Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Nymphaeaceae: The sour gum plant family of the order Nymphaeales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. All have horizontal or hanging branches and broad alternate leaves, and they are dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants).Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Ovule: The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.Nymphaea: A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. The common name of lotus is also used for LOTUS and NELUMBO.Nuphar: A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. Members contain sesquiterpene thioalkaloids.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Genome, Plastid: The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Selaginellaceae: A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Cycas: A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.Alismatidae: A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Annona: A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. It has edible fruit and seeds which contain acetogenins and benzoquinazoline and other alkaloids.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Pollen Tube: A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.Liriodendron: A plant genus of the family MAGNOLIACEAE. Members include hardwood trees of eastern North America with distinct large tuliplike flowers.Geraniaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Aristolochia: A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.MADS Domain Proteins: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.Tracheobionta: A subset of various vascular plants (also known as the Tracheophyta) which include seed-bearing and non seed-bearing species.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Zamiaceae: A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.Endosperm: Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.Hydrocharitaceae: A plant family of the order Hydrocharitales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Pinus taeda: A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the subject of genetic study.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Orobanche: A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Lacking chlorophyll, they are nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants. The common name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Malpighiaceae: A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae class, Magnoliopsida that are mostly shrubs and small trees. Many of the members contain indole alkaloids.Crassulaceae: The stonecrop plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that grow in warm, dry regions. The leaves are thick. The flower clusters are red, yellow, or white.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Self-Fertilization: The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Campanulaceae: A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class MagnoliopsidaSequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.Flowering Tops: Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Viburnum: A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. The common name derives from its traditional use for menstrual cramps. It is a source of viburnine, valerianic acid, vibsanin, and ursolic acid. Note that true cranberry is VACCINIUM MACROCARPON.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Silene: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Nelumbo: A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Hepatophyta: A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Winteraceae: A plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The wood lacks water-conducting cells but has acrid sap. The leaves are gland-dotted, leathery, and smooth-margined. The flowers are small, in clusters, with two to six sepals, petals in two or more series, several stamens, and one to several carpels.Proteaceae: A plant family of the order Proteales, subclass Rosidae class Magnoliopsida. Cluster roots, bottlebrush-like clusters of rootlets which form in response to poor soil, are common in this family.Senecio: A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition. (1/1498)

Naturally occurring substances which can prevent and treat diabetic complications were sought by examining ethanol extracts prepared from Korean forest plants for their inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro. Among the plants examined, Acer ginnala, Illicium religiosum and Cornus macrophylla exerted the most strong inhibitory activity on aldose reductase.  (+info)

Antioxidative and chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides from Pedicularis striata. (2/1498)

AIM: To study the antioxidative and iron chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPG) isolated from a Chinese herb Pedicularis striata. METHODS: Antioxidative effects of PPG on lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4-edetic acid in linoleic acid were measured by thiobarbituric acid method. Chelating activities of PPG for Fe2+ were tested by differential spectrum method. RESULTS: The reaction rates (A532.min-1) of lipid peroxidation were 0.0046 in the control, 0.0021 in verbascoside group, and 0.0008 in isoverbascoside group. The chelating activity of isoverbascoside was 2-fold stronger than that of verbascoside. Permethyl verbascoside showed neither antioxidative nor chelating activities. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effects of PPG with phenolic hydroxy groups on lipid peroxidation are owing to their chelating properties. Under physiological condition PPG-Fe2+ chelates are sufficiently stable. Thus PPG are able to inhibit the Fe(2+)-dependent lipid peroxidation in vivo through chelating Fe2+ and exhibit their therapeutic potential by the same mechanism in vitro.  (+info)

Continuous primary sequence requirements in the 18-nucleotide promoter of dicot plant mitochondria. (3/1498)

The nucleotide requirements of mitochondrial promoters of dicot plants were studied in detail in a pea in vitro transcription system. Deletions in the 5' regions of three different transcription initiation sites from pea, soybean, and Oenothera identified a crucial AT-rich sequence element (AT-Box) comprising nucleotide positions -14 to -9 relative to the first transcribed nucleotide. Transversion of the AT-Box sequence to comple- mentary nucleotide identities results in an almost complete loss of promoter activity, suggesting that primary structure rather than a simple accumulation of adenines and thymidines in this region is essential for promoter activity. This promoter segment thus appears to be involved in sequence specific binding of a respective protein factor(s) rather than merely loosening and melting the DNA helix during or for an initiation event. Manipulation of nucleotide identities in the 3' portion of the pea atp9 promoter and the respective 3'-flanking region revealed that essential sequences extend to positions +3/+4 beyond this transcription start site. Efficient transcription initiation at an 18-base pair promoter sequence ranging from nucleotide positions -14 to +4 integrated into different sequence contexts shows this element to be sufficient for autonomous promoter function independent of surrounding sequences.  (+info)

Characterization of two novel type I ribosome-inactivating proteins from the storage roots of the andean crop Mirabilis expansa. (4/1498)

Two novel type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were found in the storage roots of Mirabilis expansa, an underutilized Andean root crop. The two RIPs, named ME1 and ME2, were purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange perfusion chromatography, and C4 reverse-phase chromatography. The two proteins were found to be similar in size (27 and 27.5 kD) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their isoelectric points were determined to be greater than pH 10.0. Amino acid N-terminal sequencing revealed that both ME1 and ME2 had conserved residues characteristic of RIPs. Amino acid composition and western-blot analysis further suggested a structural similarity between ME1 and ME2. ME2 showed high similarity to the Mirabilis jalapa antiviral protein, a type I RIP. Depurination of yeast 26S rRNA by ME1 and ME2 demonstrated their ribosome-inactivating activity. Because these two proteins were isolated from roots, their antimicrobial activity was tested against root-rot microorganisms, among others. ME1 and ME2 were active against several fungi, including Pythium irregulare, Fusarium oxysporum solani, Alternaria solani, Trichoderma reesei, and Trichoderma harzianum, and an additive antifungal effect of ME1 and ME2 was observed. Antibacterial activity of both ME1 and ME2 was observed against Pseudomonas syringae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, and others.  (+info)

The prenylation status of a novel plant calmodulin directs plasma membrane or nuclear localization of the protein. (5/1498)

Post-translational attachment of isoprenyl groups to conserved cysteine residues at the C-terminus of a number of regulatory proteins is important for their function and subcellular localization. We have identified a novel calmodulin, CaM53, with an extended C-terminal basic domain and a CTIL CaaX-box motif which are required for efficient prenylation of the protein in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of wild-type CaM53 or a non-prenylated mutant protein in plants causes distinct morphological changes. Prenylated CaM53 associates with the plasma membrane, but the non-prenylated mutant protein localizes to the nucleus, indicating a dual role for the C-terminal domain. The subcellular localization of CaM53 can be altered by a block in isoprenoid biosynthesis or sugar depletion, suggesting that CaM53 activates different targets in response to metabolic changes. Thus, prenylation of CaM53 appears to be a novel mechanism by which plant cells can coordinate Ca2+ signaling with changes in metabolic activities.  (+info)

Tissue-specific expression of the beta-subunit of tryptophan synthase in Camptotheca acuminata, an indole alkaloid-producing plant. (6/1498)

Camptothecin is an anticancer drug produced by the monoterpene indole alkaloid pathway in Camptotheca acuminata. As part of an investigation of the camptothecin biosynthetic pathway, we have cloned and characterized a gene from C. acuminata encoding the beta-subunit of tryptophan (Trp) synthase (TSB). In C. acuminata TSB provides Trp for both protein synthesis and indole alkaloid production and therefore represents a junction between primary and secondary metabolism. TSB mRNA and protein were detected in all C. acuminata organs examined, and their abundance paralleled that of camptothecin. Within each shoot organ, TSB was most abundant in vascular tissues. Within the root, however, TSB expression was most abundant in the outer cortex. TSB has been localized to chloroplasts in Arabidopsis, but there was little expression of TSB in C. acuminata tissues where the predominant plastids were photosynthetically competent chloroplasts. Expression of the promoter from the C. acuminata TSB gene in transgenic tobacco plants paralleled expression of the native gene in C. acuminata in all organs except roots. TSB is also highly expressed in C. acuminata during early seedling development at a stage corresponding to peak accumulation of camptothecin, consistent with the idea that Trp biosynthesis and the secondary indole alkaloid pathway are coordinately regulated.  (+info)

Expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase during leaf ontogeny in white clover. (7/1498)

We examined the expression of three distinct 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes during leaf ontogeny in white clover (Trifolium repens). Significant production of ethylene occurs at the apex, in newly initiated leaves, and in senescent leaf tissue. We used a combination of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends to identify three distinct DNA sequences designated TRACO1, TRACO2, and TRACO3, each with homology to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. Southern analysis confirmed that these sequences represent three distinct genes. Northern analysis revealed that TRACO1 is expressed specifically in the apex and TRACO2 is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in developing leaf tissue. The third gene, TRACO3, is expressed in senescent leaf tissue. Antibodies were raised to each gene product expressed in Escherichia coli, and western analysis showed that the TRACO1 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 205 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed preferentially in apical tissue. The TRACO2 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 36.4 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in mature green tissue. No protein recognition by the TRACO3 antibody could be detected in senescent tissue or at any other stage of leaf development.  (+info)

Evolution of the mitochondrial rps3 intron in perennial and annual angiosperms and homology to nad5 intron 1. (8/1498)

The plant mitochondrial rps3 intron was analyzed for substitution and indel rate variation among 15 monocot and dicot angiosperms from 10 genera, including perennial and annual taxa. Overall, the intron sequence was very conserved among angiosperms. Based on length polymorphism, 10 different alleles were identified among the 10 genera. These allelic differences were mainly attributable to large indels. An insertion of 133 nucleotides, observed in the Alnus intron was partially or completely absent in the other lineages of the family Betulaceae. This insertion was located within domain IV of the secondary-structure model of this group IIA intron. A mobile element of 47 nucleotides that showed homology to sequences located in rice rps3 intron and in intergenic plant mitochondrial genomes was found within this insertion. Both substitution and indel rates were low among the Betulaceae sequences, but substitution rates were increasingly larger than indel rates in comparisons involving more distantly related taxa. From a secondary-structure model, regions involved in helical structures were shown to be well preserved from indels as compared to substitutions, but compensatory changes were not observed among the angiosperm sequences analyzed. Using approximate divergence times based on the fossil record, substitution and indel rate heterogeneity was observed between different pairs of annual and perennial taxa. In particular, the annual petunia and primrose evolved more than 15 and 10 times faster, for substitution and indel rates respectively, than the perennial birch and alder. This is the first demonstration of an evolutionary rate difference between perennial and annual forms in noncoding DNA, lending support to neutral causes such as the generation time, population size, and speciation rate effects to explain such rate heterogeneity. Surprisingly, the sequence from the rps3 intron had a high identity with the sequence of intron 1 from the angiosperm mitochondrial nad5 gene, suggesting a common origin of these two group IIA introns.  (+info)

*Angiosperm Phylogeny Website

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (or APweb) is a well-known web site dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Website hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden Website Note: This is a selected list of the more ... Peter F. Stevens is a member of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). The taxonomy presented is broadly based on the work of ... APWebsite is a resource for NCBI (NCBI) A useful site for Kew Gardens (Kew Gardens) Stevens, Peter F. (2006). "The angiosperm ...

*Basal angiosperms

The basal angiosperms are only a few hundred species, compared with hundreds of thousands of species of eudicots, monocots or ... The basal angiosperms are the flowering plants which diverged from the lineage leading to most flowering plants. In particular ... 1998) to refer to angiosperms which are not monocots or eudicots. The paleodicots correspond to Magnoliidae sensu Cronquist ... They diverged from the ancestral angiosperm lineage before the five groups comprising the mesangiosperms diverged from each ...

*Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy

The IAAT is aimed at promoting the science of Angiosperm Taxonomy in India, to provide a common forum for Angiosperm ... The Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy (IAAT) was established in 1990. The IAAT is headquartered at the Department of ... The Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy is affiliated to the International Association for Plant Taxonomy. ...

*Bessey system

Bessey, Charles (September 1897). "Phylogeny and Taxonomy of the Angiosperms". Botanical Gazette. XXIV (3): 145-178. doi: ... Angiosperms). In that he used the same names for the subclasses of both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, this is contrary to ...

*History of Earth

The earliest evidence for the angiosperms evolving flowers is during the Cretaceous period, some 20 million years later (132 Ma ... Soltis, Pam; Doug Soltis; Christine Edwards (2005). "Angiosperms". The Tree of Life Project. Retrieved 2006-04-09. "Big crater ...

*Flowering plant

The great angiosperm radiation, when a great diversity of angiosperms appears in the fossil record, occurred in the mid- ... The term basal angiosperms refers to these three groups. Among the remaining five groups (core angiosperms), the relationship ... 1911). "Angiosperms". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. APG (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm ... There are eight groups of living angiosperms: Basal angiosperms (ANA: Amborella, Nymphaeales, Austrobaileyales) Amborella, a ...

*Magnoliids

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families ... The circumscription is: The clade includes most of the basal groups of the angiosperms. This clade was formally named ... Dahlgren, R.M.T. (1980). "A revised system of classification of angiosperms". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 80 (2 ...

*Sanicula bipinnata

"Angiosperms: Dicotyledons". Poisonous Plants of California. California natural history guides. 53. University of California ...

*Timeline of natural history

Angiosperms diversify. c.52 Ma - First bats. c.50 Ma - Africa collides with Eurasia, closing the Tethys Sea. Divergence of cat ...

*Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien

Naik, V.N. (1984). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 9780074517888. Stace, Clive A. (1989) [ ... 2015). A. Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien Part 4: Pinopsida (Gynosperms), Magnoliopsida (Angiosperms) p.p (13th ed.). ... angiosperms) Magnoliidae [Part 4, to be published] Lilianae (monocotyledons) Acorales, Alismatales, Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales ...

*Pittosporaceae

Pronaya Rhytidosporum Sollya Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for ... Sambamurty (1 January 2005). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. p. 727. ISBN 978-81-88237-16-6. The ...

*Engler system

Naik, V.N. (1984). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 9780074517888. Stuessy, Tod F. (2009). ... angiosperms), but were later subdivided. Embryophyta Siphonogama replaced the older term Phanerogamae, and the classes were ...

*Morinda

ISBN 978-0-8493-2677-6. Sambamurty, A.V.S.S. (2005). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. p. 404. ISBN 978-81- ...

*Sequential hermaphroditism

In the context of the plant sexuality of flowering plants (angiosperms), there are two forms of dichogamy: protogyny-female ... Bertin, R.I. (1993). "Incidence of monoecy and dichogamy in relation to self-fertilization in angiosperms". Amer. J. Bot. 80 (5 ... Bertin R.I.; Newman C.M. (1993). "Dichogamy in angiosperms". Bot. Rev. 59: 112-52. doi:10.1007/BF02856676. Darwin, Charles ( ... Lora, J; Herrero, M.; Hormaza, J. I. (2011). "Stigmatic receptivity in a dichogamous early-divergent angiosperm species, Annona ...

*Capparis lasiantha

Sambamurthy, A. V. S. S. (2005). Taxonomy Of Angiosperms. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. p. 72. ISBN 8188237167. Harden, Gwen. " ...

*2017 in paleobotany

Xin Wang (2017). "Fossil Plants Possibly Related to Angiosperms". In Xin Wang. The Dawn Angiosperms. Uncovering the Origin of ... Mohamed I.A. Ibrahim; Mohamed K. Zobaa; Zainab M. El-Noamani; Sameh S. Tahoun (2017). "A review of the angiosperm pollen genus ... A study on the diversity of insect herbivory on fossil angiosperm leaves from the Miocene Hindon Maar fossil lagerstätte (Otago ... Gang Han; Zhongjian Liu; Xin Wang (2017). "A Dichocarpum-like Angiosperm from the Early Cretaceous of China". Acta Geologica ...

*Species Plantarum

ISBN 978-0-521-42785-2. V. N. Naik (1984). "A review of pre-Darwinian classification". Taxonomy of Angiosperms. Tata McGraw- ...

*Glossary of botanical terms

angiosperms flowering plants; plants with developing seeds enclosed in an ovary. anisomery the condition of having a floral ... carpel the basic female reproductive organ in angiosperms, either consisting of a single sporophyll or a single locule of a ... endolithic growing within rock, not wood endosperm 1. (angiosperms) a nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo of the seed, ... flower the sexual reproductive structure of the Angiosperms, typically with a gynoecium, androecium, perianth and an axis. ...

*Taxon

Naik, V. N. (1984). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, p. 2. ICZN (1999) International Code of Zoological ...

*Phylloclade

doi:10.1007/s00427-007-0149-0. Dickinson, T.A. (1978). "Epiphylly in angiosperms". The Botanical Review. 44 (2): 181-232. doi: ...

*Caryophyllaceae

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... A. V. S. S. Sambamurty (2005). "Caryophyllaceae (pink family)". Taxonomy of Angiosperms. I. K. International. pp. 270-279. ISBN ... ISBN 978-0-87893-407-2. P. F. Stevens (9 June 2008). "Caryophyllaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved 6 August 2008. ...

*Library of Congress Classification:Class Q -- Science

Phanerogams 494-494.5........Gymnosperms 495..............Angiosperms 504-638...........Cryptogams 640-707...........Plant ...

*Caytoniales

Nevertheless, some authorities consider them likely ancestors of angiosperms, whereas others consider angiosperms more likely ... The origin of angiosperms remains an intriguing puzzle (see Evolutionary history of plants). The first fossils identified in ... The entire pollen grain would not be able to enter into the ovule, a defining train in angiosperms. This theory was disproved ... His close examination of the cupules led him to believe this was one of the earliest examples of angiosperms. He mistakenly ...

*Saussurea costus

A.V.S.S. Sambamurty (2005). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. I. K. International Pvt. Ltd. p. 417. ISBN 9788188237166. Saha, D., Ved, D ...

*Phylum

Since the first publication of the APG system in 1998, which proposed a classification of angiosperms up to the level of orders ... Valentine 2004, p. 8. Naik, V.N. (1984). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. Tata McGraw-Hill. p. 27. ISBN 9780074517888. Collins AG, ...
BOGGAN, J. K. 1991. A morphological study and cladistic analysis of Sinningia and associated genera with particular reference to Lembocarpus, Lietzia, Paliavana, and Vanhouttea (Gesneriaceae: Gloxinieae) M. S. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.. BURTT, B. L. & H. WIEHLER. 1995. Classification of the family Gesneriaceae. Gesneriana 1: 1-4.. CRISCI, J. V., M. M. CIGLIANO, J. J. MORRONE, & S.ROIG-JUÑENT. 1991. Historical biogeography of southern South America. Syst. Zool. 40:152-171.. INNIS, M. A., K. B. MYAMBO, D. H. GELFAND, & M. A. D. BROW. 1988. DNA sequencing and direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 85: 9436-9440.. IVANINA, L. I. 1965. Application of the carpological method to the taxonomy of Gesneriaceae. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh. 26: 383-402.. KVIST, L. P. 1990. Revision of Heppiella (Gesneriaceae). Syst. Bot. 15: 720-735.. SMITH, J. F. 1996. Tribal relationships within the Gesneriaceae: A cladistic analysis of morphological ...
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (or APweb) is a well-known web site dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy. The site is hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden website and maintained by researchers, Peter F. Stevens and Hilary M. Davis. Peter F. Stevens is a member of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). The taxonomy presented is broadly based on the work of the APG, with modifications to incorporate new results. APWebsite is a resource for NCBI (NCBI) A useful site for Kew Gardens (Kew Gardens) Stevens, Peter F. (2006). "The angiosperm phylogeny Website - a tool for reference and teaching in a time of change". Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 42. doi:10.1002/meet.14504201249. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden Website Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and ...
O Commons possui imagens e outras mídias sobre Angiosperm Phylogeny Website O Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (ou APWeb) um sítio de internet conhecido, dedicado à pesquisa de taxonomia e filogenia das angiospérmicas. É alojado pelo sítio de internet do Missouri Botanical Garden e mantido pelo pesquisador Peter F. Stevens, membro do Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). A taxonomia apresentada é grandemente baseada no trabalho do APG, com modificações para incorporar novos resultados. Não segue, pois, o sistema APG II. Até à classe: Monilophyta (Fetos em sentido amplo) Spermatophyta Gymnospermae Cycadales Ginkgoales Pinales Gnetales Angiospermae Ordens, famílias e géneros de angiospérmicas (à data 5 de Maio de 2008): (sem nome) (sem nome) Amborellales Amborellaceae Amborella Amborella trichopoda (sem nome) (sem nome) Nymphaeales Hydatellaceae Hydatella Diels Trithuria Hook.f. Cabombaceae Brasenia Schreb. Cabomba Aubl. Nymphaeaceae Barclaya Wall. Euryale Salisb. Hydrostemma Wall. = ...
The tribal relationships of the Gesneriaceae are investigated using ndhF sequences. A full analysis of 70 taxa including 16 species from the Scrophulariaceae, Bigoniaceae, and Acanthaceae as outgroups, resulted in two most-parsimonious trees of 5610 steps each. In all trees the Gesneriaceae were a monophyletic group and Paulownia was the closest single-species outgroup for the analysis. Further analyses eliminated all but the members of the Gesneriaceae and Paulownia in order to better asses relationships within the family. The smaller analysis resulted in a single most-parsimonious tree of 4613 steps. The Klugieae are identified as the sister to the remainder of the family and could potentially be separated as a distinct subfamily. The subfamilies Cyrtandroideae (excluding Klugieae) and Gesnerioideae are monophyletic. The placement of Coronallthereae in Cyrtandroideae does not have support from this analysis, whereas its placement in Gesnerioideae is supported. Alternatively Coronanthereae could be
Growing evidence of morphological diversity in angiosperm flowers, seeds and pollen from the mid Cretaceous and the presence of derived lineages from increasingly older geological deposits both imply that the timing of early angiosperm cladogenesis is older than fossil-based estimates have indicated. An alternative to fossils for calibrating the phylogeny comes from divergence in DNA sequence data. Here, angiosperm divergence times are estimated using non-parametric rate smoothing and a three-gene dataset covering ca. 75- of all angiosperm families recognized in recent classifications. The results provide an initial hypothesis of angiosperm diversification times. Using an internal calibration point, an independent evaluation of angiosperm and eudicot origins is performed. The origin of the crown group of extant angiosperms is indicated to be Early to Middle Jurassic (179-158 Myr), and the origin of eudicots is resolved as Late Jurassic to mid Cretaceous (147-131 Myr). Both estimates, despite a ...
... is a submergent aquatic species often found int the quite heavily vegetated areas of lakes and marshes. The plant has pretty little yellow flowers that protrude from the waters surface and from a distance resemble pea flowers.. The most interesting feature of Common Bladderwort, and others of the genus its the presence of bladders. These structure all the plants to consume animals and obtain nutrients. When an animal such as a waterflea gets close it triggers hairs on the bladder, which cause the bladder to suddenly swell. This creates a vacuum which sucks in the zooplankton. Even tiny, newly hatched fish can fall victim to the bladders. You can tell when the bladders are full because they are dark and filled with digesting zooplankton, and other invertebrates.. Together with Pitcher Plant and Sundews the bladderworts make up a fascinating number of carnivorous plants.. Also see Horned Bladderwort. ...
Anon. 2003. APNI: Australian Plant Names Index. http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/apni.html.. Bell, C. D. and R. W. Patterson. 2000. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Linanthus (Polemoniaceae). Am. J. Bot. 87:1857-1870.. Brand, A. 1907. Polemoniaceae. Pages 1-203 in A Engler, ed. Das Pflanzenreich IV(250). Engelmann, Leipzig. Campbell, D.R., R. Alarcon, and C. A. Wu. 2003. Reproductive isolation and hybrid pollen disadvantage in Ipomopsis. J. Evolution. Biol. 16:536-540.. Carlquist, S., V. M. Eckhart, and D. C. Michener. 1984. Wood anatomy of Polemoniaceae. Aliso 10:547-572.. Dawson, M. L. 1936. The floral morphology of the Polemoniaceae. Am. J. Bot. 23: 501-511.. Ferguson, C. J. and R. K. Jansen. 2002. A chloroplast DNA phylogeny of eastern Phlox (Polemoniaceae): implications of congruence and incongruence with the ITS phylogeny. Am. J. Bot. 89:1324-1335. Galen, C. 2000. High and dry: Drought stress, sex-allocation trade-offs, and selection on flower size in the alpine wildflower ...
El Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (siglas APW o APWeb) es un sitio web dedicado a la filogenia y clasificación de las plantas angiospermas. Fue creado en el 2001 por el taxónomo P. F. Stevens, que después sería uno de los integrantes del APG II, y en el 2003 poseía el mismo sistema de clasificación que el APG II, pero con el paso de las publicaciones que iban ubicando taxones que en el APG II quedaron sin ubicar, y reubicando otros, fue difiriendo levemente del sistema de clasificación APG II. Hoy se puede considerar el sistema de clasificación más actualizado de las angiospermas. Sistema de clasificación APG II Clasificación de los organismos vegetales Hasta clase: Monilophyta (Helechos en sentido amplio) Spermatophyta Gymnospermae Cycadales Ginkgoales Pinales Gnetales Angiospermae Órdenes, familias y géneros de angiospermas (al 5 de mayo de 2008): (sin nombre) (sin nombre) Amborellales Amborellaceae Amborella Amborella trichopoda (sin nombre) (sin nombre) Nymphaeales Hydatellaceae ...
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, or APG, refers to an informal international group of systematic botanists who collaborate to establish a consensus on the taxonomy of flowering plants (angiosperms) that reflects new knowledge about plant relationships discovered through phylogenetic studies. As of 2016[update], four incremental versions of a classification system have resulted from this collaboration, published in 1998, 2003, 2009 and 2016. An important motivation for the group was what they considered deficiencies in prior angiosperm classifications since they were not based on monophyletic groups (i.e., groups that include all the descendants of a common ancestor). APG publications are increasingly influential, with a number of major herbaria changing the arrangement of their collections to match the latest APG system. In the past, classification systems were typically produced by an individual botanist or by a small group. The result was a large number of systems (see List of systems of plant ...
In contrast to woody habit with secondary growth, truthful herbaceous habit lacking secondary growth is restricted to angiosperms among seed plants. Although angiosperms might have occurred as early as in the Triassic and herbaceous habit theoretically may have been well adopted by pioneer angiosperms, pre-Cretaceous herbs are missing hitherto, leaving the origin of herbs and evolution of herbaceous angiosperms mysterious. Here we report Juraherba bodae gen. et sp. nov, a whole plant herbaceous angiosperm, from the Middle Jurassic (greater than 164 Ma) at Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China, a fossil Lagerst?tten that is worldwide famous for various fossil finds. The angiospermous affinity of Juraherba is ensured by its enclosed ovules/seeds. The plant is small but complete, with physically connected hairy root, stem, leaves, and fructifications. The Middle Jurassic age recommends Juraherba as the earliest record of herbaceous seed plants, demanding a refresh look at the evolutionary history ...
Angiosperms are seed-bearing vascular plants that produce flowers and fruits, and are enclosed within ovaries. Out of all the plant species 90% of them are angiosperms. They have up to 4 types of modified leaves (sporophylls); sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.. In the formation of the fruit the egg is fertilized after pollination takes place, the ovule develops into a seed, and then the ovary wall thickens, and forms many forms of mature fruits. The structure of the flower often determines the type of the fruit. Forming fruits in these plants is very hard work, but to the plant it is worth it. The only purpose of forming a fruit is to help the seeds become successful plants. Besides, what a great blessing for us and animals.. Angiosperms can also be either monocots or dicots. Monocots have only one cotyledon, and dicots have two. They each have different characteristics, that you would be able to detect them at simple sight. Angiosperms have a rich diversity and many strategies for survival ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) - międzynarodowa grupa systematyków roślin (taksonomów) stworzona w celu ustalenia wspólnego poglądu na taksonomię roślin okrytonasiennych w obliczu szybko rozwijających się metod systematyki molekularnej.. Efektem pracy grupy jest opublikowany w 1998 system klasyfikacji roślin (tzw. system APG I, ang. APG system). System bazował na danych molekularnych (dwóch genów chloroplastowego DNA i jednego genu kodującego rybosomy) analizowanych metodami kladystycznymi[1].. W kolejnych latach ukazywały się wersje zrewidowane. W roku 2003 opublikowano system APG II[2], w 2009 APG III[3][4][5] i w 2016 roku APG IV[6].. ...
Podostemaceae: Podostemaceae, riverweed family of dicotyledonous flowering plants in the order Malpighiales, with 48 genera and 270 species of aquatic plants that look like mosses,
Sarcandra glabra is a perrenial, spreading evergreen undershrub, that is reaching up to 1.5m in height and somestimes more in width. In nature it usually grows under trees, near streams or lakes, but it can be found both on swamps and dry sandy lands, from sea level to elevations around 2000m beyond. For best growth it should have moist, acid soil, rich in organic matter and partial shade. It have interesting from botanical point of view, shape of flovers, which because of its micro size, are no addiction to beauty of the garden. But a lot of charm has its tiny, bright red-orange fruits (yellow-orenge fruit Sarcandra plants can be found too, but are rare), that are staying on branches for long time, making this plant being very ornamental. It is usually called as berries, while in fact it have a structure of a drupe. Sarcandra glabra is frost resistant to around -10*C, but can be cultivated as a houseplant in regions with colder winter. It is quite drought and heat resistant plant. Fresh leaves ...
In the United States, commercial cultivation and broad consumer acceptance of the fruit only dates to the 1970s. That acceptance is attributable to Morris Arkin, a backyard horticulturalist, from Coral Gables, Florida. During the late 1960s, Arkin began cultivating plants and trees in his backyard, eventually developing a kind of carambola, or star fruit, that became commercially viable and was named after him. Until the early 1970s, carambola had been grown only as specimen trees in botanical gardens and experiment stations and as a curiosity in home landscapes. However, because of its attractive star shape when cut in cross-section and yellow to golden color, it began to grow in popularity. Fruit from early introductions were however, sour and sometimes considered unpalatable. This limited market and public acceptance, inhibiting development and expansion of carambola as a commercial fresh fruit. Arkin cultivated the Arkin variety - a sweet carambola with good handling characteristics - in ...
A whole genome duplication (doubling) at 160 million years ago (mya) may have started the ancestral line that led to all modern flowering plants.[2] That event was studied by sequencing the genome of an ancient flowering plant, Amborella trichopoda.[3] Amborella, found on the Pacific island of New Caledonia, belongs to a sister group of the other flowering plants. Studies suggest that it has features that may have been characteristic of the earliest flowering plants.[4]. The earliest known fossil confidently identified as an angiosperm, Archaefructus liaoningensis, is dated to about 125 mya in the Lower Cretaceous.[5] Pollen probably of angiosperm origin takes the fossil record back to about 130 mya.. The phylogeny of Angiosperms is as follows: [6][7]. ...
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While the monocotyledons have remained extremely stable in their outer borders as a well-defined and coherent monophylectic group, the deeper internal relationships have undergone considerable flux, with many competing classification systems over time.[33]. Historically, Bentham (1877), considered the monocots to consist of four alliances, Epigynae, Coronariae, Nudiflorae and Glumales, based on floral characteristics. He describes the attempts to subdivide the group since the days of Lindley as largely unsuccessful.[83] Like most subsequent classification systems it failed to distinguish between two major orders, Liliales and Asparagales, now recognised as quite separate.[84] A major advance in this respect was the work of Rolf Dahlgren (1980),[85] which would form the basis of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Groups (APG) subsequent modern classification of monocot families. Dahlgren who used the alternate name Lilliidae considered the monocots as a subclass of angiosperms characterised by a single ...
Looking for Asteridae? Find out information about Asteridae. A large subclass of dicotyledonous plants in the class Magnoliopsida; plants are sympetalous, with unitegmic, tenuinucellate ovules and with the stamens... Explanation of Asteridae
The evolutionary history of flowering plants is poorly known, represented by remnant fossils only weakly identified as angiosperms. Until recently, fossil evidence of early angiosperms was based on vegetative materials and pollen. None of these fossils, however, showed the presence of ovules or seeds enclosed in carpels, the true distinction of the angiosperm lineage.. A team of paleontologists and paleobotanists led by Ge Sun of Jilin University, China, and David Dilcher of the Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, recently announced the discovery of a new basal angiosperm family, Archaefructaceae (Ge Sun et al. 2002). The new family is represented only by the two species, Archaefructus liaoningensis and A. sinensis. Five virtually complete fossils of these plants, including flowers, seeds, and fruits, were found in the Yixian Formation in Liaoning, northeastern China. The fossils are believed to be between 125 and 145 million years old, placing them within the Lower ...
Angiosperm - Angiosperm - Leaves: Leaves initially arise from cell divisions in the shoot apical meristem. A slight bulge (a leaf buttress) is produced, which in dicots continues to grow and elongate to form a leaf primordium. (Stipules, if present, appear as two small protuberances.) Marginal and submarginal meristems on opposite flanks of the primordium initiate leaf-blade formation. Differences in the local activity of marginal meristems cause the lobed shapes of simple leaves and the leaflets in compound leaves. An increase in width and in the number of cell layers is brought about by marginal meristems. Subsequent expansion and increase in length is achieved by
Genome sequence assemblies of many angiosperm trees used in forestry are now emerging, in addition to the well-characterised genomes of black poplar and eucalyptus reviewed in previous chapters of...
Buy Fossilium Catalogus Plantae, Volume 108 (9789057821844): Index of Angiosperm Leaf Species Names C, 1823-2005: NHBS - J van der Burgh, HWJ van Amerom, Backhuys
An Angiosperm is simply the scientific name for a flowering plant. They acquire their name from the fact that they contain a seed within some sort of fruit. Flowers are the reproductive vessel of an angiosperm. This is where pollination takes place and allows the plants to reproduce. Many things around us are considered angiosperms including edible fruits and a vast majority of flowers and plants that grow around us. The process of these plants growing is quite similar to the human reproductive system as it involves sperm, eggs and energy consumption to grow. ...
Read "Large distribution and high sequence identity of a Copia-type retrotransposon in angiosperm families, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
One of two groups of plants (the other being gymnosperms) that reproduce via seeds. Angiosperms are flowering plants with a seed coat. Any plant with a flower is an angiosperm including most broadleaved trees; e.g. maple trees, echinacea and tomatoes ...
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Cladus: asterids • Cladus: euasterids I • Ordo: Lamiales • Familia: Lentibulariaceae Rich. (1808) ...
Phylogenetic analyses of angiosperm relationships have used only a small percentage of available sequence data, but phylogenetic data matrices often can be augmented with existing data, especially if one allows missing characters. We explore the effects on phylogenetic analyses of adding 378 matK sequences and 240 26S rDNA sequences to the complete 3-gene, 567-taxon angiosperm phylogenetic matrix of Soltis et al. We performed maximum likelihood bootstrap analyses of the complete, 3-gene 567-taxon data matrix and the incomplete, 5-gene 567-taxon data matrix. Although the 5-gene matrix has more missing data (27.5%) than the 3-gene data matrix (2.9%), the 5-gene analysis resulted in higher levels of bootstrap support. Within the 567-taxon tree, the increase in support is most evident for relationships among the 170 taxa for which both matK and 26S rDNA sequences were added, and there is little gain in support for relationships among the 119 taxa having neither matK nor 26S rDNA sequences. The 5-gene
The angiosperms. Greek: angeion case; sperma seed. By far the most diverse group of plants that has ever existed with more than 240,000 different species. Why are there so many species. Angiosperms. Time scale. Origin of angiosperms. Mosses. Ferns . Slideshow 154268 by...
Mon. afternoon (8/2) - Moss phylogeny (Goffinet and Hedderson) Tues. afternoon (8/3) - Basal angiosperms: molecular and developmental (Qiu and Zimmer) Tues. afternoon (8/3) - Liverwort & Hornwort phylogeny (Crandall-Stotler and Hasegawa) Tues. evening (8/3) - Basal angiosperms: structural and paleobotanical (Endress and Friis) Tues. evening (8/3) - Fern phylogeny (Pryer and DuBuisson) Wed. afternoon (8/4) - Angiosperm phylogeny (within major clades) (Soltis, Soltis, and Chase) Wed. afternoon (8/4) - Lycophyte phylogeny (Taylor & Wikstrom) Wed. evening (8/4) - Green Plant Phylogeny (overall) (Buchheim and Kenrick) In addition, the GPPRCG has facilitated a Keynote Symposium that will place the green plants into the context of the rest of the tree of life (organized by Mishler and Huss): Fri. morning (8/5) - Phylogeny of Life (where Mishler will give the overview talk on green plants, drawing from the 8 symposia above ...
The common ancestor to Genlisea and Utricularia may have had forks at the tip of the leaves. Both genera have traps with tube openings at a fork. In the Genlisea clade the trap elongated and the forks developed into long spirals. In the Utricularia clade the trap shortened, folded back, and developed the sophisticated trap door mechanism at the leaf fork.. The most basal species of Genlisea and Utricularia have a common feature that gives an additional clue as to how those genera evolved from a proto-Pinguicula. They have two kinds of leaves. Some Pinguicula species such as Pinguicula lusitanica have only one kind of leaf. However, a very similar species, Pinguicula villosa, has two kinds of leaves. The carnivorous summer leaves of Pinguicula villosa look just like the leaves of Pinguicula lusitanica, but the non-carnivorous winter leaves of Pinguicula villosa form a hibernacula. These winter leaves are barely differentiated and serve to protect the apex of the plant during the arctic winters. ...
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The Carambola or Star Fruit is an unique and flavorful fruit. The fruits flavor ranges from very sour to mildly sweetish and tastes something like a mix of apple, pineapple, and kiwi fruit. Slices cut in cross-section have the form of a star.
A survey of the extensive fruit and seed collections from the Middle Eocene oil shale of the Messel Formation now reveals at least 140 genera, representing more than 34 families of seed plants. The flora includes occasional conifer and numerous angiosperm remains. There are 34 extant angiosperm families represented of which ten are new records for Messel, plus 65 morphotypes of unknown familial affinity. Three extant genera are recorded for the first time from the Paleogene. The assemblage indicates a wide range of dispersal strategies including pods, capsules, explosive dehiscence, a single arillate seed, two seed-types with dispersal hairs and most modern categories of winged disseminules. In terms of mammalian frugivory the flora contains examples of all potential dietary categories. Tough and hard materials are abundant and soft material is common. Gut contents preserved in many birds and mammals prove that fruits and seeds played an integral part in vertebrate diets and borings in one seed ...
A survey of the extensive fruit and seed collections from the Middle Eocene oil shale of the Messel Formation now reveals at least 140 genera, representing more than 34 families of seed plants. The flora includes occasional conifer and numerous angiosperm remains. There are 34 extant angiosperm families represented of which ten are new records for Messel, plus 65 morphotypes of unknown familial affinity. Three extant genera are recorded for the first time from the Paleogene. The assemblage indicates a wide range of dispersal strategies including pods, capsules, explosive dehiscence, a single arillate seed, two seed-types with dispersal hairs and most modern categories of winged disseminules. In terms of mammalian frugivory the flora contains examples of all potential dietary categories. Tough and hard materials are abundant and soft material is common. Gut contents preserved in many birds and mammals prove that fruits and seeds played an integral part in vertebrate diets and borings in one seed ...
Carambola (Starfruit) - Averrhoa Carambola facts about plant, fruit, nutrition, health benefits, traditional uses, name in different languages and precautions.
Article Removal of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb) using fresh water algae (Utricularia tenuissima, Utricularia tenuis & Zygogonium ericetorum) from contaminated water. A study was conducted to check the efficiency of different fresh water algae for...
Anton Weber ( 1947) es un botánico austríaco.[1]​[2]​ Ha desarrollado su actividad científica y académica en el "Instituto de Botánica, de la Universidad de Viena.[1] Weber A. 1971. Zur Morphologie des Gynoeceums der Gesneriaceen. Österreichische Botanische Zeitung 119: 234-305 ----. 1973. Die Struktur der paarblütigen Partialfloreszenzen der Gesneriaceen und bestimmer Scrophulariaceen. Beiträge zur Biologie der Pflanzen 49: 429-460 ----. 1975b. Beiträge zur Morphologie und Systematik der Klugieae und Loxonieae (Gesneriaceae). II. Morphologie, Anatomie und Ontogenese der Blüte von Monophyllaea R.Br. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 95: 435-454 ----. 1976a. Beiträge zur Morphologie und Systematik der Klugieae und Loxonieae (Gesneriaceae). III: Whytockia als morphologische und phylogenetische Ausgangsform von Monophyllaea. Beiträge zur Biologie der Pflanzen 52: 183-205 ----. 1976b. Beiträge zur Morphologie und Systematik der ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. ,em,Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society.,/em, 161(2): 105-121. 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. ,em,Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society.,/em, 161(2): 105-121. 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x ...
website: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, 2012; Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, botanical information system at the Missouri Botanical Garden, available at http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb ...
Pour les articles homonymes, voir APG. LAngiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) est un groupe de botanistes qui travaillent sur la phylogénétique végétale, en utilisant les techniques moléculaires et lanalyse cladistique. Ce groupe a publié quatre classifications botaniques : La classification APG (1998), par les auteurs : Arne A. Anderberg, Anders Backlund, Birgitta Bremer, Kåre Bremer, Barbara G.Biggs, Mark W. Chase, Peter K. Endress, Michael F. Fay, Peter Goldblatt, Mats H.G. Gustafsson, Sara B. Hoot, Walter S. Judd, Mari Källersjö, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Kathleen A. Kron, Donald H. Les, Cynthia M. Morton, Daniel L. Nickrent, Richard G. Olmstead, Robert A. Price, Christopher J. Quinn, James E. Rodman, Paula J. Rudall, Peter F. Stevens, Vincent Savolainen, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela E. Soltis, Kenneth J. Sytsma et Mats Thulin. N.B. Dans cette première liste, les noms auteurs ou contributeurs des trois versions de la classification sont soulignés, les noms absents des listes APG II et III ...
The highest elevation flowering plant ever recorded in Europe, a lush moss flora, one of the coldest places of permanent animal life (collembola, mites) and indications of mycorrhizal fungi were evide
A series of divisions separating eight peripheral cells from a core of eight inner cells heralds histogenesis in the embryo. The result is the formation of a sixteen-celled, globular embryo, in which the peripheral cells form the protoderm (precursor cells of the embryonic epidermis), and the inner cells differentiate into the procambium and ground meristem (precursors of the vascular tissues and ground tissues, respectively) of the mature embryo. This initiates the formation of radial-pattern elements made up of concentric tissue layers in the basal part of the embryo ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Dicotyledoneae - Dicots, Dicotyledonae, Angiosperms, Flowering plants, Flowers, Fruits, Seeds, Vascular plants, Magnoliophyta, Magnoliopsida -- Discover Life
ZFMK: Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig - Leibniz-Institute for animal biodiversity is part of the Leibniz Association, a network of 89 scientifically, legally and economically independent research institutes and scientific service facilities. Leibniz Institutes perform strategic- and thematically-oriented research and offer scientific service of national significance while striving to find scientific solutions for major social challenges. More information: http://www.leibniz-gemeinschaft.de/. Weitere Informationen:http://For more information visit: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.1470 ...
The Plant DNA C-values database was compiled by Professor Michael Bennett and Dr. Ilia Leitch together with the assistence of Emmeline Johnston to whom we are hugely grateful. It was developed by Information Services Department at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. To contact Prof. Mike Bennett and Dr. Ilia Leitch ...
The significance of the 4C value (where C is the amount of DNA in the unreplicated haploid genome) in angiosperm plants is discussed. The DNA amount is a stable feature used in biosystematics. Although this parameter varies even in closely related taxa, there is no correlation between the DNA amount and the structural and functional organization of plants. The role of DNA amount, including excess DNA, in plant evolution is considered. Some rules governing the distribution of DNA amount among different plant taxa are postulated, together with the possibility of using the data in systematics, phylogeny, and solutions of problems of genetic apparatus organization and evolution. The decrease in DNA value per genome during plant evolution and the high level of species formation in taxa with large DNA values have been shown. Plant taxa with a small DNA value per genome have a high percentage and higher degree of polyploidy. The nature of the differential staining of euchromatin and heterochromatin bands of
Angiosperm evolution has given rise to an overwhelming diversity of floral morphologies adapted to pollination by a multitude of different vectors. This diversity is mirrored in the high variability of breeding systems and reproductive strategies across angiosperms. Hence, it is hypothesized that floral form and function have important effects on diversification [1-4]. There is an extensive body of literature on floral morphology, pertaining both to extant and extinct taxa [5-11]. However, the distribution of flower morphological diversity across major subclades, let alone across the angiosperms as a whole, has rarely been addressed using an explicitly analytical and synthetic approach [12,13]. Such broad-scale analyses of disparity (morphological diversity) have so far been largely restricted to animal groups [14-17].. Morphospace analyses are used to study macro-evolutionary patterns and trends in disparity within and among clades. While disparity analyses are traditionally conducted on large ...
sciencehabit writes The carnivorous humped bladderwort, found on all continents except Antarctica, is a model of ruthless genetic efficiency. Only 3% of this aquatic plants DNA is not part of a known gene, new research shows. In contrast, only 2% of human DNA is part of a gene. The bladderwort, na...
Flowering plants emerged on the planet over 160 million years ago - but it has never been entirely clear how these angiosperms came from their predecessor, gymnosperm ferns. New genetic analysis of the Amborella, a shrub with deep evolutionary roots, shows that there was a genomic doubling around 200 million years ago. The results were […]. Read More.... ...
Sex lives of early hominins; Amborella trichopoda genome; surface topography and stem cells; how HIV weakens immune cells; dogs, dust microbes, and mouse allergies; news from ASCB. 0 Comments. ...
Sex lives of early hominins; Amborella trichopoda genome; surface topography and stem cells; how HIV weakens immune cells; dogs, dust microbes, and mouse allergies; news from ASCB. 0 Comments. ...
Scientific name: Averrhoa carambola.Growth habit: An upright to rounded small evergreen tree to large shrub growing to 25 feet tall and wide. Leaves are medium-green, oblong and with numerous
Soltis, Douglas E.; Davis, Charles; Savolainen, Vincent; Rest, Joshua S.; Bernasconi-Quadroni, Fabiana; Li, Libo; Whitlock, Barbara A. et al. (International Journal of Plant Sciences, 2005) Link to Published Version ...
Endress, Peter K (2015). Patterns of angiospermy development before carpel sealing across living angiosperms: diversity, and morphological and systematic aspects. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 178(4):556-591. ...
Summary of the effect of TEs on angiosperm adaptation and evolution. (A) Types of TEs implicated in the generation of traits in flowering plants. (B) Types of e
INTRODUCTION ANGIOSPERMSAnatomy is a study of the internal structure of organs. There are between 200 000 and 300 000 different species of angiosperms (flowering plants) known. In comparison with other organisms, only insects number more species than a...
Sauquet H, von Balthazar M, Magallón S, Doyle JA, Endress PK, Bailes EJ, Barroso de Morais E, Bull-Hereñu K, Carrive L, Chartier M, Chomicki G, Coiro M, Cornette R, El Ottra JHL, Epicoco C, Foster CSP, Jabbour F, Haevermans A, Haevermans T, Hernández R, Little SA, Löfstrand S, Luna JA, Massoni J, Nadot S, Pamperl S, Prieu C, Reyes E, dos Santos P, Schoonderwoerd KM, Sontag S, Soulebeau A, Staedler Y, Tschan GF, Wing-Sze Leung A, Schönenberger J. 2017. The ancestral flower of angiosperms and its early diversification. Nature Communications 8: 16047. link ...
Buy Angiosperm Pollen and Ovules (9783540978886): NHBS - Edited By: E Ottaviano, D Mulcahy, M Sari Goria and G Bergamini-Mulcahy, Springer-Verlag
Supermarket Angiosperm True Fruits -A fruit is a ripened ovary -Carpels hold fertilized ovules -Depending on the type of plant, the mature ovary may form a juicy ...
DAHLGREN, G. (1989), An updated angiosperm classification. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 100: 197-203. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.1989.tb01717.x ...
INTRODUCTION. Classification denotes the arrangement of a single plant or group of plants an distinct category following a system of nomenclature, and in accordance with a particular and well established plan.Some of the earlier systems of classification of angiosperms were artificial systems, sinc Slideshow 377242 by faustine
BEWS, J. W. (1927), STUDIES IN THE ECOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF THE ANGIOSPERMS. New Phytologist, 26: 129-148. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1927.tb06713.x ...
Bews, J.W. Studies in the Ecological Evolution of the Angiosperms. 1st. Pub. Wheldon & Wesley. 1927. pp.viii, 134. A good copy with a little wear to top/bottom spine. £28.00 [Ref: 36730 ...
The parasitic lifestyle has evolved repeatedly in nearly every major lineage of life, and in the broad sense includes brood parasitism, social parasitism, genomic parasitism, and nutritional parasitism [1,2]. Among plants, nutritional parasites obtain water and nutrients directly from their photosynthetic host plant through a specialized feeding structure, the haustorium, which is attached to either host shoots or roots [3]. These plants include both hemiparasites (parasites with the ability to photosynthesize) and holoparasites (those that cannot photosynthesize) [3]. While both hemi- and some holoparasites grow largely exterior to the host, certain holoparasites grow nearly completely embedded within the host plant tissues as endoparasites, emerging only during sexual reproduction [3,4]. Though most parasites can be classified according to their photosynthetic status and the nature of their interactions with their hosts, insight into the evolution of parasitic traits has been hampered by the ...
It is known that chromosome number tends to decrease as genome size increases in angiosperm plants. Here the relationship between number of parts (the chromosomes) and size of the whole (the genome) is studied for other groups of organisms from different kingdoms. Two major results are obtained. First, the finding of relationships of the kind "the more parts the smaller the whole" as in angiosperms, but also relationships of the kind "the more parts the larger the whole". Second, these dependencies are not linear in general. The implications of the dependencies between genome size and chromosome number are two-fold. First, they indicate that arguments against the relevance of the finding of negative correlations consistent with Menzerath-Altmann law (a linguistic law that relates the size of the parts with the size of the whole) in genomes are seriously flawed. Second, they unravel the weakness of a recent model of chromosome lengths based upon random breakage that assumes that chromosome number ...
9 base pairs], whole nuclear genome duplication [ε/epsilon event]; ndhB gene 21 codons enlarged at the 5 end, single copy of LEAFY and RPB2 gene, knox genes extensively duplicated [A1-A4], AP1/FUL gene, palaeo AP3 and PI genes [paralogous B-class genes] +, with "DEAER" motif, SEP3/LOFSEP and three copies of the PHY gene, [PHYB [PHYA + PHYC]]; chloroplast chlB, -L, -N, trnP-GGG genes 0.. [NYMPHAEALES [AUSTROBAILEYALES [[CHLORANTHALES + MAGNOLIIDS] [MONOCOTS [CERATOPHYLLALES + EUDICOTS]]]]]: wood fibres +; axial parenchyma diffuse or diffuse-in-aggregates; pollen monosulcate [anasulcate], tectum reticulate-perforate [here?]; ?genome duplication; "DEAER" motif in AP3 and PI genes lost, gaps in these genes.. [AUSTROBAILEYALES [[CHLORANTHALES + MAGNOLIIDS] [MONOCOTS [CERATOPHYLLALES + EUDICOTS]]]]: phloem loading passive, via symplast, plasmodesmata numerous; vessel elements with scalariform perforation plates in primary xylem; essential oils in specialized cells [lamina and P ± ...
endosperm +, ?diploid [one polar nucleus + male gamete], cellular, development heteropolar [first division oblique, micropylar end initially with a single large cell, divisions uniseriate, chalazal cell smaller, divisions in several planes], copious, oily and/or proteinaceous, embryo short [,¼ length of seed]; plastid and mitochondrial transmission maternal; Arabidopsis-type telomeres [(TTTAGGG)n]; nuclear genome [2C] (0.57-)1.45(-3.71) [1 pg = 109 base pairs], ??whole nuclear genome duplication [ε/epsilon event]; ndhB gene 21 codons enlarged at the 5 end, single copy of LEAFY and RPB2 gene, knox genes extensively duplicated [A1-A4], AP1/FUL gene, palaeo AP3 and PI genes [paralogous B-class genes] +, with "DEAER" motif, SEP3/LOFSEP and three copies of the PHY gene, [PHYB [PHYA + PHYC]]; chloroplast chlB, -L, -N, trnP-GGG genes 0.. [NYMPHAEALES [AUSTROBAILEYALES [[CHLORANTHALES + MAGNOLIIDS] [MONOCOTS [CERATOPHYLLALES + EUDICOTS]]]]]: wood fibres +; axial parenchyma diffuse or ...
FloraGator covers the 196 flowering plant families known to exist in the natural areas of Florida. The family classifications on this site follow the APG III system published by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group in 2009. If you are using a flora that follows an older classification system, the Wikipedia links in the column on the right can help steer you to the equivalent grouping. ...
Ulloa Ulloa, C., P. Acevedo-Rodríguez, S. G. Beck, M. J. Belgrano, R. Bernal, P. E. Berry, L. Brako, M. Celis, G. Davidse, S. R. Gradstein, O. Hokche, B. León, S. León-Yánez, R. E. Magill, D. A. Neill, M. H. Nee, P. H. Raven, Stimmel, M. T. Strong, J. L. Villaseñor Ríos, J. L. Zarucchi, F. O. Zuloaga & P. M. Jørgensen. 2017. An integrated assessment of vascular plants species of the Americas. Science 358: 1614-1617, f. 1-4 ...
從清朝 日治時代直到現在3台灣的鳳梨品系一直都一樣嗎?當然不是囉(最早的鳳梨被稱為「在來種「3後來日治時代為了製作罐頭方便3從夏威夷引進了開英種4到了1980年以後3因為罐頭外銷敵不過競爭3台灣的鳳梨改為內銷且以鮮食為主3為了挽救鳳梨產業3農改場 農試所便培育出各種不同適合鮮食的鳳梨4包括不用削皮可以直接剝來吃的釋迦鳳梨(台農4號(3最適合在秋冬生產的冬蜜鳳梨(台農13號(3有特殊香氣的香水鳳梨(台農11號(3以及因為果肉乳白色被稱為牛奶鳳梨的台農20號等 ...
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Ordo: Caryophyllales • Familia: Talinaceae Doweld (2001) ...
Flowering Plants: Structure and Organization Unit 10: Plants Basic Structure of Vascular Angiosperms Flowering plants usually have three vegetative organs: the roots ... - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 3c710b-ZjNkN
Get this from a library! Flowering plants. Eudicots : Asterales. [J W Kadereit; Charles Jeffrey;] -- This volume contains a complete systematic treatment of the flowering plant order Asterales, comprising 12 families with approx. 1,720 genera and about 26,300 species. The order includes Compositae ...
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Cladus: asterids • Cladus: euasterids II • Ordo: Asterales • Familia: Asteraceae • Subfamilia: Asteroideae • Tribus: Heliantheae • Genus: Helianthella Torr. & A. Gray (1842) ...
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superrosids • Cladus: rosids • Cladus: eurosids I • Ordo: Rosales • Familia: Rosaceae • Subfamilia: Spiraeoideae • Tribus: Pyreae • Genus: Heteromeles • Species: Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindl.) M.Roem. ...
The sepals (collectively called the calyx) most resemble leaves because of their generally green colour. From their base and along most of their length, sepals remain either separate (aposepalous, or polysepalous) or marginally fused (synsepalous), forming a tube with terminal lobes or teeth (see photograph). The number of calyx lobes equals the number of ...
After the lake there is one very sketchy water source, full of cow shit that we didnt even attempt to use. The sand slowly starts to give way to more rocks and our pace of travel increased significantly so that we made it down to the next water source by noon. At some point along the way the trail and a private road become intertwined and without realizing we were not supposed to follow the road, we did. Its not a big deal as the road takes you to basically the same place anyways but we had a confusing time for a while trying to figure out where we were on the map. But the road crosses an unnamed stream that is very cool and refreshing. We met a hardcore old Chilean guy there with a couple of younger dudes. They were headed up the way we just came and were sporting some seriously heavy looking packs. I did not envy them as they started the climb and the temperatures again hit the mid to upper 90s. Rakesh and I jumped in the river then rested in the shade of some thorny bush for a couple of ...
collections, groups of modules structured into books or course notes, or for other uses. Our open license allows for free use and reuse of all our content. ...
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Adults feed essentially on Podostemaceae (Lacis), more rarely on seeds (Caladium). During the rainy season, they undertake grand migrations to small creeks to reproduce (Ref. 12225). An important food fish. Possesses powerful dentition that can cause serious bites. ...
National Botanical Garden June 2008 Xerophyta retinervis is a deciduous perennial up to 1.8 m tall, with thick, ... rough hairs. Widespread but never abundant, Xerophyta retinervis occupies a very specialised ecological niche in .... ...
Connecting for Health (CfH) could be stripped of some of its responsibilities under a DoH review, as a survey revealed most GPs believe its IT programme is too expensive and puts patient data at risk.
Habitat quality of two salt marsh vegetation species (Juncus roemerianus and Spertina alterniflora) for larval and juvenile fishes in the Timucuan Ecological ...
Habitat quality of two salt marsh vegetation species (Juncus roemerianus and Spertina alterniflora) for larval and juvenile fishes in the Timucuan Ecological ...
Generates phylogenetic trees and distance matrices from a list of species name or from a taxon down to whatever lower taxon. It can do so based on two reference super trees: mammals and angiosperms. ...
Pictures of Southwest USA Mammillaria: Flowering plant of mammillaria lasiacantha, next to nama hispidum - Dome Trail, Big Bend Ranch State Park, Texas. High resolution version
the map comparisons imply that the orientation of the green, blue and red genes in the Amborella sequence matches that in the common ancestor ...
Utricularia species capture small prey in traps. The prey spectrum of aquatic Utricularia species includes a large variety of organisms (e.g. copepods, cladocerans, crustacea, rotifers, algae). This study focuses on selected attributes (species richness, density, biovolume, C and N contents) of microalgae captured inside the traps of aquatic Utricularia spp.. A total of 850 traps of four aquatic bladderwort species (Utricularia australis, U. foliosa, U. gibba and U. vulgaris) from tropical (Ivory Coast) and temperate (Canada, Germany) regions has been investigated concerning the algae captured. In total, 302 microalgal taxa have been identified with Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Charophyceae being most species rich. The number of microalgae species captured was different among the Utricularia spp. It was relatively low inside the traps of U. gibba and U. foliosa from tropical Africa, with the greatest species diversity observed within the Charophyceae (Desmidiaceae). The highest ...
Numerous studies, using in aggregate some 28 genes, have achieved a consensus in recognizing three groups of plants, including Amborella, as comprising the basal-most grade of all other angiosperms. A major exception is the recent study by Goremykin et al. (2003; Mol. Biol. Evol. 20:1499-1505), whose analyses of 61 genes from 13 sequenced chloroplast genomes of land plants nearly always found 100% support for monocots as the deepest angiosperms relative to Amborella, Calycanthus, and eudicots. We hypothesized that this conflict reflects a misrooting of angiosperms resulting from inadequate taxon sampling, inappropriate phylogenetic methodology, and rapid evolution in the grass lineage used to represent monocots. We used two main approaches to test this hypothesis. First, we sequenced a large number of chloroplast genes from the monocot Acorus and added these plus previously sequenced Acorus genes to the Goremykin et al. (2003) dataset in order to explore the effects of altered monocot sampling under the
The angiosperm order Malpighiales includes ~16,000 species and constitutes up to 40% of the understory tree diversity in tropical rain forests. Despite remarkable progress in angiosperm systematics during the last 20 y, relationships within Malpighia
Polyploidy was first discovered by Winkler in 1916 during his observations of a spontaneous autopolyploid induced by mechanically damaged tissue (Grant, 1971). Winge (1917) proposed an explanation for polyploidy using an arithmetic series he had observed in Chrysanthemum (2n=18, 36, 54, 72, and 90) and Chenopodium (2n=18, 36) (Grant, 1971). Winge hypothesized that polyploidy occurred by successive increases in the original somatic chromosome number. The most comprehensive work on polyploidy and its relationship to plant evolution is the book "Plant Speciation" by Vern Grant (1981). It has been estimated that 30% to 70% of angiosperms are polyploids (Grant, 1971). The broad range in estimates for angiosperm polyploidy is due to a lack of knowledge about whether these plants are ancient polyploids, or whether more recent events have caused the polyploidy we observe today. Furthermore, no one really knows the true base number of the angiosperms, making estimates of polyploidy for this large and ...
The Ray Ethan Torrey Botanical Greenhouse currently housed by the Department of Biology includes nearly 700 genera in more than 225 families. The collection is especially rich in "basal angiosperms," including members some of the most primitive families of flowering plants.. Of particular interest in this regard are plants of Amborella trichopoda of the family Amborellaceae, which is widely considered to represent the most primitive living angiosperm. This rare plant, a native of New Caledonia, is one of a handful of living flowering plants that are primitively vesselless, instead making wood that, like that of gymnosperms, has only tracheids and lacks vessel members.. Another rare, primitive angiosperm in the collection is Austrobaileya, of the family Austrobaileyaceae. This plant, a native of Queensland, Australia, has exceedingly primitive, leaf-like stamens that have no anther- rather the pollen sacs, technically microsporangia, attach directly to a laminar stamen instead of forming the ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about angiosperm at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about angiosperm easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Asteridae is a Linnaean term with the rank of subclass. By definition it always includes the family Asteraceae (Compositae). However, in the modern APG III system of classification,[1] asterid and euasterid are names for clades. Their member families are similar to those of the Asteridae.. One of the better-known systems that recognized subclass Asteridae was the Cronquist system, which included the orders:. ...
The chart is designed by David Rydeheard, who owns the copyright. It should not be distributed in any form other than that available on this website and must always include the copyright notice. It is available for personal use or for teaching and research purposes only. Please contact the author (at [email protected]) for permission to use in commerce or for personal gain. ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Ebenaceae_Gentianaceae_Gesneriaceae.html?id=KV3y_ky8vFMC&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareEbenaceae, Gentianaceae, Gesneriaceae ... ...
The Amazonian floodplains harbor highly diverse wetland forests, with angiosperms adapted to survive extreme floods and droughts. About 14% of the Amazon Basin is covered by floodplains, which are fundamental to river productivity, biogeochemical cycling and trophic flow, and have been subject to human occupation since Pre-Colombian times. The botanical knowledge about these forests is still incomplete, and current forest degradation rates are much higher than the rate of new botanical surveys. Herein we report the results of three years of botanical surveys in floodplain forests of the Central Amazon. This checklist contains 432 tree species comprising 193 genera and 57 families. The most represented families are Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Sapotaceae, Annonaceae, and Moraceae representing 53% of the identified species. This checklist also documents the occurrence of approximately 236 species that have been rarely recorded as occurring in white-water floodplain forests.
Casuarina glauca Sieber é uma espécie de arbusto do género Casuarina nativo da costa leste da Austrália. Está naturalizado nos Everglades da Flórida, onde é considerada uma espécie invasora. C. glauca é uma planta actinorrízica cujas raízes produzem nódulos fixadores de azoto em simbiose com bactérias do género Frankia. Os nódulos radiclares de C. glauca apresentam um padrão regular de camadas celulares que contêm flavanos. Apesar de não ser uma leguminosa, C. glauca produz uma hemoglobina (não a leg-hemoglobina) nos seus nódulos radiculares. A larva da traça Pernattia pusilla alimenta-se de C. glauca. «Burkes Backyard: Factsheets, Casuarinas» «Biological control of Australian native Casuarina species in the USA». Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. 16 de maio de 2007. Consultado em 16 de setembro de 2010 Laplaze, L.; Gherbi, H.; Frutz, T.; Pawlowski, K. (2000-01-01). Fabio O., ed. Flavan-Containing Cells Delimit Frankia Infected Compartments ...
...In the tropics carnivorous plants trap unsuspecting prey in a cavity ...The moment insects like flies ants and beetles fall into a pitcher t...These compounds could serve as a new class of anti-fungal drugs for us... To avoid sharing precious food resources with other micro-organisms s...,From,carnivorous,plants,to,the,medicine,cabinet?,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
New Tel Aviv University research investigates anti-fungal agents in the sticky "pitchers" of carnivorous plants. In the tropics, carnivorous plants trap unsuspecting prey in a cavity filled with liquid known as a "pitcher.". The moment insects like flies, ants and beetles fall into a pitcher, the plants enzymes are activated and begin dissolving their new meal, obtaining nutrients such as carbon and nitrogen which are difficult to extract from certain soils. Carnivorous plants also possess a highly developed set of compounds and secondary metabolites to aid in their survival.. These compounds could serve as a new class of anti-fungal drugs for use in human medicine, says Prof. Aviah Zilberstein of Tel Aviv Universitys Department of Plant Sciences. In a study conducted together with Dr. Haviva Eilenberg from her lab, Prof. Esther Segal from the Sackler Faculty of Medicine and Prof. Shmuel Carmeli from the School of Chemistry, the unusual components from the plants pitchers were found effective ...
Evolutionary transitions from insect to wind pollination are thought to have occurred many times during the angiosperm radiation. This transition is commonly associated with a suite of distinctive floral traits such as reduction of flower size and a transition to dry pollen. In the dioecious genus, Leucadendron (Proteaceae), evolutionary shifts from insect to wind pollination have been postulated based on floral morphology features. In this study, I aimed to experimentally test the potential for wind versus insect pollination in several Leucadendron species and document a variety of floral traits (pollen size, inflorescence size, scent, colour, etc.) in order to determine their functional significance whilst utilizing phylogenetic comparative methods to test the statistical significance of evolutionary associations between particular floral traits and pollination systems. Fifteen representative Leucadendron species were investigated to verify insect and wind pollination in as many clades as ...
Zingiberales Griseb., 1854 è un ordine di piante angiosperme monocotiledoni. Sia la classificazione tradizionale (Sistema Cronquist) che la più recente classificazione filogenetica (APG III) assegnano allordine Zingiberales le seguenti famiglie: Cannaceae Juss. Costaceae Nakai Heliconiaceae Vines Lowiaceae Ridl. Marantaceae R.Br. Musaceae Juss. Strelitziaceae Hutch. Zingiberaceae Martinov Canna indica (Cannaceae) Costus comosus (Costaceae) Heliconia stricta (Heliconiaceae) Orchidantha maxillarioides (Lowiaceae) Calathea lutea (Marantaceae) Musa textilis (Musaceae) Ravenala madagascariensis (Strelitziaceae) Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III, in Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 2009; 161(2): 105-121. Altri progetti Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies Wikimedia Commons contiene immagini o altri file su Zingiberales Wikispecies contiene informazioni su ...
Previous studies of Veronica and related genera were weakly supported by molecular and paraphyletic taxa. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of V. nakaiana and the related species V. persica and Veronicastrum sibiricum. The chloroplast genome length of V. nakaiana, V. persica and Veronicastrum sibiricum ranged from 150,198 bp to 152,930 bp. A total of 112 genes comprising 79 protein coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes were observed in three chloroplast genomes. The total number of SSRs was 48, 51 and 53 in V. nakaiana, V. persica and Veronicastrum sibiricum, respectively. Two SSRs (10 bp of AT and 12 bp of AATA) were observed in the same regions (rpoC2 and ndhD) in three chloroplast genomes. A comparison of coding genes and non-coding regions between V. nakaiana and V. persica revealed divergent sites, with the greatest variation occurring petD-rpoA region. The complete chloroplast genome sequence information regarding the three Veroniceae will be helpful for elucidating

Botany 2006 - Abstract SearchBotany 2006 - Abstract Search

basal angiosperms.. Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Topics. Session: 52-2. Location: 303/Bell Memorial Union. Date: ... In Nymphaea, as in other basal angiosperms, floral organ identity genes generally show broader patterns of expression than do ...
more infohttp://www.2006.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index.php?func=detail&aid=239

Alterações citológicas durante a formação do aerênquima em raízes de Pistia stratiotes L.(Araceae)Alterações citológicas durante a formação do aerênquima em raízes de Pistia stratiotes L.(Araceae)

Abstract: The concepts of schizogeny and lysogeny used to describe the origin of aerenchyma in roots of angiosperms have been ...
more infohttp://acervodigital.ufpr.br/handle/1884/37173

Basal angiosperms - WikipediaBasal angiosperms - Wikipedia

The basal angiosperms are only a few hundred species, compared with hundreds of thousands of species of eudicots, monocots or ... The basal angiosperms are the flowering plants which diverged from the lineage leading to most flowering plants. In particular ... 1998) to refer to angiosperms which are not monocots or eudicots. The paleodicots correspond to Magnoliidae sensu Cronquist ... They diverged from the ancestral angiosperm lineage before the five groups comprising the mesangiosperms diverged from each ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basal_angiosperms

AngiospermsAngiosperms

Angiosperm Phylogeny-APG III. Downloadable PDF of poster of Angiosperm phylogeny. T.C.H. Cole and H.H. Hilger. Institut f r ... Furthermore, angiosperms are crucial for human existence; the vast majority of the worlds crops are angiosperms, as are most ... The basal angiosperms. The basal angiosperms represent a grade that includes the following groups: Amborellaceae (discussed ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG II). 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and ...
more infohttp://www.tolweb.org/Angiosperms

Dichogamy in angiosperms | SpringerLinkDichogamy in angiosperms | SpringerLink

We obtained information on dichogamy and other aspects of the biology of over 4200 species of angiosperms from several hundred ... Incidence of monoecy and dichogamy in relation to self-fertilization in angiosperms. Amer. J. Bot. 80 (in press).Google Scholar ... We obtained information on dichogamy and other aspects of the biology of over 4200 species of angiosperms from several hundred ... The avoidance of interference between the presentation of pollen and stigmas in angiosperms. II. Herkogamy. New Zealand J. Bot. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02856676

ToL People for AngiospermsToL People for Angiosperms

Angiosperms) * Alex Small (Agraulis vanillae, Anisonema, Archaea, Arthropoda, Astasia, Atraktomonas laevis, Brachiopoda, ... Department of Botany and the Genetics Institute, Gainesville, Florida, USA (Angiosperms) * Franz Speta Biologisches Zentrum des ... ToL Scientific Contributors for Angiosperms. * Mac H. Alford University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, USA ... University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA (Angiosperms) * William Baker Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom ( ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/onlinecontributors/app?page=PeopleList&service=external&sp=20646&state:ImageGallery=ZH4sIAAAAAAAAAFvzloG1nJeBgYGJgYEtLz8l1TOluIiBLyuxLFEvJzEvXc8nPy%2FduvvJhDP9yveZGBi9GFjLEnNKUyuKGAQQivxKc5NSi9rWTJXlnvKgG2hURQEDGAQsKxdgYODNTU3JTHTOSSwu9swrAZoviNAKFEhNTy0SerRgyffGdgugFZ4wKwoZ6hgYQU4DAP4TjeelAAAA

ToL People for AngiospermsToL People for Angiosperms

Angiosperms) * Alex Small (Agraulis vanillae, Anisonema, Archaea, Arthropoda, Astasia, Atraktomonas laevis, Brachiopoda, ... Department of Botany and the Genetics Institute, Gainesville, Florida, USA (Angiosperms) * Franz Speta Biologisches Zentrum des ... ToL Scientific Contributors for Angiosperms. * Mac H. Alford University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, USA ... University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA (Angiosperms) * William Baker Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom ( ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/onlinecontributors/app?page=PeopleList&service=external&sp=20646

Angiosperm Phylogeny Website - WikipediaAngiosperm Phylogeny Website - Wikipedia

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (or APweb) is a well-known web site dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Website hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden Website Note: This is a selected list of the more ... Peter F. Stevens is a member of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). The taxonomy presented is broadly based on the work of ... APWebsite is a resource for NCBI (NCBI) A useful site for Kew Gardens (Kew Gardens) Stevens, Peter F. (2006). "The angiosperm ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiosperm_Phylogeny_Website

Angiosperms & Gymnosperms | Carolina.comAngiosperms & Gymnosperms | Carolina.com

We sell many angiosperms and gymnosperms including cacti, succulents, and venus flytraps! ...
more infohttps://www.carolina.com/living-organisms/plants/angiosperms-and-gymnosperms/10612.ct

angiosperm | plant | Britannica.comangiosperm | plant | Britannica.com

angiosperm: Any member of the more than 300,000 species of flowering plants (division Anthophyta), the largest and most diverse ... Angiosperms represent approximately 80 percent of all the known green plants now living. The angiosperms are vascular seed ... It is known as the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II (APG II) botanical classification system. The angiosperms came to be ... For a comparison of angiosperms with the other major groups of plants, see plant, bryophyte, fern, lower vascular plant, and ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/plant/angiosperm

Angiosperm - Classification | Britannica.comAngiosperm - Classification | Britannica.com

There is not a single living plant species whose status as an angiosperm or non-angiosperm is in doubt. Even the fossil record ... Most typically, angiosperms are seed plants. This separates them from all other plants except the gymnosperms, of which the ... The ovules (forerunners of the seeds) of angiosperms are characteristically enclosed in an ovary, in contrast to those ... The angiosperms are a well-characterized, sharply defined group. ... Pollen of angiosperms is received by the stigma, a specialized ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/plant/angiosperm/Classification

Category:Angiosperms Templates to include in Taxonavigation - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Angiosperms Templates to include in Taxonavigation - Wikimedia Commons

Pages in category "Angiosperms Templates to include in Taxonavigation". The following 200 pages are in this category, out of ... Category:Angiosperms Templates to include in Taxonavigation. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Angiosperms_Templates_to_include_in_Taxonavigation& ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Angiosperms_Templates_to_include_in_Taxonavigation

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group - Wikipedia, wolna encyklopediaAngiosperm Phylogeny Group - Wikipedia, wolna encyklopedia

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 1998. An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) - międzynarodowa grupa systematyków roślin (taksonomów) stworzona w celu ustalenia wspólnego ...
more infohttps://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiosperm_Phylogeny_Group

Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy: Angiosperms - Gunnar Erdtman - Google BooksPollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy: Angiosperms - Gunnar Erdtman - Google Books

Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy: Angiosperms. Volume 1 of Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy. Volume 1 of Pollen ... Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy: Angiosperms, with 261 illus. (or .... Gunnar Erdtman,P. Sorsa. Snippet view - 1952. ... Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy: Angiosperms ; an Introduction to .... G. Erdtman. No preview available - 1986. ...
more infohttps://books.google.com/books?id=e-QUAAAAIAAJ&hl=en

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Angiosperms - Wikisource, the free online library1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Angiosperms - Wikisource, the free online library

ANGIOSPERMS. The botanical term "Angiosperm" (ἀγγεῖον, receptacle, and σπέρμα, seed) was coined in the form Angiospermae by ... The position of Angiosperms as the highest plant-group is unassailable, but of the point or points of their origin from the ... There is no land-area from the poles to the equator, where plant-life is possible, upon which Angiosperms are not found. They ... In the larger of the two great groups into which the Angiosperms are divided, the Dicotyledons, the bundles in the very young ...
more infohttps://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Angiosperms

Emerging Genomics of Angiosperm Trees | SpringerLinkEmerging Genomics of Angiosperm Trees | SpringerLink

Genome sequence assemblies of many angiosperm trees used in forestry are now emerging, in addition to the well-characterised ... Whilst the number of published genomes of angiosperm forest trees lags behind that of angiosperm trees grown commercially for ... Genome sequence assemblies of many angiosperm trees used in forestry are now emerging, in addition to the well-characterised ... Sollars E., Buggs R. (2016) Emerging Genomics of Angiosperm Trees. In: Groover A., Cronk Q. (eds) Comparative and Evolutionary ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/7397_2016_16

McPherson: Polyploidy in Angiosperm SpeciationMcPherson: Polyploidy in Angiosperm Speciation

... of angiosperms are polyploids (Grant, 1971). The broad range in estimates for angiosperm polyploidy is due to a lack of ... Furthermore, no one really knows the true base number of the angiosperms, making estimates of polyploidy for this large and ...
more infohttp://www.biology.ualberta.ca/courses.hp/biol606/OldLecs/Lecture2K.02.McPherson.html

Types of Angiosperm Flowers | Garden GuidesTypes of Angiosperm Flowers | Garden Guides

Knowing about some of the flowering angiosperms makes it easier to start and maintain a gardening hobby or other floral ... ... Angiosperms comprise more than 300,000 different plant species throughout the world. They make up approximately 80 percent of ... Angiosperms comprise more than 300,000 different plant species throughout the world. They make up approximately 80 percent of ... An interesting flowering angiosperm, the Brazilian Dutchmans pipe grows throughout tropical and subtropical regions. It has ...
more infohttps://www.gardenguides.com/101330-types-angiosperm-flowers.html

angiosperm facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about angiospermangiosperm facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about angiosperm

Make research projects and school reports about angiosperm easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Angiosperms Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Angiosperms. The angiosperms, or flowering plants, are the largest and ... Angiosperms Plant Sciences COPYRIGHT 2001 The Gale Group Inc.. Angiosperms. The angiosperms, or flowering plants (division ... The term "angiosperm" derives from two Greek words: angeion, meaning "vessel," and sperma, meaning "seed." The angiosperms are ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/botany/botany-general/angiosperm

Angiosperm - The Full WikiAngiosperm - The Full Wiki

a b c Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and ... The great angiosperm radiation, when a great diversity of angiosperms appears in the fossil record, occurred in the mid- ... while in angiosperms the fertilization begins very soon after pollination. The shorter time leads to angiosperm plants setting ... through the work of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, who published an influential reclassification of the angiosperms in 1998. ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/Angiosperm

Anther plastids in angiosperms | Springer for Research & DevelopmentAnther plastids in angiosperms | Springer for Research & Development

In the anther of angiosperms, all types of plastids are found in the course of pollen development. They are located in the ... 36-42in E. Ottaviano, D. L. Mulcahy & M. Sari-Gorla (eds.), Angiosperm pollen and ovules. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google ... The cytological basis of the plastid inheritance in angiosperms. Protoplasma 152: 57-64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... In the anther of angiosperms, all types of plastids are found in the course of pollen development. They are located in the ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02857849

Browsing FAS Scholarly Articles by Subject basal angiospermsBrowsing FAS Scholarly Articles by Subject "basal angiosperms"

... DSpace/Manakin Repository. * DASH Home ... Phylogenetic Analyses of Basal Angiosperms Based on Nine Plastid, Mitochondrial, and Nuclear Genes ...
more infohttps://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/2/browse?value=basal+angiosperms&type=subject

Coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylation and methylation direct syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms | PNASConiferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylation and methylation direct syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms | PNAS

Lignin in angiosperms is composed of guaiacyl and syringyl monomers, whereas gymnosperm lignin consists almost entirely of ... Coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylation and methylation direct syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Keishi Osakabe, Cheng ... We therefore examined the 5-hydroxylation and methylation reactions in lignifying xylem of an angiosperm tree species, sweetgum ... Coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylation and methylation direct syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/96/16/8955?ijkey=cdc520e369ee0522f94630d4d10011ac9e0db675&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

The Emergence of Earliest Angiosperms May be Earlier than Fossil ...: Ingenta ConnectThe Emergence of Earliest Angiosperms May be Earlier than Fossil ...: Ingenta Connect

An example of the time gap surrounds the age of angiosperms origin. We calculate molecular ages of the earliest flowering ... Keywords: Calibration density; Permian; ecophysiology; molecular dating; origin of angiosperms; rate heterogeneity ... Our results, when integrated with the ecophysiological evolution of early angiosperms, imply that the ecology of the earliest ... The Emergence of Earliest Angiosperms May be Earlier than Fossil Evidence Indicates ...
more infohttp://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/aspt/sb/2017/00000042/00000004/art00001
  • Although not all scientists were convinced that the matter of the basal angiosperm was settled, the response was dramatic with one morphologist heralding the identification of a basal angiosperm as "the answer" ( 15 ), even though it conflicted with his own previous analyses ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although the taxonomy of the angiosperms is still incompletely known, the latest classification system incorporates a large body of comparative data derived from studies of DNA sequences. (britannica.com)
  • The angiosperms came to be considered a group at the division level (comparable to the phylum level in animal classification systems) called Anthophyta. (britannica.com)
  • The closed carpel of angiosperms also allows adaptations to specialized pollination syndromes and controls. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In angiosperms, traits such as biotic pollination, floral symmetry and nectar spurs, which are all related to specialized pollination and the ability to generate reproductive isolation, have been proposed as key innovations due to their positive effects on diversification [ 6 , 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Although these results suggest that frequent pollination shifts have occurred during the speciation events in angiosperms, a large proportion of these events could still occur within specific pollination systems. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The trend of the evolution of the plant kingdom has been in the direction of the establishment of a vegetation of fixed habit and adapted to the vicissitudes of a life on land, and the Angiosperms are the highest expression of this evolution and constitute the dominant vegetation of the earth's surface at the present epoch. (wikisource.org)
  • The sequential evolution of angiosperm plants and their mammal herbivores was tracked by the evolution of beetles, shows a newly published study from the Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig Leibniz Institute for Animal Biodiversity in Bonn and the Natural History Museum London in Proceedings of the Royal Society B. using DNA sequences. (uni-protokolle.de)
  • Instead, the evolution of angiosperm plants provided a new resource that first enabled the origins of herbivory in mammals and beetles, and secondary dung feeding among the scarab beetles. (uni-protokolle.de)
  • 2014 The evolution of scarab beetles tracks the sequential rise of angiosperms and mammals. (uni-protokolle.de)
  • To Charles Darwin the suddenness of the angiosperm appearance and their rapid rise to dominance in the fossil record was both a "perplexing phenomenon" to "those who believe in extremely gradual evolution" and an "abominable mystery" ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Incorporating molecular phylogenetics with morphological, chemical, developmental, and paleobotanical data, as well as presenting a more detailed account of early angiosperm fossils and important fossil information for each evolutionary branch of the angiosperms, the new edition integrates fossil evidence into a robust phylogenetic framework. (nhbs.com)
  • In addition to addressing one of the greatest fundamental gaps in our understanding of evolutionary history, an understanding of precise relationships within the angiosperms would have remarkable practical value and relevance. (pnas.org)
  • These distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans. (thefullwiki.org)
  • We also collected associated soil to measure the effect of soil conditions on AMF colonization Results Thick-root magnoliids showed less variation in root traits along root orders than more-derived angiosperm groups. (osti.gov)
  • article{osti_1247638, title = {Phylogenetically structured traits in root systems influence arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in woody angiosperms}, author = {Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J. and Horning, Amber L. and Smemo, Kurt A. and Blackwood, Christopher B.}, abstractNote = {In this study, there is little quantitative information about the relationship between root traits and the extent of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization. (osti.gov)
  • The angiosperms dominate the Earth's surface and vegetation in more environments , particularly terrestrial habitats, than any other group of plants. (britannica.com)
  • the vast majority of the world's crops are angiosperms, as are most natural clothing fibers. (tolweb.org)
  • The male gametophyte in angiosperms is significantly reduced in size compared to those of gymnosperm seed plants. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Only 2 years ago it seemed that a consensus, based on molecular data, would emerge on angiosperm relationships within 10 years ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Fruits are derived from the maturing floral organs of the angiospermous plant and are therefore characteristic of angiosperms. (britannica.com)
  • This is perhaps the most characteristic single feature of angiosperms and is not shared with any other group. (britannica.com)
  • The angiosperms are vascular seed plants in which the ovule (egg) is fertilized and develops into a seed in an enclosed hollow ovary . (britannica.com)
  • For a comparison of angiosperms with the other major groups of plants, see plant , bryophyte , fern , lower vascular plant , and gymnosperm . (britannica.com)
  • Flowers aid angiosperms by enabling a wider range of adaptability and broadening the ecological niches open to them. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The food-conducting tissue ( phloem ) of angiosperms characteristically has companion cells that bear a direct ontogenetic relationship to the sieve tubes through which the actual conduction takes place. (britannica.com)
  • It might thus be possible that the copious leaf litter produced by the angiosperms created highly suitable conditions for these beetles and their soil-dwelling larvae. (uni-protokolle.de)
  • The angiosperms are a relatively recent group of land plants, and are thought to have originated in the early Cretaceous, only 130 million years ago. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Our results reveal the origin of angiosperms at the late Permian, ∼275 million years ago. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Angiosperms are also sources for other important resources such as medicine and timber. (tolweb.org)
  • As a result, angiosperms are the most important ultimate source of food for birds and mammals, including humans. (britannica.com)