Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Polyuria: Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Receptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.CitrullineArginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Deamino Arginine Vasopressin: A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in fetal tissues. Many effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor such as VASODILATION and sodium loss are the opposite of that of the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Arginase: A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.Renal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.Angiotensin I: A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Vasotocin: A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Rats, Brattleboro: A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus used in research on renal function and hypertension and as a disease model for diabetes insipidus.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Neurophysins: Carrier proteins for OXYTOCIN and VASOPRESSIN. They are polypeptides of about 10-kDa, synthesized in the HYPOTHALAMUS. Neurophysin I is associated with oxytocin and neurophysin II is associated with vasopressin in their respective precursors and during transportation down the axons to the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lypressin: The porcine antidiuretic hormone (VASOPRESSINS). It is a cyclic nonapeptide that differs from ARG-VASOPRESSIN by one amino acid, containing a LYSINE at residue 8 instead of an ARGININE. Lys-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Angiotensin III: A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40%).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Inappropriate ADH Syndrome: A condition of HYPONATREMIA and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of BODY FLUIDS resulting from sustained release of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES which stimulates renal resorption of water. It is characterized by normal KIDNEY function, high urine OSMOLALITY, low serum osmolality, and neurological dysfunction. Etiologies include ADH-producing neoplasms, injuries or diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the LUNG. This syndrome can also be drug-induced.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Antidiuretic Agents: Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.TetrazolesSaralasin: An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize the ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 2 RECEPTOR.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Arginine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Angiotensins: Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (VASOCONSTRICTION) and fluid homeostasis via the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. These include angiotensins derived naturally from precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, and those synthesized.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Receptors, Oxytocin: Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.1-Sarcosine-8-Isoleucine Angiotensin II: An ANGIOTENSIN II analog which acts as a highly specific inhibitor of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Hypothalamus, Anterior: The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Biphenyl CompoundsPituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Dihydropteroate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.15.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Matsukawa T, Miyamoto T (March 2011). "Angiotensin II-stimulated secretion of arginine vasopressin is inhibited by atrial ... Vasopressin is used to treat diabetes insipidus related to low levels of antiduretic hormone.It is available as Pressyn. ... The physiologic stimulus for secretion of vasopressin is increased osmolality of the plasma, monitored by the hypothalamus. A ... Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a ...
The calcium ions binds to the synaptotagmin 1 sub-unit of the SNARE protein attached to the arginine-vasopressin (AVP) ... from an area of high to low water concentration. If plasma osmolarity rises above 290 mOsmol/kg, then water will move out of ... angiotensin I, which is then converted to its active form, angiotensin II, by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which is ... Angiotensin II exerts system wide effects, triggering aldosterone release from the adrenal cortex, direct vasoconstriction, and ...
CRH acts synergistically with arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II, and epinephrine. (In swine, which do not produce arginine ... re-evaluation of midnight plasma cortisol vs urinary free cortisol and low-dose dexamethasone suppression test in a large ... "The effect of sodium deprivation and of angiotensin II infusion on the peripheral plasma concentrations of 18- ... lower). However, postnatal growth rates in these high-cortisol infants was more rapid than low-cortisol infants later in ...
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or Vasopressin). Arginine vasopressin receptor 1 (V1) on smooth muscle cells Activation of Gq --, ↑ ... angiotensin II. ↑Angiotensin receptor 1 *On smooth muscle cells: Activation of Gq --, ↑PLC activity --, ↑IP3 and DAG --, ... is returned to its normal concentration through a variety of protein pumps and calcium exchangers located on the plasma ... Low shear stress[6]. Various receptors on endothelium[6]. Endothelin production[6] ...
Arginine vasopressin. receptor 2 antagonists amphotericin B, lithium[12][13] Inhibits vasopressin's action 5. collecting duct ... Low ceiling diuretics[edit]. The term "low ceiling diuretic" is used to indicate a diuretic has a rapidly flattening dose ... They work primarily by expanding extracellular fluid and plasma volume, therefore increasing blood flow to the kidney, ... Ballew JR, Fink GD (September 2001). "Characterization of the antihypertensive effect of a thiazide diuretic in angiotensin II- ...
The conversion of the inactive angiotensin I to the potent angiotensin II was thought to take place in the plasma. However, in ... ACE inhibitors block the conversion of angiotensin I (AI) to angiotensin II (AII). They thereby lower arteriolar resistance and ... "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-associated angioedema is characterized by a slower degradation of des-arginine(9)- ... Stimulation of the posterior pituitary to release vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH) also acts on the kidneys to increase ...
"Linkage relationships of human arginine vasopressin-neurophysin-II and oxytocin-neurophysin-I to prodynorphin and other loci on ... At least two uncontrolled studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm - in both men and women.[103][104] Plasma ... high doses can result in low sodium levels (hyponatremia). ... Angiotensin. *Bombesin. *Calcitonin gene-related peptide. * ... Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males.[57] Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, so it ...
apical plasma membrane. • cytoplasm. • neuronal cell body. • neuron projection. • Q14325730. Biological process. • negative ... However, the levels of KISS1 mRNA expressed are decidedly lower than in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Studies have shown that ... Among these conserved amino acids are arginine and phenylalanine residues, which are paired in this family of peptides. Also ... the kisspeptin-angiotensin II pathway of producing aldosterone is increased.[17] Aldosterone that comes from the neighboring ...
Arginine vasopressin. receptor 2 antagonists amphotericin B, lithium[13][14]. Inhibits vasopressin's action 5. collecting duct ... Low ceiling diureticsEdit. The term "low ceiling diuretic" is used to indicate a diuretic has a rapidly flattening dose effect ... They work primarily by expanding extracellular fluid and plasma volume, therefore increasing blood flow to the kidney, ... Ballew JR, Fink GD (September 2001). "Characterization of the antihypertensive effect of a thiazide diuretic in angiotensin II- ...
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or Vasopressin). Arginine vasopressin receptor 1 (V1) on smooth muscle cells Activation of Gq --, ↑ ... angiotensin II. ↑Angiotensin receptor 1 *On smooth muscle cells: Activation of Gq --, ↑PLC activity --, ↑IP3 and DAG --, ... concentration is returned to its basal level through a variety of protein pumps and calcium exchangers located on the plasma ... Low shear stress[5]. Various receptors on endothelium[5]. Endothelin production[5]. ...
The conversion of the inactive angiotensin I to the potent angiotensin II was thought to take place in the plasma. However, in ... ACE inhibitors block the conversion of Angiotensin I (ATI) to Angiotensin II (ATII).[12] They thereby lower arteriolar ... "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-associated angioedema is characterized by a slower degradation of des-arginine(9)- ... Stimulation of the posterior pituitary to release vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH) also acts on the kidneys to increase ...
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System. Natriuretic Peptides. Arginine Vasopressin. Control of Renal NaCl Excretion During ... Volume Sensors in the Low-Pressure Cardiopulmonary Circuit. Volume Sensors in the High-Pressure Arterial Circuit ... Plasma Osmolality. Cell Lysis. Exercise. K+ Excretion by the Kidneys. Cellular Mechanisms of K+ Transport by Principal Cells ... Arginine Vasopressin. Osmotic Control of Arginine Vasopressin Secretion. Hemodynamic Control of Arginine Vasopressin Secretion ...
... again triggered by activation of the renin/angiotensin/aldosterone system and arginine vasopressin, leading to edema and ... When sodium retention occurs in the setting of low plasma oncotic pressure, this can lead to peripheral edema. In addition, if ... low if the patient has never been exposed to a diuretic, higher if he/she has been exposed, especially if there is concomitant ... The plasma electrolytes, BUN and creatinine should also be monitored several weeks after initiating treatment and occasionally ...
... but nondippers have a lower plasma aldosterone and arginine vasopressin level, possibly to counteract volume expansion. (3) ... Angiotensin II / blood * Arginine Vasopressin / blood * Atrial Natriuretic Factor / analysis * Blood Pressure Monitoring, ... If divided into dippers and nondippers, no difference in extracellular- or plasma volume is found, ...
The increased plasma Arginine Vasopressin Contributes volume (with a constant volume of red blood cells) results in a lower ... The stimuli for erythropoietin release include hy- and angiotensin II are increased and contribute to elevated poxia and ... which stimulates red blood cell Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released by the posterior pi- synthesis and, therefore, balances ... have low partition coefficients additional increases in solute concentration do not increase and low permeability coefficients ...
... plasma angiotensin II concentrations were increased, whereas plasma arginine vasopressin concentrations were unchanged. These ... Urine flow rate was suppressed for as long as plasma atrial natriuretic factor concentrations were reduced. Fetuses in the low- ... plasma angiotensin II concentrations were increased, whereas plasma arginine vasopressin concentrations were unchanged. These ... plasma angiotensin II concentrations were increased, whereas plasma arginine vasopressin concentrations were unchanged. These ...
Montani JP, Liard JF, Schoun J, Mohring J: Hemodynamic effects of exogenous and endogenous vasopressin at low plasma ... to a strong reflex suppression of cardiac output that is seen even at physiologic plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin ... Westphal M, Freise H, Keherel BE, Bone HG, Van Aken H, Sielenkämper AW: Arginine vasopressin compromises gut mucosal ... ANGIOTENSIN converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AIIRAs) are widely and indifferently ...
... again triggered by activation of the renin/angiotensin/aldosterone system and arginine vasopressin, leading to edema and ... When sodium retention occurs in the setting of low plasma oncotic pressure, this can lead to peripheral edema. In addition, if ... Low-Carb Diet May Reduce HbA1c More Than Low-Fat Diet in T2D ... low if the patient has never been exposed to a diuretic, higher ... Low Predictive Power of Biomarkers for Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Decline. *FDA to Review Gimoti for Diabetic ...
Increase plasma renin activity.. The drug blocks the tissue renin-angiotensin system of the heart, prevents the appearance of ... They also reduce the conversion of arginine-vasopressin and endothelin-1, reduce the afterload on the myocardium, the total ... The connection with plasma proteins is low. The active substance is not biotransformed and excreted by the kidneys in an ... increase the content of endogenous vasodilating PG and prevent the transfer of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. ...
I. Control of extracellular fluid volume controls plasma volume. II. Water follows Na+ therefore controlling total body Na+ ... Other diuretics e.g. aldosterone antagonists (spironolactone) will also lower BP - not first line choice ... Also, called arginine vasopressin - causes vasoconstriction. 12 Outline how natriuretic peptides control BP ... Angiotensin converting enzyme and bradykinin. - The vasoconstriction effects of AngII are further augmented because ACE is also ...
These peptide antagonists are highly potent platelet aggregation inhibitors at plasma levels as low as 1 pmol/ml. A preferred ... Other active agents include RGD peptides, hematoregulatory peptides, vasopressin, collagenase inhibitors, angiotensin ... 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin). Drugs that can be employed in this system are water soluble drugs which are characterized ... i) a low HLB surfactant having an HLB below 8, said low HLB surfactant being at least 80 percent by weight of a C9 ...
Weitzman RE, Fisher DA (1977) Log linear relationship between plasma arginine vasopressin and plasma osmolality. Am J Physiol ... Morton J J, Garcia del Rio C, Hughes MJ (1982) Effect of acute vasopressin infusion on blood pressure plasma angiotensin II in ... Montani JP, Liard JF, Schoun J, Möhring J (1980) Hemodynamic effects of exogenous and endogenous vasopressin at low plasma ... arginine vasopressin and ,l-(β-mercapto- β, β -cyclopentamethylenepropionic acid, arginine vasopressin, two highly potent ...
Production is stimulated by angiotensin II, arginine vasopressin, and thrombin.. Maternal arteriovenous oxygen difference is ... It may contribute to maternal posture alterations and in turn create lower. PTH plasma concentrations decrease during the first ... Renin, Angiotensin II, and Plasma Volume. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis is intimately involved in blood pressure control ... Gives rise to increased plasma levels of Angiotensin II, which acts on the zona. glomerulosa of the maternal adrenal glands. ...
Matsukawa T, Miyamoto T (March 2011). "Angiotensin II-stimulated secretion of arginine vasopressin is inhibited by atrial ... Vasopressin is used to treat diabetes insipidus related to low levels of antiduretic hormone.It is available as Pressyn. ... The physiologic stimulus for secretion of vasopressin is increased osmolality of the plasma, monitored by the hypothalamus. A ... Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a ...
... which appeared to coincide with increased plasma levels of arginine vasopressin in the fetus [41]. In a follow-up study in ... but a low blood pressure when fed a low salt diet (,0.02%) or after treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor [ ... Walker, M.P.R.; Moore, T.R.; Brace, R.A. Indomethacin and arginine vasopressin interaction in the fetal kidney: A mechanism of ... flow rate reduction in the ovine fetus is associated with reduced free water clearance and elevated plasma arginine vasopressin ...
... and vasopressin, to influence their activity and initiate compensatory responses that alleviate hydromineral imbalance. ... and vasopressin, to influence their activity and initiate compensatory responses that alleviate hydromineral imbalance. ... 2011). Temporal profile of arginine vasopressin release from the neurohypophysis in response to hypertonic saline and ... Low plasma sodium is alleviated by eliminating excess water through diuresis and AVP inhibition (Wang et al., 2013) as well as ...
Protein restriction to pregnant rats increases the plasma levels of angiotensin II and expression of angiotensin II receptors ... Indomethacin and arginine vasopressin interaction in the fetal kidney: a mechanism of oliguriaAmerican Journal of Obstetrics ... Maternal low-protein diet during mouse pre-implantation development induces vascular dysfunction and altered renin-angiotensin- ... Only male rats develop lower nephron numbers, higher blood pressure, and lower GFR and proteinuria when exposed to Ang II ...
... including increased secretion of arginine vasopressin and increased activity of the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous ... Activity of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system assessed by plasma hormone levels and their ... The main finding in our study is that lower serum sodium levels in outpatients with HF are related to lower SBP, principally ... ACEIs/ARBS: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers; BMI: body mass index; BNP: brain ...
... treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors was found either to lower or to unaffect plasma levels of PAI-1act or ... but not catecholamines atrial natriuretic factor and arginine-vasopressin, significantly correlated with plasma PAI-1 levels in ... was found to reduce PAI-1 plasma levels,34 whereas estrogens seem to lower plasma PAI-1 levels.35 A significant non-dose- ... Environmental Influences on Plasma PAI-1 Levels. Plasma PAI-1 levels show an intrinsic within-individual variability over time ...
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System. Natriuretic Peptides. Arginine Vasopressin. Control of Renal NaCl Excretion During ... Volume Sensors in the Low-Pressure Cardiopulmonary Circuit. Volume Sensors in the High-Pressure Arterial Circuit ... Plasma Osmolality. Cell Lysis. Exercise. K+ Excretion by the Kidneys. Cellular Mechanisms of K+ Transport by Principal Cells ... Arginine Vasopressin. Osmotic Control of Arginine Vasopressin Secretion. Hemodynamic Control of Arginine Vasopressin Secretion ...
Plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) level was normal despite the severe hypernatremic hyperosmolar state and urine was not ... However, inappropriately low values of plasma aldosterone levels despite high plasma renin activity could not induce ... Hypokalemia could be induced by activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system as a result of volume depletion. ... Adult , Arginine Vasopressin/metabolism , Humans , Hypernatremia/etiology , Hypothalamic Neoplasms/metabolism , Male , Osmolar ...
These include inappropriately low plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels with resultant inadequate renal sodium retention ... Some POTS patients have also been found to have elevated plasma angiotensin II (Ang-II) levels, with some studies suggesting ... These include inappropriately low plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels with resultant inadequate renal sodium retention ... Some POTS patients have also been found to have elevated plasma angiotensin II (Ang-II) levels, with some studies suggesting ...
To determine estrogen effects on osmotic regulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and body fluids, we suppressed endogenous ... Plasma [P(4)] increased from 0.6 to 5.7 ng/ml during E/P and was unchanged (0.4 to 0.6 ng/ml) during E. Compared with GnRHa ... Renal sensitivity to AVP may be lower during E due to intrarenal effects on water and sodium excretion. E/P increased sodium ... retention and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone stimulation. For answers to board issues, read the Suggestion and News forum at the ...
Chronic Heart Failure Patients Considering the Interaction of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System and Arginine Vasopressin ... Low Serum Levels of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid are Risk Factors for Cardiogenic Syncope in Patients with ... Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels are elevated in patients with cancer (2017) ... Orally-Administered Caspase Inhibitor PF-03491390 Is Retained in the Liver for Prolonged Periods With Low Systemic Exposure, ...
... various components of the renin angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), endothelins and arginine vasopressin,3,4 may play a more ... increased plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are reported in many cardiac disorders, including ... hope that the progression of the disease could be slowed or stopped in early intervention in asymptomatic individuals with low ... DellItalia L. The renin-angiotensin system in mitral regurgitation: a typical example of tissue activation. Curr Cardiol Rep ...
... or cardiopulmonary bypass have inappropriately low plasma levels of AVP (relative vasopressin deficiency) and ... After intravenous administration of arginine vasopressin, the patients vital signs returned to baseline values. Arginine ... Plasma , Renal Circulation , Renin-Angiotensin System , Sepsis , Shock , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Shock, Septic , Vasoconstriction ... Animals , Arginine Vasopressin , Capillaries , Cell Line , Colon , Colorectal Neoplasms , Complement System Proteins , Drug ...
  • Treatment of CD8 cells with pertussis toxin ( PTX ) inhibited both the vasopressin -induced increase in water permeability and the redistribution of AQP2 from an intracellular compartment to the apical membrane . (ndif.org)
  • Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) affects microvascular function through promotion of leukostasis and induction of capillary permeability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Patients with heart failure from systolic dysfunction often have low blood pressure. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Terlipressin acts via the vasopressin system, which may be considered an important physiologic system for the regulation of arterial blood pressure. (asahq.org)
  • Altura BM (1975) Dose-response relationships for arginine vasopressin and synthetic analogues on three types of rat blood vessels: possible evidence for regional differences in vasopressin receptor sites within a mammal. (springer.com)
  • Bohus B, Versteeg CAM, De Jong W (1982) Vasopressin and central blood pressure control in the rat. (springer.com)
  • Subsequent release of AVP into the posterior pituitary gland occurs, whereby vasopressin is secreted into the blood stream of the nearby capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug is not bound to any proteins of blood plasma (except ACE). (snanc.org)
  • In the cold, despite dehydration, central blood volume shifts prevent the increase in plasma AVP relative to the same amount of dehydration in a warm environment (3). (guenergy.com)
  • Extrarenal renin-angiotensin systems are unable to maintain blood pressure in sheep. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Both leptin and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can influence the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, water and electrolyte metabolism as well as vascular remodelling, which are all involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To test the hypothesis that afferent input from peripheral mechanoreceptors (arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors) and chemoreceptors contribute to the sympathoexcitatory and hormonal responses at birth, we studied the effects of sinoaortic denervation (SAD) and SAD with vagotomy (Vx) on changes in HR, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and catecholamine, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and ANG II levels at birth in term sheep. (physiology.org)
  • Low doses of vasopressin can restore vasomotor tone in conditions that are resistant to catecholamines, with preservation of renal blood flow and urine output. (scribd.com)
  • blood viscosity is greater than plasma because it contains erythrocytes. (brainscape.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies against smooth muscle actin (SMA) and CD34 (an endothelial cell marker) demonstrated that low resistance to blood flow in vessels within malignant ovarian tumors may be associated with a poorly developed muscular coat in the tumor vessels, compared with that observed in benign tumors. (knowcancer.com)
  • Estimated blood volume is 70 mL/kg with an estimated plasma volume of 50 mL/kg. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Burkart , cautioned that, while there may be observed for a low blood flow rates renal nursing a practical approachdue to decreased pulmonary blood flow. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • adults in septic shock who have low blood pressure despite adequate resuscitation can be treated with hydrocortisone if critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency is suspected? (thefullwiki.org)
  • The amount of cortisol hormone present in the blood undergoes diurnal variation, with the highest levels present in the early morning, and the lowest levels present around midnight, or 3-5 hours after the onset of sleep . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Effect of Angiotensin II and ACTH on Adrenal Blood Flow in the Male Rat Adrenal Gland In Vivo. (mcw.edu)
  • While IP6 is well known for its cancer-fighting properties, Davis points to its use to lower blood cholesterol. (aspeneducationgroup.com)
  • This is compensated by renal salt and water retention, driven largely by activation of the renin/angiotensin/aldosterone system, increasing the preload to return cardiac output toward normal. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The therapeutic use of vasopressin has become increasingly important in the critical care environment in the management of cranial diabetes insipidus, bleeding abnormalities, esophageal variceal hemorrhage, asystolic cardiac arrest and septic shock. (scribd.com)
  • After 10 years of ongoing research, vasopressin has grown to a potential component as a vasopressor agent of the anesthesiologist's armamentarium in the treatment of cardiac arrest and severe shock states. (scribd.com)
  • Vasopressin is a potent vasopressor that may be a useful therapeutic agent in the treatment of cardiac arrest, septic and several other shock states and esophageal variceal hemorrhage. (scribd.com)
  • Studies indicate that the use of vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation may improve the survival of patients with asystolic cardiac arrest. (scribd.com)
  • 8 Although the principal source of plasma PAI-1 is unknown, available evidence indicates that several cell types, including endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), platelets, hepatocytes, fibroblasts, and adipocytes, can all produce PAI-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Small quantities were delivered to a common cause of kidney tubular epithelial cells in the ed after topical anesthesia of the class antigens and can often follow a western australian teaching hospital effects of intraoperative narcotic or neuromuscular blockade blunt the response to exogenous arginine vasopressin response to. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • In patients receiving long-term lithium therapy much lower doses can lead to clinically important toxicity, since tissues are already saturated with lithium. (empendium.com)
  • If plasma osmolarity rises above 290 mOsmol/kg, then water will move out of the cell due to osmosis, causing the neuroreceptor to shrink in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • These encouraging results suggest that the novel second generation vasopressin analog could be used for the management of aggressive CRC as an adjuvant agent during surgery or to complement standard chemotherapy, limiting tumor angiogenesis and metastasis and thus protecting the patient from CRC recurrence. (bvsalud.org)
  • Using tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes common to all data sets, we identified a genetic variant of the TNFAIP2 gene, rs8126, associated with decreased 28-day survival and increased organ dysfunction in an adult cohort in the Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial. (stanford.edu)