Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in fetal tissues. Many effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor such as VASODILATION and sodium loss are the opposite of that of the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Angiotensin I: A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Angiotensin III: A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40%).Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 126.96.36.199.Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.TetrazolesRenin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Captopril: A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Enalaprilat: The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Teprotide: A synthetic nonapeptide (Pyr-Trp-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro-Pro) which is identical to the peptide from the venom of the snake, Bothrops jararaca. It inhibits kininase II and ANGIOTENSIN I and has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent.Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize the ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 2 RECEPTOR.Ramipril: A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.Angiotensins: Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (VASOCONSTRICTION) and fluid homeostasis via the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. These include angiotensins derived naturally from precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, and those synthesized.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Lisinopril: One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Biphenyl CompoundsPerindopril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is used in patients with hypertension and heart failure.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Cilazapril: One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors) used for hypertension. It is a prodrug that is hydrolyzed after absorption to its main metabolite cilazaprilat.Saralasin: An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.1-Sarcosine-8-Isoleucine Angiotensin II: An ANGIOTENSIN II analog which acts as a highly specific inhibitor of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Fosinopril: A phosphinic acid-containing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of hypertension. It is a prodrug that is converted to its active metabolite fosinoprilat.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.ThiazepinesTetrahydroisoquinolines: A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Angiotensinogen: An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Hydralazine: A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.3-Mercaptopropionic Acid: An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase. It decreases the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID concentration in the brain, thereby causing convulsions.Receptors, Bradykinin: Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Kinins: A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Imidazolidines: Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLINES which contain no double bonds in the ring.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Angiotensin Amide: The octapeptide amide of bovine angiotensin II used to increase blood pressure by vasoconstriction.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Receptor, Bradykinin B2: A constitutively expressed subtype of bradykinin receptor that may play a role in the acute phase of the inflammatory and pain response. It has high specificity for intact forms of BRADYKININ and KALLIDIN. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Neprilysin: Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Thiorphan: A potent inhibitor of membrane metalloendopeptidase (ENKEPHALINASE). Thiorphan potentiates morphine-induced ANALGESIA and attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Chymases: A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Angioedema: Swelling involving the deep DERMIS, subcutaneous, or submucosal tissues, representing localized EDEMA. Angioedema often occurs in the face, lips, tongue, and larynx.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Spironolactone: A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)Endothelins: 21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Amlodipine: A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Subfornical Organ: A structure, situated close to the intraventricular foramen, which induces DRINKING BEHAVIOR after stimulation with ANGIOTENSIN II.CreatinineDrug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Receptors, Endothelin: Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLOxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Glutamyl Aminopeptidase: A ZINC-dependent membrane-bound aminopeptidase that catalyzes the N-terminal peptide cleavage of GLUTAMATE (and to a lesser extent ASPARTATE). The enzyme appears to play a role in the catabolic pathway of the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Dilleniaceae: A plant family of the order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.PyridazinesSodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Juxtaglomerular Apparatus: A complex of cells consisting of juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells, the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule, and granular epithelial peripolar cells. Juxtaglomerular cells are modified SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS found in the walls of afferent glomerular arterioles and sometimes the efferent arterioles. Extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells are located in the angle between the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. Granular epithelial peripolar cells are located at the angle of reflection of the parietal to visceral angle of the renal corpuscle.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Receptor, Endothelin A: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Capillary Resistance: The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Infusion Pumps, Implantable: Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Desoxycorticosterone: A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Angiotensin inhibition by either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor antagonist may reduce ... One meta analysis found a protective effect from an angiotensin converting enzyme polymorphisms on migraine. Migraines may be ... "Association between angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and migraine: a meta-analysis". The ...
CES1 is responsible for the activation of many prodrugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, oseltamivir, ... Inhibition of CES1 by in particular organophosphates reduces tumor-killing activity by monocytes. The loss of this protein in ... focus on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors". Drug Metab Dispos. 42 (1): 126-33. doi:10.1124/dmd.113.053512. PMID ... These enzymes are responsible for the hydrolysis of ester- and amide-bond-containing xenobiotics and drugs such as cocaine and ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been consistently shown to decrease remodeling in animal models or ... Likewise, inhibition of aldosterone, either directly or indirectly, leads to improvement in remodeling. Carvedilol, a 3rd ... Several signal pathways such as Angiotensin II, Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), and Endothelin 1 are known to ... Khattar, R. S. (2003). "Effects of ACE-inhibitors and beta-blockers on left ventricular remodeling in chronic heart failure". ...
... is a known complication of the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II ... 2 Nov 2014 2. Angiotensin-Neprilysin Inhibition versus Enalapril in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF Investigators); NEJM.org, ... "Multicenter study of patients with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema who present to the emergency ... and Angiotensin-Neprilysin Inhibitor LCZ969. The angioedema appears to be dose dependent as it may resolve with decreased dose ...
Dykewicz, Mark S. (April 2004). "Cough and Angioedema From Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: New Insights Into ... and inhibition of plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme activity after single and repeated administrations to dogs". Am. J. Vet ... They inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme, which is part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Benazepril is a prodrug ... ACE inhibitors relax blood vessels, and decrease blood volume, which lowers blood pressure and decreases oxygen demand from the ...
... , sold under the trade name Capoten, is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the treatment of ... Captopril's main uses are based on its vasodilation and inhibition of some renal function activities. These benefits are most ... Brown, NJ; Vaughan, DE (1998). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors". Circulation. 97 (14): 1411-20. doi:10.1161/01.cir. ... "Design of specific inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme: New class of orally active antihypertensive agents". Science. ...
... is also thought to be the cause of the dry cough in some patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ... It is thought that bradykinin is converted to inactive metabolites by ACE, therefore inhibition of this enzyme leads to ... In humans, bradykinin is broken down by three kininases: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), aminopeptidase P (APP), and ... "Inactivation of bradykinin by angiotensin-converting enzyme and by carboxypeptidase N in human plasma". Am. J. Physiol. Heart ...
Loin pain hematuria syndrome
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are thought to be beneficial, as they reduce intraglomerular pressure and, presumably ... Possible treatment regimens Angiotensin inhibition Reduce the risk of nephrolithiasis Opioid therapy Inpatient therapy ... Limited evidence suggests that drugs that inhibit angiotensin may reduce the frequency and severity of episodes of loin pain ...
... is an ACE Inhibitor, meaning it blocks the actions of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the renin-angiotensin- ... keeping Angiotensin I from being converted to Angiotensin II. The inhibition of this system causes an overall decrease in blood ... Lisinopril is a drug of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class used primarily in treatment of high blood ... John Wiley & Sons, Apr 3, 2013 ISBN 9781118354469 Menard J and Patchett A. "Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors". pp. 14- ...
Izawa H, Aoyagi Y (2006). "Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme by mushroom". Journal of the Japanese Society for Food ... The mushroom contains nicotianamine, an ACE inhibitor (angiotensin-converting enzyme). Nicotianamine is a metal-chelating ... A separate study demonstrated growth inhibition against Proteus vulgaris. In a 2009 study of 16 Portuguese edible wild mushroom ...
... hydrochloride is a potent orally active nonsulfhydryl angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) which ... Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade". Basic research in cardiology ... Chrysant, S. G. (1998). "Vascular remodeling: The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors". American Heart Journal. ... "Synthesis of novel angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor quinapril and related compounds. A divergence of structure-activity ...
"Rho kinase inhibition activates the homologous angiotensin-converting enzyme-angiotensin-(1-9) axis in experimental ... Fasudil (HA-1077) is a selective RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. ROCK is an enzyme that plays an important role in mediating ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin-I (Ang-I) to angiotensin-II (Ang- ... "Rho kinase inhibitor HA-1077 prevents Rho-mediated myosin phosphatase inhibition in smooth muscle cells". American Journal of ...
It is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor), which inhibits the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin ... "Inhibition by SQ 20881 of vasopressor response to angiotensin I in conscious animals". European Journal of Pharmacology. 23 (2 ... It was found that teprotide inhibits the enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II. From this researchers conducted ... "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from the venom of bothrops jararaca. Isolation, elucidation of structure, and ...
Angiotensin II receptor type 1
... angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are associated with fewer traumatic stress symptoms ... Marvar PJ, Goodman J, Fuchs S, Choi DC, Banerjee S, Ressler KJ (Jun 2014). "Angiotensin type 1 receptor inhibition enhances the ... Angiotensin II receptor type 1 or AT1 receptor is the best characterized angiotensin receptor. It has vasopressor effects and ... The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in turn couples to ...
... s have also been replaced by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in Australia due to their propensity to ... Inhibition of sodium-chloride symporter increases availability of sodium and chloride in urine. When the urine reaches the ... Therefore, ACE inhibitor and thiazide combination is used to prevent hypokalemia. Hyperglycemia Hyperlipidemia Hyperuricemia - ... This activates the renin-angiotensin system, stimulates the secretion of aldosterone, thus activating Na+/K+-ATPase, increasing ...
Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), as well as angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), are particularly helpful ... "The Effect of Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme Inhibition on Diabetic Nephropathy". New England Journal of Medicine. 329 (20): ... Treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), which dilates the ... RAAS inhibition: Inhibition of the RAA system can be achieved with multiple therapies, mainly: ACE inhibitors, ARBs, direct ...
... is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic ... Effects of ACE-inhibition on IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentrations in older adults with high cardiovascular risk profile. Journal of ... Renin converts the inactive angiotensinogen into angiotensin I, which is converted to angiotensin II (AII) by angiotensin ... an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor in Healthy Subjects. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 31(1):58-64. Erhardt L., ...
Sérgio Henrique Ferreira
... the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors by Squibb scientists. For this work with the Bothrops peptide he received ... Using those peptides, was demonstrated a general parallelism between bradykinin potentiation and inhibition of Angiotensin I ... the ACE inhibitors. Ferreira received his M.D. from the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo ( ... he participated in the discovery of the inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins by aspirin-like drugs. At that time, he ...
Discovery and development of ACE inhibitors
"Novel ketomethylene inhibitors of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE): inhibition and molecular medelling", Biological ... 1982), "Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: Importance of the Amide Carbonyl of Mercaptoacyl Amino Acids for Hydrogen ... 1980), "A new class of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors", Nature, 288 (5788): 280-283, doi:10.1038/288280a0, PMID ... "Silanediol Inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme. Synthesis and Evaluation of Four Diastereomers of Phe[Si]Ala Dipeptide ...
ACE inhibitors Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 Hypotensive transfusion reaction Renin-angiotensin system GRCh38: Ensembl ... Imig JD (Mar 2004). "ACE Inhibition and Bradykinin-Mediated Renal Vascular Responses: EDHF Involvement". Hypertension. 43 (3): ... Proteopedia Angiotensin-converting_enzyme - the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Structure in Interactive 3D Angiotensin ... angiotensin converting enzyme, kininase II, angiotensin I-converting enzyme, carboxycathepsin, dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, " ...
Discovery and development of angiotensin receptor blockers
With the introduction of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the late 1970s it was confirmed that Ang II plays an ... An insurmountable inhibition of the AT1 receptor is achieved when the maximum response of Ang II cannot be restored in the ... Then Ang I is converted to Ang II with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), see figure 2. Ang II in plasma then binds to AT- ... Renin, an enzyme released from the kidneys, converts the inactive plasma protein angiotensinogen into angiotensin I (Ang I). ...
The drug may increase the risk of kidney failure with angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors, such as lisinopril, and ... However, whether inhibition of COX-2 also plays a dominant role in this drug's anticancer effects is unclear. For example, a ... The COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib (Vioxx) was removed from the market in 2004 due to its risk. Like all NSAIDs on the US market, ... A para-sulfamoylphenyl at position 1 of the pyrazole was found to have a higher potency for COX-2 selective inhibition than a ...
It inhibits both neprilysin (neutral endopeptidase, NEP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). NEP inhibition results in ... "Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of the Vasopeptidase Inhibitor, Omapatrilat in Healthy Subjects". British Journal of ... inhibiting both angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and neprilysin (neutral endopeptidase), both of these enzymes are ...
ACE inhibitors-inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme are often used to reduce the formation of the more potent ... "A Brief Overview of Inhibition of the Renin-Angiotensin System: Emphasis on Blockade of the Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor". ... Angiotensin I is subsequently converted to angiotensin II by the enzyme angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) found in the lungs ... Angiotensin I is then converted to an octapeptide, angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which is thought to ...
"Sustained augmentation of parasympathetic tone with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in patients with congestive heart ... Angiotensin converting enzyme) then removes a further two residues, converting angiotensin I into angiotensin II. ACE is found ... An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of ... "Treatment with low-dose angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) plus angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) in pediatric ...
Renin InhibitorsEdit. Renin comes one level higher than angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the renin-angiotensin system. ... reserpine - indirect via irreversible VMAT inhibition. For the most resistant and severe disease, oral minoxidil (Loniten) in ... ACE inhibitors inhibit the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), an enzyme responsible for the conversion of ... February 13, 2003). "A comparison of outcomes with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and diuretics for hypertension in ...
DailyMed - FOSINOPRIL SODIUM- fosinopirl sodium tablet
Another angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, has been shown to cause agranulocytosis and bone marrow depression ... inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme produces decreases in both preload and afterload. ... Experience with another angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor suggests that these increases are usually reversible upon ... Presumably because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition studies by natural leech inhibitors by capillary electrophoresis and competition assay...
... the minimal amount of angiotensin II detected, (c) the use of different electrolytes and (d) the concentration of inhibitor. We ... data obtained with antisera raised against LORF and leech ACE showed a colocalization between the enzyme and its inhibitor in ... Fifty-four percent of insect ACE activity is inhibited with 50 micro m IPEP and 35% inhibition with LORF (25 mm). Extending the ... and its inhibition by a novel natural antagonist, the leech osmoregulator factor (LORF) using capillary zonal electrophoresis ...
Analysis of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Biological Fluids | SpringerLink
... inhibitors, diverse analytical methods including HPLC, GC, GC-MS, REI and RIA have been reported. The different analytical ... Rakhit A. (1988) Analysis of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Biological Fluids. In: Reid E., Robinson J.D., Wilson ... During the last 10 years of development of several ACE* inhibitors, diverse analytical methods including HPLC, GC, GC-MS, REI ... radioenzymatic inhibition. RIA. radioimmunoassay. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. ...
Increased Renal Oxygenation and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ... Increased Renal Oxygenation and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Measure the renal blood oxigenation after angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition [ Time Frame: up to 12 months ]. ... Renal Oxygen Content is Increased in Healthy Subjects After Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition. ...
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition in Children With Mitral Regurgitation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ... Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition in Children With Mitral Regurgitation (AceiMR). The safety and scientific validity of ... This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACE-I) therapy for the treatment ... Lessons learned from a pediatric clinical trial: the Pediatric Heart Network angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in mitral ...
New Perspectives in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) I: Endogenous Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibition
... suggesting the presence of an endogenous inhibitor. In accordance, specific enzyme activities did not changed by dilution when ... Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated non-competitive inhibition of ACE by this endogenous factor. The endogenous inhibitor had higher ... inhibitors represent the fifth most often prescribed drugs. ACE inhibitors decrease 5-year mortality by approximately one-fifth ... Here we aimed to investigate this endogenous ACE inhibition in human sera. It was hypothesized that ACE activity is masked by ...
Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. - PubMed -...
Myocardial perfusion and ACE inhibition. [Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2000]. *ACE inhibition in stable coronary artery disease. [N Engl ... Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients.. Heart ... Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors improve the outcome among patients with left ventricular dysfunction, whether or not ... We assessed the role of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, in patients who were at high risk for ...
Brief review: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angioedema: anesthetic implications | SpringerLink
Purpose Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are a group of drugs used to treat hypertension and heart failure, ... Clinical profile of angioedema with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. JAMA 1988, 260:967-70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists on mortality and renal outcomes in ... Unmasking of acquired autoimmune C1-inhibitor deficiency by an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Ann Allergy Asthma ...
Effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition compared with conventional therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
Background: Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used for more than a decade to treat high blood pressure, ... Effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition compared with conventional therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality ... The Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) is a randomised intervention trial to compare the effects of ACE inhibition and ... Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use* * Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use* * Blood Pressure / ...
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors | GreenMedInfo
The study revealed the antihypertensive potential of Mucuna pruriens seed compounds via ACE inhibition.Jun 20, 2017. ... Pharmacological Actions : Alpha-amylase inhibitor, Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, ... Pharmacological Actions : Alpha-amylase inhibitor, Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, ... Pharmacological Actions : Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Hypotensive, Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) inhibitor ...
Effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition on Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Acute Ischemic...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) might modulate EPC mobilization. We evaluated populations of circulating stem ... E. P. Davidson, L. J. Coppey, A. Holmes, and M. A. Yorek, "Effect of inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme and/or neutral ... Effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition on Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Acute Ischemic ... J. E. Toblli, G. Cao, G. DeRosa, F. Di Gennaro, and P. Forcada, "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiogenesis in ...
Comparative effectiveness of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: Is an ACE always an ace? | CMAJ
Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition in stable coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 2004;351:2058-68. ... Comparative effectiveness of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: Is an ACE always an ace?. Adrian F. Hernandez and Robert ... Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med ... Effect of different angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors on mortality among elderly patients with congestive heart failure ...
Beneficial effects of inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme on ischemic myocardium during coronary hypoperfusion in dogs.
The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that an ACE inhibitor increases coronary blood fl ... produces angiotensin II, causing vasoconstriction of coronary arteries and reduction of coronary blood flow. ... Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*. Animals. Bradykinin / metabolism. Cilazapril / analogs & derivatives ... 0/Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; 19KW7PI29F/Cilazapril; 31C4KY9ESH/Nitric Oxide; S8TIM42R2W/Bradykinin; WBL76FH528/ ...
The effect of local angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on the action of atrial natriuretic peptide in the human forearm.
... and that ANP may interfere with angiotensin-induced vasoconstriction. This has been investigated within the forearm ... It has been suggested that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) may play a role in the metabolism of atrial natriuretic peptide ... Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*. Atrial Natriuretic Factor / metabolism*. Enalapril / analogs & ... 0/Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; 75847-73-3/Enalapril; 84680-54-6/Enalaprilat; 85637-73-6/Atrial Natriuretic Factor ...
Effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on sudden cardiac death in patients following acute myocardial infarction. A...
Moreover, this analysis suggests that a reduction in SCD risk with ACE inhibitors is an important component of this survival ... This analysis is consistent with prior reports showing that ACE inhibitors decrease the risk of death following a recent MI by ... Effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on sudden cardiac death in patients following acute myocardial infarction. A ... Estimate the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) following ...
Low Dose Versus Aggressive Inhibition of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone (RAS) to Treat Microalbuminuria - Full Text View -...
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ... All patients had been on various doses of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) which were reduced to 10 mg ... Low Dose Versus Aggressive Inhibition of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone (RAS) to Treat Microalbuminuria (END-IT). The safety ... The objective of the study is to assess the effect of standard versus aggressive inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system ( ...
Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in plasma and tissues: Studies ex vivo after administration of ACE inhibitors...
Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in plasma and tissues: Studies ex vivo after administration of ACE inhibitors ... Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in plasma and tissues: Studies ex vivo after administration of ACE inhibitors ... Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in plasma and tissues: Studies ex vivo after administration of ACE inhibitors ... Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in plasma and tissues: Studies ex vivo after administration of ACE inhibitors ...
Use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of...
... inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers is thought to be mediated through rennin-angiotensin system-dependent inhibition ... Use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of ... Use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of ... Use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of ...
Angioedema Incidence in US Veterans Initiating Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors | Hypertension
Clinical profile of angioedema associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. JAMA. 1988; 260: 967-970. ... Renin-Angiotensin System. Angioedema Incidence in US Veterans Initiating Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Donald R. ... Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists on mortality and renal outcomes in ... effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. Amer Heart J. 2004; 148: 747-754. ...
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Progression of Nondiabetic Renal DiseaseA Meta-Analysis of Patient-Level Data |...
... and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition: A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis Annals of Internal Medicine; 139 (4): 244-252 ... Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Progression of Nondiabetic Renal Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Patient-Level Data ... Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on the Progression of Nondiabetic Renal Disease: A Meta-Analysis of ... The Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on the Progression of Nondiabetic Renal Disease: A Pooled Analysis of ...
Effects of Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibition and Combined Angiotensin Converting Enzyme and Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibition on...
1998) Marked difference between angiotensin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase inhibition in vivo by a dual inhibitor ... angiotensin converting enzyme. Ang I. angiotensin I. Ang II. angiotensin II. ANOVA. analysis of variance. ANP. atrial ... 1994) Inhibition of either angiotensin-converting enzyme or neutral endopeptidase induces both enzymes. Eur J Pharmacol 264:135 ... 1993) Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of heart failure. in The Renin-Angiotensin System, eds ...
Hyperkalemia, Renal Failure, and Converting-Enzyme Inhibition | Hypertension
Keane WF, Anderson S, Aurell M, de Zeeuw D, Narins RG, Povar G. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and progressive renal ... Hyperkalemia in outpatients using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Arch Intern Med. . 1998; 158: 26-32. ... Effectiveness of spironolactone added to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and a loop diuretic for severe chronic ... Hyperkalemia in azotemic patients during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and aldosterone reduction with captopril. Am ...
Risk of pneumonia associated with use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers: systematic...
Effect of high- versus low-dose angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on cytokine levels in chronic heart failure. J Am Coll ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, and symptomless dysphagia. Chest2000;117:1819-20 ... Do angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers decrease the risk of hospitalization secondary ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor antagonists, and pneumonia in elderly hypertensive patients ...
Salmenkari, H., et al. (2017) Orally Administered Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-Inhibitors Captopril and Isoleucine-Proline...
Enzyme-Inhibitors Captopril and Isoleucine-Proline-Proline Have Distinct Effects on Local Renin-Angiotensin System and ... Inhibition of the Renin Angiotensin System during Autologous Stem Cell Transplant Does Not Impact Time to Engraftment ... 2017) Orally Administered Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-Inhibitors Captopril and Isoleucine-Proline-Proline Have Distinct ... Components of RAS, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), have been detected locally in the gut epithelium. In addition, ...
Marine Drugs | Free Full-Text | Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Protein...
Food protein hydrolysates are known to exhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and can be used as a ... Je, J.Y.; Park, J.Y.; Jung, W.K.; Park, P.J.; Kim, S.K. Isolation of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor from ... Jao, C.L.; Huang, S.L.; Hsu, K.C. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides: Inhibition mode, bioavailability, and ... Fuglsang, A.; Rattray, F.P.; Nilsson, D.; Nyborg, N.C. Lactic acid bacteria: Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme in ...
Renal oxygen content is increased in healthy subjects after angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition
Data were recorded before and at 30 minutes after the oral administration of an angiotensin II-converting enzyme inhibitor ( ... Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008;65(10):935- ... alterations in renal blood oxygenation after angiotensin II-converting enzyme inhibition and that it may provide a new strategy ... Tissue angiotensin converting enzyme in cardiac and vascular hypertrophy, repair, and remodeling. Hypertension. 1994;23(2):258- ...
Effects of the prolonged inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme on the morphological and functional characteristics of...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have also been proved to decrease left ventricular hypertrophy in human beings 7 and ... Effects of the prolonged inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme on the morphological and functional characteristics of ... Long-term angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with fosinopril improves depressed responsiveness to Ca+2 in myocytes from ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition prolongs survival and modifies the transition to heart failure in rats with pressure ...
Taking precautions with ACE inhibitors | The BMJ
The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. The Collaborative Study Group. N Engl J Med ... Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have revolutionised the treatment of congestive heart failure,1 hypertension,2 and ... Renovascular disease and renal complications of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. Q J Med 1990;77:1013-1018. ... The success of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in preventing and treating vascular disorders is undeniable. However, ...
SGLT2 Inhibitors and the Diabetic Kidney | Diabetes Care
The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1456-1462pmid:8413456. ... SGLT2 Inhibitors and Renal Function in Clinical Studies. The changes in GFR during SGLT2 inhibition are similar in patients ... The effects of GLP-1 analogues, DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors on the renal system. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2014;11:306-323 ... SGLT2 inhibitors are less effective in lowering blood glucose. In patients with high cardiovascular risk, the SGLT2 inhibitor ...
Progression of chronic kidney disease: the role of blood pressure control, proteinuria, and angiotensin-converting enzyme...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce blood pressure and urine protein excretion and slow the progression of ... and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition: a patient-level meta-analysis.. Jafar TH1, Stark PC, Schmid CH, Landa M, Maschio ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors remained beneficial after adjustment for blood pressure and urine protein excretion ( ... 11 randomized, controlled trials comparing the efficacy of antihypertensive regimens with or without ACE inhibitors for ...
Frontiers | Targeting GPCRs Against Cardiotoxicity Induced by Anticancer Treatments | Cardiovascular Medicine
Novel anticancer drugs such as targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors have greatly improved the management of a ... including targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors, have greatly improved the management of cancers. However, both ... Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) and Angiotensin (AngII) Receptor Blockers (ARB). Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone ... Renin angiotensin aldosterone inhibition in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Pharmacol Res. (2017) 125:57-71. doi: ...
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Conversion of angiotensin1
- Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are a group of drugs used to treat hypertension and heart failure, with additional benefits, such as cardiovascular and renal protection, in patients with diabetes. (springer.com)
- The combination of neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition is a candidate therapy for hypertension and cardiac failure. (aspetjournals.org)
- Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have revolutionised the treatment of congestive heart failure, 1 hypertension, 2 and diabetic nephropathy. (bmj.com)
- Food protein hydrolysates are known to exhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and can be used as a novel functional food for prevention of hypertension. (mdpi.com)
- The present study investigates the effect of combination of the antidepressant venlafaxine (serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, SNRI) with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril on the immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) as well as on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in uninephroctemized DOCA salt-treated rats as a model of experimental hypertension. (ispub.com)
- Additionally, development of hypertension is one of the known complications of venlafaxine which is a serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, SNRI. (ispub.com)
- 8 Among 9193 patients with essential hypertension who were randomized to once-daily atenolol or losartan (a selective angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker [ARB]), there was no significant difference in mean BP recordings among patients in each treatment group during the mean follow-up period of 4.8 years. (ahajournals.org)
- Today, post-transplant patients are commonly placed drugs such as statins for potential CAV improvement as well angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) for their most common indications, like hypertension (3,4) . (onlinejacc.org)
- The drugs of choice for hypertension related to ADPKD are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). (medscape.com)
- Lisinopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial infarction. (rcsb.org)
- Overview: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in renovascular hypertension. (ebscohost.com)
- Provides an overview of studies concerning angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in renovascular hypertension. (ebscohost.com)
- ACE inhibitors , or inhibitors of A ngiotensin- C onverting E nzyme , are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure , in most cases as the drugs of first choice. (wikidoc.org)
- ACE inhibitors have been shown to be effective for indications other than hypertension even in patients with normal blood pressure. (wikidoc.org)
- Due to its critical role in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS), ACE has been targeted by a number of pharmaceutical compounds to treat hypertension, diabetic nephropathy, and renal failure. (proteopedia.org)
- Liu, Jiang, Zhang, Li, Li, Xie, Hu: Pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary arterial hypertension induced right ventricular dysfunction by modulating the local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. (antibodies-online.com)
- A key mechanism underpinning this hypertension is an overactivated renin angiotensin system because ACE inhibition reverses the hypertension induced by perinatal DDT exposure. (nih.gov)
- Clinical studies 2,3 have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) improve the survival of patients with heart failure, delay heart decompensation in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction, and attenuate the progression of left ventricular dilation and dysfunction after myocardial infarction. (scielo.br)
- The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) in preserving renal function in chronic proteinuric nephropathies is well documented. (hindawi.com)
- The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) on reducing the rate of decline of GFR in proteinuric nephropathies and its clinical implications are well established. (hindawi.com)
- If patients were under treatment with ACEi and/or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), these medicines were discontinued 3 months prior to enrolment. (hindawi.com)
- Background There is no consensus whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) should be used for secondary prevention in all or in only high-risk patients after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). (onlinejacc.org)
- They contribute to the therapeutic effects of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin AT1 receptor blockers. (eurekaselect.com)
- You are aware that in adult women with diabetes persistent microalbuminuria (MA) is defined as an ACR greater than 3.5 mg/mmol on two out of three successive occasions, and that in such adults, treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) confers renoprotection. (bestbets.org)
- Secondary sources: Cochrane database and BestBETs were searched using the term "Angiotensin" in the "Title, Abstract or Keywords" field: no review of ACEi use in children was found. (bestbets.org)
- In prescription databases, switching from Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors to Angiotensin Receptor Blockers is the best indicator for the ACEI-induced adverse drug reactions. (springer.com)
- We evaluated if RASI with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) increased mortality in patients with mild to moderate AS. (diva-portal.org)
- ACE-inhibitors (or ACEi) are a group of medications used primarily for the treatment of high blood pressure and congestive heart failure. (medheadlines.com)
- ACEi work by limiting the production of a substance called angiotensin II. (medheadlines.com)
- Besides ACEi, there are only three more classes of drugs that are recommended in this scenario, they are: angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers and thiazide diuretics. (medheadlines.com)
- Patients will be randomly divided into Angiotensin-Neprilysin Inhibition (ARNI) group and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) group. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- When given with an ACEI or ARB, aliskiren produces significant additional BP reduction indicative of complimentary pharmacology and more complete renin-angiotensin system blockade. (dovepress.com)
- To determine if sickle cell disease (SCD) bone pain crisis is mitigated by use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), following a case report of ACEIs preventing bone pain crisis. (uwi.edu)
- We administered the NEP inhibitor ecadotril (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 mg/kg per day), either alone or together with the ACE inhibitor perindopril (0.2 mg/kg per day), to rats by 12 hourly gavage for 7 days. (aspetjournals.org)
- Whereas potentiation by perindopril of the diuretic and natriuretic effects of ecadotril may contribute to the therapeutic effects, increased Ang II levels in plasma and lung may compromise the therapeutic effects of combined NEP/ACE inhibition. (aspetjournals.org)
- on circulating and tissue levels of Ang II, Ang I, BK-(1-7) and BK-(1-9) and urinary kinin levels in rats administered ecadotril alone and in rats simultaneously administered ecadotril and the ACE inhibitor perindopril. (aspetjournals.org)
- 1999). On the other hand, the vasoprotective effect of perindopril might be explained on the basis that the RAS plays an important role in the elevation of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and this can be effectively reversed upon perindopril treatment ( Ito et al . (ispub.com)
- 1 In 2000 and 2001, it was established from the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial and particularly the Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study (PROGRESS) trial that lowering BP in the long term, months to years after stroke, by means of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (perindopril or ramipril) and diuretics (indapamide) reduces the risk of recurrent stroke (and cognitive impairment). (ahajournals.org)
- Control or streptozocin-induced diabetic rats were randomized to receive no drug or the ACE inhibitor perindopril. (diabetesjournals.org)
- abstract = "Two methods of radio-inhibitor binding to tissue membrane homogenates and in vitro autoradiography have been used for ex vivo studies on the inhibition of tissue angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) following acute and chronic administration of ACE inhibitors. (elsevier.com)
- ABSTRACT: The renin angiotensin system (RAS) participates in inflammatory processes, as either a pro-inflammatory or an anti-inflammatory mediator. (scirp.org)
- Abstract - - Hyperkalemia is widely viewed as a common complication of ACE inhibition in azotemic patients. (ahajournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that an inhibitor of ACE can increase coronary blood flow and ameliorate myocardial ischemia, primarily due to accumulation of bradykinin and production of nitric oxide from the ischemic myocardium. (biomedsearch.com)
- Given that NEP and ACE metabolize angiotensin (Ang) and bradykinin (BK) peptides, we investigated the effects of NEP inhibition and combined NEP and ACE inhibition on the levels of these peptides. (aspetjournals.org)
- Diagrammatic representation of participation by neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the metabolism of bradykinin [BK-(1-9)] and angiotensin I (Ang I). The alternate pathway of conversion of Ang I to Ang II by serine protease activity is also shown. (aspetjournals.org)
- Given the colocalization of ACE and NEP in many tissues, one would predict interactions between the effects of ACE and NEP inhibitors on angiotensin and bradykinin peptide levels during simultaneous ACE and NEP inhibition. (aspetjournals.org)
- The purpose of this study was to characterize the interactions between the effects of ACE and NEP inhibition on angiotensin and bradykinin peptides. (aspetjournals.org)
- ACE not ouly increases the conversion of angiotensin I to the active angiotensin II, but also degrades bradykinin. (diva-portal.org)
- Hence, we investigated whether the effect of an ACE inhibitor on the lower limit of CBF autoregulation is mediated by the potentiation of bradykinin-mediated vasodilatation. (ahajournals.org)
- On the other hand, ACE inhibitors are capable of inactivating kininase II, a kinin-degrading enzyme, which would result in accumulation of bradykinin. (ahajournals.org)
- Valsartan may induce more complete inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system than ACE inhibitors, it does not affect response to bradykinin, and it is less likely to be associated with cough and angioedema. (medscape.com)
- The pathophysiology of ACE-I-induced angioedema involves inhibition of bradykinin and substance P degradation by ACE (kininase II) leading to vasodilator and plasma extravasation. (springer.com)
- Yang HY, Erdös EG, Levin Y. A dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase that converts angiotensin I and inactivates bradykinin. (springer.com)
- Although ACE inhibitors increase bradykinin concentrations in addition to their effect on angiotensin II formation, the role of bradykinin in renal fibrosis has not been studied. (jci.org)
- The increased interstitial fibrosis in B2 -/- mice was accompanied by a decreased activity of plasminogen activators (PAs) and metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), enzymes involved in ECM degradation, suggesting that the protective effects of bradykinin involve activation of a B2 receptor/PA/MMP-2 cascade. (jci.org)
- A persistent dry cough is a relatively common adverse effect believed to be associated with the increases in bradykinin levels produced by ACE inhibitors, although the role of bradykinin in producing these symptoms remains disputed by some authors. (wikidoc.org)
- ACE is a zinc- and chloride-dependent metallopeptidase that is responsible for the metabolism of key biologically active peptides, namely Angiotensin I and Bradykinin. (proteopedia.org)
- Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. (nih.gov)
- We assessed the role of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, in patients who were at high risk for cardiovascular events but who did not have left ventricular dysfunction or heart failure. (nih.gov)
- ACE inhibition in cardiovascular disease. (nih.gov)
- Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used for more than a decade to treat high blood pressure, despite the lack of data from randomised intervention trials to show that such treatment affects cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (nih.gov)
- 4 Over the last several decades, our understanding of ACE inhibition has evolved from a theory based on simple hemodynamic effects of vasodilatation to beneficial effects on mechanisms throughout the cardiorenal and cardiovascular systems. (cmaj.ca)
- Further, the techniques of radioligand inhibitor binding and in vitro autoradiography can be extended to other important cardiovascular enzymes (renin and kallikrein) when suitable high affinity specific inhibitors become available. (elsevier.com)
- This analysis is consistent with prior reports showing that ACE inhibitors decrease the risk of death following a recent MI by reducing cardiovascular mortality. (nih.gov)
- In patients with high cardiovascular risk, the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin lowered the rate of cardiovascular events, especially cardiovascular death, and substantially reduced important renal outcomes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The divergent cardiovascular effects of ACE inhibitors and ARBs, despite similar BP reductions, are counter-intuitive. (biomedcentral.com)
- The use of a maximum dose of ACE inhibitors in such patients (including for prevention of diabetic nephropathy, congestive heart failure, prophylaxis of cardiovascular events) is justified because it improves clinical outcomes, independent of the blood pressure lowering effect of ACE inhibitors. (wikidoc.org)
Benefits of angiotensin converting1
- When renovascular disease is identified the benefits of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors may still be available if treatment is started after percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty and stent placement. (bmj.com)
- This study aims to examine current knowledge on the occurrence, pathophysiology, and treatment of angioedema among patients who receive angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. (springer.com)
- In addition, because of cross-talk between different signalling pathways, hyperglycaemia induced PKC activation augments biochemical responses triggered by other pathophysiological mechanisms-for example, hypoxia, 9 shear stress and raised capillary pressure, and/or increased activity of the local renin-angiotensin system. (bmj.com)
- The experiment was carried out using the Beckman PACE system and steps were taken to determine (a) the migration profiles of angiotensin and its yielded peptides, (b) the minimal amount of angiotensin II detected, (c) the use of different electrolytes and (d) the concentration of inhibitor. (ox.ac.uk)
- 4 - 7 Although the classically recognized functions of the RAS to promote renal sodium retention and vasoconstriction are mediated through the binding of angiotensin II (Ang II) to type 1 angiotensin (AT 1 ) receptors, 8 , 9 other peptides, enzymes, and receptors in this cascade have received increased scrutiny for their independent contributions to developmental biology, renal and vascular function, and immunity. (asnjournals.org)
- Indeed, cell lineages that constitute the immune system have the capacity to express RAS components, 11 , 12 and the effects of the RAS peptides and enzymes on inflammatory responses are quite diverse. (asnjournals.org)
- Data in the literature 1 have shown that the load conditions and neurohumoral systems, among which the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) stands out, modulate the characteristics of left ventricular hypertrophy that develop in the presence of chronic pressure overload. (scielo.br)
- In contrast, the clinical trials with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade versus other antihypertensive agents in primary prevention of DN have provided conflicting results and are confounded, when albuminuria (urinary albumin excretion rate) is the primary outcome, by the rapid but reversible decreases in urinary albumin excretion rate and by the differences in blood pressure control. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Gynura procumbens inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
- However, long term exposure can irreversibly inhibit complex I by S-nitrosation of critical thiols in the enzyme complex. (bmj.com)
- The enzyme assay confirmed that MG 770 can efficiently inhibit ACE, with an IC 50 equivalent to other microginins. (mdpi.com)
- ACE inhibitors have 2 major pharmacological properties: they inhibit both the production of angiotensin II and the breakdown of kinins. (ahajournals.org)
- Both inhibit the renin-angiotensin system, albeit through different mechanisms, and produce similar reductions in BP. (biomedcentral.com)
Treatment of congestive heart f1
- As an example of this wealth of data, in this issue of CMAJ , Pilote and colleagues 2 use administrative databases of hospital discharges and prescription claims to study the comparative effectiveness of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the treatment of congestive heart failure. (cmaj.ca)
- In addition to the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renal tubular factors, including SGLT2, contribute to glomerular hyperfiltration in diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- ACE inhibitors suppress the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. (medscape.com)
- AIt functions by inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme as well as the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. (rcsb.org)
- See the schematic image of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System at the left for a visual description and the table below for selected Angiotensin receptor-mediated effects of binding Angiotensin II. (proteopedia.org)
- Pomegranate juice reduces blood pressure by inhibiting Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) activity in diabetic rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
- In conclusion, ACE inhibition may have a specific role in preventing diabetes-associated vascular hypertrophy, an important process in the genesis of micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications. (diabetesjournals.org)
- PKC mediated phosphorylation of transcription factors, cytoskeletal proteins, enzymes and transporters in turn affects many of the pathophysiological features of diabetic retinopathy. (bmj.com)
- In numerous studies in animal models of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, aminoguanidine inhibited AGE formation in concert with inhibition of diabetic renal, retinal, neural, and vascular complications ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that ACE inhibitors reduce the progress of diabetic nephropathy independently from their blood pressure-lowering effect. (wikidoc.org)
- This action of ACE inhibitors is utilised in the prevention of diabetic renal failure . (wikidoc.org)
- Clinical profile of angioedema with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. (springer.com)
- Angioedema is a rare but potentially serious complication of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE) use. (ahajournals.org)
- Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor associated angioedema. (springer.com)
- Racecadotril, via its active metabolite thiorphan, is an inhibitor of the enzyme neutral endopeptidase (NEP, EC 184.108.40.206), thereby increasing exposure to NEP substrates including enkephalins and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). (frontiersin.org)
- It inhibits both angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase (neprilysin). (wikipedia.org)
- Although renin and angiotensinogen are known to be subject to feedback regulation, the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on the regulation of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression and enzymatic activity have not yet been studied. (semanticscholar.org)
- Angiotensinogen is converted to Ang I by renin in the circulation. (asnjournals.org)
- In such a situation, the kidneys release renin which cleaves the liver derived angiotensinogen into Angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is then converted to angiotensin II via the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) in the pulmonary circulation. (wikidoc.org)
- Renin is an enzyme produced by the liver which cleaves Angiotensinogen into Angiotensin I Angiotensin Ihas the sequence, DRVTIHPFHL, and does not appear to have any biological activity. (proteopedia.org)
- Ni H, Li L, Liu G, Hu S-Q. Inhibition mechanism and model of an angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory hexapeptide from yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). (springer.com)
- While aminoguanidine is the prototype AGE inhibitor, its proposed mechanism of action is based completely on model chemical studies in vitro. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition studies by natural leech inhibitors by capillary electrophoresis and competition assay. (ox.ac.uk)
- A competition assay using p-benzoylglycylglycylglycine and insect ACE established that LORF and IPEP fragments are natural inhibitors for invertebrate ACE. (ox.ac.uk)
- 1. Based on a specific binding of labelled inhibitor to the enzyme active centre, a new principle of enzyme assay, inhibitor binding assay (IBA), was developed and applied to measurement of rat serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). (portlandpress.com)
- 3. The advantages offered by the novel inhibitor binding assay include simplicity, specificity, absence of interference by other enzymes or immunological cross-reactions, and great sensitivity enabling measurement of ACE in concentrations less than 0.1 units/ml. (portlandpress.com)
- 4. This principle of enzyme assay will not only have potential new applications for research involving ACE but may also be extended to other enzymes. (portlandpress.com)
- The fractionation of cyanobacterial extracts was performed by liquid chromatography and the presence of microginins was monitored by both LC-MS and an ACE inhibition assay. (mdpi.com)
- BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) produces angiotensin II, causing vasoconstriction of coronary arteries and reduction of coronary blood flow. (biomedsearch.com)
- It has been suggested that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) may play a role in the metabolism of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and that ANP may interfere with angiotensin-induced vasoconstriction. (biomedsearch.com)
- SGLT2 inhibitors reduce sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule, causing, through tubuloglomerular feedback, afferent arteriole vasoconstriction and reduction in hyperfiltration. (diabetesjournals.org)
- On the other hand, CV11974, an inhibitor of angiotensin II receptors, slightly increased coronary blood flow to 34 +/- 2 from 30 +/- 1 mL/100 g per minute. (biomedsearch.com)
- Valsartan is a prodrug that produces direct antagonism of angiotensin II receptors. (medscape.com)
- We conclude that treatment with an ACE inhibitor increases vascular reactivity to ANG II which may be mediated by an upregulation of renal vascular ANG II receptors. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Haddad G, Garcia R. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme two-week inhibition on renal angiotensin II receptors and renal vascular reactivity in SHR. (unboundmedicine.com)
- TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme two-week inhibition on renal angiotensin II receptors and renal vascular reactivity in SHR. (unboundmedicine.com)
- 3 Adding and removing PO 4 groups to intracellular proteins, via kinases and phosphatases respectively, is an important regulatory system for activating and deactivating tissue enzymes, receptor pathways, and transcription factors controlling gene expression. (bmj.com)
- PKC is not a single enzyme, but rather a family of structurally and functionally related proteins (isoenzymes) derived from multiple genes (at least three) and from alternative splicing of single mRNA transcripts. (bmj.com)
- Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free (decompartmentalized) metal ions were identified as key participants in the Maillard reaction, and chelators were identified as potent inhibitors of browning and cross-linking of proteins by glucose. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Additionally we are shipping Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 1 Kits (134) and Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 1 Proteins (25) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
- Other theoretical options include subthreshold or low-dose paracetamol, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, pre-medication with antihistamines with or without a leukotriene receptor antagonist, co-administration of prostaglandin E2 analogue, traditional Chinese medicine, or desensitisation if antipyretics are deemed desirable. (hkmj.org)
- The effect of local angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on the action of atrial natriuretic peptide in the human forearm. (biomedsearch.com)
- 9. The method of claim 1, wherein the fresh whey product comprises whey-derived protein isolate or whey-derived mineral fraction plus whey-derived enzyme-inhibiting peptide fraction, and/or combinations. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 15. The method of claim 1, wherein the fresh whey product comprises an enzyme-inhibiting peptide fraction. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 16. The method of claim 15, wherein the enzyme-inhibiting peptide comprises angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting peptide. (freepatentsonline.com)
- This has been investigated within the forearm vascular bed during local ANP infusion and ACE inhibition. (biomedsearch.com)
- These studies in healthy subjects demonstrate no effect of local ACE inhibition on resting blood flow, or on the vasodilatation produced by ANP in the human forearm, and provide no evidence of a role of ACE in the metabolism of ANP in this vascular bed. (biomedsearch.com)
- The success of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in preventing and treating vascular disorders is undeniable. (bmj.com)
- The results of the HOPE and LIFE trials, and to a lesser extent SCOPE, indicate that inhibiting the formation or action of angiotensin II prevents stroke and other vascular events (and perhaps new-onset diabetes) and suggest that a substantial proportion of the effect may be independent of BP lowering. (ahajournals.org)
- In experimental diabetes, the mesenteric vascular tree undergoes hypertrophy, and this is associated with an increase in mesenteric angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The aim of this study was to determine if inhibition of mesenteric ACE by ACE inhibition would influence diabetes-associated mesenteric vascular hypertrophy. (diabetesjournals.org)
- ACE inhibition, despite no effect on glycemic control, food intake, urinary urea excretion, or gut weight, prevented the increase in mesenteric ACE levels and attenuated mesenteric vascular hypertrophy as assessed by weight or wall:lumen ratio. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exacerbates renal and vascular injury. (asnjournals.org)
Action of ACE inhibitors1
- ACE inhibitors were also associated with a decrease in pneumonia related mortality, but the data lacked strength. (bmj.com)
- Because glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (abciximab) as adjunctive pharmacological therapy for primary percutaneous coronary intervention in STEMI demonstrated a moderate reduction in mortality at 30 days (2.4% versus 3.4%, P =0.047), we found a similar beneficial result in short-term mortality of cilostazol-based triple therapy in this article (in-hospital death: 2.2% versus 3.4%, P =0.022). (ahajournals.org)