Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The sour gum plant family of the order Nymphaeales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. All have horizontal or hanging branches and broad alternate leaves, and they are dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants).
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. The common name of lotus is also used for LOTUS and NELUMBO.
A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. Members contain sesquiterpene thioalkaloids.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.
A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. It has edible fruit and seeds which contain acetogenins and benzoquinazoline and other alkaloids.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
A plant genus of the family MAGNOLIACEAE. Members include hardwood trees of eastern North America with distinct large tuliplike flowers.
A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The reproductive cells of plants.
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
A subset of various vascular plants (also known as the Tracheophyta) which include seed-bearing and non seed-bearing species.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.
Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
A plant family of the order Hydrocharitales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the subject of genetic study.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.
A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Lacking chlorophyll, they are nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants. The common name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).
A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae class, Magnoliopsida that are mostly shrubs and small trees. Many of the members contain indole alkaloids.
The stonecrop plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that grow in warm, dry regions. The leaves are thick. The flower clusters are red, yellow, or white.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. The common name derives from its traditional use for menstrual cramps. It is a source of viburnine, valerianic acid, vibsanin, and ursolic acid. Note that true cranberry is VACCINIUM MACROCARPON.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
A plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The wood lacks water-conducting cells but has acrid sap. The leaves are gland-dotted, leathery, and smooth-margined. The flowers are small, in clusters, with two to six sepals, petals in two or more series, several stamens, and one to several carpels.
A plant family of the order Proteales, subclass Rosidae class Magnoliopsida. Cluster roots, bottlebrush-like clusters of rootlets which form in response to poor soil, are common in this family.
A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition. (1/1498)

Naturally occurring substances which can prevent and treat diabetic complications were sought by examining ethanol extracts prepared from Korean forest plants for their inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro. Among the plants examined, Acer ginnala, Illicium religiosum and Cornus macrophylla exerted the most strong inhibitory activity on aldose reductase.  (+info)

Antioxidative and chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides from Pedicularis striata. (2/1498)

AIM: To study the antioxidative and iron chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPG) isolated from a Chinese herb Pedicularis striata. METHODS: Antioxidative effects of PPG on lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4-edetic acid in linoleic acid were measured by thiobarbituric acid method. Chelating activities of PPG for Fe2+ were tested by differential spectrum method. RESULTS: The reaction rates (A532.min-1) of lipid peroxidation were 0.0046 in the control, 0.0021 in verbascoside group, and 0.0008 in isoverbascoside group. The chelating activity of isoverbascoside was 2-fold stronger than that of verbascoside. Permethyl verbascoside showed neither antioxidative nor chelating activities. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effects of PPG with phenolic hydroxy groups on lipid peroxidation are owing to their chelating properties. Under physiological condition PPG-Fe2+ chelates are sufficiently stable. Thus PPG are able to inhibit the Fe(2+)-dependent lipid peroxidation in vivo through chelating Fe2+ and exhibit their therapeutic potential by the same mechanism in vitro.  (+info)

Continuous primary sequence requirements in the 18-nucleotide promoter of dicot plant mitochondria. (3/1498)

The nucleotide requirements of mitochondrial promoters of dicot plants were studied in detail in a pea in vitro transcription system. Deletions in the 5' regions of three different transcription initiation sites from pea, soybean, and Oenothera identified a crucial AT-rich sequence element (AT-Box) comprising nucleotide positions -14 to -9 relative to the first transcribed nucleotide. Transversion of the AT-Box sequence to comple- mentary nucleotide identities results in an almost complete loss of promoter activity, suggesting that primary structure rather than a simple accumulation of adenines and thymidines in this region is essential for promoter activity. This promoter segment thus appears to be involved in sequence specific binding of a respective protein factor(s) rather than merely loosening and melting the DNA helix during or for an initiation event. Manipulation of nucleotide identities in the 3' portion of the pea atp9 promoter and the respective 3'-flanking region revealed that essential sequences extend to positions +3/+4 beyond this transcription start site. Efficient transcription initiation at an 18-base pair promoter sequence ranging from nucleotide positions -14 to +4 integrated into different sequence contexts shows this element to be sufficient for autonomous promoter function independent of surrounding sequences.  (+info)

Characterization of two novel type I ribosome-inactivating proteins from the storage roots of the andean crop Mirabilis expansa. (4/1498)

Two novel type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were found in the storage roots of Mirabilis expansa, an underutilized Andean root crop. The two RIPs, named ME1 and ME2, were purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange perfusion chromatography, and C4 reverse-phase chromatography. The two proteins were found to be similar in size (27 and 27.5 kD) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their isoelectric points were determined to be greater than pH 10.0. Amino acid N-terminal sequencing revealed that both ME1 and ME2 had conserved residues characteristic of RIPs. Amino acid composition and western-blot analysis further suggested a structural similarity between ME1 and ME2. ME2 showed high similarity to the Mirabilis jalapa antiviral protein, a type I RIP. Depurination of yeast 26S rRNA by ME1 and ME2 demonstrated their ribosome-inactivating activity. Because these two proteins were isolated from roots, their antimicrobial activity was tested against root-rot microorganisms, among others. ME1 and ME2 were active against several fungi, including Pythium irregulare, Fusarium oxysporum solani, Alternaria solani, Trichoderma reesei, and Trichoderma harzianum, and an additive antifungal effect of ME1 and ME2 was observed. Antibacterial activity of both ME1 and ME2 was observed against Pseudomonas syringae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, and others.  (+info)

The prenylation status of a novel plant calmodulin directs plasma membrane or nuclear localization of the protein. (5/1498)

Post-translational attachment of isoprenyl groups to conserved cysteine residues at the C-terminus of a number of regulatory proteins is important for their function and subcellular localization. We have identified a novel calmodulin, CaM53, with an extended C-terminal basic domain and a CTIL CaaX-box motif which are required for efficient prenylation of the protein in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of wild-type CaM53 or a non-prenylated mutant protein in plants causes distinct morphological changes. Prenylated CaM53 associates with the plasma membrane, but the non-prenylated mutant protein localizes to the nucleus, indicating a dual role for the C-terminal domain. The subcellular localization of CaM53 can be altered by a block in isoprenoid biosynthesis or sugar depletion, suggesting that CaM53 activates different targets in response to metabolic changes. Thus, prenylation of CaM53 appears to be a novel mechanism by which plant cells can coordinate Ca2+ signaling with changes in metabolic activities.  (+info)

Tissue-specific expression of the beta-subunit of tryptophan synthase in Camptotheca acuminata, an indole alkaloid-producing plant. (6/1498)

Camptothecin is an anticancer drug produced by the monoterpene indole alkaloid pathway in Camptotheca acuminata. As part of an investigation of the camptothecin biosynthetic pathway, we have cloned and characterized a gene from C. acuminata encoding the beta-subunit of tryptophan (Trp) synthase (TSB). In C. acuminata TSB provides Trp for both protein synthesis and indole alkaloid production and therefore represents a junction between primary and secondary metabolism. TSB mRNA and protein were detected in all C. acuminata organs examined, and their abundance paralleled that of camptothecin. Within each shoot organ, TSB was most abundant in vascular tissues. Within the root, however, TSB expression was most abundant in the outer cortex. TSB has been localized to chloroplasts in Arabidopsis, but there was little expression of TSB in C. acuminata tissues where the predominant plastids were photosynthetically competent chloroplasts. Expression of the promoter from the C. acuminata TSB gene in transgenic tobacco plants paralleled expression of the native gene in C. acuminata in all organs except roots. TSB is also highly expressed in C. acuminata during early seedling development at a stage corresponding to peak accumulation of camptothecin, consistent with the idea that Trp biosynthesis and the secondary indole alkaloid pathway are coordinately regulated.  (+info)

Expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase during leaf ontogeny in white clover. (7/1498)

We examined the expression of three distinct 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes during leaf ontogeny in white clover (Trifolium repens). Significant production of ethylene occurs at the apex, in newly initiated leaves, and in senescent leaf tissue. We used a combination of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends to identify three distinct DNA sequences designated TRACO1, TRACO2, and TRACO3, each with homology to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. Southern analysis confirmed that these sequences represent three distinct genes. Northern analysis revealed that TRACO1 is expressed specifically in the apex and TRACO2 is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in developing leaf tissue. The third gene, TRACO3, is expressed in senescent leaf tissue. Antibodies were raised to each gene product expressed in Escherichia coli, and western analysis showed that the TRACO1 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 205 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed preferentially in apical tissue. The TRACO2 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 36.4 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in mature green tissue. No protein recognition by the TRACO3 antibody could be detected in senescent tissue or at any other stage of leaf development.  (+info)

Evolution of the mitochondrial rps3 intron in perennial and annual angiosperms and homology to nad5 intron 1. (8/1498)

The plant mitochondrial rps3 intron was analyzed for substitution and indel rate variation among 15 monocot and dicot angiosperms from 10 genera, including perennial and annual taxa. Overall, the intron sequence was very conserved among angiosperms. Based on length polymorphism, 10 different alleles were identified among the 10 genera. These allelic differences were mainly attributable to large indels. An insertion of 133 nucleotides, observed in the Alnus intron was partially or completely absent in the other lineages of the family Betulaceae. This insertion was located within domain IV of the secondary-structure model of this group IIA intron. A mobile element of 47 nucleotides that showed homology to sequences located in rice rps3 intron and in intergenic plant mitochondrial genomes was found within this insertion. Both substitution and indel rates were low among the Betulaceae sequences, but substitution rates were increasingly larger than indel rates in comparisons involving more distantly related taxa. From a secondary-structure model, regions involved in helical structures were shown to be well preserved from indels as compared to substitutions, but compensatory changes were not observed among the angiosperm sequences analyzed. Using approximate divergence times based on the fossil record, substitution and indel rate heterogeneity was observed between different pairs of annual and perennial taxa. In particular, the annual petunia and primrose evolved more than 15 and 10 times faster, for substitution and indel rates respectively, than the perennial birch and alder. This is the first demonstration of an evolutionary rate difference between perennial and annual forms in noncoding DNA, lending support to neutral causes such as the generation time, population size, and speciation rate effects to explain such rate heterogeneity. Surprisingly, the sequence from the rps3 intron had a high identity with the sequence of intron 1 from the angiosperm mitochondrial nad5 gene, suggesting a common origin of these two group IIA introns.  (+info)

Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants, are a group of plants that produce seeds enclosed within an ovary. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek words "angeion," meaning "case" or "capsule," and "sperma," meaning "seed." This group includes the majority of plant species, with over 300,000 known species.

Angiosperms are characterized by their reproductive structures, which consist of flowers. The flower contains male and female reproductive organs, including stamens (which produce pollen) and carpels (which contain the ovules). After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed, while the ovary matures into a fruit, which provides protection and nutrition for the developing embryo.

Angiosperms are further divided into two main groups: monocots and eudicots. Monocots have one cotyledon or embryonic leaf, while eudicots have two. Examples of monocots include grasses, lilies, and orchids, while examples of eudicots include roses, sunflowers, and legumes.

Angiosperms are ecologically and economically important, providing food, shelter, and other resources for many organisms, including humans. They have evolved a wide range of adaptations to different environments, from the desert to the ocean floor, making them one of the most diverse and successful groups of plants on Earth.

Gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that include conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes. The name "gymnosperm" comes from the Greek words "gymnos," meaning naked, and "sperma," meaning seed. This refers to the fact that the seeds of gymnosperms are not enclosed within an ovary or fruit, but are exposed on the surface of modified leaves called cones or strobili.

Gymnosperms are vascular plants, which means they have specialized tissues for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant. They are also heterosporous, meaning that they produce two types of spores: male microspores and female megaspores. The microspores develop into male gametophytes, which produce sperm cells, while the megaspores develop into female gametophytes, which produce egg cells.

Gymnosperms are an important group of plants that have been around for millions of years. They are adapted to a wide range of environments, from temperate forests to deserts and high mountain ranges. Many gymnosperms are evergreen, with needle-like or scale-like leaves that are able to resist drought and cold temperatures.

Conifers, which include trees such as pines, firs, spruces, and redwoods, are the most diverse and widespread group of gymnosperms. They are characterized by their woody cones and needle-shaped leaves. Cycads are another group of gymnosperms that are found in tropical and subtropical regions. They have large, stiff leaves and produce large seeds that are enclosed in a fleshy covering. Ginkgo is a unique gymnosperm that has been around for over 200 million years. It is a deciduous tree with fan-shaped leaves and large, naked seeds.

Gnetophytes are a small group of gymnosperms that include the ephedra, welwitschia, and gnetum. They have unique features such as vessels in their wood and motile sperm cells, which are not found in other gymnosperms.

Overall, gymnosperms are an important group of plants that have adapted to a wide range of environments and play a crucial role in many ecosystems.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Coniferophyta is a division of vascular plants that includes the conifers. It is an informal name and not commonly used in modern taxonomy, but it can still be found in some older textbooks and resources. The more widely accepted classification system places conifers within the gymnosperms, which are a group of seed-bearing plants characterized by the absence of fruits or flowers.

Conifers are a diverse group of woody plants that include trees and shrubs such as pines, firs, spruces, hemlocks, cedars, and redwoods. They are known for their cone-bearing seeds and needle-shaped leaves, which are often evergreen. Conifers are widely distributed throughout the world and play important ecological roles in many ecosystems, particularly in temperate and boreal forests.

In summary, while "Coniferophyta" is an outdated term for the division that includes conifers, it refers to a group of plants characterized by their cone-bearing seeds and needle-shaped leaves. Modern classification systems place conifers within the gymnosperms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

Nymphaeaceae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to the water lily family, which includes several genera and species of aquatic plants. These plants are known for their large, showy flowers and often used in ornamental ponds and gardens.

While Nymphaeaceae is not a medical term itself, some of its members have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes. For example, the rhizomes of some species of Nymphaea have been used to treat skin conditions, inflammation, and anxiety. However, it's important to note that the use of these plants as medicinal remedies has not been extensively studied or proven in modern clinical trials, so their effectiveness and safety are not well established.

A plant genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a plant. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the development and functioning of the plant, including its structural and functional characteristics. The plant genome includes both coding regions that contain instructions for producing proteins and non-coding regions that have various regulatory functions.

The plant genome is composed of several types of DNA molecules, including chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of the cell. Each chromosome contains one or more genes, which are segments of DNA that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Plants typically have multiple sets of chromosomes, with each set containing a complete copy of the genome.

The study of plant genomes is an active area of research in modern biology, with important applications in areas such as crop improvement, evolutionary biology, and medical research. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to determine the complete sequences of many plant genomes, providing valuable insights into their structure, function, and evolution.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

An ovule is the structure in female plants (including gymnosperms and angiosperms) that contains the female gametophyte and gives rise to the seed after fertilization. It consists of a protective outer layer called the integument, enclosing a small mass of tissue called the nucellus, within which is located the embryo sac or female germ unit.

The embryo sac contains the egg cell (oocyte), two synergids that assist in fertilization, and three antipodal cells at the opposite end. Upon fertilization of the egg cell by a male gamete from pollen, the zygote forms, which develops into an embryo within the ovule. The other male gamete fuses with the central cell (containing two polar nuclei) to form the endosperm, which serves as nutritive tissue for the developing embryo.

Once mature, the ovule transforms into a seed, enclosed by a seed coat formed from the integuments. The seed contains the developed embryo and stored food reserves (endosperm) that support its initial growth after germination.

"Nymphaea" is a botanical term for a genus of flowering plants commonly known as water lilies. They are not typically used in medical definitions, but I can provide some information about their medicinal properties or uses if that would be helpful.

Water lilies have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including treating anxiety, insomnia, and skin conditions. The roots, leaves, and flowers of the plant contain various compounds with potential therapeutic effects, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins. However, it's important to note that most of these uses have not been extensively studied in clinical trials, and more research is needed before any definitive medical claims can be made about the benefits of Nymphaea species.

If you have a specific question about the medicinal properties or uses of water lilies, I'd be happy to try and help answer it!

"Nuphar" is a genus of aquatic plants in the family Nymphaeaceae, also known as water lilies. It includes several species that are found in freshwater habitats around the world. These plants have large, round leaves that float on the surface of the water and white or yellow flowers that bloom above the water's surface.

However, "Nuphar" is not a medical term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you are looking for information about a medical condition or treatment, I would be happy to help if you can provide more context or clarify your question.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Botany is the scientific study of plants, encompassing various disciplines such as plant structure, function, evolution, diversity, distribution, ecology, and application. It involves examining different aspects like plant anatomy, physiology, genetics, molecular biology, systematics, and ethnobotany. The field of botany has contributed significantly to our understanding of the natural world, agriculture, medicine, and environmental conservation.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) refers to the genetic material present in the chloroplasts, which are organelles found in the cells of photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae, and some bacteria. Chloroplasts are responsible for capturing sunlight energy and converting it into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

Chloroplast DNA is circular and contains a small number of genes compared to the nuclear genome. It encodes for some of the essential components required for chloroplast function, including proteins involved in photosynthesis, transcription, and translation. The majority of chloroplast proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and are imported into the chloroplast after being synthesized in the cytoplasm.

Chloroplast DNA is inherited maternally in most plants, meaning that it is passed down from the maternal parent to their offspring through the egg cell. This mode of inheritance has been used in plant breeding and genetic engineering to introduce desirable traits into crops.

"Picea" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for a group of evergreen coniferous trees commonly known as spruces, which are part of the pine family (Pinaceae). These trees are native to the northern hemisphere and are widely distributed in North America, Europe, and Asia.

While spruce trees have some medicinal uses, such as extracts from the needles being used in traditional medicine for their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, "Picea" itself is not a medical term or concept.

'Bryophyta' is the formal scientific name for a division of non-vascular plants that includes mosses. These plants are small, typically range in size from a few millimeters to a few centimeters, and lack true roots, stems, and leaves. They have simple reproductive structures and obtain water and nutrients directly from the environment through their body surfaces. Mosses are an important part of many ecosystems, particularly in damp or shaded habitats, where they play a role in soil stabilization, nutrient cycling, and water retention.

A genome is the complete set of genetic material present within an organism. In eukaryotic cells, which include plants, animals, and other complex life forms, the genome is divided into several compartments, including the nucleus (where most of the genetic material is housed) and the plastids (which include chloroplasts in plant cells).

A plastid genome, also known as a plastome, is the genetic material found within a plastid. Plastids are organelles found in the cells of plants, algae, and some protists that are involved in various metabolic processes, including photosynthesis. The plastid genome is typically a circular molecule of DNA that contains genes encoding for proteins, ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA) that are necessary for the function and maintenance of the plastid.

The plastid genome is relatively small compared to the nuclear genome, typically ranging from 120-160 kilobases in length. The gene content and organization of plastid genomes are highly conserved across different plant species, making them useful tools for studying evolutionary relationships among plants. Additionally, because plastids are maternally inherited in many plant species, the plastid genome has been used to study patterns of maternal inheritance and hybridization in plants.

In medical terms, "fossils" do not have a specific or direct relevance to the field. However, in a broader scientific context, fossils are the remains or impressions of prehistoric organisms preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock. They offer valuable evidence about the Earth's history and the life forms that existed on it millions of years ago.

Paleopathology is a subfield of paleontology that deals with the study of diseases in fossils, which can provide insights into the evolution of diseases and human health over time.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

Selaginellaceae is a family of non-vascular plants in the division Lycopodiophyta, also known as lycophytes. These plants are commonly referred to as spikemosses or selaginellas. Selaginellaceae includes around 700 species of small, low-growing, and often creeping or climbing plants that superficially resemble mosses. However, they differ from true mosses in several ways, including their vascular system and the presence of seeds (although these are not true seeds like those found in seed plants).

The leaves of Selaginellaceae species are small and simple, with a single vein running down the center. The leaves are arranged in an alternate pattern along the stem, which is often branched. One distinctive feature of Selaginellaceae is the presence of microphylls, tiny leaf-like structures that contain only one vein.

Selaginellaceae species reproduce using spores rather than seeds. The spores are produced in small, cone-like structures called strobili, which are often borne on specialized leaves. When the spores are mature, they are released and can be dispersed by wind or water.

Overall, Selaginellaceae is an important group of non-vascular plants that have a long evolutionary history and provide valuable insights into the early development of land plants.

Ferns are a group of vascular plants that reproduce by means of spores rather than seeds. They are characterized by their frond-like leaves and lack of flowers or fruits. Ferns have been around for millions of years, with some fossilized ferns dating back to the Devonian period, over 360 million years ago.

Ferns are an important part of many ecosystems, particularly in tropical rainforests where they provide habitat and food for a variety of animals. They also play a role in soil erosion control and nutrient cycling.

Medically, some ferns have been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments, such as bracken fern which has been used to treat wounds, burns, and skin diseases. However, it is important to note that not all ferns are safe for consumption or use as medicines, and some can be toxic if ingested or applied topically. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using any plant-based remedies.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for the term "Cycas." It is a genus name in botany, referring to a group of plants commonly known as cycads. Cycads are ancient seed plants that have been on Earth for millions of years. They are often grown as ornamental plants due to their unique appearance.

While there may not be a direct medical definition for "Cycas," it is worth noting that some parts of the cycad plant, particularly the seeds, contain toxic compounds that can cause serious health issues in both humans and animals if ingested. These toxins can affect the nervous system, liver, and kidneys, leading to symptoms such as vomiting, seizures, and even death in severe cases.

Therefore, while "Cycas" may not have a medical definition per se, it is still important to be aware of its potential health risks.

Alismatidae is a subclass of monocotyledonous aquatic and semi-aquatic flowering plants, also known as the water plantains. This group includes several families of plants that are typically found in wetlands, marshes, and along the edges of bodies of water. The plants in this group have adapted to their aquatic environments with specialized structures such as floating leaves and air-filled tissues that help them float on the water's surface. Some examples of plants in Alismatidae include waterlilies, pondweeds, and cattails.

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

"Annona" is a genus of plants in the custard apple family, Annonaceae. It includes several species that produce edible fruit, such as Annona squamosa (sugar-apple or sweetsop), Annona reticulata (custard apple or bullock's heart), and Annona cherimola (cherimoya). These fruits are native to tropical regions of the Americas and have been cultivated for their sweet, aromatic flesh.

In a medical context, "Annona" is not commonly used as a term. However, some research has investigated the potential medicinal properties of compounds found in Annona species. For example, acetogenins found in the seeds and bark of certain Annona species have been studied for their potential anti-cancer, insecticidal, and anti-malarial properties.

It's worth noting that while some research has suggested that these compounds may have therapeutic potential, more studies are needed to confirm their safety and efficacy in humans. Additionally, it's important to note that the seeds and bark of Annona species can be toxic if ingested in large quantities, so they should not be consumed without medical supervision.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pollination" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Pollination is a process in biology, specifically in botany, that refers to the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive organ (anther) of a flower to the female reproductive organ (stigma) of the same or another flower, leading to fertilization and the production of fruits and seeds.

If you have any medical terms or concepts in mind, please provide them so I can offer an accurate definition or explanation.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

Plastids are membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of plants and algae. They are responsible for various cellular functions, including photosynthesis, storage of starch, lipids, and proteins, and the production of pigments that give plants their color. The most common types of plastids are chloroplasts (which contain chlorophyll and are involved in photosynthesis), chromoplasts (which contain pigments such as carotenoids and are responsible for the yellow, orange, and red colors of fruits and flowers), and leucoplasts (which do not contain pigments and serve mainly as storage organelles). Plastids have their own DNA and can replicate themselves within the cell.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trees" is not a medical term. It is a common term used in various fields, including biology, ecology, and dendrology, to refer to a woody perennial plant with a single stem or trunk that supports branches and leaves in most species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

Genome size refers to the total amount of genetic material, or DNA, contained within the cell of an organism. It is usually measured in terms of base pair (bp) length and can vary greatly between different species. The genome size includes all the genes, non-coding DNA, and repetitive elements present in the genome.

It's worth noting that genome size does not necessarily correlate with the complexity of an organism. For example, some plants have much larger genomes than humans, while some bacteria have smaller genomes. Additionally, genome size can also vary within a single species due to differences in the amount of repetitive DNA or other genetic elements.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

A pollen tube is a slender, tubular structure that grows out from the germinated grain of pollen and transports the male gametes (sperm cells) to the female reproductive organ in seed plants. This process is known as double fertilization, which occurs in angiosperms (flowering plants).

The pollen tube elongates through the stigma and style of the pistil, following a path towards the ovule. Once it reaches the ovule, the generative cell within the pollen tube divides to form two sperm cells. One sperm fertilizes the egg cell, forming a zygote, while the other sperm fuses with the central cell of the embryo sac, leading to the formation of endosperm - a nutritive tissue for the developing embryo.

In summary, a pollen tube is a crucial component in the reproductive process of seed plants, facilitating the transfer of male gametes to female gametes and ultimately resulting in fertilization and seed development.

"Liriodendron" is the botanical name for a genus of trees that includes two species, commonly known as tulip poplar or tulip tree (L. tulipifera) and yellow poplar or white tulip tree (L. chinense). These trees are not true poplars, but are part of the magnolia family (Magnoliaceae). They are native to North America and China respectively, and are named for their distinctive tulip-shaped flowers.

In a medical context, "Liriodendron" is not commonly used as it does not have any specific medical relevance or application. However, various parts of the tree, such as its bark and leaves, have been traditionally used in herbal medicine for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and sedative properties. It's important to note that the use of Liriodendron in herbal medicine is not well-studied and its safety and efficacy are not established by scientific research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Geraniaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, referring to the family of flowering plants that includes geraniums, pelargoniums (often also called geraniums in common language), and several other related genera.

If you have any medical terms or concepts you'd like me to define or explain, I'd be happy to help!

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in plants refers to the long, single-stranded molecules that are essential for the translation of genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into proteins. RNA is a nucleic acid, like DNA, and it is composed of a ribose sugar backbone with attached nitrogenous bases (adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine).

In plants, there are several types of RNA that play specific roles in the gene expression process:

1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): This type of RNA carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a sequence of three-base code units called codons. These codons specify the order of amino acids in a protein.
2. Transfer RNA (tRNA): tRNAs are small RNA molecules that serve as adaptors between the mRNA and the amino acids during protein synthesis. Each tRNA has a specific anticodon sequence that base-pairs with a complementary codon on the mRNA, and it carries a specific amino acid that corresponds to that codon.
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): rRNAs are structural components of ribosomes, which are large macromolecular complexes where protein synthesis occurs. In plants, there are several types of rRNAs, including the 18S, 5.8S, and 25S/28S rRNAs, that form the core of the ribosome and help catalyze peptide bond formation during protein synthesis.
4. Small nuclear RNA (snRNA): These are small RNA molecules that play a role in RNA processing, such as splicing, where introns (non-coding sequences) are removed from pre-mRNA and exons (coding sequences) are joined together to form mature mRNAs.
5. MicroRNA (miRNA): These are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences in target mRNAs, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

Overall, these different types of RNAs play crucial roles in various aspects of RNA metabolism, gene regulation, and protein synthesis in plants.

Bryopsida is a class within the division Bryophyta, which includes the mosses. It is a large and diverse group that contains the majority of moss species. Members of this class are characterized by their stalked, spore-producing structures called sporangia, which are typically borne on specialized leaves called perichaetial leaves. The spores produced within these sporangia are released and can germinate to form new moss individuals.

It is important to note that the classification of plants, including mosses, has undergone significant revisions in recent years, and some sources may use different terminology or groupings than what is described here. However, Bryopsida remains a widely recognized and well-established class within the mosses.

"Aristolochia" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Aristolochiaceae, also known as birthworts. These plants are characterized by their unique, pipe-shaped flowers. Some species of Aristolochia contain aristolochic acids, which have been found to be nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. Because of this, the use of these plants in medicinal preparations is generally discouraged or restricted.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "germ cells" is typically used in the context of animals and humans, referring to the reproductive cells (sperm and eggs) that can give rise to new individuals. It is not commonly used to describe plants.

In plants, the terms often used to refer to the reproductive cells are "male gametophyte" and "female gametophyte." The male gametophyte produces sperm cells, while the female gametophyte produces egg cells. These gametophytes are found within the pollen grains (male) and ovules (female) of plants.

Therefore, there isn't a medical definition for "germ cells, plant," as the term is not applicable in this context.

MADS domain proteins are a family of transcription factors that play crucial roles in various developmental processes in plants, including flower development and organ formation. The name "MADS" is an acronym derived from the initial letters of four founding members: MCM1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AGAMOUS from Arabidopsis thaliana, DEFICIENS from Antirrhinum majus, and SRF from Homo sapiens.

These proteins share a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the MADS-box, which binds to specific sequences in the promoter regions of their target genes. The MADS domain proteins often form higher-order complexes through protein-protein interactions, leading to the regulation of gene expression involved in developmental transitions and cell fate determination. In plants, MADS domain proteins have been implicated in various aspects of reproductive development, such as floral meristem identity, floral organ specification, and ovule development.

Gene duplication, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to an event where a segment of DNA that contains a gene is copied, resulting in two identical copies of that gene. This can occur through various mechanisms such as unequal crossing over during meiosis, retrotransposition, or whole genome duplication. The duplicate genes are then passed on to the next generation.

Gene duplications can have several consequences. Often, one copy may continue to function normally while the other is free to mutate without affecting the organism's survival, potentially leading to new functions (neofunctionalization) or subfunctionalization where each copy takes on some of the original gene's roles.

Gene duplication plays a significant role in evolution by providing raw material for the creation of novel genes and genetic diversity. However, it can also lead to various genetic disorders if multiple copies of a gene become dysfunctional or if there are too many copies, leading to an overdose effect.

'Embryophyta' is a taxonomic group that includes land plants, also known as embryophytes. This group consists of the bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts), tracheophytes (vascular plants), and a few extinct plant groups. The defining characteristic of embryophytes is their alternation of generations life cycle, which includes a multicellular diploid sporophyte generation that produces spores through meiosis, and a multicellular haploid gametophyte generation that produces gametes through mitosis. The term 'Embryophyta' is used to distinguish land plants from their algal ancestors, which are classified in separate taxonomic groups.

"Tracheobionta" is not a standard medical term. However, in the field of biology, it is used to refer to a group of organisms that possess a respiratory system with a true trachea or its equivalent, such as insects, spiders, and other arthropods.

In a broader context, Tracheobionta is sometimes used interchangeably with the term "Tracheata," which refers to a taxonomic category that includes all organisms with a true tracheal system for respiration, including various invertebrate groups such as arthropods and nematodes.

However, it's important to note that these terms are not commonly used in medical contexts, but rather in the fields of biology, zoology, and taxonomy.

Chloroplasts are specialized organelles found in the cells of green plants, algae, and some protists. They are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis, which is the process by which these organisms convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose.

Chloroplasts contain the pigment chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy from the sun. They also contain a system of membranes and enzymes that convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen through a series of chemical reactions known as the Calvin cycle. This process not only provides energy for the organism but also releases oxygen as a byproduct, which is essential for the survival of most life forms on Earth.

Chloroplasts are believed to have originated from ancient cyanobacteria that were engulfed by early eukaryotic cells and eventually became integrated into their host's cellular machinery through a process called endosymbiosis. Over time, chloroplasts evolved to become an essential component of plant and algal cells, contributing to their ability to carry out photosynthesis and thrive in a wide range of environments.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Zamiaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, specifically a family of plants that includes cycads, which are seed plants with a long fossil history that date back to the Mesozoic Era. They are often mistaken for palms or ferns due to their tropical appearance. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Endosperm is a type of tissue found in the seeds of flowering plants, which provides nutrition to the developing embryo. It is formed from the fusion of one sperm cell with two polar nuclei during double fertilization in angiosperms (flowering plants). The endosperm can be triploid (having three sets of chromosomes) or sometimes diploid (having two sets of chromosomes), depending on the species.

The endosperm can have different forms and functions across various plant species. In some seeds, it serves as a food storage tissue, accumulating starch, proteins, and lipids that are used up by the embryo during germination and early growth. Examples of such seeds include cereal grains like corn, wheat, rice, and barley, where the endosperm makes up a significant portion of the grain.

In other plants, the endosperm may be absorbed by the developing embryo before seed maturation, leaving only a thin layer called the aleurone layer that surrounds the embryo. This aleurone layer is responsible for producing enzymes during germination, which help in breaking down stored nutrients and making them available to the growing embryo.

Overall, endosperm plays a crucial role in the development and survival of angiosperm seeds, acting as a source of nutrition and energy for the embryo.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Hydrocharitaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, specifically a family of aquatic plants known as the Hydrocharitaceae family. This family includes various genera of submerged, floating, and emergent aquatic plants, such as hydrillas, tape grasses, and water poppies.

If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to define or explain, please let me know!

A chloroplast genome is the entire genetic material that is present in the chloroplasts, which are organelles found in plant cells and some protists. The chloroplast genome is circular in shape and contains about 120-160 kilobases (kb) of DNA. It encodes for a small number of proteins, ribosomal RNAs, and transfer RNAs that are required for the function of the chloroplasts, particularly in photosynthesis. The chloroplast genome is usually inherited maternally, meaning it is passed down from the mother to her offspring.

The chloroplast genome is relatively simple compared to the nuclear genome, which contains many more genes and regulatory elements. However, most of the proteins required for chloroplast function are actually encoded in the nucleus and imported into the chloroplasts. The study of chloroplast genomes can provide insights into the evolutionary history of plants and their photosynthetic ancestors.

Biodiversity is the variety of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in an ecosystem. It also includes the variety of genes within a species and the variety of ecosystems (such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceans) that exist in a region or on Earth as a whole. Biodiversity is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, providing resources and services such as food, clean water, and pollination, and contributing to the discovery of new medicines and other useful products. The loss of biodiversity can have negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide, and can threaten the survival of species and the livelihoods of people who depend on them.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pinus" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as pine trees, which belong to the family Pinaceae in the kingdom Plantae. These evergreen coniferous resinous trees are widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, with some species also found in the Southern Hemisphere.

If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to define or explain, please feel free to ask!

Araceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the arum or aroid family. It includes a diverse range of species, such as calla lilies, peace lilies, and jack-in-the-pulpit. These plants are characterized by their unique inflorescence structure, which consists of a specialized leaf-like structure called a spathe that surrounds and protects a spike-like structure called a spadix, where the flowers are located.

The flowers of Araceae plants are often small and inconspicuous, and may be surrounded by showy bracts or modified leaves. Many species in this family produce attractive berries or fruits that contain seeds. Some members of Araceae contain calcium oxalate crystals, which can cause irritation to the skin and mucous membranes if handled improperly.

Araceae plants are found worldwide, with a majority of species occurring in tropical regions. They are grown for their ornamental value, as well as for their edible fruits and tubers. Some species have medicinal uses, while others are invasive and can cause ecological damage in certain areas.

Arabidopsis proteins refer to the proteins that are encoded by the genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant, which is a model organism commonly used in plant biology research. This small flowering plant has a compact genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes in plants.

Arabidopsis proteins play crucial roles in many cellular functions, such as metabolism, signaling, regulation of gene expression, response to environmental stresses, and developmental processes. Research on Arabidopsis proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant biology and has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying various agronomic traits.

Some examples of Arabidopsis proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, receptors, enzymes, and structural proteins. These proteins can be studied using a variety of techniques, such as biochemical assays, protein-protein interaction studies, and genetic approaches, to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in plants.

A medical definition for "plant shoots" may not be readily available, as the term is primarily used in botany and horticulture. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Plant shoots refer to the above-ground portion of a plant, which typically includes structures like stems, leaves, flowers, and buds. Shoots originate from the seed or the growing tip of the plant and are responsible for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and reproduction. In some contexts, "plant shoots" might also refer to new growth that emerges from an existing plant, such as when a leaf or stem sprouts a new branch or flower.

"Pinus taeda," also known as Loblolly Pine, is not a medical term. It is a species of tree in the family Pinaceae that is native to the southeastern United States. The tree is commonly used in the production of timber, paper, and pulp, and it has some medicinal uses as well.

The bark, leaves (needles), and sap of the Loblolly Pine have been used traditionally by indigenous peoples for various medicinal purposes, such as treating skin conditions, wounds, and respiratory ailments. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support these uses, and they should not be attempted without consulting a healthcare professional.

"Persea" is a botanical term that refers to a genus of plants in the family Lauraceae, which includes over 150 species. The most well-known member of this genus is Persea americana, which is commonly known as the avocado tree. The fruit of this tree, also called an avocado, is widely consumed for its rich, creamy texture and high nutritional value. Avocados are a good source of healthy fats, fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and have been linked to various health benefits.

Therefore, in a medical or nutritional context, "Persea" may refer specifically to the avocado fruit or its extracts, which have been used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic properties. However, it is important to note that not all species of Persea have similar medicinal or nutritional benefits, so any medical or health claims should be specific to the particular species or extract being used.

Orobanche is not a medical term, but a genus of parasitic plants in the family Orobanchaceae. These plants are known as broomrapes and are holoparasites, meaning they rely entirely on other plants for nutrients. They have no chlorophyll and cannot photosynthesize. Instead, they tap into the roots of nearby host plants to extract water and nutrients.

While Orobanche itself is not a medical term, some species of this plant can have negative impacts on human health. For example, if these parasitic plants infect crops, they can reduce yield and quality, leading to economic losses for farmers. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to the pollen of these plants. However, it's important to note that direct contact with Orobanche plants is unlikely to cause any significant health problems for most people.

"Orchidaceae" is not a medical term. It is the scientific name for the orchid family, which is a group of flowering plants known for their often elaborate and beautiful flowers. The term "orchidaceae" comes from the Greek word "orkhis," meaning "testicle," likely referring to the shape of the twin tubers in some species.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information about what you are looking for.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Malpighiaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic name in the field of botany, referring to a family of flowering plants commonly known as the "malpighias" or "cotton-silk flowers." This family includes around 75 genera and 1,300 species of trees, shrubs, and herbs, many of which are tropical in distribution.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those instead!

Crassulaceae is a family of succulent plants, also known as stonecrops or orpines. These plants are characterized by their thick, fleshy leaves that store water, allowing them to survive in dry environments. They are native to various parts of the world, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. Some common examples of Crassulaceae include Sedum species (such as Sedum spectabile and Sedum telephium), Sempervivum species (also known as hens and chicks), and Echeveria species. These plants are often grown as ornamentals for their attractive foliage and flowers.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

"Oryza sativa" is the scientific name for Asian rice, which is a species of grass and one of the most important food crops in the world. It is a staple food for more than half of the global population, providing a significant source of calories and carbohydrates. There are several varieties of Oryza sativa, including indica and japonica, which differ in their genetic makeup, growth habits, and grain characteristics.

Oryza sativa is an annual plant that grows to a height of 1-2 meters and produces long slender leaves and clusters of flowers at the top of the stem. The grains are enclosed within a tough husk, which must be removed before consumption. Rice is typically grown in flooded fields or paddies, which provide the necessary moisture for germination and growth.

Rice is an important source of nutrition for people around the world, particularly in developing countries where it may be one of the few reliable sources of food. It is rich in carbohydrates, fiber, and various vitamins and minerals, including thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, and magnesium. However, rice can also be a significant source of arsenic, a toxic heavy metal that can accumulate in the grain during growth.

In medical terms, Oryza sativa may be used as a component of nutritional interventions for individuals who are at risk of malnutrition or who have specific dietary needs. It may also be studied in clinical trials to evaluate its potential health benefits or risks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lignin" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of biology and chemistry, particularly in botany and wood science. Lignin is a complex organic polymer that binds cellulose fibers together, providing strength and rigidity to the cell walls of plants. It is a major component of wood and bark.

If you have any medical terms you would like defined or any other questions, please let me know!

A mitochondrial genome refers to the genetic material present in the mitochondria, which are small organelles found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). The mitochondrial genome is typically circular and contains a relatively small number of genes compared to the nuclear genome.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes essential components of the electron transport chain, which is vital for cellular respiration and energy production. MtDNA also contains genes that code for some mitochondrial tRNAs and rRNAs needed for protein synthesis within the mitochondria.

In humans, the mitochondrial genome is about 16.6 kilobases in length and consists of 37 genes: 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 13 protein-coding genes. The mitochondrial genome is inherited maternally, as sperm contribute very few or no mitochondria during fertilization. Mutations in the mitochondrial genome can lead to various genetic disorders, often affecting tissues with high energy demands, such as muscle and nerve cells.

Self-fertilization is not a term typically used in human or animal medicine, but it is a concept in botany. It refers to the fertilization of an ovule (a structure in plants that develops into a seed after fertilization) with pollen from the same plant. This can occur in hermaphroditic flowers, which have both male and female reproductive organs. Self-fertilization can increase genetic similarity within a population of plants, which can have implications for their evolution and survival.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard medical term. It falls more within the domain of botany, which is a branch of biology focused on the study of plants.

However, I can provide a general explanation: Plant physiological phenomena refer to the functional processes and activities that occur within plants. This includes various aspects such as photosynthesis (the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth), respiration, plant nutrition (the uptake and assimilation of nutrients from the soil), water relations (how plants absorb, transport, and use water), plant hormone functions, and many other processes.

If you have a term that is used in a medical context which you would like defined, I'd be happy to help with that!

Campanulaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the bellflower family. It includes a wide variety of herbaceous plants, shrubs, and small trees, with over 2000 species distributed worldwide. The family is characterized by bilaterally symmetrical flowers, typically with fused petals forming a bell or funnel shape, hence the common name "bellflower."

The individual flowers of Campanulaceae often have distinct nectar guides and are arranged in various inflorescences such as racemes, panicles, or cymes. The leaves are typically simple and alternate, with entire or lobed margins.

Some notable genera within Campanulaceae include:

* Campanula (bellflowers)
* Lobelia (lobelias)
* Platycodon (balloon flowers)
* Trachelium (throatworts)

The family is of significant horticultural importance, with many species and cultivars widely used as ornamental plants in gardens and landscapes. Additionally, some members of Campanulaceae have medicinal uses, such as Lobelia inflata, which has been used historically to treat respiratory ailments.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Mitochondrial genes are a type of gene that is located in the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) found in the mitochondria, which are small organelles present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). Mitochondria are responsible for generating energy for the cell through a process called oxidative phosphorylation.

The human mitochondrial genome is a circular DNA molecule that contains 37 genes, including 13 genes that encode for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, 22 genes that encode for transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and 2 genes that encode for ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Mutations in mitochondrial genes can lead to a variety of inherited mitochondrial disorders, which can affect any organ system in the body and can present at any age.

Mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited, meaning that it is passed down from the mother to her offspring through the egg cell. This is because during fertilization, only the sperm's nucleus enters the egg, while the mitochondria remain outside. As a result, all of an individual's mitochondrial DNA comes from their mother.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowering tops" is not a standard medical term. The term "flowering tops" is commonly used in the context of cannabis cultivation and refers to the top colas or buds of female cannabis plants that are covered in trichomes and are therefore the most potent part of the plant. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you!

Polyploidy is a condition in which a cell or an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, unlike the typical diploid state where there are only two sets (one from each parent). Polyploidy can occur through various mechanisms such as errors during cell division, fusion of egg and sperm cells that have an abnormal number of chromosomes, or through the reproduction process in plants.

Polyploidy is common in the plant kingdom, where it often leads to larger size, increased biomass, and sometimes hybrid vigor. However, in animals, polyploidy is less common and usually occurs in only certain types of cells or tissues, as most animals require a specific number of chromosomes for normal development and reproduction. In humans, polyploidy is typically not compatible with life and can lead to developmental abnormalities and miscarriage.

A meristem, in the context of plant biology, refers to a type of tissue found in plants that is responsible for their growth. These tissues are composed of cells that have the ability to divide and differentiate into various specialized cell types. Meristems are typically located at the tips of roots and shoots (apical meristems), as well as within the vascular bundles (cambial meristems) and in the cork layers (phellogen meristems). They contribute to the increase in length and girth of plant organs, allowing plants to grow throughout their life.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

"Viburnum" is not a medical term, but a genus of shrubs and small trees that belong to the Adoxaceae family. These plants are commonly known as "viburnums," and they have various uses in horticulture due to their attractive flowers, fruits, and foliage.

While there may be some medicinal uses for certain species of Viburnum, it is not a term that would typically appear in a medical context or definition. If you're looking for information about the medicinal properties of specific plants within the Viburnum genus, I would recommend consulting a reliable source on herbal medicine or speaking with a healthcare professional who has expertise in this area.

Stomata are microscopic pores found in the epidermis of plant leaves, stems, and other organs. They are essential for gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere, allowing the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and the release of oxygen. Plant stomata consist of two guard cells that surround and regulate the size of the pore. The opening and closing of the stomatal pore are influenced by environmental factors such as light, humidity, and temperature, as well as internal signals within the plant.

"Silene" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae. It includes over 700 species that are found worldwide, particularly in temperate regions. These plants are commonly known as catchflies or campions. They are usually herbaceous and can vary in size from small annuals to large perennials. The flowers of Silene species are typically radial symmetrical with five distinct petals, often with notched or lobed ends. Some species have inflated calyxes that enclose the flower buds, giving them a bladder-like appearance.

However, it's important to note that "Silene" is not a medical term and does not have a direct application in human health or medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Populus" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for a group of trees commonly known as poplars, aspens, and cottonwoods. If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to define or explain, I would be happy to help!

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "tropical climate" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the climate of tropical regions, which are located around the equator. These regions are characterized by high temperatures and consistent rainfall throughout the year.

However, it's worth noting that certain environmental factors, such as climate, can have an impact on human health. For instance, tropical climates can contribute to the spread of certain diseases, like malaria and dengue fever, due to the presence of mosquitoes that thrive in warm, wet environments. But a "tropical climate" itself is not a medical condition or diagnosis.

'Plant infertility' is not a standard medical term, as it is typically used in the context of agriculture and plant biology. However, I can provide you with a general definition related to this context:

Plant infertility refers to the inability of a plant to produce viable seeds, fruits, or propagules due to various factors affecting its reproductive system. These factors may include genetic disorders, environmental stressors (such as extreme temperatures, drought, or nutrient deficiencies), pathogens, pests, or poor pollination. In some cases, assisted reproduction techniques, such as hand-pollination or embryo rescue, might be employed to overcome infertility issues in plants.

Plant transpiration is the process by which water vapor escapes from leaves and other aerial parts of plants to the atmosphere. It is a type of evapotranspiration, which refers to both evaporation from land surfaces and transpiration from plants. Water molecules are absorbed by plant roots from the soil, move up through the xylem tissue to the leaves, and then evaporate from the leaf surface through stomatal pores. This process helps in the transportation of nutrients from the soil to various parts of the plant, regulates the temperature of the plant, and maintains the turgor pressure within the cells. Plant transpiration is influenced by environmental factors such as light intensity, temperature, humidity, and wind speed.

"Nelumbo" is the scientific genus name for the lotus flower, which includes two species: Nelumbo nucifera (also known as Sacred Lotus) and Nelumbo lutea (American Lotus). These aquatic plants are known for their large, beautiful flowers that bloom on the surface of the water. While "Nelumbo" is a term from plant taxonomy and botany, it does not have a specific medical definition as such. However, various parts of Nelumbo plants have been used in traditional medicine across different cultures for treating various health conditions. For instance, the seeds, leaves, and roots of Nelumbo nucifera are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat several ailments like diarrhea, fever, and skin diseases. Nonetheless, it is essential to consult healthcare professionals before using any plant or herbal remedy for medicinal purposes.

"Solanaceae" is not a medical term but a taxonomic category in biology, referring to the Nightshade family of plants. This family includes several plants that have economic and medicinal importance, as well as some that are toxic or poisonous. Some common examples of plants in this family include:

- Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)
- Solanum tuberosum (potato)
- Capsicum annuum (bell pepper and chili pepper)
- Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)
- Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade)
- Hyoscyamus niger (henbane)

While Solanaceae isn't a medical term itself, certain plants within this family have medical significance. For instance, some alkaloids found in these plants can be used as medications or pharmaceutical precursors, such as atropine and scopolamine from Atropa belladonna, hyoscine from Hyoscyamus niger, and capsaicin from Capsicum species. However, it's important to note that many of these plants also contain toxic compounds, so they must be handled with care and used only under professional supervision.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Chromosomes in plants are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, DNA, and proteins. They are present in the nucleus of every cell and are inherited from the parent plants during sexual reproduction. Chromosomes come in pairs, with each pair consisting of one chromosome from each parent.

In plants, like in other organisms, chromosomes play a crucial role in inheritance, development, and reproduction. They carry genetic information that determines various traits and characteristics of the plant, such as its physical appearance, growth patterns, and resistance to diseases.

Plant chromosomes are typically much larger than those found in animals, making them easier to study under a microscope. The number of chromosomes varies among different plant species, ranging from as few as 2 in some ferns to over 1000 in certain varieties of wheat.

During cell division, the chromosomes replicate and then separate into two identical sets, ensuring that each new cell receives a complete set of genetic information. This process is critical for the growth and development of the plant, as well as for the production of viable seeds and offspring.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

RNA editing is a process that alters the sequence of a transcribed RNA molecule after it has been synthesized from DNA, but before it is translated into protein. This can result in changes to the amino acid sequence of the resulting protein or to the regulation of gene expression. The most common type of RNA editing in mammals is the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine (A) to inosine (I), catalyzed by a family of enzymes called adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). Inosine is recognized as guanosine (G) by the translation machinery, leading to A-to-G changes in the RNA sequence. Other types of RNA editing include cytidine (C) to uridine (U) deamination and insertion/deletion of nucleotides. RNA editing is a crucial mechanism for generating diversity in gene expression and has been implicated in various biological processes, including development, differentiation, and disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hepatophyta" is not a valid medical or scientific term in modern usage. It appears to be a combination of the Greek word "hepar" meaning "liver" and the suffix "-phyta" which is used to denote a plant or group of plants in taxonomy. However, it is not a term that is recognized or used in modern biology or medicine.

It's possible that you may be thinking of "Hepatica," which is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae. These plants are also known as liverworts, although they should not be confused with actual liverworts, which are non-vascular plants in the division Marchantiophyta.

If you have any further questions or if there is another term you would like me to define, please let me know!

Inflorescence is a term used in the field of botany, which includes the study of plants. However, I understand that you are asking for a medical definition. In the context of medicine, specifically in pathology, inflorescence may refer to the arrangement or growth pattern of lesions or neoplasms (abnormal growths) in a particular area of the body.

To provide a precise medical definition, I would need more context about how the term is being used. Nonetheless, based on the botanical definition, inflorescence refers to the cluster or arrangement of flowers on a stem or branch. It can take various forms, such as spikes, racemes, panicles, umbels, and corymbs, depending on the pattern in which flowers are arranged.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Winteraceae" is not a medical term. It is actually the name of a family of flowering plants, also known as the winter's bark family. This family includes around 80 species of evergreen trees and shrubs, mostly native to tropical regions in the Southern Hemisphere, particularly in Australasia, Southeast Asia, and Central America.

If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to define or explain, please let me know!

I apologize for any confusion, but "Proteaceae" is not a medical term. It is a botanical term that refers to a family of flowering plants, found primarily in the southern hemisphere, particularly in Australia, South Africa, and South America. The plants in this family are known for their distinctive flowers and hard, woody seeds.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Senecio" is not a medical term. It is actually the name of a genus of plants in the family Asteraceae, also known as the daisy or composite family. Some species of Senecio contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which can be toxic to livestock and potentially harmful to humans if ingested. However, there is no direct medical relevance of "Senecio" itself in the context of medical definitions.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Structures" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of botany to refer to the different parts of a plant, such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Each of these structures has specific functions that contribute to the overall growth, reproduction, and survival of the plant. If you have any questions related to biology or botany, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

18S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis. The "18S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of this rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its rate of sedimentation in a centrifuge and is expressed in Svedberg units (S).

The 18S rRNA is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome, and it plays a crucial role in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Specifically, the 18S rRNA helps to form the structure of the ribosome and contains several conserved regions that are involved in binding to mRNA and guiding the movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) during translation.

The 18S rRNA is also a commonly used molecular marker for evolutionary studies, as its sequence is highly conserved across different species and can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships between organisms. Additionally, the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences has been widely used in various fields such as ecology, environmental science, and medicine to study biodiversity, biogeography, and infectious diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seedling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is an agricultural and horticultural term that refers to a young plant grown from a seed, typically during the early stages of its growth. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

The basal angiosperms are only a few hundred species, compared with hundreds of thousands of species of eudicots, monocots, and ... The basal angiosperms are the flowering plants which diverged from the lineage leading to most flowering plants. In particular ... APG (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV ... "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical ...
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (or APweb) is a website dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy. The site ... Angiosperm taxonomy, Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, Online taxonomy databases, Missouri Botanical Garden, All stub articles, ... Peter F. Stevens is a member of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). The taxonomy presented is broadly based on the work of ... "Angiosperm phylogeny: A chart of flowering plant families". Wikimedia Commons has media related to APWebsite. Official website ...
2001], Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, retrieved 11 June 2016 Cole, Theodor C.H. (2015), "Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) in ... "Results from an online survey of family delimitation in angiosperms and ferns: recommendations to the Angiosperm Phylogeny ... 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group ... The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) is an informal international group of systematic botanists who collaborate to establish a ...
It promotes Angiosperm taxonomy in India and acts as a gathering organisation for Angiosperm taxonomists. The IAAT publishes a ... The Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy (IAAT) was established in 1990. The IAAT is headquartered at the Department of ...
Bessey, Charles (September 1897). "Phylogeny and Taxonomy of the Angiosperms". Botanical Gazette. XXIV (3): 145-178. doi: ... Angiosperms). In that he used the same names for the subclasses of both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, this is contrary to ...
Pooja (2004). Angiosperms. New Delhi: Discovery. ISBN 9788171417889. Retrieved 7 January 2016. Rudall, P.J.; Cribb, P.J.; ... "A commentary on a diagrammatic presentation of the angiosperms in relation to the distribution of character states". In ... cite book}}: ,journal= ignored (help) Thorne, Robert F. (February 1983). "Proposed new realignments in the angiosperms". Nordic ... Dahlgren, Gertrud (July 1989). "An updated angiosperm classification". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 100 (3): 197- ...
The earliest evidence for the angiosperms evolving flowers is during the Cretaceous period, some 20 million years later (132 Ma ... Soltis, Pam; Doug Soltis; Christine Edwards (2005). "Angiosperms". The Tree of Life Project. Retrieved 2006-04-09. "Devonian ...
The term angiosperm fundamentally changed in meaning in 1827 with Robert Brown, when angiosperm came to mean a seed plant with ... From 1998, the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) has reclassified the angiosperms, with updates in the APG II system in 2003, ... 1911). "Angiosperms". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. APG (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm ... Angiosperms were formerly called Magnoliophyta (/mæɡˌnoʊliˈɒfətə, -əˈfaɪtə/). Angiosperms are distinguished from the other seed ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.01002.x The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group ... The circumscription is: The clade includes most of the basal groups of the angiosperms. This clade was formally named ... Dahlgren, R.M.T. (1980). "A revised system of classification of angiosperms". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 80 (2 ...
Walker, James W. (1976). "Evolutionary Significance of the Exine in the Pollen of Primative [sic?] Angiosperms". In Ferguson, I ...
These include; APG system (angiosperm phylogeny group) APG II system (angiosperm phylogeny group II) APG III system (angiosperm ... 1911). "Angiosperms". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. APG (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm ... The botanical term "angiosperm", from Greek words angeíon (ἀγγεῖον 'bottle, vessel') and spérma (σπέρμα 'seed'), was coined in ... The terms angiosperms and gymnosperm fundamentally changed in meaning in 1827 when Robert Brown established the existence of ...
"Angiosperms: Dicotyledons". Poisonous Plants of California. California natural history guides. Vol. 53. University of ...
Angiosperms diversify. c. 52.5 Ma - First passerine (perching) birds. c. 52 Ma - First bats. c. 50 Ma - Africa collides with ...
Naik, V.N. (1984). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0-0745-1788-8. Stace, Clive A. ( ... 2015). A. Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien Part 4: Pinopsida (Gymnosperms), Magnoliopsida (Angiosperms) p.p. (13th ed.). ... angiosperms) Magnoliidae [Part 4, to be published] Lilianae (monocotyledons) Acorales, Alismatales, Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... Sambamurty, A.V.S.S. (30 December 2013). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. p. 727. ISBN 978-81-88237-16-6. ... Stevens, P.F. (2018). "Pittosporaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously ...
... angiosperms). It is the most popular system of classification based on key characteristics enabling taxonomic students to ... Dicotyledons, Gamopetalae "Angiosperms. Part 9". chestofbooks.com. Retrieved 11 October 2018. http://www.tutorvista.com/content ... biology-iii/angiosperm-classification/bentham-hookers-classification.php Archived 2010-10-27 at the Wayback Machine Bentham and ...
Naik, V.N. (1984). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 9780074517888. Stuessy, Tod F. (2009). ... angiosperms), but were later subdivided. Embryophyta Siphonogama replaced the older term Phanerogamae, and the classes were ...
ISBN 978-0-8493-2677-6. Sambamurty, A.V.S.S. (2005). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. p. 404. ISBN 978-81- ...
Sambamurty, A. V. S. S. (2005). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. New Delhi: I.K. International. ISBN 8188237167. OCLC 841013792. ...
In the context of the plant sexuality of flowering plants (angiosperms), there are two forms of dichogamy: protogyny-female ... However, a survey of the angiosperms found that self-incompatible (SI) plants, which are incapable of inbreeding, were as ... Bertin, R.I. (1993). "Incidence of monoecy and dichogamy in relation to self-fertilization in angiosperms". Am. J. Bot. 80 (5 ... Lora, J.; Herrero, M.; Hormaza, J. I. (2011). "Stigmatic receptivity in a dichogamous early-divergent angiosperm species, ...
Sambamurthy, A. V. S. S. (2005). Taxonomy Of Angiosperms. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. p. 72. ISBN 8188237167. Braby, Michael F ...
... angiosperms), systematists formed the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG), resulting in a new classification published in 1998. ... The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (APWeb) includes four of Takhtajan's families in Liliaceae, recognizing three subfamilies, one ... Soltis, D.E.; Soltis, P.F.; Endress, P.K.; Chase, M.W. (2005). Phylogeny and evolution of angiosperms. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer ... doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x. APG III (2009). "An Update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the ...
Taxonomy of Angiosperms. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. p. 188. ISBN 978-81-88237-16-6. Craw, Robin C.; Grehan, John R.; Heads, ... China has been a focus to botanist for its rich biota as it holds the record for the earliest known angiosperm megafossil. ...
Xin Wang (2018). "Fossil Plants Possibly Related to Angiosperms". In Xin Wang (ed.). The Dawn Angiosperms. Springer Geology. ... Mohamed I.A. Ibrahim; Mohamed K. Zobaa; Zainab M. El-Noamani; Sameh S. Tahoun (2017). "A review of the angiosperm pollen genus ... A study on the diversity of insect herbivory on fossil angiosperm leaves from the Miocene Hindon Maar fossil lagerstätte (Otago ... Zhong-Jian Liu; Xin Wang (2017). "Yuhania: a unique angiosperm from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China". Historical ...
ISBN 978-0-521-42785-2. V. N. Naik (1984). "A review of pre-Darwinian classification". Taxonomy of Angiosperms. Tata McGraw- ...
"Angiosperms (Flowering Plants)". Earth.com. Retrieved 2021-12-14. taxonomy. "Taxonomy browser (Acantholimon acmostegium)". www. ...
Willemse MT, van Went JL (1984). "The Female Gametophyte". In Johri BM (ed.). Embryology of Angiosperms. Springer Berlin ...
A.V.S.S. Sambamurty (2005). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. I. K. International Pvt. Ltd. p. 417. ISBN 9788188237166. Davidson, Tish ...
Gupta, D. P. (1968). Taxonomy of angiosperms. Asian Pub. Retrieved 23 February 2018. Prasad Gupta, Devendra (1970). Studies on ...
ISBN 978-3-642-50733-5. Naik, V. N. (1984). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. p. 2. ICZN (1999) ...
The basal angiosperms are only a few hundred species, compared with hundreds of thousands of species of eudicots, monocots, and ... The basal angiosperms are the flowering plants which diverged from the lineage leading to most flowering plants. In particular ... APG (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV ... "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical ...
No. species: Arapatiella (2 spp., not approved), Batesia (1 sp., not approved), Campsiandra (previously approved), Jacqueshuberia (previously approved), Melanoxylon (3 spp. not approved), Moldenhowera (6 spp., not approved), Peltophorum (7-9 spp., not approved, this genus has been studied by Lourdes Cárdenas of MY), Recordoxylon (2 spp., no approved), Schizolobiium (1-2 spp., not approved), Vouacapoa (3 spp., not approved ...
... Study of angiosperm richness and diversity in the ... Zhou Y, Boru BH, Wang S and Wang Q (2020) Species richness and phylogenetic diversity of different growth forms of angiosperms ... In this study, researchers assessed patterns of species richness and phylogenetic diversity in angiosperm plants of East Africa ... finding similar tendencies among both angiosperm groups with positive responses to precipitation measures, topography and soil ...
... BMC ... As observed more broadly in angiosperms, ribosomal proteins have been especially prone to gene loss in the S. latifolia lineage ... The genome contains the fewest genes of any angiosperm mitochondrial genome sequenced to date, with intact copies of only 25 of ... represents one lineage that has experienced a particularly high rate of mitochondrial gene loss relative to other angiosperms. ...
Marine Angiosperm Genome Initiative. Seagrasses are the only flowering plants that live in the sea. Understanding the genomic ... The Marine Angiosperm Genome Initiative (MAGI) will sequence five seagrass genomes.. Proposer: Yes Van de Peer, Ghent ...
Home » Carole » Another Year, Another Marauding Antediluvian Saurian Bearing Angiosperms. Another Year, Another Marauding ...
PUEBLA, Gabriela G. A new angiosperm leaf morphotype from the Early Cretaceous (Late Aptian) of San Luis Basin, Argentina. ... A new fossil angiosperm leaf morphotype, "LC-Microphyll trifoliate", from the Late Aptian La Cantera Formation, central western ... is among the earliest record of leaf remains possibly allied to the eudicots and one of the first evidence of angiosperm with ...
Whole-plant growth stage ontology for angiosperms and its application in plant biology.. Title. Whole-plant growth stage ... Whole-plant growth stage ontology for angiosperms and its application in plant biology. ...
Portrait of the expansin superfamily in Physcomitrella patens: Comparisons with angiosperm expansins. Annals of botany. 2007 ... Motif analysis seems to suggest that EXPA protein function is similar in bryophytes and angiosperms, but that EXPB function may ... Motif analysis seems to suggest that EXPA protein function is similar in bryophytes and angiosperms, but that EXPB function may ... Motif analysis seems to suggest that EXPA protein function is similar in bryophytes and angiosperms, but that EXPB function may ...
... angiosperm: Inflorescences: …a one-sided cyme called a helicoid cyme. A cymose inflorescence arranged in pairs at the nodes, in ... angiosperms. *. In angiosperm: Inflorescences. …a one-sided cyme called a helicoid cyme. A cymose inflorescence arranged in ...
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Department of Plant Systematics: Angiosperm Working Group - Prof. Dr. Sigrid Liede-Schumann. Home print page *Home ... Welcome to the homepage of the Department of Plant Systematics, Angiosperm Working Group. Phone: +49(0)921-55 2461 ...
Kapolihang saking "https://ban.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mal:Taxonomy/Angiosperms&oldid=154033" ...
This link provide all the possible MCQs of this Topic with solved keys. Very helpful for the Exams preparations.
Website design by Touchdreams, Founded by David Gwynne-Evans ...
In angiosperm, such prothallial cells are not found.. *In gymnosperm, the ovules are naked whereas in angiosperms they are ... Similarities with Angiosperms. Gymnosperms resemble angiosperms in the features mentioned below:. *Sporophytic generation of ... Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Gymnosperms differ from the angiosperms in the features mentioned below:. * ... These structures are present in angiosperm flowers.. *In gymnosperms cones are unisexual, whereas in angiosperms the flowers ...
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They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms ... division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent ...
Be the first to review "BOT-502 , Morphology and Systematics of Angiosperms" Cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a ... Home / Shop / TEXTBOOKS / KBCNMU, Jalgaon / TYBSc / TYBSc Semester V / BOT-502 , Morphology and Systematics of Angiosperms. ... The book covers all the aspects of Morphology and Systematics of Angiosperms. It has been written in student friendly manner ... Morphology and Systematics of Angiosperms. It gives us an immense pleasure and satisfaction in presenting this book entitled " ...
WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. by World Health Organization , WHO Consultation on Selected Medicinal Plants , WHO Consultation on Selected Medicinal Plants (2nd : 1999 : Ravello-Salerno, Italy) , WHO Consultation on Selected Medicinal Plants (3rd : 2001 : Ottawa, Ont.) , WHO Consultation on Selected Medicinal Plants (4th : 2005 : Salerno-Paestum, Italy).. Material type: ...
Cronquist System of Angiosperm Classification. Dahlgren System of Angiosperm Classification. Lecture Schedule. ... Takhtajan System of Angiosperm Classification. 8. Rosidae Takht. (1967). 1. Saxifraganae Reveal (1994). Podostemanae R. ...
Here, we examine the adaptive nature of seed oil content in 168 angiosperm families occurring in different biomes across the ... Investigation of the presence or absence of phylogenetic signals across 168 angiosperm families in 62 clades revealed that ... The published angiosperm phylogeny (version 13) by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group [51] was used to test for phylogenetic ... Seed oil content in 168 angiosperm families mapped onto the angiosperm phylogeny tree adapted from Stevens PF (2001 onwards) ...
Leao TCC, Fonseca CR, Peres CA, Tabarelli M. Predicting extinction risk of Brazilian Atlantic forest angiosperms. Conservation ... Predicting extinction risk of Brazilian Atlantic forest angiosperms. Tarciso C. C. Leao, Carlos R. Fonseca, Carlos A. Peres, ... Leao, TCC, Fonseca, CR, Peres, CA & Tabarelli, M 2014, Predicting extinction risk of Brazilian Atlantic forest angiosperms, ... Predicting extinction risk of Brazilian Atlantic forest angiosperms. / Leao, Tarciso C. C.; Fonseca, Carlos R.; Peres, Carlos A ...
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Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II (2003), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families ... "The Phylogeny of Angiosperms. Retrieved 8 January 2020.. Images. *. "Pterostemon mexicanus". Plants of the World Online ( ...
Comparative Embryogenesis in Angiosperms: Activation and Patterning of Embryonic Cell Lineages ... Following fertilization in flowering plants (angiosperms), egg and sperm cells unite to form the zygote, which generates an ... Dresselhaus, T., & Jürgens, G. (2021). Comparative Embryogenesis in Angiosperms: Activation and Patterning of Embryonic Cell ... little is known about embryopatterning and the establishment of the basic body plan in angiosperms. Using available in situ ...
... also known as angiosperms - to dominate life on ... Flower symmetry types in angiosperms.. Figure 1.. View large ... In angiosperms, the carpel - the basic unit of the gynoecium - surrounds the ovules to protect them from herbivory, mechanical ... Flower symmetry types in angiosperms.. Examples of (a) radial symmetry, (b) bi-radial symmetry and (c) bilateral symmetry in ... Flower symmetry types in angiosperms.. Examples of (a) radial symmetry, (b) bi-radial symmetry and (c) bilateral symmetry in ...
Floral (Angiosperm). Flower Colour(s). Red. Flower Grouping. Cluster / Inflorescence. Flower Location. Terminal. ...
  • Modern and Cretaceous-Cenozoic Diversification of Angiosperms. (lianaecologyproject.com)
  • Gene duplication events were intensely concentrated around 319 and 192 million years ago, implicating two WGDs in ancestral lineages shortly before the diversification of extant seed plants and extant angiosperms, respectively. (psu.edu)
  • Significantly, these ancestral WGDs resulted in the diversification of regulatory genes important to seed and flower development, suggesting that they were involved in major innovations that ultimately contributed to the rise and eventual dominance of seed plants and angiosperms. (psu.edu)
  • A correct understanding of relationships among the "earliest" lineages of angiosperms is important if we wish to elucidate the causes and consequences of their origin, to understand patterns and tempos of character evolution in the earliest lineages, and to decipher subsequent patterns of diversification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Doyle, J. A. & Hotton, C. L. Diversification of early angiosperm pollen in a cladistic context. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cretaceous-Cenozoic history of angiosperms resulted in a certain character of the distribution of the number of taxa belonging to different ranks (number of species and genera within a family, S/G ratio in families, and the number of species within a genus). (lianaecologyproject.com)
  • An assumption has been made that a differentiated extinction of species took place in the course angiosperm evolution. (lianaecologyproject.com)
  • Salo, T , Gustafsson, C & Boström, C 2009, ' Effects of plant diversity on primary production and species interactions in brackish water angiosperm communities ', Marine Ecology Progress Series , vol. 396, pp. 261-272. (abo.fi)
  • Of the 6,507 species of angiosperms that have been studied, 70 pct are consistently found to be mycorrhizal and 12 pct are optionally (depending on certain conditions) mycorrhizal. (cdc.gov)
  • A flora of 42 species in 16 families of angiosperms was recorded on the tailings site and the abundance of the most common perennial species was estimated. (nih.gov)
  • This major milestone toward a complete tree of life for all flowering plant species opens doors to a highly integrated future for angiosperm phylogenomics through the systematic sequencing of standardized nuclear markers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most of these studies, as well as most subsequent analyses [ 10 - 17 ] have converged on the placement of the monotypic genus Amborella , a vessel-less shrub with unisexual flowers endemic to New Caledonia, as the sister-group to all living angiosperms (Fig. 1 , Table 1 ), with the next two divergences within angiosperms corresponding to the water lilies (Nymphaeaceae) and then the Austrobaileyales. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genus Dolomiaea is in the family Compositae in the major group Angiosperms (Flowering plants) . (theplantlist.org)
  • The success of angiosperms has been attributed, in part, to innovations associated with gene or whole-genome duplications, but evidence for proposed ancient genome duplications pre-dating the divergence of monocots and eudicots remains equivocal in analyses of conserved gene order. (psu.edu)
  • 20:1499-1505), whose analyses of 61 genes from 13 sequenced chloroplast genomes of land plants nearly always found 100% support for monocots as the deepest angiosperms relative to Amborella , Calycanthus , and eudicots. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We propose that Hvs from angiosperm plants require priming because of a network of hydrophilic/charged residues that locks the channels in a silent resting conformation. (nih.gov)
  • Here we use comprehensive phylogenomic analyses of sequenced plant genomes and more than 12.6 million new expressed-sequence-tag sequences from phylogenetically pivotal lineages to elucidate two groups of ancient gene duplications-one in the common ancestor of extant seed plants and the other in the common ancestor of extant angiosperms. (psu.edu)
  • Numerous studies, using in aggregate some 28 genes, have achieved a consensus in recognizing three groups of plants, including Amborella , as comprising the basal-most grade of all other angiosperms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We sometimes use "earliest", "deepest", "basal", etc. as a convenient shorthand to refer to plants hypothesized to belong to lineages that result from the first or one of the first evolutionary branchings within angiosperm evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Solanum is one of the largest angiosperm genera1 and includes annual and perennial plants from diverse habitats. (wur.nl)
  • Even angiosperms (flowering plants) are fraught with data gaps, despite their critical role in sustaining terrestrial life. (bvsalud.org)
  • Long branch attraction, taxon sampling, and the earliest angiosperms: Amborella or monocots? (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesized that this conflict reflects a misrooting of angiosperms resulting from inadequate taxon sampling, inappropriate phylogenetic methodology, and rapid evolution in the grass lineage used to represent monocots. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These analyses show that Amborella (or Amborella plus Nymphaea ), but not monocots, is the sister group of all other angiosperms among this limited set of taxa and that the grasses-sister topology is a long-branch-attraction artifact leading to incorrect rooting of angiosperms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Amborella ) are themselves the "earliest" angiosperms, but rather that they belong to the lineage of angiosperms that resulted from the first evolutionary split in angiosperm evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3. Occurrence of sulfated galactans in marine angiosperms: evolutionary implications. (nih.gov)
  • The angiosperm family Primulaceae is morphologically diverse and distributed nearly worldwide. (bvsalud.org)
  • When the term "sister" is used to refer to a phylogenetic placement it refers to the sister group to the rest of the angiosperms unless otherwise specified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we describe a comprehensive phylogenomic platform for exploring the angiosperm tree of life, comprising a set of open tools and data based on the 353 nuclear genes targeted by the universal Angiosperms353 sequence capture probes. (bvsalud.org)