An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.
Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in fetal tissues. Many effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor such as VASODILATION and sodium loss are the opposite of that of the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40%).
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
Agents that antagonize the ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 2 RECEPTOR.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.
Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (VASOCONSTRICTION) and fluid homeostasis via the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. These include angiotensins derived naturally from precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, and those synthesized.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.
An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.
A synthetic nonapeptide (Pyr-Trp-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro-Pro) which is identical to the peptide from the venom of the snake, Bothrops jararaca. It inhibits kininase II and ANGIOTENSIN I and has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is used in patients with hypertension and heart failure.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors) used for hypertension. It is a prodrug that is hydrolyzed after absorption to its main metabolite cilazaprilat.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An ANGIOTENSIN II analog which acts as a highly specific inhibitor of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLINES which contain no double bonds in the ring.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase. It decreases the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID concentration in the brain, thereby causing convulsions.
A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Swelling involving the deep DERMIS, subcutaneous, or submucosal tissues, representing localized EDEMA. Angioedema often occurs in the face, lips, tongue, and larynx.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
A phosphinic acid-containing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of hypertension. It is a prodrug that is converted to its active metabolite fosinoprilat.
Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The octapeptide amide of bovine angiotensin II used to increase blood pressure by vasoconstriction.
Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.
Excision of kidney.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A constitutively expressed subtype of bradykinin receptor that may play a role in the acute phase of the inflammatory and pain response. It has high specificity for intact forms of BRADYKININ and KALLIDIN. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The consumption of liquids.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A structure, situated close to the intraventricular foramen, which induces DRINKING BEHAVIOR after stimulation with ANGIOTENSIN II.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
A complex of cells consisting of juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells, the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule, and granular epithelial peripolar cells. Juxtaglomerular cells are modified SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS found in the walls of afferent glomerular arterioles and sometimes the efferent arterioles. Extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells are located in the angle between the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. Granular epithelial peripolar cells are located at the angle of reflection of the parietal to visceral angle of the renal corpuscle.
A subtype of BRADYKININ RECEPTOR that is induced in response to INFLAMMATION. It may play a role in chronic inflammation and has a high specificity for KININS lacking the C-terminal ARGININE such as des-Arg(10)-kallidin and des-Arg(9)-bradykinin. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.
A ZINC-dependent membrane-bound aminopeptidase that catalyzes the N-terminal peptide cleavage of GLUTAMATE (and to a lesser extent ASPARTATE). The enzyme appears to play a role in the catabolic pathway of the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
A potent inhibitor of membrane metalloendopeptidase (ENKEPHALINASE). Thiorphan potentiates morphine-induced ANALGESIA and attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor which inhibits platelet aggregation. Formerly used as an antineoplastic.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).
A condition of abnormally low AMNIOTIC FLUID volume. Principal causes include malformations of fetal URINARY TRACT; FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION; GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION; nicotine poisoning; and PROLONGED PREGNANCY.

Distinct and combined vascular effects of ACE blockade and HMG-CoA reductase inhibition in hypertensive subjects. (1/4593)

Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are frequently associated with elevated sympathetic activity. Both are independent cardiovascular risk factors and both affect endothelium-mediated vasodilation. To identify the effects of cholesterol-lowering and antihypertensive treatments on vascular reactivity and vasodilative capacity, we studied 30 hypercholesterolemic hypertensive subjects. They received placebo for 4 weeks, either enalapril or simvastatin for 14 weeks, and, finally, both medications for an additional 14 weeks. Postischemic forearm blood flow (MFBF) and minimal vascular resistance (mFVR) were used as indices of vasodilative capacity and structural vascular damage, respectively. Total (resting-stress-recovery phases) cardiovascular (blood pressure [BP] and heart rate [HR]) and regional hemodynamic (FBF and FVR) reactivity to stressful stimuli were calculated as area-under-the-curve (auc) (valuextime). Compared with baseline levels, simvastatin reduced total (TOT-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (1.27 mmol/L, P<0.001 and 1.33 mmol/L, P<0.001, respectively). Enalapril also reduced TOT-C and LDL-C (0.6 mmol/L, P<0.001 and 0.58 mmol/L, P<0.05, respectively). MFBF was increased substantially by both treatments (P<0.001). Enalapril had a greater effect (-1.7 arbitrary units (AU), P<0.001) than simvastatin (-0.6 AU, P<0.05) on mFVR. During stress, FBF increased more with enalapril (4.4 FBFxminutes, P<0.001) than with simvastatin (1.8 FBFxminutes, P<0.01). Conversely, FVR stress response was reduced more with enalapril (9.1 FVRxminutes, P<0.001) than with simvastatin (2.9 FVRxminutes, P<0.01). During combination treatment, a significant (0.001>P<0.05) additive effect on hypercholesterolemia, structural vascular damage, BP, and FVR was shown. The findings suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition induces a larger reduction than HMG-CoA reductase blockade in vascular reactivity and structural damage in hypercholesterolemic hypertensive subjects.  (+info)

Cardiac sympathetic activity estimated by 123I-MIBG myocardial imaging in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy after beta-blocker or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. (2/4593)

Impaired cardiac sympathetic activity can be evaluated by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging. METHODS: We studied the significance of MIBG imaging for 24 patients (age 58+/-12 y) with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We compared 12 patients (group A) treated with metoprolol (dose from 30-60 mg/d) with 12 patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Patients were studied before treatment, after 5 mo of treatment (only in group A) and after 1 y of treatment. Cardiac MIBG uptake was assessed as the heart-to-mediastinum activity ratio (H/M) and total defect score (TDS) from anterior planar and SPECT MIBG images, which were acquired in 4 h after tracer injection. New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) calculated by echocardiography were also assessed. RESULTS: TDS decreased in both groups (in group A, from 30+/-7 through 23+/-9 to 18+/-10; P < 0.01, in group B, from 30+/-6 to 24+/-8; P < 0.01) and H/M was increased in both groups (in group A, from 1.87+/-0.31 through 2.03+/-0.28 to 2.14+/-0.29; P < 0.01, in group B, from 1.82+/-0.28 to 1.94+/-0.26; P < 0.05). But TDS and H/M were more improved in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). LVEF was significantly increased in only group A (from 38+/-6 through 43+/-8 to 49%+/-9%; P < 0.01). NYHA improved in both groups (in group A, from mean 2.5 through 2.1 to 1.8; P < 0.01, in group B, from mean 2.6 to 2.1; P < 0.05) but was more improved in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cardiac function, symptom and cardiac sympathetic activity evaluated by MIBG images improved after the beta-blocker therapy more than with the treatment that used ACE inhibitors.  (+info)

Bradykinin promotes ischemic norepinephrine release in guinea pig and human hearts. (3/4593)

We previously reported that bradykinin (BK; 1-1000 nM) facilitates norepinephrine (NE) release from cardiac sympathetic nerves. Because BK production increases in myocardial ischemia, endogenous BK could foster NE release and associated arrhythmias. We tested this hypothesis in guinea pig and human myocardial ischemia models. BK administration (100 nM) markedly enhanced exocytotic and carrier-mediated NE overflow from guinea pig hearts subjected to 10- and 20-min ischemia/reperfusion, respectively. Ventricular fibrillation invariably occurred after 20-min global ischemia; BK prolonged its duration 3-fold. The BK B2 receptor antagonist HOE140 (30 nM) blocked the effects of BK, whereas the B1 receptor antagonist des-Arg9-Leu8-BK (1 microM; i.e., 2.5 x pA2) did not. When serine proteinase inhibitors (500 KIU/ml aprotinin and 100 microg/ml soybean trypsin inhibitor) were used to prevent the formation of endogenous BK, NE overflow and reperfusion arrhythmias were diminished. In contrast, when kininase I and II inhibitors (DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropanoic acid and enalaprilat, each 1 microM) were used to prevent the degradation of endogenous BK, NE overflow and reperfusion arrhythmias were enhanced. B2 receptor blockade abolished these effects but was ineffective if kininases were not inhibited. B2 receptor stimulation, by either exogenous or endogenous BK, also markedly enhanced carrier-mediated NE release in the human myocardial ischemia model; conversely, inhibition of BK biosynthesis diminished ischemic NE release. Because atherosclerotic heart disease impairs endothelial BK production, in myocardial ischemia BK could accumulate at sympathetic nerve endings, thus augmenting exocytotic and carrier-mediated NE release and favoring coronary vasoconstriction and arrhythmias.  (+info)

Blocking angiotensin II ameliorates proteinuria and glomerular lesions in progressive mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. (4/4593)

BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin system is thought to be involved in the progression of glomerulonephritis (GN) into end-stage renal failure (ESRF) because of the observed renoprotective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). However, ACEIs have pharmacological effects other than ACE inhibition that may help lower blood pressure and preserve glomerular structure. We previously reported a new animal model of progressive glomerulosclerosis induced by a single intravenous injection of an anti-Thy-1 monoclonal antibody, MoAb 1-22-3, in uninephrectomized rats. Using this new model of progressive GN, we examined the hypothesis that ACEIs prevent the progression to ESRF by modulating the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on the production of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and extracellular matrix components. METHODS: We studied the effect of an ACEI (cilazapril) and an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist (candesartan) on the clinical features and morphological lesions in the rat model previously reported. After 10 weeks of treatment with equihypotensive doses of cilazapril, cilazapril plus Hoe 140 (a bradykinin receptor B2 antagonist), candesartan, and hydralazine, we examined systolic blood pressure, urinary protein excretion, creatinine clearance, the glomerulosclerosis index, and the tubulointerstitial lesion index. We performed a semiquantitative evaluation of glomerular immunostaining for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III by immunofluorescence study and of these cortical mRNA levels by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Untreated rats developed massive proteinuria, renal dysfunction, and severe glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury, whereas uninephrectomized control rats did not. There was a significant increase in the levels of glomerular protein and cortical mRNA for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III in untreated rats. Cilazapril and candesartan prevented massive proteinuria, increased creatinine clearance, and ameliorated glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury. These drugs also reduced levels of glomerular protein and cortical mRNA for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III. Hoe 140 failed to blunt the renoprotective effect of cilazapril. Hydralazine did not exhibit a renoprotective effect. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that ACEIs prevent the progression to ESRF by modulating the effects of Ang II via Ang II type 1 receptor on the production of TGF-beta and collagen types I and III, as well as on intrarenal hemodynamics, but not by either increasing bradykinin activity or reducing blood pressure in this rat model of mesangial proliferative GN.  (+info)

Glomerular size-selective dysfunction in NIDDM is not ameliorated by ACE inhibition or by calcium channel blockade. (5/4593)

BACKGROUND: In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and overt nephropathy glomerular barrier size-selectivity progressively deteriorates with time and is effectively improved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Whether similar glomerular functional changes develop in proteinuric patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and whether antihypertensive agents can favorably affect glomerular filtration of macromolecules in these patients, has not been documented yet. METHODS: We investigated renal hemodynamics and fractional clearance of neutral dextrans of graded sizes, in nine proteinuric patients with NIDDM and renal biopsy findings of typical diabetic glomerulopathy. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. We also investigated the effects of an ACE inhibitor and of a calcium channel blocker, both given in doses targeted to achieve a comparable level of systemic blood pressure control, on glomerular hemodynamics and sieving function. Theoretical analysis of glomerular macromolecule transport was adopted to evaluate intrinsic glomerular membrane permeability properties. RESULTS: Fractional clearance of large macromolecules (42 to 66 A in radius) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls, and the distribution of membrane pore radii was calculated to be shifted towards larger pore sizes in diabetics (mean radius increased from 55 to 60 A). Despite effective blood pressure control, neither antihypertensive affected glomerular hemodynamics to any significant extent. Fractional clearance of dextrans, as well as of albumin and IgG, and total urinary proteins were not modified by either treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that patients with NIDDM and overt nephropathy develop abnormalities in size-selective function of the glomerular barrier and, at variance to IDDM, such changes were not ameliorated either by ACE inhibition or calcium channel blockade.  (+info)

Racial differences in the outcome of left ventricular dysfunction. (6/4593)

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have found that black patients with congestive heart failure have a higher mortality rate than whites with the same condition. This finding has been attributed to differences in the severity, causes, and management of heart failure, the prevalence of coexisting conditions, and socioeconomic factors. Although these factors probably account for some of the higher mortality due to congestive heart failure among blacks, we hypothesized that racial differences in the natural history of left ventricular dysfunction might also have a role. METHODS: Using data from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) prevention and treatment trials, in which all patients received standardized therapy and follow-up, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction among black and white participants. The mean (+/-SD) follow-up was 34.2+/-14.0 months in the prevention trial and 32.3+/-14.8 months in the treatment trial among the black and white participants. RESULTS: The overall mortality rates in the prevention trial were 8.1 per 100 person-years for blacks and 5.1 per 100 person years for whites. In the treatment trial, the rates were 16.7 per 100 person-years and 13.4 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for age, coexisting conditions, severity and causes of heart failure, and use of medications, blacks had a higher risk of death from all causes in both the SOLVD prevention trial (relative risk, 1.36; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.74; P=0.02) and the treatment trial (relative risk, 1.25; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.50; P=0.02). In both trials blacks were also at higher risk for death due to pump failure and for the combined end point of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure, our two predefined indicators of the progression of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Blacks with mild-to-moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction appear to be at higher risk for progression of heart failure and death from any cause than similarly treated whites. These results suggest that there may be racial differences in the outcome of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction.  (+info)

Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists. (7/4593)

1. Subcutaneous injection of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior of the back of male ddY mice elicited dose-dependent scratching of the injected site with the forepaws and hindpaws. 2. Up to 100 microg of sodium deoxycholic acid induced no significant increase in vascular permeability at the injection site as assessed by a dye leakage method. 3. Bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonists, FR173657 and Hoe140, significantly decreased the frequency of scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. 4. Treatment with aprotinin to inhibit tissue kallikrein reduced the scratching behaviour induced by sodium deoxycholic acid, whereas treatment with soybean trypsin inhibitor to inhibit plasma kallikrein did not. 5. Although injection of kininase II inhibitor, lisinopril together with sodium deoxycholic acid did not alter the scratching behaviour, phosphoramidon, a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, significantly increased the frequency of scratching. 6. Homogenates of the skin excised from the backs of mice were subjected to gel-filtration column chromatography followed by an assay of kinin release by trypsin from each fraction separated. Less kinin release from the fractions containing kininogen of low molecular weight was observed in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than in normal skin. 7. The frequency of scratching after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in plasma kininogen-deficient Brown Norway Katholiek rats was significantly lower than that in normal rats of the same strain, Brown Norway Kitasato rats. 8. These results indicate that BK released from low-molecular-weight kininogen by tissue kallikrein, but not from high-molecular-weight kininogen by plasma kallikrein, may be involved in the scratching behaviour induced by the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in the rodent.  (+info)

Addition of angiotensin II receptor blockade to maximal angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition improves exercise capacity in patients with severe congestive heart failure. (8/4593)

BACKGROUND: Incomplete suppression of the renin-angiotensin system during long-term ACE inhibition may contribute to symptomatic deterioration in patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF). Combined angiotensin II type I (AT1) receptor blockade and ACE inhibition more completely suppresses the activated renin-angiotensin system than either intervention alone in sodium-depleted normal individuals. Whether AT1 receptor blockade with losartan improves exercise capacity in patients with severe CHF already treated with ACE inhibitors is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-three patients with severe CHF despite treatment with maximally recommended or tolerated doses of ACE inhibitors were randomized 1:1 to receive 50 mg/d losartan or placebo for 6 months in addition to standard therapy in a multicenter, double-blind trial. Peak aerobic capacity (V(O2)) during symptom-limited treadmill exercise and NYHA functional class were determined at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of double-blind therapy. Peak V(O2) at baseline and after 3 and 6 months were 13.5+/-0.6, 15.1+/-1.0, and 15.7+/-1.1 mL. kg-1. min-1, respectively, in patients receiving losartan and 14.1+/-0.6, 14.3+/-0.9, and 13.6+/-1.1 mL. kg-1. min-1, respectively, in patients receiving placebo (P<0.02 for treatment group-by-time interaction). Functional class improved by at least one NYHA class in 9 of 16 patients receiving losartan and 1 of 17 patients receiving placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Losartan enhances peak exercise capacity and alleviates symptoms in patients with CHF who are severely symptomatic despite treatment with maximally recommended or tolerated doses of ACE inhibitors.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of a Calcium Channel or Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor/Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Regime to Reduce Blood Pressure Variability following Ischaemic Stroke (CAARBS): a protocol for a feasibility study.
2017 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Background. Although statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are generally well tolerated, the impact of these therapies individually or in combination on the change in neurocognitive function in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection is unknown. Methods. The study included participants in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials cohort participants not receiving a statin or ACEI/ARB within 30 days of first neurologic assessment (baseline), with assessments by NPZ-3 (z score of averaged Trailmaking A and B tests and digit symbol test [DST]) from ≥2 measurements. Marginal structural models estimated the causal effect of statin or ACEI/ARB initiation on neurocognitive function; initial constant slope was assumed during the first year of treatment and a second constant slope thereafter. Results. Of ...
We read with interest the paper by Komiyama and Hasegawa on the need for smoking cessation as a public health measure to limit the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.1 It seems obvious to reiterate that smoking cessation is advisable to reduce many other severe conditions, such as chronic lung and cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer, which are leading causes of morbidity and mortality.
Dr. James Lohr, Division of Nephrology, VAMC, 3495 Bailey Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14215. Phone: 716-862-3204; Fax: 716-862-6784; E-mail: James.Lohr{at}med.va.gov ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differences in the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on the rate of endothelial cell apoptosis. T2 - In vitro and in vivo studies. AU - Ceconi, C.. AU - Francolini, G.. AU - Bastianon, D.. AU - Gitti, G. L.. AU - Comini, L.. AU - Ferrari, R.. PY - 2007/12. Y1 - 2007/12. N2 - Aim: An imbalance between endothelial apoptosis and regeneration is one of the initiating events in atherosclerosis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition corrects the endothelial dysfunction observed in coronary artery disease, and this could be the consequence of a reduction in the rate of endothelial apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different ACE inhibitors on endothelial apoptosis. Methods: We examined the effect of five ACE inhibitors (enalapril, perindopril, quinapril, ramipril, and trandolapril) on the rate of endothelial apoptosis, either in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), using a serum deprivation method to induce ...
Background. Renal function decreases with age. Dosage adjustment according to renal function is indicated for many drugs, in order to avoid adverse reactions of medications and/or aggravation of renal impairment. There are several ways to assess renal function in the elderly, but no way is ideal. The aim of the study was to explore renal function in elderly subjects in nursing homes and the use of pharmaceuticals that may be harmful to patients with renal impairment.. Methods. 243 elderly subjects living in nursing homes were included. S-creatinine and s-cystatin c were analysed. Renal function was estimated using Cockcroft-Gault formula, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and cystatin C-estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Concomitant medication was registered and four groups of renal risk drugs were identified: metformin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), angiotensin-converting enzyme -inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and digoxin. Descriptive statistics and ...
Our results demonstrate that good adherence to statin in the first 6 months after discharge is associated with subsequent lower incidence of MACE (including all-cause mortality, MI, and stroke) in a large unselected Chinese ACS patient population. This relationship was independent of other treatments which have been shown to be associated with outcomes in ACS such as receipt of coronary interventions, and adherence to antiplatelets, aspirin, beta-blocker, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, as well as other known personal prognostic factors such as age, sex, education level, and cardiovascular risk factors and other hospital level characteristics. In addition, the effect of adherence was not modified by the characteristics of patients such as dose of statins, subtypes of ACS, gender, age, social economic status, etc.. It has been well established that good statin adherence is associated with reduced the risk of MACE and all-cause mortality in the primary ...
O:13:\PanistOpenUrl\:36:{s:10:\\u0000*\u0000openUrl\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000idc\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000fmt\;s:7:\journal\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000doi\;s:0:\\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000pii\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000pmid\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000atitle\;s:164:\CHRONIC ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFECTS OF CAPTOPRIL (SQ 14,225), AN ORALLY ACTIVE ANGIOTENSIN I-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITOR, IN CONSCIOUS 2-KIDNEY RENAL HYPERTENSIVE RATS\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000jtitle\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000stitle\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000date\;s:4:\1978\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000volume\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000issue\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000spage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000epage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000pages\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000issn\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000eissn\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000aulast\;s:5:\RUBIN\;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000aufirst\;s:1:\B\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000auinit\;N;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000auinitm\;N;s:5:\\u0000*\u0000au\;a:8:{i:0;s:7:\RUBIN ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Primary prevention of atrial fibrillation with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis. AU - Lin, Ting Tse. AU - Yang, Yao Hsu. AU - Liao, Min Tsun. AU - Tsai, Chia Ti. AU - Hwang, Juey J.. AU - Chiang, Fu Tien. AU - Chen, Pau Chung. AU - Lin, Jiunn Lee. AU - Lin, Lian Yu. PY - 2015/8/4. Y1 - 2015/8/4. N2 - Current evidence suggests that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce the incidence of new atrial fibrillation (AF) in a variety of clinical conditions, including the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction or hypertension. Here we assessed whether ACEIs and ARBs could decrease incidence of new-onset AF in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We identified patients from the Registry for Catastrophic Illness, a nation-wide database encompassing almost all of the patients receiving dialysis therapy in Taiwan from ...
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system when there is dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition in the presence of high-dose angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition has led to concerns of potential increases in cardiovascular events when the 2 classes of drugs are coadministered. We evaluated cardiovascular outcomes from the EXAMINE (Examination of Cardiovascular Outcomes With Alogliptin versus Standard of Care) trial according to ACE inhibitor use. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a recent acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to receive the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor alogliptin or placebo added to existing antihyperglycemic and cardiovascular prophylactic therapies. Risks of adjudicated cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke, and hospitalized heart failure were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model in patients according to ACE inhibitor use and dose. There were 3323 (62%) EXAMINE patients treated with an ACE inhibitor (1681 on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Melanoma and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Associated with Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme Inhibitors, Angiotensin-Receptor Blockers and Thiazides. T2 - A Matched Cohort Study. AU - Nardone, Beatrice. AU - Majewski, Sara. AU - Kim, Ashley S.. AU - Kiguradze, Tina. AU - Martinez-Escala, Estela M.. AU - Friedland, Rivka. AU - Amin, Ahmad. AU - Laumann, Anne E.. AU - Edwards, Beatrice J.. AU - Rademaker, Alfred W.. AU - Martini, Mary C. AU - West, Dennis P.. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - Introduction: Controversy exists about an association between angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), and thiazides (TZs) and the risk of malignant melanoma (MM), and non-melanoma skin cancer-basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if an association exists for ACEI, ARB, or TZ exposure and skin cancers. Methods: This was a matched cohort study using a large electronic medical records ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use is associated with reduced major adverse cardiovascular events among patients with critical limb ischemia. AU - Armstrong, Ehrin J.. AU - Chen, Debbie C.. AU - Singh, Gagan. AU - Amsterdam, Ezra A. AU - Laird, John R.. PY - 2015/6/5. Y1 - 2015/6/5. N2 - Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are recommended for secondary prevention in peripheral artery disease, but their effectiveness in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) is uncertain. We reviewed 464 patients with CLI who underwent diagnostic angiography or endovascular intervention from 2006-2013 at a multidisciplinary vascular center. ACEI or ARB use was assessed at the time of angiography. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), mortality, and major adverse limb events (MALE) were assessed during three-year follow-up. Propensity weighting was used to adjust for baseline differences between ...
Purpose Renin-angiotensin system blockers (RASBs), which include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin-2 receptor 1 blockers (ARBs), have been reported to be associated with lung cancer metastasis, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Until now, very limited clinical data for RASBs diagnostic and prognostic effects has existed for lung cancer chemotherapy in Chinese patients. Methods There were a total of 678 lung cancer patients with hypertension, of which 461 (68%) were in the non-RASBs group and 217 (32%) were in the RASBs group. Patients gender, age, smoking status, histologic differentiation, tumor size, pathological grade, lymph node metastasis, pathological stage and progression-free survival (PFS) were retrospectively analyzed between these two groups. The clinical effects of ACEIs and ARBs in lung cancer patients were compared via t tests, and χ2 test, and potential prognostic factors for progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results
The major new finding of the present study is that Hoe140, a bradykinin BK2-receptor antagonist, inhibited the captopril-induced change in CBF autoregulation. The result suggests that the modulation of CBF autoregulation by captopril is mediated, at least in part, by bradykinin.. In a previous report, in which Hoe140 (0.75 nmol) was infused into the aorta in Sprague-Dawley rats, bradykinin-induced hypotension was still impaired by 71% 1 hour after infusion.13 In the present intravenous study, the dose of Hoe140 was similar to or even greater than that in the previous study, and it completely prevented the hypotensive effect of bradykinin. In a steady state, Hoe140 concentration in the circulating blood should be constant in the whole body, including cerebral vessels. This means that a sufficient concentration of Hoe140 to block BK2 receptors should have reached cerebral arteries during the experiment. Furthermore, there is no report that the distribution of BK2 receptor is different between ...
The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reducing risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs) and preserving kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease is well-documented. However, the efficacy and safety of these agents in dialysis patients is still a controversial issue. We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and Wanfang for randomized trials. The relative risk (RR) reductions were calculated with a random-effects model. Major cardiovascular events, changes in GFR and drug-related adverse events were analyzed. Eleven trials included 1856 participants who were receiving dialysis therapy. Compared with placebo or other active agents groups, ARB therapy reduced the risk of heart failure events by 33% (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.93) with similar decrement in blood pressure in dialysis patients. Indirect comparison suggested that fewer cardiovascular events happened during treatment with ARB (0.77, 0.63 to 0.94). The
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical and economic implications of therapeutic switching of Angiotensin receptor blockers to Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. T2 - a population-based study. AU - Kurdi, Amanj. AU - Elliott, Rachel A.. AU - Chen, Li-Chia. PY - 2019/6/1. Y1 - 2019/6/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and cost impact of switching angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in patients with hypertension. METHODS: This study used the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, linking with the Hospital Episode Statistics (April 2006 to March 2012). Adults with hypertension (n = 470) were followed from the first ARB prescription date to the switching date (preswitching period); then from the switching date to the date when study ended, patient left the dataset or died (postswitching period). Patients were divided into ACEIs-combined (n = 369) and ACEIs-monotherapy (n = 101) groups by whether additional antihypertensive drugs were prescribed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors the best treatment for hypertension in type 2 diabetes?. AU - Komers, Radko. AU - Anderson, Sharon. PY - 2000/3/15. Y1 - 2000/3/15. N2 - The influence of hypertension on the clinical course and complications of type 2 diabetes is well established. With a special focus on angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors, this paper will review recently published results of prospective studies addressing two important aspects: the degree of blood pressure control, and the choice of antihypertensive regimen, in the prevention of complications in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. None of the recent studies have shown worse outcomes in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-based regimens compared with alternative treatments. Some studies have suggested that angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor-based antihypertensive regimens may be superior to alternative treatments in reducing the risk of micro- and macrovascular ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Renin-angiotensin system blockers are associated with reduced mortality and heart failure hospitalization in patients paced for complete atrioventricular block. AU - Elder, Douglas H.J.. AU - Lang, Chim C.. AU - Rekhraj, Sushma. AU - Szwejkowski, Benjamin. AU - George, Jacob. AU - Pringle, Stuart D.. AU - Struthers, Allan D.. AU - Choy, Anna Maria. PY - 2012/4. Y1 - 2012/4. N2 - Right ventricular apical pacing can cause dyssynchronous activation of the ventricles, increase sympathetic activation, cause abnormalities in myocardial perfusion, worsen cardiac output and endothelial function, and may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. The use of rennin-angiotensin system blockers (RASBs) may be beneficial in counteracting these potentially harmful effects of right ventricular pacing.. AB - Right ventricular apical pacing can cause dyssynchronous activation of the ventricles, increase sympathetic activation, cause abnormalities in myocardial perfusion, worsen cardiac ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in Myocardial Infarction. AU - Kostis, John. PY - 2019/7/1. Y1 - 2019/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85065221731&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85065221731&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - https://doi.org/10.1177/1074248419841636. DO - https://doi.org/10.1177/1074248419841636. M3 - Letter. C2 - 31035789. VL - 24. JO - Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. JF - Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. SN - 1074-2484. IS - 4. ER - ...
The main result of this study is that ACE inhibition enhances ischemia-induced angiogenesis through the activation of the B2-receptor pathway. This proangiogenic effect may be associated with the upregulation of eNOS expression but seems independent of the VEGF pathway.. Although evidence is accumulating on the activating role of ACE inhibition in vessel growth, little is known about the cellular signaling involved in such an angiogenic effect. Our study confirms that ACE inhibition enhanced revascularization of the ischemic hindlimb but demonstrates that such an effect was mediated by B2-receptor activation. Indeed, ACE inhibition did not affect vessel growth in mice lacking B2 receptor. Similarly, long-term B2-receptor blockade prevented the ACE inhibitor-induced increase in cardiac capillary density in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.8 In the same view, long-term ACE inhibitor treatment ameliorated the severity of myocardial injury in cholesterol-fed rabbits via B2 ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) are commonly used for pediatric cardiology patients. However, studies examining their safety for neonates with cardiac disease are scarce. The current study aimed to test the hypothesis that ACEi-mediated nephrotoxicity occurs in neonates and may be underappreciated in this population. A retrospective review of 243 neonates with cardiac disease between 2007 and 2010 was performed. Demographic data, weight, length, captopril and enalapril dosing, serum [K⁺], serum creatinine, and concomitant medications during ACEi therapy were recorded and analyzed. Body surface area (BSA), creatinine clearance (CrCl), and change in [K⁺] were calculated. The age range of neonates at ACEi initiation was 15.9-18.1 days. The inclusion criteria was met by 206 neonates: 168 term (82%) and 38 preterm (18%) newborns. Of these neonates, 42% were female, and all the patients had a BSA smaller than 0.33 m² (a group known to have relative renal insufficiency). The mean ...
BACKGROUND: Results from a retrospective analysis of the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) study suggest that angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may be less effective in patients receiving aspirin. We aimed to confirm or refute this theory. METHODS: We used the Peto-Yusuf method to undertake a systematic overview of data for 22060 patients from six long-term randomised trials of ACE inhibitors to assess whether aspirin altered the effects of ACE inhibitor therapy on major clinical outcomes (composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospital admission for congestive heart failure, or revascularisation). FINDINGS: Baseline characteristics, and prognosis in patients allocated placebo, differed strikingly between those who were and were not taking aspirin at baseline. Results from analyses of all trials, except SOLVD, did not suggest any significant differences between the proportional reductions in risk with ACE inhibitor therapy in the presence or absence of aspirin for
For ischemic heart disease with refractory angina that cannot be revascularized, Dr. Miller said options include optimizing medical therapy, such as beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, nitrates, ranolazine, allopurinol, L-arginine, opioids, and perhaps some investigational agents (if you can get the patient enrolled in a clinical trial). In this setting, the heart team may include the patients general cardiologist, primary doctor, family, nurses, and perhaps other office staff.. While the medical record may suggest the patient is on appropriate therapy, adherence may be a factor. After MI, a large proportion of patients discontinue use of medications over time. Indeed, by 3 years, more than half of patients in one community-based study had already stopped taking statins, beta-blockers, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers.4. Also, its important to target risk factors through statin therapy, antihypertensives, antiplatelets, smoking cessation, weight ...
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists (or blockers) are a newer class of antihypertensive agents. These drugs are selective for angiotensin II (type 1 receptor); unlike angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, they do not inhibit bradykinin metabolism or enhance prostaglandin synthesis. Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are well tolerated. Cough occurs much less often with these agents than with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and they do not adversely affect lipid profiles or cause rebound hypertension after discontinuation. Clinical trials indicate that angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are effective and safe in the treatment of hypertension. Their use in congestive heart failure and renal disease is under investigation.
Learn more about Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE Inhibitors) at Memorial Hospital Arginine -Possible Harmful Interaction ...
Learn more about Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE Inhibitors) at LewisGale Regional Health System Arginine -Possible Harmful Interaction ...
Long-term therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor appears to reduce urinary albumin excretion and improve lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension, research findings suggest. As physicians come to understand the role of ACE inhibitors in hypertension, the long-term view is showing the
PubMed journal article Beyond ONTARGET: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockade in combination, a lesser evil in some? were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Melanoma and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Associated with Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme Inhibitors, Angiotensin-Receptor Blockers and Thiazides: A Matched Cohort Study. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy prevents volume-overload hypertrophy in dogs with chronic mitral regurgitation (MR). Seven adult mongrel dogs receiving ramipril (R; 10 mg orally, twice/day) for 4 mo were compared with 11 dogs receiving no R (N) for 4 mo after induction of MR. Cine-magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that left ventricular (LV) mass increased in the R-MR dogs [80 +/- 4 (SE) to 108 +/- 7 g, P < 0.01] and in the N-MR dogs (92 +/- 7 to 112 +/- 8 g, P < 0.001). LV myocyte cell length was greater in the R-MR and N-MR dogs (203 +/- 6 and 177 +/- 10 microns, respectively) than in normal (144 +/- 4 microns, P < 0.05) dogs. There was significant loss of the collagen weave pattern by scanning electron microscopy in both R-MR and N-MR dogs. LV ACE and chymase activities were significantly elevated in R-MR and N-MR compared with normal dogs. LV angiotensin II (ANG II) levels in the R-MR dogs (28 +/- 12 pg/g) were reduced to levels seen ...
ADVANTAGES OF COMBINATION THERAPY OF HYPERTENSION WITH CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKER AND ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITOR IN PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED RENAL FUNCTION
ObjectiveIn balloon-injured rat carotid arteries, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) decrease neointima formation, and a kinin receptor antagonist partially reverses this inhibitory effect. We studied which of the events leading to neointima formation are involved in the effects of ACEI
Background: Mix of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium mineral channel blockers continues to be successfully found in the antihypertensive therapy for quite some time. check, creatinine kinase, and midstream urinalysis had been performed at go to 1 and go to 3. Outcomes: The 6423 sufferers completed the analysis. Among these sufferers, 1276 (19.9%) sufferers experienced from type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean age group of these diabetics was 64.2 10.0 years; 707 (55.4%) sufferers were males. Focus on BP was attained by 891 (69.8%) of diabetics at go to 3 (major endpoint). BP reduced from 157.5/91.3 9.6/7.6 mmHg (go to 1) to 130.9/79.6 7.4/5.8 mmHg (go to 3). For the supplementary endpoint of the analysis, total cholesterol reduced from 5.50 1.13 mmol/L (go to 1) to 5.20 0.95 mmol/L (= 0.000), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from 3.20 0.93 mmol/L to 3.00 0.77 mmol/L (= 0.000), triglyceride decreased from 2.20 1.14 mmol/L to 2.00 1.97 mmol/L (= 0.000), while ...
***If youre a nursing student preparing for the NCLEX, please help us by sharing your thoughts in this 3-minute survey: https://forms.gle/5FUVCtH2PXSXJPXR6 Summary ACE Inhibitors (ACEIs) are medications that end in -pril, including lisinopril, captopril, ramipril, and enalapril. ACE inhibitors work by blocking angiotensin converting enzyme or ACE, which blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to its active counterpart, angiotensin II. Reduced angiotensin II levels cause vasodilation, and reduced downstream signaling of aldosterone further reduces blood volume. The overall effect of treatment with an ACE inhibitor is lowering of blood pressure. Clinically, ACE inhibitors are used to treat hypertension and heart failure. Side effects include a dry cough, angioedema, and hyperkalemia. Notably, ACE inhibitors are teratogenic and should not be used during pregnancy. Key Points - ACE InhibitorsKey Drugs (-pril endings)LisinoprilCaptoprilEnalaprilMechanismInhibits Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE
Several well-controlled trials in patients with heart failure have shown that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, in combination with a diuretic, causes a reduction in mortality and morbidity, which seems to be mainly due to a reduction in fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Our aim was to determine whether 249 consecutive patients discharged from hospital with a primary diagnosis of heart failure were routinely being treated with an ACE inhibitor at an appropriate dose. At the time of admission to hospital, 91 (36.5%) were receiving a combination of a diuretic and an ACE inhibitor, 129 (51.8%) were receiving a diuretic alone, and 29 (11.6%) had not previously received either a diuretic or an ACE inhibitor. At the time of discharge from hospital all patients were on a diuretic and 144 (57.8%) were also receiving an ACE inhibitor. Although 41 patients (16.5%) had a relative or absolute contraindication for the use of an ACE inhibitor, 64 patients (25.7%) with no ...
β-Adrenergic desensitization has been suggested to represent an important mechanism of contractile dysfunction in heart failure.11 12 13 14 15 16 The diminished formation of the second-messenger cAMP after stimulation of cardiac β-adrenergic receptors is due to a decline in the number of β-adrenergic receptors,11 12 13 an uncoupling of β-adrenergic receptors, and an increase in inhibitory G protein α subunits.14 15 16 The underlying mechanism inducing these desensitization processes is an activation of the sympathetic nervous system and, in particular, sympathetic activation in the heart itself.2 Several reports indicate that β-adrenergic neuroeffector defects occur not only in terminal heart failure but also in hypertensive heart disease.37 These data have been obtained in rat models of hypertensive heart disease (eg, spontaneously hypertensive rats38 39 ), rat models of acquired forms of hypertension (eg, reduced renal mass,40 renal artery banding,40 41 and deoxycorticosterone ...
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. Global Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2016 - 2022, the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors market was valued at USD 11,477.1 Mn in 2015, and is expected to reach USD 11,094.6 Mn by 2023, expanding at a CAGR of (0.5%) from 2016 to 2023.. Browse the full report Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2016 - 2023 report at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-ace-inhibitors-market. Market Insights. ACE inhibitors are class of drugs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) that block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure and in the prevention of microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus. According to World Health Organization (WHO), ...
The goal of this request was to estimate the number of prevalent users and dispensings of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) among pediatric pop
The compound 4-tert-butyl-2,6-bis(thiomorpholin-4-ylmethyl)phenol (TBTIF) has molecular characteristics similar to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors of the sulfhydryl subclass. To assess its value as a new therapeutic agent, we performed
Stroke is the third commonest cause of adult death and the commonest cause of adult disability in the UK. Arterial stiffness is a recognised independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. Phase I of the thesis examines arterial stiffness in the context of stroke, evaluating its role as a risk factor and relevance to other abnormalities of cardiovascular regulation during the acute stroke phase. Central, but not peripheral, arterial stiffness was increased in acute ischaemic stroke, particularly in lacunar and atherothrombotic but not cardioembolic subtypes compared to matched controls. Prognostically-important haemodynamic parameters following stroke, for example impaired cardiac baroreceptor sensitivity and increased beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) variability, were related to central arterial stiffness.;There is uncertainty over the treatment of elevated BP levels following acute stroke. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) have not been tested in the immediate post-stroke ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CAC score as a possible criterion for administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers. T2 - The MultiEthnic Study of Atherosclerosis. AU - Darabian, Sirous. AU - Luo, Yanting. AU - Homat, Arman. AU - Khosraviani, Khashayar. AU - Wong, Nathan. AU - Zeb, Irfan. AU - Nasir, Khurram. AU - Budof, Matthew J.. PY - 2015/11/3. Y1 - 2015/11/3. N2 - Introduction Several trials have demonstrated that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) decrease cardiovascular (CV) mortality rates in patients with heart failure; however, the Prevention of Events with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition (PEACE) and European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events with Perindopril in Stable Coronary Artery Disease (EUROPA) trials failed to show significant similar preventive effects in normal ejection fraction patients. We evaluated the baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC) score as a predictor of the effects of ACEIs/angiotensin receptor blockers ...
Our analyses show the renoprotective effects and superiority of using ACE inhibitors in patients with diabetes, and available evidence is not able to show a better effect for ARBs compared with ACE inhibitors. Considering the cost of drugs, our findings support the use of ACE inhibitors as the first …
ACE inhibitor use was associated with lower mean grip strength at baseline (22.40 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.89-22.91 vs 23.18 kg, 95% CI 23.02-23.34; P = .005) and greater mean annual change in number of chair stands (−0.182, 95% CI −0.217 to −0.147 vs −0.145, 95% CI −0.156 to −0.133; P = .05) than nonuse. Statin use was not significantly associated with baseline measures or mean annual change for any outcome. A subgroup analysis suggested that statin use was associated with less mean annual change in chair stands (P = .006) in the oldest women. ...
Both angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce angiotensin action. Angiotensin, a powerful hormone, has many actions, the most important of which is constriction of small blood vessels, leading to a rise in blood pressure and therefore in the pressure of blood within the glomerular capillaries in the kidneys. Lowering this pressure may well be the mechanism by which these drugs tend to slow progression of kidney failure.. The effects of ACEIs differ from those of ARBs in several important respects. It is even conceivable that taking drugs from both classes is more effective than taking just one or the other alone. Unfortunately, side-to-side comparisons of these two classes of drugs have not been performed, because the drug industry has no interest in such trials. These drugs are also effective in reducing urinary protein excretion in the nephrotic syndrome, and they also slow progression of chronic renal failure even when added to a ...
I recently reviewed a paper that indicated that angiotensin blockade with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) did not protect against the development of diabetic nephropathy in diabetic patients with normal renal function. Despite what that paper concluded angiotensin blockade with and an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor offered protection.. Two papers in the July 7 Annals of Internal Medicine looked at the effect of ARBs in patients with renal disease. The first study included patients with high vascular risk but who did not have microalbuminuria; about a third were diabetic. In these patients the ARB telmisartan had no effect on major renal outcomes.. The second study was of normotensive diabetic patients. Candesartan (another ARB given at a maximum dose of 32 mg daily) did not prevent microalbuminuria in patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. This makes three studies which indicate no salutary renal effect of ARBs.. The clinician is left wondering if ACE inhibitors are ...
Results of the present study, which was performed in a rat model of CHF, show that both early (7 days after MI) and delayed (3 months after MI) treatments with an ACE inhibitor increase survival and exert beneficial effects on cardiac hemodynamics and remodeling. Moreover, at 9 months after MI, the beneficial effects of the early and late treatments on cardiac hemodynamics (as assessed on the basis of decreased LVEDP and central venous pressure) and on cardiac remodeling (as assessed on the basis of the effect on hypertrophy, ventricular dilatation, and ventricular collagen accumulation) appear to be quantitatively similar. Thus, given the fact that the early treatment was initiated in a setting of moderate ventricular dysfunction and cardiac remodeling, whereas late treatment was initiated in a context of severe LV dysfunction and established remodeling, our experiments suggest that ACE inhibitors are capable of both preventing (in the case of early treatment) and reversing (in the case of late ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Val-tyr, an Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitor from Sardines that have Resistance to Gastrointestinal Proteases. AU - Seki, Eiji. AU - Osajima, Katsuhiro. AU - Matsufuji, Hiroshi. AU - Matsui, Toshiro. AU - Osajima, Yutaka. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The NH2-terminal residue of a dipeptide is an important determinant of the resistance to peptidases of porcine small mucosa. NH2-terminal Val or Ile, and COOH-terminal Trp or Tyr dipeptides had higher angiotensin I converting enzyme(ACE)inhibitory activity and digestive resistance than other dipeptides. We defined Val-Tyr as a main inhibitor in alkaline protease hydrolyzates from sardines. Attempts to isolate and measurement of Val-Tyr were done from the short chain peptides that reduced blood pressure. The content of Val-Tyr was 51 mg per 100 g of the short chain peptides, represented 1.3% of the total ACE inhibitory activity of the short chain peptides. Isolated Val-Tyr was resistant to gastrointestinal proteases. ...
The results of this investigation support the hypothesis that higher levels of FGF-23 are associated with cardiovascular mortality and incident heart failure in patients with SIHD. Of note, akin to what has been observed for hs-CRP (25), risk was seen with plasma FGF-23 levels well within the observed range in the general population without known cardiovascular disease or renal impairment (7,15). We also show that FGF-23 provides incremental prognostic information even after adjusting for clinical risk factors, renal function, and cardiovascular biomarkers. Lastly, leveraging data from a randomized controlled trial, we demonstrate that patients with higher levels of FGF-23 received clinical benefit from ACE inhibitor therapy, independent of renal function.. FGF-23 is a phosphatonin that is synthesized and secreted by osteoblasts into the circulation. At normal levels, FGF-23 acts primarily in the kidney to maintain phosphate homeostasis by inducing urinary phosphate excretion (26,27). Elevated ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 - M2: Angiotensin-converting (ACE and ACE2). Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
When first introduced in 1981, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors were indicated only for treatment of refractory hypertension. Since then, they have been shown to reduce morbidity or mortality in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal insufficiency, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Pathologies underlying these conditions are, in part, attributable to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Angiotensin II contributes to endothelial dysfunction. altered renal hemodynamics, and vascular and cardiac hypertrophy. ACE inhibitors attenuate these effects. Clinical outcomes of ACE inhibition include decreases in myocardial infarction (fatal and nonfatal), reinfarction, angina, stroke, end-stage renal disease, and morbidity and mortality associated with heart failure. ACE inhibitors are generally well tolerated and have few contraindications. (Am Fam Physician 2002;66:473.)
... , sold under the brand name Capoten among others, is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the ... Brown NJ, Vaughan DE (April 1998). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors". Circulation. 97 (14): 1411-20. doi:10.1161/01. ... "Design of specific inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme: new class of orally active antihypertensive agents". Science. ... "High-resolution crystal structures of Drosophila melanogaster angiotensin-converting enzyme in complex with novel inhibitors ...
"Investigation of angioedema associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor ... Israili ZH, Hall WD (August 1, 1992). "Cough and angioneurotic edema associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ... Dykewicz, MS (August 2004). "Cough and angioedema from angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: new insights into mechanisms ... "Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angio-oedema". British Journal of Dermatology. 136 (2): 153-8. doi:10.1111/j ...
It is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. In small studies, zofenopril appeared significantly more effective in ... Subissi A, Evangelista S, Giachetti A (1999). "Preclinical Profile of Zofenopril: An Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor ...
It is in the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor family of medications. Enalapril was patented in 1978, and came into ... Normally, angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin II constricts ... Menard J and Patchett A. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Pp 14-76 in Drug Discovery and Design. Volume 56 of Advances ... Pg 30 Archived 2017-09-10 at the Wayback Machine Bryan J (April 2009). "From snake venom to ACE inhibitor--The discovery and ...
February 2015). "Ecallantide for the acute treatment of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema: a ... "Pharmacologic management of angioedema induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors". American Journal of Health-System ... HAE is caused by a mutation of the C1-inhibitor gene. Defective or missing C1-inhibitor permits activation of kallikrein, a ... It is an inhibitor of the protein kallikrein and a 60-amino acid polypeptide which was developed from a Kunitz domain through ...
It is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor), which inhibits the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin ... It was found that teprotide inhibits the enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II. From this researchers conducted ... "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from the venom of bothrops jararaca. Isolation, elucidation of structure, and ... "History of the design of captopril and related inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme". Hypertension. 17 (4): 589-592. doi ...
Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, or ACE inhibitors, are a class of widely-prescribed medications used in hypertension ... Sweitzer, Nancy K. (2003). "What Is an Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor?". Circulation. 108 (3): e16-18. doi:10.1161/01. ... as have small peptides that inhibit angiotensin-1-converting enzyme; the venom of the redback, although little-studied, likely ... It contains a complex mixture of cellular constituents, enzymes and a number of high-molecular-weight toxins, including insect ...
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors[edit]. Likewise, treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, such ... Specifically cardiac resynchronization, administration of beta blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are ... Currently treatment with ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, and angiotensin receptor blockers are ... Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)[edit]. ARB treatment results in an improvement in diastolic dysfunction and ...
Takase K, Ikuse T, Aono H, Okahara A (January 1995). "Toxicity study of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor rentiapril ...
Ondetti started work on the isolation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. By 1973, work on ACE inhibitors stopped ... Ondetti M A, Rubin B, Cushman D W. Design of specific inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme: new class of orally active ... Ondetti M A, Sabo E F. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from the venom of Bothrops jararaca. Isolation, elucidation of ... In 1974, Ondetti resumed unofficial work on ACE inhibitors with strong resolve, "We said this was the thing that we had to do ...
However, Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and Angiotensin II receptor antagonists are favoured due to their anti- ... Importantly, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were used in both groups equally. Cyclophosphamide (traded as endoxan & ...
"Treatment of hypertension in black patients with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors". Journal of the National Medical ...
Finley, PR (February 1996). "Lithium and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: evaluation of a potential interaction". J ... ACE inhibitors have also been shown in a retrospective case-control study to increase lithium concentrations. This is likely ... Another possible mechanism is that ACE inhibitors can lead to a decrease in sodium and water. This will increase lithium ... Lithium concentrations can also be increased with concurrent use of ACE inhibitors such as captopril, enalapril, and lisinopril ...
These include the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. Captopril is based on the peptidic bradykinin potentiating ... Enzymes in turn are composed of amino acids and often non-peptidic cofactors that are essential for enzyme function. The basic ... In animals, the three carbon precursors lactate or glycerol can be converted into pyruvate which in turn can be converted into ... they possess enzymes that are functional under quite unusual conditions. These enzymes are of potential use in the food, ...
If the DPGN is caused by IgA nephropathy then corticosteroids, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEIs), angiotensin ... "Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors versus angiotensin receptor blockers for primary hypertension". Cochrane ... ARBs block angiotensin II from acting. The patient's diet should also be changed. The patient should restrict salt intake to ... ACEIs will decrease hypertension by preventing the body from creating angiotensin II, which narrows the blood vessels. ...
Renin comes one level higher than angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the renin-angiotensin system. Renin inhibitors can ... "Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors versus angiotensin receptor blockers for primary hypertension". Cochrane ... ACE inhibitors inhibit the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), an enzyme responsible for the conversion of ... an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) or amlodipine (a calcium channel blocker). (ALLHAT showed that doxazosin, an alpha- ...
He was on an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril. He presented with diarrhoea, vomiting and difficulty breathing ...
"Investigation of angioedema associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor ... Ruconest (C1-inhibitor). References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Bernstein, JA; Cremonesi, P; Hoffmann, TK ... Sabroe RA, Black AK (February 1997). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angio-oedema". British Journal of ... Israili ZH, Hall WD (August 1, 1992). "Cough and angioneurotic edema associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ...
... angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor). This may occur with the class's better known side effect of dry cough (due to ... www.medicinescomplete.com/mc/bnf/current/PHP1124-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors.htm. ...
... angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). These medications may be ... angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and renin inhibitors were developed as ... Raebel MA (June 2012). "Hyperkalemia associated with use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor ... Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system and calcium channel blockers are often used to treat hypertension in dogs, although ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: Antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished. Anticoagulants: ... Decreases inflammation, pain, and fever, probably through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 inhibitor) activity and ...
Angioedema can also be drug-induced (most notably, by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors). The underlying mechanism can ... of SJS or TEN compared to the general population and have been found to express low levels of the drug metabolizing enzyme ...
The mushroom contains nicotianamine, an ACE inhibitor (angiotensin-converting enzyme). Nicotianamine is a metal-chelating ... Izawa H, Aoyagi Y (2006). "Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme by mushroom". Journal of the Japanese Society for Food ...
"Intestinal Angioedema Induced by Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: An Underrecognized Cause of Abdominal Pain?". The ... When the pancreas is unable to secrete digestive enzymes, such as with a pancreatic cancer occluding the pancreatic duct, ... Though less common, medications such as ACE inhibitors can cause angioedema and small bowel thickening. The small intestine ... and through blood tests such as measurement of the amylase and lipase enzymes. Diseases of the hepatobiliary system affect the ...
January 2011). "Identification of genetic factors associated with susceptibility to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors- ... 12S-HpETE, which is the direct precursor to HxA3 and HxB3 in the ALOX12 pathway, may act only after being converted to these ... While the earliest inhibitors, such as HC-030031, were lower potency (micromolar inhibition) and had limited TRPA1 specificity ... A number of small molecule inhibitors (antagonists) have been discovered which have been shown to block the function of TRPA1. ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are indicated in individuals with diabetes, kidney disease, and hypertension. Statin ...
"Identification of genetic factors associated with susceptibility to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors-induced cough". ... The ability of endotoxind and IL-1β but not that of PGE2 to trigger fever is blocked by inhibitors of nitric oxide and PG2 EP33 ... Genetic polymorphism in the EP3 receptor (rs11209716), has been associated with ACE inhibitor-induce cough in humans. The use ... pathways that activate phospholipase C to convert cellular phospholipids to diacylglycerol which promotes the activation of ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors can also be used to reduce glomerular filtration rate. In young babies and ...
"Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular ... There is some evidence that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are superior to other inhibitors of the renin- ... angiotensin system such as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs),[115] or aliskiren in preventing cardiovascular disease.[116] ... dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs.[87] As of 2015 there was no ...
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, adrenergic agents such as alpha-1 blockers and beta-blockers and alpha-2 agonists, ... antiplatelet agents (aspirin and clopidogrel), naftidrofuryl, pentoxifylline, and cilostazol (selective PDE3 inhibitor) are ...
The risk was also found to be higher in people with a specific genotype of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).[21] ... Lomitapide, an inhibitor of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein,[41] was approved by the US FDA in December 2012 as an ... "Angiotensin-converting enzyme DD genotype and cardiovascular disease in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia". ... FH is usually treated with statins.[7] Statins act by inhibiting the enzyme hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMG-CoA- ...
... is also thought to be the cause of the dry cough in some patients on widely prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme ... Icatibant is one such inhibitor. Additional bradykinin inhibitors exist. It has long been known in animal studies that ... In humans, bradykinin is broken down by three kininases: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), aminopeptidase P (APP), and ... "Inactivation of bradykinin by angiotensin-converting enzyme and by carboxypeptidase N in human plasma". American Journal of ...
"Randomized Trial of Icatibant for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Induced Upper Airway Angioedema". The Journal of ... Prolactin modulators: Prolactin inhibitors: D2 receptor agonists (e.g., bromocriptine, cabergoline); Prolactin releasers: D2 ... Icatibant acts as a bradykinin inhibitor by blocking the binding of native bradykinin to the bradykinin B2 receptor. Little is ... in adults with C1-esterase-inhibitor deficiency.[4][2][3] It is not effective in angioedema caused by medication from the ACE ...
Angiotensin receptor antagonists[2]. losartan, valsartan -pril. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor[2]. captopril, ... Platelet aggregation inhibitor[2]. clopidogrel, ticagrelor -axine. Dopamine and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor[2] ...
Instead, extremely high levels of the precursor hormone corticosterone are produced, some of which is converted to 11- ... Experiments show that treatment with Spironolactone (an inhibitor of the aldosterone receptor), does not prevent hypertension ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a group of autosomal recessive disorders of the enzymes responsible for steroid hormone ... that decreased perfusion of renal tissue due to stenosis of a main or branch renal artery activates the renin-angiotensin ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme. 3.4.16. *Serine type carboxypeptidases: Cathepsin A. *DD-transpeptidase ... Pepstatin is an inhibitor of aspartate proteases. Classification[edit]. Five superfamilies (clans) of aspartic proteases are ... Aspartic proteases are a catalytic type of protease enzymes that use an activated water molecule bound to one or more aspartate ... In modern-day enzymes, although the three-dimensional structures are very similar, the amino acid sequences are more divergent ...
"Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) prevent kidney disease and improve outcomes in those with diabetes.[91][92] ... dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs.[76] There is no significant ... The similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not.[92] A 2016 review recommended treating to a systolic blood ...
Angiotensin I flows in the bloodstream until it reaches the capillaries of the lungs where angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) ... the RAS is targeted pharmacologically by ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin ... acts on it to convert it into angiotensin II.. *Angiotensin II is a vasoconstrictor which will increase blood flow to the heart ... Renin converts angiotensinogen (inactive form) to angiotensin I (active form).. * ...
The activity of the PAM enzyme system is dependent upon vitamin C (ascorbate), which is a necessary vitamin cofactor. By chance ... Mizutani S, Yokosawa H, Tomoda Y (July 1992). "Degradation of oxytocin by the human placenta: effect of selective inhibitors". ... its C-terminus has been converted to a primary amide and a disulfide bridge joins the cysteine moieties.[116] Oxytocin has a ... via a series of enzymes. The last hydrolysis that releases the active oxytocin nonapeptide is catalyzed by peptidylglycine ...
"A new class of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors". Nature 288 (5788): 280-3. PMID 6253826. doi:10.1038/288280a0. ... Istorijski, lisinopril je bio treći ACE inhibitor (nakon kaptoprila i enalaprila) i uveden je u upotrebu tokm ranih 1990-tih.[6 ... Effect on blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin system". Curr Therap Res 37: 342-51. ...
Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), as well as angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), are particularly helpful ... Treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), which dilates the ... "The Effect of Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme Inhibition on Diabetic Nephropathy". New England Journal of Medicine. 329 (20): ... Three classes of diabetes medications - GLP-1 agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors, and SGLT2 inhibitors- are also thought to slow the ...
"Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic target". ... "Position Statement of the ESC Council on Hypertension on ACE-Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers". Council on ... Gurwitz D (marzo de 2020). "Angiotensin receptor blockers as tentative SARS‐CoV‐2 therapeutics". Drug Development Research. ...
Azole antifungal drugs (except for abafungin) inhibit the enzyme lanosterol 14 α-demethylase; the enzyme necessary to convert ... renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists. *Renin inhibitors. *Antihyperlipidemics * ... Orotomide (F901318) - pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor.[16][17]. *Miltefosine disrupts fungal cell membrane dynamics by ... For example, the azole antifungals such as ketoconazole or itraconazole can be both substrates and inhibitors of the P- ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme. 3.4.16. *Serine type carboxypeptidases: Cathepsin A. *DD-transpeptidase ... is an enzyme.[1][2][3][4] This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ...
... s have also been replaced by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in Australia due to their propensity to ... Therefore, ACE inhibitor and thiazide combination is used to prevent hypokalemia. Hyperglycemia Hyperlipidemia Hyperuricemia - ... This activates the renin-angiotensin system, stimulates the secretion of aldosterone, thus activating Na+/K+-ATPase, increasing ... J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 5 (4): 155-60. doi:10.3317/jraas.2004.034. PMID 15803433. Zhu Z, Zhu S, Liu D, Cao T, ...
ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers may be effective in reducing proteinuria when given at the early stage of ... they are MgATPase enzymes that can hydrolyze ATP thereby converting chemical energy into mechanical movement. In addition, they ... Pecci A, Granata A, Fiore CE, Balduini CL (August 2008). "Renin-angiotensin system blockade is effective in reducing ... and/or elevation of liver enzymes.[39][40][41] The term MYH9-RD encompasses four syndromic pictures that were considered for ...
... (marketed under the brand name Accupril by Pfizer) is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) used ... Quinapril inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme, an enzyme which catalyses the formation of angiotensin II from its precursor ... angiotensin I. Angiotensin II is a powerful vasoconstrictor and increases blood pressure through a variety of mechanisms. Due ... A prodrug, it is converted to its active metabolite, quinaprilat, in the liver. ...
"Reporting on sex-based analysis in clinical trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker ...
Ahmed, Ali (July 2002). "Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Patients with Heart Failure and Renal Insufficiency ... Each day, 1-2% of muscle creatine is converted to creatinine.[4] The conversion is nonenzymatic and irreversible.[7] Men tend ... ACE inhibitors provided survival benefits for patients with heart failure and slow the disease progression in patients with ... Serum creatinine levels may increase when an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) is taken for heart failure and renal insufficiency. ...
The virus is able to use Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as an entry receptor to bind to and enter target cells. No ... Intravenous immunoglobulin is an FDA approved HCoV-NL63 inhibitor that is also used to treat primary immune deficiency, RSV, ...
... is a novel mammalian metallocarboxypeptidase and a homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme insensitive to ACE inhibitors". ... "A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9". Circulation ... "A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9". Circulation ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. ». در دانشنامهٔ ویکی‌پدیای انگلیسی.. برای مطالعهٔ بیشتر[ویرایش]. *. Turner AJ, Hiscox JA, ...
Diaz JH (March 2020). "Hypothesis: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers may increase the ... September 2000). "A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1 ... "A Novel Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-Related Carboxypeptidase (ACE2) Converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin 1-9". Circulation ... "Risk of pneumonia associated with use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers: systematic ...
... angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) levels (often elevated in sarcoidosis), and human chorionic gonadotropin (often elevated in ... Dopamine (inhibitor) Pituitary cells. Thyrotrope. Corticotrope. Gonadotrope. Somatotrope. Lactotrope Pituitary hormone. TSH. ...
... and bronchospasm in relation to treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. BMJ. 1994 Jan 1;308(6920):18-21. PMID ... ACE Inhibitors; are a type of drug usually used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease. They usually don't make asthma ... especially in the first few weeks of taking ACE Inhibitors.[37][38] ...
Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema. Danica Quickfall, Baruch Jakubovic and Jonathan S. Zipursky ... Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are the leading cause of drug-induced angioedema ... Stopping the ACE inhibitor is the most important treatment. *Angiotensin receptor blockers can be used if there is a clinical ... Airway compromise is a life-threatening consequence of ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are antihypertensive medicines used to treat high ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I into ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are antihypertensive medicines used to treat high ... Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Versus Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors for the Treatment of Arterial Hypertension and ...
Purpose Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are a group of drugs used to treat hypertension and heart failure, ... Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists on mortality and renal outcomes in ... Unmasking of acquired autoimmune C1-inhibitor deficiency by an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Ann Allergy Asthma ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angio-oedema. Br J Dermatol 1997, 136:153-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Pharmacological Actions : Alpha-amylase inhibitor, Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, ... Pharmacological Actions : Alpha-amylase inhibitor, Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, ... Pharmacological Actions : Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Hypotensive, Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) inhibitor ... Pharmacological Actions : Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Anti-Angiogenic, Hypotensive, NF-kappaB Inhibitor ...
... this is the first documented case of icatibant being used for the treatment of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced ... We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman who presented with massive tongue and lip swelling secondary to angiotensin- ... converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema. An awake fibre-optic intubation was performed because of impending airway ... Icatibant in the Treatment of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema. Neil H. Crooks,1 Jaimin Patel. ,1 ...
Do inhibitors of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme protect against risk of cancer?. Lever AF1, Hole DJ, Gillis CR, McCallum IR, ... Other work in animals suggests that inhibitors of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) protect against cancer. We aimed to ... Inhibitors of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme and risk of cancer. [Lancet. 1998] ... The reduced relative risk of cancer in patients on ACE inhibitors was greatest with follow-up of longer than 3 years. Calcium- ...
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors cause cough in some patients, but the mechanism of this effect is not known. Six ... Nine patients in whom angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors had not been associated with cough served as controls. In the ... Bronchial hyperreactivity in patients who cough after receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors Br Med J (Clin Res Ed ... Bronchial hyperreactivity in patients who cough after receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed ...
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors. Class Summary. These agents have proved beneficial in long-term therapy for ... If surgical repair must be postponed, diuretics and afterload reducers, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors ... Captopril prevents the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in lower aldosterone ... A competitive ACE inhibitor, it reduces angiotensin II levels, decreasing aldosterone secretion. Enalapril is available in a ...
Renin-Angiotensin System. Angioedema Incidence in US Veterans Initiating Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Donald R. ... Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists on mortality and renal outcomes in ... effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. Amer Heart J. 2004; 148: 747-754. ... Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. ...
Association between cough and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin II antagonists: the design of a ... Three Candidate Genes and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Related Cough. A Pharmacogenetic Analysis. Robert Y. L. Zee, ... Three Candidate Genes and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Related Cough. Robert Y. L. Zee, Valluri S. Rao, Robert Z. ... Three Candidate Genes and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Related Cough. Robert Y. L. Zee, Valluri S. Rao, Robert Z. ...
... nsus Document on) ESC Clinical Practice ... Effects of ACE-inhibitors: Haemodynamic effects, Neurohormonal effects, Antiproliferative effects, Renal effects, Other effects ... Heart failure: Target dose, ACE-I compared with angiotensin, receptor blockers. *Asymptomatic left ventricular systolic ...
Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) improve insulin sensitivity. Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) ... Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors can inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 Sep 03;:172638 Authors: ... Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) improve insulin sensitivity. Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) ... Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors can inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 Sep 03;:172638 Authors: ...
Comparative effectiveness of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: Is an ACE always an ace?. Adrian F. Hernandez and Robert ... Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med ... Effect of different angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors on mortality among elderly patients with congestive heart failure ... Effect of different angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors on mortality among elderly patients with congestive heart failure ...
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors for High Blood Pressure ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors block an enzyme needed to form a substance that narrows blood vessels. As a ... Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors for High Blood Pressure. Skip to the navigation ... ACE inhibitor cough. A cough is one of the most common side effects of ACE inhibitors. But most people do not get a cough. The ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or "ACE" inhibitors, are medications that help relax and widen the blood vessels so ... ACE inhibitors relax vessels, reduce blood pressure. Angiotensin II is a chemical in the body that when produced, enters the ... The presence of angiotensin II also causes a water-retaining hormone to be released, and this increase in fluid retention in ... ACE inhibitors may be used to treat heart, blood vessel, and kidney problems as well as conditions such as migraines and ...
ACE inhibitors cause your blood vessels to relax - lowering your blood pressure - but there can be some side effects ... Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors block the effects of a hormone your kidneys naturally produce called angiotensin ... ACE (Angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors Increase text size / Decrease text size , Print this page , Email this page ... What can your doctor do > ACE (Angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors ...
Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients.. Heart ... Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors improve the outcome among patients with left ventricular dysfunction, whether or not ... We assessed the role of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, in patients who were at high risk for ... Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use*. *Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy*. *Cardiovascular Diseases/ ...
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors for Stroke Prevention. Is There HOPE for PROGRESS After LIFE?. Graeme J. Hankey ... Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. ... Lonn EM, Yusuf S, Jha P, Montague TH, Teo KK, Benedict CR, Pitt B. Emerging role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in ... Effects of long-term treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors in the presence or absence of aspirin: a ...
... inhibitor (IC50 = 2.5 nM). Prevents the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II. Potent vasoconstrictor. ... Potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (IC50 = 2.5 nM). Prevents the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin ... 2D chemical structure image of ab142955, Trandolapril, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ... Trandolapril, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. * Description. Potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) ...
"Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in peritoneal dialysis: systematic review and meta- ... The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) on reducing the rate of decline of GFR in proteinuric ... The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) in preserving renal function in chronic proteinuric nephropathies is ... G. Maschio, D. Alberti, G. Janin et al., "Effect of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor benazepril on the progression ...
... showing improvement of lipid abnormalities associated with proteinuria using the Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ... Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Chyluria. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:1223-1224. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003- ...
Renin inhibitors versus angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for primary hypertension. *Angiotensin converting enzyme ... Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor induced angioedema in patients with primary hypertension. To determine the incidence of ... Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism (ACEI/D) in hypertensive adults with ACE inhibitor-induced cough ... Time course for blood pressure lowering of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors. *Blood pressure lowering efficacy of drugs ...
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Class Summary. ACE inhibitors suppress the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. ... The drugs of choice for hypertension related to ADPKD are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II ... The effect of sodium and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on the classic circulating renin-angiotensin system in ... Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists. Class Summary. ARBs interfere with the binding of formed angiotensin II to its endogenous ...
Antagonists, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ... Antagonists, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme. Enzyme Inhibitors, Angiotensin-Converting. Enzyme Antagonists, Angiotensin- ... use TEPROTIDE to search ANGIOTENSIN I-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITOR 1991-93. prefLabel. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors ... Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme. Inhibitors, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme. Kininase II Inhibitors. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme ...
Pregnancy outcome after in utero exposure to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Reprod ... Fetopathy associated with exposure to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists. Early Hum ... Taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors during pregnancy - Is it safe?. Almundher Al-Maawali, MD, Asnat Walfisch, MD ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used as first-line therapy for chronic hypertension. They are ...
Miličević A, Bošnjak V, Prkačin I. Bradykinin mediated angioedema in patient using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors ( ... Bradykinin mediated angioedema in patient using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) presented with swelling of ... "Bradykinin mediated angioedema in patient using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) presented with swelling of ... "Bradykinin mediated angioedema in patient using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) presented with swelling of ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in high vascular risk ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in high vascular risk ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus receptor blockers: is one better than the other for cardiovascular prevention? ... Objective ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely prescribed in patients with high ...
Angiotensin II has both an immediate and a delayed pressor effect, it stimulates the secretion of aldosterone and antidiuretic ... The renin-angiotensin system has a range of physiological actions concerned with the control of the circulation. ... 1497404 - Cough and ace inhibitors.. 8499664 - Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have no effect on ovulation and ovarian ... Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors*. Animals. Heart Failure / drug therapy*. Humans. Hypertension / drug therapy*. ...
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely prescribed for ... Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors versus angiotensin receptor blockers for primary hypertension. Background ... Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors versus angiotensin receptor blockers for primary hypertension. Cochrane Database ... To prevent these events, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are used ...
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor- (ACEi-) induced angioedema is one form of bradykinin-mediated angioedema. (hindawi.com)
  • More recently, a possible link between ACEI treatment-associated adverse effects and chymase has also been suggested: as chymase represents an alternative pathway for the activation of angiotensin II, it is possible that ACE inhibition may lead to an increased biological significance of this enzyme. (ahajournals.org)
  • A recent report describing an association between a polymorphism of the gene encoding MCC and atopic eczema in a Japanese population, 7 along with the fact that skin rashes are another adverse effect of ACEIs, therefore raises the possibility that such molecular variants of this enzyme may also play a role in ACEI-related cough. (ahajournals.org)
  • The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) in preserving renal function in chronic proteinuric nephropathies is well documented. (hindawi.com)
  • The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) on reducing the rate of decline of GFR in proteinuric nephropathies and its clinical implications are well established. (hindawi.com)
  • If patients were under treatment with ACEi and/or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), these medicines were discontinued 3 months prior to enrolment. (hindawi.com)
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) are widely used to treat benign hypertension. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bradykinin mediated angioedema in patient using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) presented with. (srce.hr)
  • ACEI were excluded from the therapy.After a week, blood analysis showed normal C1-inhibitor and C4 levels. (srce.hr)
  • ACEI inhibit bradykinin degradation because angiotensin II is a key factor for the inactivation of bradykinin. (srce.hr)
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and Angiotensin I receptor blocker (ARB) has been shown renoprotection whether it was used alone or in combination. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased cardiac contractility and ventricular remodeling, features which are partially reversed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi). (ahajournals.org)
  • You are aware that in adult women with diabetes persistent microalbuminuria (MA) is defined as an ACR greater than 3.5 mg/mmol on two out of three successive occasions, and that in such adults, treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) confers renoprotection. (bestbets.org)
  • Secondary sources: Cochrane database and BestBETs were searched using the term "Angiotensin" in the "Title, Abstract or Keywords" field: no review of ACEi use in children was found. (bestbets.org)
  • We attempted to determine whether or not combined treatment with an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) has an additive inhibitory effect on balloon-injury-elicited neointima formation in the carotid artery. (nii.ac.jp)
  • There has been an unprecedented interest generated in the medical community and on social media around the interaction of coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) and ACE inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), and whether these medications increase the risk of COVID-19. (nzma.org.nz)
  • They suggest that ACEi and ARB can increase ACE2, which is an enzyme used by the virus to gain entry into host cells. (nzma.org.nz)
  • Background - Some studies but not others suggest angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use prior to major surgery associates with a higher risk of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) and death. (ices.on.ca)
  • Background There is certainly evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARB) may reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), but simply no studies have compared the effectiveness between these drug classes. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • In prescription databases, switching from Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors to Angiotensin Receptor Blockers is the best indicator for the ACEI-induced adverse drug reactions. (springer.com)
  • Objective In balloon-injured rat carotid arteries, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) decrease neointima formation, and a kinin receptor antagonist partially reverses this inhibitory effect. (ovid.com)
  • Because the RAAS has an important role in renal pathophysiology, agents that inhibit this system, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or AngII receptor 1 blocker, have been shown to have beneficial effects in patients with CKD ( 5 - 14 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Background There is no consensus whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) should be used for secondary prevention in all or in only high-risk patients after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). (onlinejacc.org)
  • A growing body of literature argues for a beneficial impact of ACE inhibitors (ACEi) on age-associated metabolic disorders, mediated by cellular changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that improve mitochondrial function. (preprints.org)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) which have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, have also been shown to have anti-tumor effects against various cancers that include renal cancer. (usda.gov)
  • The aim of current paper was to explore the potential clinical impact of ACEI/ARB inhibitors in renal cancer.We used several databases: EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane library, to identify clinical studies that assessed the relationship between ACEIs/ARBs treatment and risk of renal cancer incidence or survival of renal cancer patients. (usda.gov)
  • The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) has been associated with the development of bradykinin-mediated angioedema. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) has been associated with the development of bradykinin-mediated angioedema.With ever-widening indications for ACEI for diseases including hypertension, congestive heart failure and diabetic nephropathy, a concomitant increase in ACEI-Angioedema (ACEI-A) has been reported [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alike ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are used to treat hypertension and related comorbid conditions. (news-medical.net)
  • Is there any difference between ACE inhibitors and ARBs? (news-medical.net)
  • In terms of therapeutic outcomes, both ACE inhibitors and ARBs are considered to be the first-line antihypertensive medicines for lowering blood pressure in patients with cardio-metabolic or renal disorders. (news-medical.net)
  • Does ACE inhibitors and ARBs provide equal therapeutic benefits? (news-medical.net)
  • Despite having similar therapeutic outcomes, some pitfalls are associated with both ACE inhibitors and ARBs. (news-medical.net)
  • The major advantage associated with ARBs is higher treatment compliance and a lower rate of withdrawal due to adverse events, as compared to ACE inhibitors. (news-medical.net)
  • Although ARBs are associated with better treatment outcomes due to greater compliance, current guidelines on the arterial hypertension management recommend ACE inhibitors over ARBs because of specific health reasons. (news-medical.net)
  • According to the guidelines, ARBs are preferred for patients having ACE inhibitor intolerance. (news-medical.net)
  • Importantly, ACE inhibitors are more beneficial than ARBs in terms of reducing all-cause mortality and cardiovascular-related mortality. (news-medical.net)
  • The drugs of choice for hypertension related to ADPKD are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). (medscape.com)
  • ARBs interfere with the binding of formed angiotensin II to its endogenous receptor. (medscape.com)
  • Objective ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely prescribed in patients with high cardiovascular (CV) risk. (bmj.com)
  • Arbs directly block the activity of angiotensin. (healthtap.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if statins (hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors [HMG-CoA]), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce cardiovascular (CV) events and pulmonary morbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. (nih.gov)
  • Although statins, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs improve outcomes in CV populations, their benefits in COPD patients both with and without concomitant heart disease has not previously been studied. (nih.gov)
  • These drugs reduced both CV and pulmonary outcomes, with the largest benefits occurring with the combination of statins and either ACE inhibitors or ARBs. (nih.gov)
  • There has been a lot of speculation that patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who are receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may be at increased risk for adverse outcomes. (nzma.org.nz)
  • Background - Some evidence suggests that the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren may increase the risk of severe hyperkalemia, stroke, or acute kidney injury (AKI) when prescribed with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi's) or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs). (ices.on.ca)
  • Participants were classified into 4 mutually exclusive groups: continuing, discontinuing, switching to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and switching to other antihypertensives. (springer.com)
  • This retrospective database analysis compared the effectiveness of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (DHPs), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) added to diuretics or β-blockers. (dovepress.com)
  • Mean changes in systolic/diastolic BP were -17.5/-8.8, -15.7/-6.3, and -13.0/-8.0 mmHg with DHPs, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs, respectively. (dovepress.com)
  • DHPs, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs improved BP when added to patients' β-blocker or diuretic therapy. (dovepress.com)
  • The greatest benefits were observed with DHPs, followed by ACE inhibitors, then ARBs. (dovepress.com)
  • To better understand the effect of price adjustments on physician choice, this study used renin-angiotensin drugs (including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs] and angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) to examine the impact of price adjustments on utilization of and expenditures on patented and off-patent drugs with the same therapeutic indication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The annual incident and prevalent users of ACEIs, ARBs and overall renin-angiotensin drugs were examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The number of prevalent ARB users increased and exceeded the cumulative number of first-time renin-angiotensin drug users starting on ARBs, implying that some patients switched from ACEIs to ARBs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) efficaciously reduce systolic blood pressure (BP), a well-established risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The divergent cardiovascular effects of ACE inhibitors and ARBs, despite similar BP reductions, are counter-intuitive. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several reports have also linked angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), such as losartan and valsartan, with the development of angioedema but the risk is much lower. (allergycases.org)
  • Considering the current evidence, both ACEIs and ARBs are likely cost-saving comparing with conventional therapy, excluding such RAAS inhibitors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Treatment guidelines therefore recommended angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) as the first-choice agents for treating nephropathy in diabetic patients [ 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abstract -Unexplained, persistent cough limits the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in a significant number of patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • 172638 Authors: Abouelkheir M, El-Metwally TH Abstract Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) improve insulin sensitivity. (medworm.com)
  • ABSTRACT: The renin angiotensin system (RAS) participates in inflammatory processes, as either a pro-inflammatory or an anti-inflammatory mediator. (scirp.org)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are antihypertensive medicines used to treat high blood pressure. (news-medical.net)
  • While the enzyme inhibitors work by reducing the level of angiotensin II in the body, the receptor blockers inhibit the function of angiotensin II by directly blocking the specific receptor. (news-medical.net)
  • How do angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers work? (news-medical.net)
  • These blockers work by inhibiting the angiotensin II receptors (type I and II), leading to functional inhibition of angiotensin II and subsequent reduction of the blood pressure. (news-medical.net)
  • Among the 3648 patients receiving antihypertensive drugs other than ACE inhibitors (calcium-channel blockers 1416, diuretics 2099, beta-blockers 2681), the corresponding relative risks were 110 (0.97-1.22) and 1.03 (0.87-1.20). (nih.gov)
  • If surgical repair must be postponed, diuretics and afterload reducers, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or calcium channel blockers, have proved helpful in adults and children. (medscape.com)
  • comparisons with more specific angiotensin-receptor blockers occurred later. (cmaj.ca)
  • Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in the Early Period after Kidney. (srce.hr)
  • Orlić L, Mikolašević I, Sladoje-Martinović B, Bubić I, Pavletić-Peršić M, Rački S. Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in the Early Period after Kidney Transplantation. (srce.hr)
  • The role of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (ACE-inhibitors) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) in the renal transplant recipients (RTRs) is incompletely defined and according to the current guidelines they should be initiated af- ter six months post-transplantation. (srce.hr)
  • Although subjects in the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition in Stable Coronary Artery Disease (PEACE) study had a lower risk profile, they were more often receiving antiplatelet agents, beta blockers, and lipid-lowering therapies. (hcplive.com)
  • Investigates the prevalence of use of aspirin, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, lipid-lowering drugs and calcium channel blockers in aged persons. (ebscohost.com)
  • Does the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers individually or as a combination confer a survival benefit in hemodialysis patients? (figshare.com)
  • Objective: To assess the patterns of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) discontinuation in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in real-world clinical practice. (elsevier.com)
  • We studied 178 patients with New York Heart Association class II or III heart failure and left ventricular ejection fractions of 35 percent or less in normal sinus rhythm who were clinically stable while receiving digoxin, diuretics, and an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (captopril or enalapril). (nih.gov)
  • However, remember that iron supplements can interfere with the absorption of captopril and perhaps other ACE inhibitors. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • The prototype ACE inhibitor, captopril, is absorbed and eliminated rapidly. (mobilecomputingtoday.co.uk)
  • We evaluated the two angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors captopril and fosinopril with regard to possible antiatherosclerotic effects in minipigs. (diva-portal.org)
  • In conclusion, the ACE inhibitors captopril and fosinopril inhibited development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic minipigs. (diva-portal.org)
  • ACE inhibitors, like captopril, are today first-line treatment in hypertension and heart failure. (diva-portal.org)
  • We have shown that two structurally different ACE inhibitors, captopril and fosinopril, exhibit anti-atherosclerotic effects in hypercholesterolemic mini pigs. (diva-portal.org)
  • Treatment of SHR with captopril and temocapril but not with pindolol and hydralazine resulted in significantly greater PNS-induced vasodilation than in non-treated SHR, but ACE-inhibitor treatment did not affect vasodilation induced by exogenous CGRP. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2017) Orally Administered Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-Inhibitors Captopril and Isoleucine-Proline-Proline Have Distinct Effects on Local Renin-Angiotensin System and Corticosterone Synthesis in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice. (scirp.org)
  • The AII competitive binding inhibitors [Sar 1 -Val 5 -Ala 8 ]-AII and [Sar 1 -IIe 8 ]-AII did not inhibit the pressor action of dogfish AII but the converting enzyme inhibitor captopril effectively blocked conversion of AI to AII. (brillonline.com)
  • Captopril, sold under the brand name Capoten among others, is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Except for postural hypotension, which occurs due to the short and fast mode of action of captopril, most of the side effects mentioned are common for all ACE inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other side effects are: Itching Headache Tachycardia Chest pain Palpitations Weakness The adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of captopril is similar to other ACE inhibitors, with cough being the most common ADR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Captopril was the culmination of efforts by Squibb's laboratories to develop an ACE inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of our study was to investigate whether enalapril, an ACE inhibitor, given in dialysis patients would preserve RRF and the eventual side effects of such treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • Enalapril is a competitive inhibitor of ACE. (medscape.com)
  • All patients were taking only enalapril as part of their angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor treatment. (springer.com)
  • Enalapril, like most of the later ACE inhibitors, is an inactive pro-drug that requires hydrolysis during or after absorption to generate the active acid form, enalaprilat. (mobilecomputingtoday.co.uk)
  • Enalapril, benazepril are both ACE inhibitors? (healthtap.com)
  • After five control days of measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and other variables, RVH rats were given the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril in their drinking water. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the impact of enalapril-maleate, an ACE inhibitor, during repeated gonadotropins treatment on ovarian blood flow and follicular development in goats. (ufrgs.br)
  • These findings suggest that the hypotensive effects observed in our experiment, result from the treatment with the ACE inhibitor, and that this alteration in hemodynamic parameters may be the main responsible for the lower follicular response observed in animals treated with enalapril-maleate. (ufrgs.br)
  • Also, the incidence of angioedema is higher in these patients, as ACE inhibitors can directly affect the metabolism of bradykinin and tachykinins and increase the risk of skin and tissue edema. (news-medical.net)
  • Clinical profile of angioedema with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. (springer.com)
  • We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman who presented with massive tongue and lip swelling secondary to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema. (hindawi.com)
  • To our knowledge this is the first documented case of icatibant being used for the treatment of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema in the United Kingdom and represents a novel therapeutic option in its management. (hindawi.com)
  • Angioedema is a rare but potentially serious complication of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE) use. (ahajournals.org)
  • To determine the incidence of angioedema associated with ACE inhibitors versus placebo in the treatment of primary hypertension. (cochrane.org)
  • Valsartan may induce more complete inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system than ACE inhibitors, it does not affect response to bradykinin, and it is less likely to be associated with cough and angioedema. (medscape.com)
  • Type III hereditary angioedema with the normal level of C1-inhibitor is very rare but is considered as a differential diagnosis in our case. (srce.hr)
  • This study is being conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of icatibant with placebo in the treatment for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (ACE-I)-Induced Angioedema in Adults. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • ACE-inhibitor-induced angioedema affecting the upper lip (click to enlarge the images). (allergycases.org)
  • ACE inhibitors are the most common cause of drug-induced angioedema. (allergycases.org)
  • ACE-inhibitor induced angioedema is an example of idiosyncratic reaction, from Greek , "a peculiar temperament. (allergycases.org)
  • What is the cross-reactivity risk when prescribing ARB to a patient with ACE-inhibitor-related angioedema? (allergycases.org)
  • Can you prescribe ARB to a patient with ACE-inhibitor-related angioedema? (allergycases.org)
  • Effect of bradykinin metabolism inhibitors on evoked hypotension in rats: rank efficacy ofenzymes associated with bradykinin-mediated angioedema.Br J Pharmacol. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Our data indicate that common genetic variants of ACE, chymase, and B2-bradykinin receptor do not explain the occurrence of ACE inhibitor-related cough. (ahajournals.org)
  • ACE not ouly increases the conversion of angiotensin I to the active angiotensin II, but also degrades bradykinin. (diva-portal.org)
  • Hence, we investigated whether the effect of an ACE inhibitor on the lower limit of CBF autoregulation is mediated by the potentiation of bradykinin-mediated vasodilatation. (ahajournals.org)
  • On the other hand, ACE inhibitors are capable of inactivating kininase II, a kinin-degrading enzyme, which would result in accumulation of bradykinin. (ahajournals.org)
  • In vivo both domains clear the vasodilator peptide bradykinin with approximately equal efficiencies [ 7 - 9 ], the C-domain appears to be the prominent site for the production of vasoactive peptide angiotensin II, whereas the N-domain is the primary site for the clearance of tetrapeptide Ac-SDKP ( N -acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro) [ 8 - 10 ]. (clinsci.org)
  • We reported that ACE inhibitors directly activate bradykinin B 1 receptor at the canonical Zn 2+ binding site, leading to prolonged nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • ACE converts angiotensin I into angiotensin Ѧ by cleaving the C-terminal dipeptide (His-Leu) of angiotensin I and also inactivates bradykinin which depresses blood pressure. (fao.org)
  • Bradykinin contribution to renal blood flow effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in the conscious sodium-restricted dog. (ahajournals.org)
  • We examined the relative contribution of renin-angiotensin system blockade and bradykinin potentiation to the renal hemodynamic effect of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat in sodium-deprived dogs. (ahajournals.org)
  • The mediator that seems to be the main responsible for edema formation is bradykinin (BK), but the real contribution of other factors such as complement components or peptides derived from BK catabolism (e.g. des-Arg9-BK) or from renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system remained to be defined. (trieste.it)
  • ACE) plays an important physiological role in blood pressure regulation via the reninangiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems by converting angiotensin I to the potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II, and by cleaving a number of other substrates including the vasodilator bradykinin and the anti-inflammatory peptide N-acetyl-SDKP. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and the inactivation of bradykinin were thought to be mediated by the same enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1970, using bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) provided by Sergio Ferreira, Ng and Vane found the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II was inhibited during its passage through the pulmonary circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the same enzyme (ACE) that generates a vasoconstrictor (ANG II) also disposes of vasodilators (bradykinin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Under physiological conditions the enzyme reaches about 60% of its maximal activity toward angiotensin I while it reaches its full activity toward bradykinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • That results in the decreased formation of angiotensin II and decreased metabolism of bradykinin, which leads to systematic dilation of the arteries and veins and a decrease in arterial blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are a group of drugs used to treat hypertension and heart failure, with additional benefits, such as cardiovascular and renal protection, in patients with diabetes. (springer.com)
  • First, in silico screening was used to investigate the ability of different DPP-4 inhibitors or ACEIs to interact with DPP-4 and ACE. (medworm.com)
  • All tested DPP-4 inhibitors could interact with ACE at a relatively reasonable binding energy while most of the ACEIs only interact with DPP-4 at a predicted high inhibition constant. (medworm.com)
  • Background Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are among the most frequently prescribed groups of medications. (springer.com)
  • Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) are beneficial in patients with heart failure, yet their role after heart failure remains ambiguous. (alliedacademies.org)
  • ACEIs is the key enzyme to increase the survival rate and efficiency of heart function improvement in cTnTR141W mice with heart dysfunction. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) are critical in the treatment of heart failure as reduce the incidence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) and the control of high blood pressure which could several cardiovascular complications [ 12 , 13 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Currently, most clinicians prescribe angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) to alleviate proteinuria caused by anti-angiogenic drugs (AADs) according to diabetic nephropathy guidelines or expert recommendations. (researchsquare.com)
  • Gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, LC-MS) methods for the determination of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and their metabolites in biological material have been reviewed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of hypertension and are presently the uncontested drugs of choice for the treatment of congestive heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8 Among 9193 patients with essential hypertension who were randomized to once-daily atenolol or losartan (a selective angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker [ARB]), there was no significant difference in mean BP recordings among patients in each treatment group during the mean follow-up period of 4.8 years. (ahajournals.org)
  • To evaluate the efficacy and safety of renin inhibitors compared to ACE inhibitors in people with primary hypertension. (cochrane.org)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used as first-line therapy for chronic hypertension. (motherisk.org)
  • The clinical use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in hypertension and cardiac failure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hence much effort has been directed in recent years to the development of agents designed to interfere with the renin-angiotensin system and to apply these clinically in the treatment of hypertension and congestive cardiac failure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Orally active converting enzyme inhibitors are of proven benefit not only in renovascular hypertension, but also, when combined with loop diuretics, in the treatment of intractable hypertension as well as, both alone and in combination with thiazide diuretics, in the treatment of essential hypertension. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The primary aim is to evaluate the anti proteinuric effect of increasing doses of the ACE inhibitor, lisinopril: 20, 40 and 60 mg daily in type 1 diabetic patients with hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) are the class of medications prescribed most frequently for the treatment of hypertension. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • ACE inhibitors are class of drugs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) that block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure and in the prevention of microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus. (mobilecomputingtoday.co.uk)
  • Of these, complications of hypertension account for 9.4 million deaths worldwide every year ACE inhibitors market is segmented on the basis of application and type of drug. (mobilecomputingtoday.co.uk)
  • The benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been shown in patients with diabetes, hypertension, 1,2 and recent myocardial infarction (MI), 3,4 as well as after revascularization and in those with left ventricular dysfunction. (hcplive.com)
  • Inhibition of the slow pressor effect of angiotensin II contributes to the antihypertensive effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in renovascular hypertension. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The authors recently reported that renovascular hypertension (RVH) in rats is associated with enhanced responsiveness to the slow pressor effect of angiotensin II (AngII). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The inhibitors of ACE2 could be able to regulate hypertension by changing vascular permeability. (creativebiomart.net)
  • ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease heart failure, stroke, and a host of other cardiovascular conditions. (statpearls.com)
  • This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, activity, adverse events, and other key elements of ACE inhibitor therapy in the clinical setting as relates to the essential points needed by members of an interprofessional team managing the care of patients with hypertension and its related conditions and sequelae. (statpearls.com)
  • Is there a difference between an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and an angiotensin-specific receptor blocker for the treatment of hypertension? (journals.co.za)
  • The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and angiotensin II, in particular, play a central role and have been implicated in the spectrum of cardiovascular disease (CVD), beginning with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction (MI), strokes and heart failure. (journals.co.za)
  • Therefore, the design of ACE inhibitors is within the priorities of modern medical sciences for treating hypertension, heart failures, myocardial infarction, and other related diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Despite the success of ACE inhibitors for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, they have some adverse effects, which could be attenuated by selective domain inhibition. (eurekaselect.com)
  • ACE inhibitors are an important component of the therapeutic regimen for treating hypertension, but due to the increase in the prevalence of side effects of synthetic compounds, alternative and complementary medicines which may consist of pure bioactive compound or a combination of various compounds from natural sources are gaining importance in overcoming hypertension. (uwc.ac.za)
  • For the purpose of this study, the global ACE inhibitors market on the basis of application type is segmented into Hypertension, Coronary Artery Diseases, Heart Failure, Myocardial Infarction, Diabetes, Chronic Kidney Disorders, & (Scleroderma, Migraine and others). (credenceresearch.com)
  • The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system had been extensively studied in the mid-20th century, and this system presented several opportune targets in the development of novel treatments for hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you have a cough that is a problem for you, then your doctor might give you an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) instead. (cigna.com)
  • The patients were randomized to treatment with either a combination of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor trandolapril and the sustained-release formulation of verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, or HCTZ plus the ARB losartan. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Combination antihypertensive therapy with a calcium channel blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor provides important clinical outcome advantages over the traditional [beta]-blocker/diuretic combination, Peter S. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It's an angiotensin receptor blocker. (healthtap.com)
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme(ace) inhibitor vs angiotensin receptor blocker(arb). (healthtap.com)
  • We therefore assessed whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan would be effective in patients intolerant to ACE inhibitors with cardiovascular disease or diabetes with end-organ damage. (uzh.ch)
  • Gynura procumbens inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors can inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme. (medworm.com)
  • Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) are anti-diabetic drugs with several cardio-renal effects. (medworm.com)
  • However, ACE inhibitors should be avoided in late pregnancy, as they might cause renal failure and acalvaria in the baby . (motherisk.org)
  • 14-20 Mechanisms for this improvement are postulated to be the antihypertensive effect, reduction of angiotensin II-induced mesangial cell proliferation, and renal vasodilatory effects of ACE-I, the latter related to a fall in renal filtration pressure and proteinuria. (vin.com)
  • Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor (DRI) that has shown renal benefits and safety when combined with ARB. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 11 This was pharmacologically confirmed by the administration of Rho-associated kinase inhibitor, fasudil, that restored expression of miR-29 and prevented renal fibrosis in the kidneys of diabetic rats. (asnjournals.org)
  • Upon admission, the patient was found to have elevated cardiac enzymes, acute thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure. (ebscohost.com)
  • Thus, 19-nor can suppress the progression of renal insufficiency via mediation of the TGF-β signaling pathway, and this effect is amplified when BP is controlled via renin-angiotensin system blockade. (asnjournals.org)
  • We conducted a systematic review to assess the effect modification of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene on any outcome in patients treated with ACE inhibitors for cardiovascular and/or renal disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We observed a trend towards better response to ACE inhibitors in Caucasian DD carriers compared to II carriers, in terms of blood pressure, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, ACE activity and progression to end-stage renal failure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objective of our study was to systematically review all randomised, placebo-controlled trials that had evaluated to what extent the ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism influences treatment effects of ACE inhibitors on any surrogate and on any clinically relevant parameters in patients with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, renal transplantation and/or renal disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Targeting renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is the most effective way to delay renal disease progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vitro autoradiography using the specific NEP inhibitor radioligand 125I-RB104 and the specific ACE inhibitor radioligand 125I-MK351A show omapatril at (10 mg/kg) causes rapid and potent inhibition of renal NEP and ACE, respectively, for 24 h [4] . (medchemexpress.com)
  • Losartan is an ARB that blocks the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II. (medscape.com)
  • Is cozaar (losartan) an ACE inhibitor? (healthtap.com)
  • The value of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibition in reducing mortality and morbidity among patients with heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction has been well established in multiple large randomized clinical trials. (cmaj.ca)
  • ACE inhibitors suppress the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. (medscape.com)
  • They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. (bioontology.org)
  • The renin-angiotensin system has a range of physiological actions concerned with the control of the circulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The tertiary aim is to evaluate differences in response to treatment according to ACE/insertion/deletion (ID)-genotypes and other genetic variants in the genes of the renin angiotensin system. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • DNA is extracted from a blood sample and genetic variants in the renin-angiotensin system are measured including the ACE/ID genotype. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Tertiary: differences in response to treatment in patients with different ACE/ID and other renin angiotensin system genotypes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Activation of renin-angiotensin plays a crucial role diabetic nephropathy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is as a key enzyme in the renin-angiotensin system involved in the regulation of blood pressure, and water and electrolyte balance in the body. (diva-portal.org)
  • Accumulating evidence shows that inhibition of the vascular renin-angiotensin system results in suppression of injury-elicited neointima formation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE2, EC 3.4.17.23), a carboxypeptidase, is part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that controlsregulation of blood pressure by cleaving the C-terminal dipeptide of Angiotensin II to convert it into Angiotensin 1-7. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates extracellular volume homeostasis, which contributes to BP stability. (asnjournals.org)
  • Because angiotensin II levels have been associated with cancer, the objective of the current epidemiologic study was to investigate whether renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and/or ACE genotypes were associated with an altered risk of colorectal, lung, breast, and prostate cancer. (eur.nl)
  • Renin-angiotensin system-inhibiting drugs seemed to protect against cancer in individuals with the DD genotype, which was associated with high levels of ACE. (eur.nl)
  • The number of incident renin-angiotensin drug users decreased over the study period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • long-term trend change was not significant for overall renin-angiotensin drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Price adjustments did not achieve long-term cost savings for overall renin-angiotensin drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aim 1: To identify the mediators responsible for increased vascular permeability in AE patients analyzing the role of kinins, of the soluble terminal complement complex and of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in inducing endothelial leakage. (trieste.it)
  • Both inhibit the renin-angiotensin system, albeit through different mechanisms, and produce similar reductions in BP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent evidence shows that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) participates in important reproductive processes, such as steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation and ovulation. (ufrgs.br)
  • The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a peptidase that is involved in the synthesis of Angiotensin II, the bioactive component of the renin-angiotensin system. (preprints.org)
  • The renin-angiotensin-aldos-terone system (RAAS) plays a key physiologic role in the regulation of blood pressure in the human body. (credenceresearch.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1), or ACE, is a central component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II in the lungs. (news-medical.net)
  • It prevents the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in lower aldosterone secretion. (medscape.com)
  • Prevents the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II. (abcam.com)
  • The first breakthrough was made by Kevin K.F. Ng in 1967, when he found the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II took place in the pulmonary circulation instead of in the plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • 18 Similar to the current analysis, the previous study analyzed data from an administrative database, and the results suggested that ramipril was associated with lower mortality compared with most other ACE inhibitors. (cmaj.ca)
  • Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. (nih.gov)
  • We assessed the role of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, in patients who were at high risk for cardiovascular events but who did not have left ventricular dysfunction or heart failure. (nih.gov)
  • 1 In 2000 and 2001, it was established from the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial and particularly the Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study (PROGRESS) trial that lowering BP in the long term, months to years after stroke, by means of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (perindopril or ramipril) and diuretics (indapamide) reduces the risk of recurrent stroke (and cognitive impairment). (ahajournals.org)
  • Alpha-linolenic acid inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in hypertensive rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • One induces and other inhibits action of enzyme. (healthtap.com)
  • Therefore, a substance that inhibits ACE will decrease the production of angiotensin II and reduce blood pressure. (credenceresearch.com)
  • Cough is the main adverse event responsible for treatment discontinuation in patients having ACE inhibitors. (news-medical.net)
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors cause cough in some patients, but the mechanism of this effect is not known. (bmj.com)
  • Six patients in whom these inhibitors had caused cough and a further two patients in whom they were suspected to have caused worsening of bronchial asthma were studied. (bmj.com)
  • Nine patients in whom angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors had not been associated with cough served as controls. (bmj.com)
  • for the study patients these and the cough index were measured twice before rechallenge for two weeks with an angiotensin enzyme inhibitor and once afterwards. (bmj.com)
  • Patients with cough showed bronchial hyperactivity compared with the controls, which increased after rechallenge with the inhibitors. (bmj.com)
  • Cough associated with converting enzyme inhibitors may be a variant of the cough in asthma. (bmj.com)
  • To investigate this question, we determined genotypes for common polymorphisms for these three genes in subjects with a history of ACE inhibitor-related cough. (ahajournals.org)
  • A cough is one of the most common side effects of ACE inhibitors. (cigna.com)
  • Individuals taking ACE inhibitors frequently develop a dry cough as a side effect. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • Both are effective and safe, some people get a dry cough on the ace inhibitors, but otherwise, they are well tolerated. (healthtap.com)
  • Among biologically-active molecules, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides have been extensively studies. (fao.org)
  • ACE cleaves additional energetic peptides besides Ang I and BK and ACE inhibitors enhance reactions of kinin receptors beyond obstructing kinin catabolism 29, 46, 93, 94. (immune-source.com)
  • Exogenous ACE inhibitors and endogenous Ang1-7 and Ang1-9 peptides are indirect allosteric enhancers of B2R activation from the orthosteric peptide ligands. (immune-source.com)
  • ACE is also known by the following names: dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase I peptidase P dipeptide hydrolase peptidyl dipeptidase angiotensin converting enzyme kininase II angiotensin I-converting enzyme carboxycathepsin dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase "hypertensin converting enzyme" peptidyl dipeptidase I peptidyl-dipeptide hydrolase peptidyldipeptide hydrolase endothelial cell peptidyl dipeptidase peptidyl dipeptidase-4 PDH peptidyl dipeptide hydrolase DCP CD143 ACE hydrolyzes peptides by the removal of a dipeptide from the C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACE inhibitors may interact with other medicines such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antacids, potassium supplements, certain diuretics, and lithium. (cigna.com)
  • We aimed to assess the risk of cancer in hypertensive patients receiving ACE inhibitors or other antihypertensive drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Beside other prescribed antihypertensive drugs all of them took and ACE inhibitors or ARB in order to achieve blood pressure control. (srce.hr)
  • This experiment was performed to test the corollary hypothesis that the antihypertensive efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in established RVH could be caused in part by inhibition of the slow pressor effect. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, inhibition of the slow pressor effect of AngII may partially explain the antihypertensive effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in RVH. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Effects of long-term treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor on decreased function of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing vasodilator nerves (CGRP nerves) in mesenteric resistance artery were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). (nii.ac.jp)
  • The synthetic undecapeptide (LLPHEAWHFAR) representing the binding site for ACE inhibitors on human B 1 receptors reduced PKCϵ inhibition by enalaprilat but not by peptide agonist. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Screening for small molecule and peptide inhibitors might also help in finding trea;ent for coronavirus mediated infection. (creativebiomart.net)
  • ACE2 Inhibitor Screening Kit can be used to screen for potent inhibitors of ACE2 activity, it utilizes the ability of an active ACE2 to cleave a synthetic MCA based peptide substrate to release a free fluorophore. (creativebiomart.net)
  • inhibiting peptide hydrolysis, may donate to the pleiotropic restorative ramifications of ACE inhibitors in a variety of cardiovascular disorders. (immune-source.com)
  • ACE inhibitors usually do not activate B1Rs in arteries missing endothelium, where peptide ligands are vasoconstrictor 14. (immune-source.com)
  • Some studies suggest that ACE inhibitors that are able to pass the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) could enhance the activity of major amyloid-beta peptide degrading enzymes like neprilysin in the brain resulting in a slower development of Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-related carboxypeptidase, ACE2, is a type I integral membrane protein of 805 amino acids that contains one HEXXH + E zinc-binding consensus sequence. (rcsb.org)
  • To gain further insights into this enzyme, the first crystal structures of the native and inhibitor-bound forms of the ACE2 extracellular domains were solved to 2.2- and 3.0-A resolution, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • In the presence of an ACE2 specific inhibitor, the enzyme loses its peptidase activity which results in decrease of fluorescence intensity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This assay kit is simple and can be used to identify and characterize ACE2 inhibitors in a high-throughput format. (creativebiomart.net)
  • citation needed] ACE inhibitors are widely used as pharmaceutical drugs in the treatment of conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, diabetic nephropathy, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The efficacy of the inhibitor can be reduced if taken together with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines. (news-medical.net)
  • Indeed there are no large clinical trials comparing the efficacy of one ACE inhibitor with another to determine which one best improves survival. (cmaj.ca)
  • We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with coronary artery disease and normal systolic left ventricular function. (hcplive.com)
  • In RAAS, ACE plays an important role in the production of angiotensin II where it facilitates the conversion of the biologically inactive angiotensin I to angiotensin II. (credenceresearch.com)
  • Angiotensin II increases blood pressure by its action as a potent vasoconstrictor and stimulates the production of aldosterone, which promotes sodium and water retention in the body. (credenceresearch.com)
  • Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Candesartan blocks the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II. (medscape.com)
  • Olmesartan blocks the vasoconstrictor effects of angiotensin II by selectively blocking binding of angiotensin II to the AT-1 receptor in vascular smooth muscle. (medscape.com)
  • Since des-Arg9-BK is produced from BK by carboxypeptidase M along cell surface, we hypothesize that the blockade of the enzyme may also reduce the vascular leakage being a new potential target. (trieste.it)
  • Dual metalloprotease inhibitors: mercaptoacetyl-based fused heterocyclic dipeptide mimetics asinhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Likewise it converts the inactive decapeptide angiotensin I to the octapeptide angiotensin II by removing the dipeptide His-Leu. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current Guidelines for Using Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II-Receptor Antagonists in Chronic Kidney Disease: Is the Evidence Base Relevant to Older Adults? (annals.org)
  • Six proteolytic enzymes, including alcalase, flavourzyme, trypsin, neutrase, papain and pepsin, were employed to hydrolyze cottonseed protein to produce the hydrolysates of Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. (ajol.info)
  • It was suggested that Fra II with good ACE inhibitory activity can be a potential source of natural ACE inhibitor. (ajol.info)
  • The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the efficiency and safety of early (within six months post-transplantation) versus late (after six months post-transplantation) initiation of ACE-inhibitors or ARB in RTRs. (srce.hr)
  • In cohort 1, 27.1% of patients in the referring practices were on ACE inhibitor versus 40.0% in the non-referring practices (p=0.056). (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Isolated unilateral tongue oedema: the adverse effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Review the dosing parameters adjusting or replacing ACE inhibitor therapy based on adverse events or inadequate therapeutic response. (statpearls.com)
  • Huntington's disease: deterioration in clinical state during treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. (bmj.com)
  • Goldblatt J , Bryer A . Huntington's disease: deterioration in clinical state during treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. (bmj.com)
  • As an example of this wealth of data, in this issue of CMAJ , Pilote and colleagues 2 use administrative databases of hospital discharges and prescription claims to study the comparative effectiveness of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the treatment of congestive heart failure. (cmaj.ca)
  • 3 , 4 With evidence indicating about a 25% decrease in mortality and a 35% decrease in mortality or admission to hospital, ACE inhibitors are used universally in the treatment of heart failure in a broad range of patients. (cmaj.ca)
  • Although digoxin is effective in the treatment of patients with chronic heart failure who are receiving diuretic agents, it is not clear whether the drug has a role when patients are receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, as is often the case in current practice. (nih.gov)
  • Because St. John's wort and dong quai may also cause this problem, taking these herbal supplements during treatment with ACE inhibitors might add to this risk. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • The developed healthcare infrastructure, and high public awareness related to diagnosis, treatment and management of lifestyle diseases are the key factors assisting the growth of North America ACE inhibitors market. (mobilecomputingtoday.co.uk)
  • These results suggest that long-term ACE inhibitor treatment prevents or restores CGRP nerve function reduction in SHR. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2 Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, which shift the lower limit of the cerebral autoregulation curve to lower pressure levels, 3 are useful for the treatment of hypertensive patients with cerebrovascular disorders. (ahajournals.org)
  • This work further elucidates the molecular basis for N-domainselective inhibition and assists in the design of novel N-selective ACE inhibitors that could be employed in treatment of fibrosis disorders. (clinsci.org)
  • The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of heart failure in hospital practice. (bmj.com)
  • Specific studies looking at the effect of ACE inhibitors in elderly patients would be helpful, as well as studies to determine the optimum treatment regimen for this age group. (bmj.com)
  • The acquired form of AE is associated with the high consumption of C1-INH or to the presence of autoantibodies or induced by treatment with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. (trieste.it)
  • In spite of a lifelong stable C1-INH deficiency or of a continuous ACE inhibitor treatment, patients with these conditions are only seldom symptomatic, with huge variation in frequency and severity of symptoms and the mechanisms responsible for such variability is completely unexplained and the therapeutic tools are still not completely satisfying. (trieste.it)
  • To date, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved 4 oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and 1 anti-angiogenic antibody for the treatment of advanced HCC[4]. (researchsquare.com)
  • ACE inhibitors are widely used as pharmaceutical drugs for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) are commonly prescribed medications for patients with high blood pressure, diabetes, chronic heart failure, and coronary heart disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • ACE inhibitors have not been studied uniformly in patients with heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction. (cmaj.ca)
  • ACE inhibitors have been shown to reduce heart failure-related hospitalisations, prolong life, and improve exercise tolerance and quality of life. (heartfailurematters.org)
  • Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors improve the outcome among patients with left ventricular dysfunction, whether or not they have heart failure. (nih.gov)
  • Withdrawal of digoxin from patients with chronic heart failure treated with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • These findings indicate that the withdrawal of digoxin carries considerable risks for patients with chronic heart failure and impaired systolic function who have remained clinically stable while receiving digoxin and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have morbidity and mortality benefits in heart failure. (springer.com)
  • Several well-controlled trials in patients with heart failure have shown that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, in combination with a diuretic, causes a reduction in mortality and morbidity, which seems to be mainly due to a reduction in fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. (bmj.com)
  • Our aim was to determine whether 249 consecutive patients discharged from hospital with a primary diagnosis of heart failure were routinely being treated with an ACE inhibitor at an appropriate dose. (bmj.com)
  • These results show that in one in four patients admitted to hospital with heart failure who should be receiving an ACE inhibitor by the time of discharge, are not. (bmj.com)
  • We assessed whether the presence of a Rapid Access Heart Failure Clinic (RAHFC) had an impact on the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor prescribing habits of primary care physicians. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • The hereditary form of AE is an autosomal dominant disorder due to a decreased serum level of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) or to a secretion of a non functional protein. (trieste.it)
  • A competitive ACE inhibitor, it reduces angiotensin II levels, decreasing aldosterone secretion. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, inhibiting angiotensin II formation diminishes angiotensin II-mediated aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex, leading to a decrease in water and sodium reabsorption and a reduction in extracellular volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used to treat patients with cardiovascular and kidney diseases, but inhibition of ACE alone does not fully explain the beneficial effects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • ACE inhibitors may be used to treat heart, blood vessel, and kidney problems as well as conditions such as migraines and diabetes. (mainlinehealth.org)
  • Angiotensin II has both an immediate and a delayed pressor effect, it stimulates the secretion of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone, promotes thirst, stimulates the sympathetic nervous system at various sites while inhibiting vagal tone, and has a range of direct effects on the kidney. (biomedsearch.com)
  • North America constitutes regional markets of U.S. and Canada, the rising prevalence of cardiovascular and kidney diseases, mounting obesity in the population and supportive reimbursement policies are the key drivers for periodical growth of ACE inhibitors market in this region. (mobilecomputingtoday.co.uk)
  • Monotherapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors has been shown to be beneficial in suppressing the progression of experimentally induced kidney diseases. (asnjournals.org)
  • ACE inhibitors have 2 major pharmacological properties: they inhibit both the production of angiotensin II and the breakdown of kinins. (ahajournals.org)
  • A reduction in nonfatal MI and mortality from cardiovascular events was shown with ACE inhibitor use in 2 large studies. (hcplive.com)
  • 2,11-13 To evaluate whether ACE inhibitors have a beneficial influence on all-cause mortality, death from cardiovascular events, nonfatal MI, and the rate of revascularization among patients with preserved left ventricular function and CAD, we conducted a comprehensive literature review and meta-analysis. (hcplive.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce major cardiovascular events, but are not tolerated by about 20% of patients. (uzh.ch)
  • It converts the hormone angiotensin I to the active vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the important effects of ACE inhibitors on clinical outcomes, as shown in clinical trials, we need to know whether there are differences among the large number of ACE inhibitors currently being marketed (11 in the United States and 12 in Canada). (cmaj.ca)
  • In 2001 and 2002, evidence emerged from 3 clinical trials to support the hypothesis, raised 30 years ago, 5 that angiotensin II might exert detrimental effects beyond the mechanical damage of high BP and be a risk factor for ischemic stroke independent of its effect on BP. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of the proposal is to thoroughly identify the mechanisms leading to the enhanced vascular permeability in clinical settings of AE by focusing not only on C1-INH deficiency as a primary disease model but also on ACE-inhibitor related AE in order to identify new possible therapeutic tools. (trieste.it)
  • This led to the hypothesis that the I/D polymorphism may influence the effect of ACE inhibitors on clinical outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Meanwhile, the combined application of immune checkpoint inhibitors and TKIs is the current clinical research trend, and the results are promising[5, 6]. (researchsquare.com)
  • I read with interest the article by Keilani and colleagues [1], showing improvement of lipid abnormalities associated with proteinuria using the Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor fosinopril. (annals.org)
  • In addition, angiotensin II increases blood osmolality and volume by inducing water and sodium retention in the kidneys. (news-medical.net)
  • The presence of angiotensin II also causes a water-retaining hormone to be released, and this increase in fluid retention in the body further increases blood pressure. (mainlinehealth.org)
  • An ACE inhibitor also increases blood flow, which will help decrease the amount of work the heart has to do and may also decrease your blood pressure. (credenceresearch.com)
  • Compared with the West of Scotland controls, the relative risks of incident and fatal cancer among the 1559 patients receiving ACE inhibitors were 0.72 (95% CI 0.55-0.92) and 0.65 (0.44-0.93). (nih.gov)
  • The reduced relative risk of cancer in patients on ACE inhibitors was greatest with follow-up of longer than 3 years. (nih.gov)
  • In follow-up, Hansen and colleagues 20 published an observational analysis of ACE inhibitors involving more than 16 000 patients who had myocardial infarction. (cmaj.ca)
  • It is for use in patients unable to tolerate ACE inhibitors. (medscape.com)
  • In additional 54 (50%) patients ACE inhibitors/ARB were initiated, but after six months post-transplantation. (srce.hr)
  • Analyzing the haemoglobin, creatinine and potassium serum levels after initiation of therapy with ACE inhibitors/ARB trough observed period we did not found any statistically significant difference in all measured parame- ters between the two groups of patients and also within the same group of patients. (srce.hr)
  • There has been controversy, however, regarding the use of ACE inhibitors in patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function and coronary artery disease (CAD). (hcplive.com)
  • To prevent any of the unfavorable end points (1 cardiovascular or noncardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, or the need for revascularization), 100 patients need to be treated with ACE inhibitors. (hcplive.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce blood pressure and shift the autoregulation curve back to normal in hypertensive patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • At the time of discharge from hospital all patients were on a diuretic and 144 (57.8%) were also receiving an ACE inhibitor. (bmj.com)
  • Although 41 patients (16.5%) had a relative or absolute contraindication for the use of an ACE inhibitor, 64 patients (25.7%) with no contraindication were not receiving an ACE inhibitor. (bmj.com)
  • Whilst it has been shown that the benefit of ACE inhibitors does not appear to be age-related, most published studies have not included many patients over the age of 80. (bmj.com)
  • INTERPRETATION: Telmisartan was well tolerated in patients unable to tolerate ACE inhibitors. (uzh.ch)
  • Yes, but only for populations that have demonstrated a clear benefit from angiotensin II antagonism, for example, patients with CHF and CKD. (allergycases.org)
  • In the late 1980s, researchers began investigating genetic factors to determine the origins of inter-individual variability in patients' responses to ACE inhibitor therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to Cleveland Clinic, an ACE inhibitor is a type of vasodilator that dilates the blood vessels to improve the amount of blood the heart pumps in patients suffering from high blood pressure. (credenceresearch.com)
  • Azd 6244- mek inhibitor- a selective mitogen-activated protein kinase (mek) inhibitor. (healthtap.com)
  • The design of inhibitors that selectively inhibit the N-domain (N-selective) could be useful in treating conditions of tissue injury and fibrosis due to build-up of N-domain-specific substrate Ac-SDKP ( N -acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro). (clinsci.org)
  • Using a receptor-based SHOP (scaffold hopping) approach with N-selective inhibitor RXP407, a shortlist of scaffolds that consisted of modified RXP407 backbones with novel chemotypes was generated. (clinsci.org)
  • Crystal structures of both ACE domains (nACE and cACE) reported over the last decades could facilitate the rational drug design of selective inhibitors. (eurekaselect.com)
  • We stated that the design of novel selective ACE inhibitors is a challenge for current researchers which requires a thorough understanding of the structure of both ACE domains and the help of molecular modeling methodologies. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor use was associated with modest benefits, which included a reduction in cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and revascularization rates. (hcplive.com)
  • Most published studies have failed to show an effect of ACE inhibitors on congenital malformations. (motherisk.org)
  • Kininase II is the same as angiotensin-converting enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Valsartan is a prodrug that produces direct antagonism of angiotensin II receptors. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, addition of inhibitors of μ-calpain showed a decrease in degradation of cTnT. (alliedacademies.org)
  • 1. Based on a specific binding of labelled inhibitor to the enzyme active centre, a new principle of enzyme assay, inhibitor binding assay (IBA), was developed and applied to measurement of rat serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). (portlandpress.com)
  • 2. Serum diluted 1:50 was incubated with 125 I-labelled ACE inhibitor, 351A, at pH 7.0, 37°C, for 2 h. (portlandpress.com)
  • For each patient haemoglobin, serum creatinine and potassium levels were analyzed at the beginning of ACE inhibitors/ARB introduction and at the end of the first, third, sixth and twelfth month. (srce.hr)
  • Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, and the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism all influence serum angiotensin II action. (eur.nl)
  • Ace inhibitors are great medications for BP and diabetes and scledoderma hypertensive crisis. (healthtap.com)
  • Angiotensin II is an active vasoconstrictor that narrows the blood vessels and increases systemic blood pressure. (news-medical.net)
  • ACE inhibitors reduce the level of angiotensin II by inhibiting the enzyme, leading to the widening of the blood vessels (vasodilation) and subsequent reduction of the systemic blood pressure. (news-medical.net)
  • Pomegranate juice reduces blood pressure by inhibiting Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) activity in diabetic rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Baseline blood samples and samples at days 1, 8, 10, 14 were used to measure plasma DPP-4 and ACE activities and angiotensin II levels. (medworm.com)
  • For example, some researchers have proposed differentiating among ACE inhibitors based on tissue binding and suggest that blood pressure correlates better with tissue ACE levels than with circulating ACE, which could relate to improved outcomes. (cmaj.ca)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors block an enzyme needed to form a substance that narrows blood vessels. (cigna.com)
  • ACE inhibitors are a good choice for people who have diabetes , because this medicine does not affect blood sugar levels and may help protect the kidneys. (cigna.com)
  • ACE inhibitors can reduce blood pressure in people who have high blood pressure. (cigna.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or "ACE" inhibitors, are medications that help relax and widen the blood vessels so that blood can pump more freely and blood pressure is reduced. (mainlinehealth.org)
  • By blocking the effect of angiotensin II, ACE inhibitors cause your blood vessels to relax and this lowers your blood pressure. (heartfailurematters.org)
  • Since ACE inhibitors lower your blood pressure, they can sometimes make you feel dizzy. (heartfailurematters.org)
  • ACE inhibitors can also cause small changes in how your kidneys function or increase your potassium levels - your doctor will check for this with regular blood tests . (heartfailurematters.org)
  • It displaces angiotensin II from the AT1 receptor and may lower blood pressure by antagonizing AT1-induced vasoconstriction, aldosterone release, catecholamine release, arginine vasopressin release, water intake, and hypertrophic responses. (medscape.com)
  • Whole licorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra , or G. uralensis ) can cause sodium retention and increase blood pressure, thus counteracting the intended effects of ACE inhibitors. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors interfere with the formation of a hormone (angiotensin II) that can narrow (constrict) blood vessels. (wellspan.org)
  • ACE inhibitors help lower blood pressure and reduce the workload on the heart, which lowers the chances of heart attack . (wellspan.org)
  • Angiotensin which raises blood pressure needs to be activated to work. (healthtap.com)
  • ACE (angiotensin-1-converting enzyme) is a zinc metallopeptidase that plays a prominent role in blood pressure regulation and electrolyte homeostasis. (clinsci.org)
  • Angiotensin II binds to the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1), which sets off a number of actions that result in vasoconstriction and therefore increased blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACE inhibitors that cross the blood-brain barrier and have preferentially selected N-terminal activity may therefore cause accumulation of Aβ42 and progression of dementia. (wikipedia.org)