three common polymorphisms: the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE ) gene, the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene ( AGT ), and the A1166C polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene ( AT1-receptor ). (molvis.org)
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Ectodomain Shedding Cleavage-Site Identification: Determinants and Constraints. (acs.org)
  • Renin cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is in turn converted by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to angiotensin II. (standardofcare.com)
  • Angiotensin I is converted by angiotensin-converting enzyme to angiotensin II, which is a powerful vasoconstrictor. (standardofcare.com)
  • Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RASS) with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition or angiotensin receptor blockade are central therapies for both renal and cardiovascular protection in patients with chronic kidney disease. (standardofcare.com)
  • Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE-2) Inhib. (anaspec.com)
  • Sex differences in angiotensin-converting enzyme modulation of Ang (1-7) levels in normotensive WKY rats. (anaspec.com)
  • The study aims to examine the effects of coenzyme Q10, (a bioenergetic antioxidant), on the indexes of left ventricular remodeling, oxidative damage, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) level after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with left ventricular dysfunction. (mdpi.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is crucial in the synthesis of angiotensin II, breakdown of bradykinin and the hydrolysis of several other neuropeptides such as enkephalin, substance P, dynorphin and neurotensin. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Angiotensin II is produced primarily by angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) within atherosclerotic lesions and ACE level in plaques correlates with the severity of vessel wall damage. (degruyter.com)
  • The D allele of angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism is associated with the severity of atherosclerosis" Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine , vol. 46, no. 4, 2008, pp. 446-452. (degruyter.com)
  • Niemiec, P., Zak, I. and Wita, K. (2008) The D allele of angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism is associated with the severity of atherosclerosis. (degruyter.com)
  • OBJECTIVE Angiotensin II (AII) and aldosterone are not always fully suppressed during chronic angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Previous studies have indicated that the Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism could influence human physical performance. (go.jp)
  • In this study, 22 phenolic compounds were investigated to inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). (ugent.be)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory effects by plant phenolic compounds: a study of structure activity relationships," JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY , vol. 61, no. 48, pp. 11832-11839, 2013. (ugent.be)
  • The brain has shown the presence of various components of brain RAS such as angiotensinogen (AGT), converting enzymes, angiotensin (Ang), and specific receptors (ATR). (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, both angiotensin receptors (AT1 and AT2) are overexpressed in different types of cancers, which confirms the role of local RAS in cancer development and progression ( 3 , 5 - 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Balloon angioplasty enhances the expression of angiotensin II AT1 receptors in neointima of rat aorta. (jci.org)
  • In contrast to the normal aortic wall, which contained both AT1 and AT2 receptors (80% and 20%, respectively), neointimal cells expressed almost exclusively angiotensin II AT1 receptors. (jci.org)
  • The affinities of the neointimal receptors to angiotensin II or to the AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, were not different from those in the normal aortic wall. (jci.org)
  • Our data suggest that angiotensin II AT1 receptors may have a significant role in injury-induced vascular smooth muscle proliferation and migration. (jci.org)
  • Angiotensin II binds to angiotensin I receptors and leads to increased blood pressure, sodium retention, heart fibrosis and remodeling, glomerular hypertension, proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. (standardofcare.com)
  • Angiotensin II can also bind to angiotensin II receptors, which can lead to antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects, counteracting effects of angiotensin I binding. (standardofcare.com)
  • Angiotensin II receptors are more prevalent in the fetus and have their role in adults is not defined. (standardofcare.com)
  • Angiotensin receptor blockade binding to angiotensin I receptor is thought to prevent negative effects of angiotensin II escape and promtes binding of angiotensin II to other targets, such as angiotensin II receptors. (standardofcare.com)
  • The increased maximal response and delayed relaxation time observed with caproic acid might be due to uncovering of additional angiotensin receptors and increased agonist availability at the receptor site after angiotensinase blockade. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Captopril prevents conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in increased levels of plasma renin and a reduction in aldosterone secretion. (medscape.com)
  • Lisinopril prevents conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, resulting in decreased aldosterone secretion. (medscape.com)
  • Angiotensinogen is an α-2-globulin synthesized in the liver and is a precursor for angiotensin, but has also been indicated as having many other roles not related to angiotensin peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma angiotensinogen levels are increased by plasma corticosteroid, estrogen, thyroid hormone, and angiotensin II levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiotensin I (CAS# 11128-99-7), officially called proangiotensin, is formed by the action of renin on angiotensinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional RAS involves the conversion of inactive angiotensinogen into angiotensin I (Ang I) in the presence of renin which is released from the kidney in response to low blood volume. (hindawi.com)
  • Intrinsic brain RAS is an enzyme-neuropeptide system having functional components (angiotensinogen, peptidases, angiotensin, and specific receptor proteins) with important biological and neurobiological activities in the brain. (hindawi.com)
  • NAION occurrence was not associated with the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene and the A1166C polymorphism of the angiotensin II, type 1 receptor gene. (molvis.org)
  • Renin then enters the blood where it catalyzes a protein called angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. (standardofcare.com)
  • The liver secretes inactive angiotensinogen, which is converted by renally secreted renin to angiotensin I. (standardofcare.com)
  • Angiotensinogen is encoded by the gene AGT, and is a glycoprotein secreted by hepatocytes that is cleaved by renin to yield angiotensin I which is further cleave to generate angiotensin II. (standardofcare.com)
  • Angiotensinogen is the rate limiting factor in the production of angiotensinII, and evidence links angiotensinogen and angiotensin II to hypertension: the greater the copy number of angiotensin heme, the higher the blood pressure. (standardofcare.com)
  • Renin catalyzes inactive angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. (standardofcare.com)
  • Objective To determine whether disrupting the renin angiotensin system with angiotensin receptor blockers will improve clinical outcomes in people with covid-19. (bmj.com)
  • Angiotensin also stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex to promote sodium retention by the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forty-seven patients with NAION and 76 controls, age- and gender-matched, were recruited and genotyped for renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) genes. (molvis.org)
  • NAION and control groups were compared in regard to the prevalence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system polymorphisms, and further stratified by age and gender. (molvis.org)
  • In heart failure decreased cardiac output and reduced renal perfusion leads to stimulation of plasma renin activity and thus to release of angiotensin II and aldosterone. (standardofcare.com)
  • Renin is the first enzyme in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. (standardofcare.com)
  • Angiotensin II also stimulates the production of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex, which causes the tubules of the kidneys to increase reabsorption of sodium, with water following, thereby increasing plasma volume, and thus also blood pressure. (standardofcare.com)
  • Progressive activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system contributes to chronic heart failure, including that which occurs after acute myocardial infarction. (standardofcare.com)
  • How often are angiotensin II and aldosterone concentrations raised during chronic ACE inhibitor treatment in cardiac failure? (bmj.com)
  • 2 , 3 However, the reductions in angiotensin II (AII) and aldosterone may not be maintained with chronic ACE inhibitor treatment. (bmj.com)
  • These effects can be prevented by enalapril pretreatment suggesting that blood pressure elevation was mediated via activation of renin angiotensin aldosterone system. (vin.com)
  • Enalapril is a competitive ACE inhibitor that reduces angiotensin II levels and decreases aldosterone secretion. (medscape.com)
  • Angiotensin II is a hormone that triggers release of aldosterone and vasopressin , both of which cause the kidneys to retain salt and water. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Alchemedicine Inc. has prepared and tested new angiotensin AT1 receptor (AGTR1) antagonists reported to be useful for the treatment of cancer, hypertension, glaucoma and renal disorders. (bioworld.com)
  • The RAS (renin-angiotensin system) is the part of the endocrine system that plays a prime role in the control of essential hypertension. (hindawi.com)
  • Angiotensin II (ANG II) is integral in regulating blood pressure and plays a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. (biosyn.com)
  • Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes are associated with hypertension (HT) but most of them are focusing on single locus effects. (hindawi.com)
  • They inhibit the effect of angiotensin II, and they are used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy. (jcancer.org)
  • Therefore, various biologically active peptides such as angiotensin, affecting cell proliferation, have become a new area of study in endometrial cancer research. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Importantly, alternative pathways exist such as the kinase pathway, which bypass ACE in the generation of angiotensin II. (bmj.com)
  • Angiotensin II levels are not completely suppressed with ACE inhibition, a process known as angiotensin II escape. (standardofcare.com)
  • Despite initial fears , evidence from retrospective observational studies supports the inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system as an emerging pathway to delay or moderate angiotensin II -driven lung inflammation . (bvsalud.org)
  • Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. To examine the response of renal prostaglandins (PG) to systemic and renal vasoconstriction noradrenaline (NA), arginine vasopressin (AVP) and angiotensin II (ANG II) were each infused into eight healthy female subjects for 3 h on different days. (portlandpress.com)
  • The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human subcutaneous resistance arteries with PDA-angiotensin 1 as a reference compound. (reprocell.com)
  • ACE is a zinc metallopeptidase that cleaves the C-terminal dipeptide from angiotensin I to produce the potent vasopressor octapeptide angiotensin II. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Angiotensin was isolated in the late 1930s (first named 'angiotonin' or 'hypertensin') and subsequently characterized and synthesized by groups at the Cleveland Clinic and Ciba laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiotensin was discovered during the late 1930s concurrently by Page in the United States and by Braun-Menenez and his colleagues in South America [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Compared with Sprague-Dawley normtensive control rats, Ren-2 skeletal muscle exhibited significantly increased oxidative stress, NF-ĸB activation, and TNF-α expression, which were attenuated by in vivo treatment with an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (valsartan) or SOD/catalase mimetic (tempol). (biosyn.com)
  • In this commentary we provide an overview and analysis of current ongoing clinical trials aimed at evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use in COVID-19. (bvsalud.org)
  • One is in the synthesis of angiotensin II, which has vasoconstrictive properties, promotes retention of sodium and water, and promotes cell growth. (bmj.com)
  • AGTR1, a gene encoding angiotensin receptor type 1, was found to be markedly expressed in 10-20% of human breast cancer tissues, mutually exclusive with ERBB2 overexpression. (jcancer.org)
  • Caproic acid significantly increased the maximal response to angiotensin and delayed the relaxation time of contracted aortic strips. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is of paramount importance, having a role in the regulatory pathway involved in the maintenance of blood pressure (BP), body fluid volume, and sodium homeostasis. (hindawi.com)
  • Angiotensin II is now regarded as a tumor growth promoter via angiogenesis from activation of the VEGF pathway[ 4 - 6 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Angiotensin Receptor Blockers for COVID-19: Pathophysiological and Pharmacological Considerations About Ongoing and Future Prospective Clinical Trials. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chez les patients hypertendus, le taux de mortalité était plus élevé uniquement chez les patients admis pour un infarctus du myocarde avec sus-décalage du segment ST. Après ajustement des résultats en fonction des variables de référence, l'hypertension s'est révélé être un facteur prédictif indépendant de l'insuffisance cardiaque (OR = 1,31) et de l'accident vasculaire cérébral (OR = 2,47). (who.int)
  • angiotensin II type 1 receptor, AT 1 R ) in HT and non-HT subjects were included that showed no significant genotype differences. (hindawi.com)
  • Angiotensin II reaches the posterior pituitary gland and the adrenal cortex, where it causes a cascade effect of hormones that cause the kidneys to retain water and sodium, increasing blood pressure. (standardofcare.com)
  • An oligopeptide, angiotensin is a hormone and a dipsogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiotensin I is almost immediately converted by an enzyme present in the blood to the active form of the protein, angiotensin II. (standardofcare.com)