Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The sour gum plant family of the order Nymphaeales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. All have horizontal or hanging branches and broad alternate leaves, and they are dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants).
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. The common name of lotus is also used for LOTUS and NELUMBO.
A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. Members contain sesquiterpene thioalkaloids.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.
A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. It has edible fruit and seeds which contain acetogenins and benzoquinazoline and other alkaloids.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
A plant genus of the family MAGNOLIACEAE. Members include hardwood trees of eastern North America with distinct large tuliplike flowers.
A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The reproductive cells of plants.
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
A subset of various vascular plants (also known as the Tracheophyta) which include seed-bearing and non seed-bearing species.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.
Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
A plant family of the order Hydrocharitales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the subject of genetic study.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.
A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Lacking chlorophyll, they are nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants. The common name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).
A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae class, Magnoliopsida that are mostly shrubs and small trees. Many of the members contain indole alkaloids.
The stonecrop plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that grow in warm, dry regions. The leaves are thick. The flower clusters are red, yellow, or white.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. The common name derives from its traditional use for menstrual cramps. It is a source of viburnine, valerianic acid, vibsanin, and ursolic acid. Note that true cranberry is VACCINIUM MACROCARPON.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
A plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The wood lacks water-conducting cells but has acrid sap. The leaves are gland-dotted, leathery, and smooth-margined. The flowers are small, in clusters, with two to six sepals, petals in two or more series, several stamens, and one to several carpels.
A plant family of the order Proteales, subclass Rosidae class Magnoliopsida. Cluster roots, bottlebrush-like clusters of rootlets which form in response to poor soil, are common in this family.
A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition. (1/1498)

Naturally occurring substances which can prevent and treat diabetic complications were sought by examining ethanol extracts prepared from Korean forest plants for their inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro. Among the plants examined, Acer ginnala, Illicium religiosum and Cornus macrophylla exerted the most strong inhibitory activity on aldose reductase.  (+info)

Antioxidative and chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides from Pedicularis striata. (2/1498)

AIM: To study the antioxidative and iron chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPG) isolated from a Chinese herb Pedicularis striata. METHODS: Antioxidative effects of PPG on lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4-edetic acid in linoleic acid were measured by thiobarbituric acid method. Chelating activities of PPG for Fe2+ were tested by differential spectrum method. RESULTS: The reaction rates (A532.min-1) of lipid peroxidation were 0.0046 in the control, 0.0021 in verbascoside group, and 0.0008 in isoverbascoside group. The chelating activity of isoverbascoside was 2-fold stronger than that of verbascoside. Permethyl verbascoside showed neither antioxidative nor chelating activities. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effects of PPG with phenolic hydroxy groups on lipid peroxidation are owing to their chelating properties. Under physiological condition PPG-Fe2+ chelates are sufficiently stable. Thus PPG are able to inhibit the Fe(2+)-dependent lipid peroxidation in vivo through chelating Fe2+ and exhibit their therapeutic potential by the same mechanism in vitro.  (+info)

Continuous primary sequence requirements in the 18-nucleotide promoter of dicot plant mitochondria. (3/1498)

The nucleotide requirements of mitochondrial promoters of dicot plants were studied in detail in a pea in vitro transcription system. Deletions in the 5' regions of three different transcription initiation sites from pea, soybean, and Oenothera identified a crucial AT-rich sequence element (AT-Box) comprising nucleotide positions -14 to -9 relative to the first transcribed nucleotide. Transversion of the AT-Box sequence to comple- mentary nucleotide identities results in an almost complete loss of promoter activity, suggesting that primary structure rather than a simple accumulation of adenines and thymidines in this region is essential for promoter activity. This promoter segment thus appears to be involved in sequence specific binding of a respective protein factor(s) rather than merely loosening and melting the DNA helix during or for an initiation event. Manipulation of nucleotide identities in the 3' portion of the pea atp9 promoter and the respective 3'-flanking region revealed that essential sequences extend to positions +3/+4 beyond this transcription start site. Efficient transcription initiation at an 18-base pair promoter sequence ranging from nucleotide positions -14 to +4 integrated into different sequence contexts shows this element to be sufficient for autonomous promoter function independent of surrounding sequences.  (+info)

Characterization of two novel type I ribosome-inactivating proteins from the storage roots of the andean crop Mirabilis expansa. (4/1498)

Two novel type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were found in the storage roots of Mirabilis expansa, an underutilized Andean root crop. The two RIPs, named ME1 and ME2, were purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange perfusion chromatography, and C4 reverse-phase chromatography. The two proteins were found to be similar in size (27 and 27.5 kD) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their isoelectric points were determined to be greater than pH 10.0. Amino acid N-terminal sequencing revealed that both ME1 and ME2 had conserved residues characteristic of RIPs. Amino acid composition and western-blot analysis further suggested a structural similarity between ME1 and ME2. ME2 showed high similarity to the Mirabilis jalapa antiviral protein, a type I RIP. Depurination of yeast 26S rRNA by ME1 and ME2 demonstrated their ribosome-inactivating activity. Because these two proteins were isolated from roots, their antimicrobial activity was tested against root-rot microorganisms, among others. ME1 and ME2 were active against several fungi, including Pythium irregulare, Fusarium oxysporum solani, Alternaria solani, Trichoderma reesei, and Trichoderma harzianum, and an additive antifungal effect of ME1 and ME2 was observed. Antibacterial activity of both ME1 and ME2 was observed against Pseudomonas syringae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, and others.  (+info)

The prenylation status of a novel plant calmodulin directs plasma membrane or nuclear localization of the protein. (5/1498)

Post-translational attachment of isoprenyl groups to conserved cysteine residues at the C-terminus of a number of regulatory proteins is important for their function and subcellular localization. We have identified a novel calmodulin, CaM53, with an extended C-terminal basic domain and a CTIL CaaX-box motif which are required for efficient prenylation of the protein in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of wild-type CaM53 or a non-prenylated mutant protein in plants causes distinct morphological changes. Prenylated CaM53 associates with the plasma membrane, but the non-prenylated mutant protein localizes to the nucleus, indicating a dual role for the C-terminal domain. The subcellular localization of CaM53 can be altered by a block in isoprenoid biosynthesis or sugar depletion, suggesting that CaM53 activates different targets in response to metabolic changes. Thus, prenylation of CaM53 appears to be a novel mechanism by which plant cells can coordinate Ca2+ signaling with changes in metabolic activities.  (+info)

Tissue-specific expression of the beta-subunit of tryptophan synthase in Camptotheca acuminata, an indole alkaloid-producing plant. (6/1498)

Camptothecin is an anticancer drug produced by the monoterpene indole alkaloid pathway in Camptotheca acuminata. As part of an investigation of the camptothecin biosynthetic pathway, we have cloned and characterized a gene from C. acuminata encoding the beta-subunit of tryptophan (Trp) synthase (TSB). In C. acuminata TSB provides Trp for both protein synthesis and indole alkaloid production and therefore represents a junction between primary and secondary metabolism. TSB mRNA and protein were detected in all C. acuminata organs examined, and their abundance paralleled that of camptothecin. Within each shoot organ, TSB was most abundant in vascular tissues. Within the root, however, TSB expression was most abundant in the outer cortex. TSB has been localized to chloroplasts in Arabidopsis, but there was little expression of TSB in C. acuminata tissues where the predominant plastids were photosynthetically competent chloroplasts. Expression of the promoter from the C. acuminata TSB gene in transgenic tobacco plants paralleled expression of the native gene in C. acuminata in all organs except roots. TSB is also highly expressed in C. acuminata during early seedling development at a stage corresponding to peak accumulation of camptothecin, consistent with the idea that Trp biosynthesis and the secondary indole alkaloid pathway are coordinately regulated.  (+info)

Expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase during leaf ontogeny in white clover. (7/1498)

We examined the expression of three distinct 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes during leaf ontogeny in white clover (Trifolium repens). Significant production of ethylene occurs at the apex, in newly initiated leaves, and in senescent leaf tissue. We used a combination of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends to identify three distinct DNA sequences designated TRACO1, TRACO2, and TRACO3, each with homology to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. Southern analysis confirmed that these sequences represent three distinct genes. Northern analysis revealed that TRACO1 is expressed specifically in the apex and TRACO2 is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in developing leaf tissue. The third gene, TRACO3, is expressed in senescent leaf tissue. Antibodies were raised to each gene product expressed in Escherichia coli, and western analysis showed that the TRACO1 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 205 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed preferentially in apical tissue. The TRACO2 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 36.4 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in mature green tissue. No protein recognition by the TRACO3 antibody could be detected in senescent tissue or at any other stage of leaf development.  (+info)

Evolution of the mitochondrial rps3 intron in perennial and annual angiosperms and homology to nad5 intron 1. (8/1498)

The plant mitochondrial rps3 intron was analyzed for substitution and indel rate variation among 15 monocot and dicot angiosperms from 10 genera, including perennial and annual taxa. Overall, the intron sequence was very conserved among angiosperms. Based on length polymorphism, 10 different alleles were identified among the 10 genera. These allelic differences were mainly attributable to large indels. An insertion of 133 nucleotides, observed in the Alnus intron was partially or completely absent in the other lineages of the family Betulaceae. This insertion was located within domain IV of the secondary-structure model of this group IIA intron. A mobile element of 47 nucleotides that showed homology to sequences located in rice rps3 intron and in intergenic plant mitochondrial genomes was found within this insertion. Both substitution and indel rates were low among the Betulaceae sequences, but substitution rates were increasingly larger than indel rates in comparisons involving more distantly related taxa. From a secondary-structure model, regions involved in helical structures were shown to be well preserved from indels as compared to substitutions, but compensatory changes were not observed among the angiosperm sequences analyzed. Using approximate divergence times based on the fossil record, substitution and indel rate heterogeneity was observed between different pairs of annual and perennial taxa. In particular, the annual petunia and primrose evolved more than 15 and 10 times faster, for substitution and indel rates respectively, than the perennial birch and alder. This is the first demonstration of an evolutionary rate difference between perennial and annual forms in noncoding DNA, lending support to neutral causes such as the generation time, population size, and speciation rate effects to explain such rate heterogeneity. Surprisingly, the sequence from the rps3 intron had a high identity with the sequence of intron 1 from the angiosperm mitochondrial nad5 gene, suggesting a common origin of these two group IIA introns.  (+info)

BOGGAN, J. K. 1991. A morphological study and cladistic analysis of Sinningia and associated genera with particular reference to Lembocarpus, Lietzia, Paliavana, and Vanhouttea (Gesneriaceae: Gloxinieae) M. S. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.. BURTT, B. L. & H. WIEHLER. 1995. Classification of the family Gesneriaceae. Gesneriana 1: 1-4.. CRISCI, J. V., M. M. CIGLIANO, J. J. MORRONE, & S.ROIG-JUÑENT. 1991. Historical biogeography of southern South America. Syst. Zool. 40:152-171.. INNIS, M. A., K. B. MYAMBO, D. H. GELFAND, & M. A. D. BROW. 1988. DNA sequencing and direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 85: 9436-9440.. IVANINA, L. I. 1965. Application of the carpological method to the taxonomy of Gesneriaceae. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh. 26: 383-402.. KVIST, L. P. 1990. Revision of Heppiella (Gesneriaceae). Syst. Bot. 15: 720-735.. SMITH, J. F. 1996. Tribal relationships within the Gesneriaceae: A cladistic analysis of morphological ...
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (or APweb) is a well-known web site dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy. The site is hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden website and maintained by researchers, Peter F. Stevens and Hilary M. Davis. Peter F. Stevens is a member of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). The taxonomy presented is broadly based on the work of the APG, with modifications to incorporate new results. APWebsite is a resource for NCBI (NCBI) A useful site for Kew Gardens (Kew Gardens) Stevens, Peter F. (2006). The angiosperm phylogeny Website - a tool for reference and teaching in a time of change. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 42. doi:10.1002/meet.14504201249. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden Website Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and ...
The tribal relationships of the Gesneriaceae are investigated using ndhF sequences. A full analysis of 70 taxa including 16 species from the Scrophulariaceae, Bigoniaceae, and Acanthaceae as outgroups, resulted in two most-parsimonious trees of 5610 steps each. In all trees the Gesneriaceae were a monophyletic group and Paulownia was the closest single-species outgroup for the analysis. Further analyses eliminated all but the members of the Gesneriaceae and Paulownia in order to better asses relationships within the family. The smaller analysis resulted in a single most-parsimonious tree of 4613 steps. The Klugieae are identified as the sister to the remainder of the family and could potentially be separated as a distinct subfamily. The subfamilies Cyrtandroideae (excluding Klugieae) and Gesnerioideae are monophyletic. The placement of Coronallthereae in Cyrtandroideae does not have support from this analysis, whereas its placement in Gesnerioideae is supported. Alternatively Coronanthereae could be
Growing evidence of morphological diversity in angiosperm flowers, seeds and pollen from the mid Cretaceous and the presence of derived lineages from increasingly older geological deposits both imply that the timing of early angiosperm cladogenesis is older than fossil-based estimates have indicated. An alternative to fossils for calibrating the phylogeny comes from divergence in DNA sequence data. Here, angiosperm divergence times are estimated using non-parametric rate smoothing and a three-gene dataset covering ca. 75- of all angiosperm families recognized in recent classifications. The results provide an initial hypothesis of angiosperm diversification times. Using an internal calibration point, an independent evaluation of angiosperm and eudicot origins is performed. The origin of the crown group of extant angiosperms is indicated to be Early to Middle Jurassic (179-158 Myr), and the origin of eudicots is resolved as Late Jurassic to mid Cretaceous (147-131 Myr). Both estimates, despite a ...
Common Bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris) is a submergent aquatic species often found int the quite heavily vegetated areas of lakes and marshes. The plant has pretty little yellow flowers that protrude from the waters surface and from a distance resemble pea flowers.. The most interesting feature of Common Bladderwort, and others of the genus its the presence of bladders. These structure all the plants to consume animals and obtain nutrients. When an animal such as a waterflea gets close it triggers hairs on the bladder, which cause the bladder to suddenly swell. This creates a vacuum which sucks in the zooplankton. Even tiny, newly hatched fish can fall victim to the bladders. You can tell when the bladders are full because they are dark and filled with digesting zooplankton, and other invertebrates.. Together with Pitcher Plant and Sundews the bladderworts make up a fascinating number of carnivorous plants.. Also see Horned Bladderwort. ...
Anon. 2003. APNI: Australian Plant Names Index. http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/apni.html.. Bell, C. D. and R. W. Patterson. 2000. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Linanthus (Polemoniaceae). Am. J. Bot. 87:1857-1870.. Brand, A. 1907. Polemoniaceae. Pages 1-203 in A Engler, ed. Das Pflanzenreich IV(250). Engelmann, Leipzig. Campbell, D.R., R. Alarcon, and C. A. Wu. 2003. Reproductive isolation and hybrid pollen disadvantage in Ipomopsis. J. Evolution. Biol. 16:536-540.. Carlquist, S., V. M. Eckhart, and D. C. Michener. 1984. Wood anatomy of Polemoniaceae. Aliso 10:547-572.. Dawson, M. L. 1936. The floral morphology of the Polemoniaceae. Am. J. Bot. 23: 501-511.. Ferguson, C. J. and R. K. Jansen. 2002. A chloroplast DNA phylogeny of eastern Phlox (Polemoniaceae): implications of congruence and incongruence with the ITS phylogeny. Am. J. Bot. 89:1324-1335. Galen, C. 2000. High and dry: Drought stress, sex-allocation trade-offs, and selection on flower size in the alpine wildflower ...
In the past, classification systems were typically produced by an individual botanist or by a small group. The result was a large number of systems (see List of systems of plant taxonomy). Different systems and their updates were generally favoured in different countries. Examples are the Engler system in continental Europe, the Bentham & Hooker system in Britain (particularly influential because it was used by Kew), the Takhtajan system in the former Soviet Union and countries within its sphere of influence and the Cronquist system in the United States.[1] Before the availability of genetic evidence, the classification of angiosperms (also known as flowering plants, Angiospermae, Anthophyta or Magnoliophyta) was based on their morphology (particularly of their flower) and biochemistry (the kinds of chemical compounds in the plant). After the 1980s, detailed genetic evidence analysed by phylogenetic methods became available and while confirming or clarifying some relationships in existing ...
Conandron ramondioides with actinomorphic flower in Gesneriaceae is an endemic species distributed in Taiwan, Southeast of China a
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105-121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2013-06-26 ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105-121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06 ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105-121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2013-07-06 ...
The carambola is a tropical and subtropical fruit which can be grown at elevations up to 1,200 metres (4,000 feet). It prefers full sun exposure, but requires enough humidity and annual rainfall of at least 1,800 mm (70 in). It does not have a soil type preference, but requires good drainage.[citation needed]. Carambola trees are planted at least 6 m (20 ft) from each other and typically are fertilized three times a year. The tree grows rapidly and typically produces fruit at four or five years of age. The large amount of rain during spring actually reduces the amount of fruit, but, in ideal conditions, carambola can produce from 90 to 180 kilograms (200 to 400 pounds) of fruit a year. The carambola tree flowers throughout the year, with main fruiting seasons from April to June and October to December in Malaysia,[16] for example, but fruiting also occurs at other times in some other locales, such as South Florida.[4]. Growth and leaf responses of container-grown `Arkin carambola (Averrhoa ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) - międzynarodowa grupa systematyków roślin (taksonomów) stworzona w celu ustalenia wspólnego poglądu na taksonomię roślin okrytonasiennych w obliczu szybko rozwijających się metod systematyki molekularnej.. Efektem pracy grupy jest opublikowany w 1998 system klasyfikacji roślin (tzw. system APG I, ang. APG system). System bazował na danych molekularnych (dwóch genów chloroplastowego DNA i jednego genu kodującego rybosomy) analizowanych metodami kladystycznymi[1].. W kolejnych latach ukazywały się wersje zrewidowane. W roku 2003 opublikowano system APG II[2], w 2009 APG III[3][4][5] i w 2016 roku APG IV[6].. ...
Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA sequences are used to estimate the phylogeny of 53 members of Polemoniaceae, representing all but two genera of the family. Fitch parsimony analysis of equal-weighted nucleotide sites result in 1080 minimal-length trees. However, when alignment-ambiguous positions are removed and an II: 10 transition to transversion weighting is imposed only eight trees are found. These data are used to address two issues: I) patterns of diversification in Polemoniaceae, and 2) the circumscription and monophyly of the genus Gilia. Although the monophyly of Polemoniaceae is well supported, relationships inferred among the earliest diverging lineages are altered by character weighting, treatment of indels, and taxon inclusion. In spite of the lack of reliable resolution at the basal nodes, ITS data provide evidence that Gilia, as currently interpreted, is polyphyletic and comprises at least five independent lineages.
Podostemaceae: Podostemaceae, riverweed family of dicotyledonous flowering plants in the order Malpighiales, with 48 genera and 270 species of aquatic plants that look like mosses,
Sarcandra glabra is a perrenial, spreading evergreen undershrub, that is reaching up to 1.5m in height and somestimes more in width. In nature it usually grows under trees, near streams or lakes, but it can be found both on swamps and dry sandy lands, from sea level to elevations around 2000m beyond. For best growth it should have moist, acid soil, rich in organic matter and partial shade. It have interesting from botanical point of view, shape of flovers, which because of its micro size, are no addiction to beauty of the garden. But a lot of charm has its tiny, bright red-orange fruits (yellow-orenge fruit Sarcandra plants can be found too, but are rare), that are staying on branches for long time, making this plant being very ornamental. It is usually called as berries, while in fact it have a structure of a drupe. Sarcandra glabra is frost resistant to around -10*C, but can be cultivated as a houseplant in regions with colder winter. It is quite drought and heat resistant plant. Fresh leaves ...
In the United States, commercial cultivation and broad consumer acceptance of the fruit only dates to the 1970s. That acceptance is attributable to Morris Arkin, a backyard horticulturalist, from Coral Gables, Florida. During the late 1960s, Arkin began cultivating plants and trees in his backyard, eventually developing a kind of carambola, or star fruit, that became commercially viable and was named after him. Until the early 1970s, carambola had been grown only as specimen trees in botanical gardens and experiment stations and as a curiosity in home landscapes. However, because of its attractive star shape when cut in cross-section and yellow to golden color, it began to grow in popularity. Fruit from early introductions were however, sour and sometimes considered unpalatable. This limited market and public acceptance, inhibiting development and expansion of carambola as a commercial fresh fruit. Arkin cultivated the Arkin variety - a sweet carambola with good handling characteristics - in ...
A whole genome duplication (doubling) at 160 million years ago (mya) may have started the ancestral line that led to all modern flowering plants.[2] That event was studied by sequencing the genome of an ancient flowering plant, Amborella trichopoda.[3] Amborella, found on the Pacific island of New Caledonia, belongs to a sister group of the other flowering plants. Studies suggest that it has features that may have been characteristic of the earliest flowering plants.[4]. The earliest known fossil confidently identified as an angiosperm, Archaefructus liaoningensis, is dated to about 125 mya in the Lower Cretaceous.[5] Pollen probably of angiosperm origin takes the fossil record back to about 130 mya.. The phylogeny of Angiosperms is as follows: [6][7]. ...
A whole genome duplication (doubling) at 160 million years ago (mya) may have started the ancestral line that led to all modern flowering plants.[2] That event was studied by sequencing the genome of an ancient flowering plant, Amborella trichopoda.[3] Amborella, found on the Pacific island of New Caledonia, belongs to a sister group of the other flowering plants. Studies suggest that it has features that may have been characteristic of the earliest flowering plants.[4] The earliest known fossil confidently identified as an angiosperm, Archaefructus liaoningensis, is dated to about 125 mya in the Lower Cretaceous.[5] Pollen probably of angiosperm origin takes the fossil record back to about 130 mya. The phylogeny of Angiosperms is as follows: [6][7] ...
Wing, Scott L. and Tiffney, B. H. 1987. The Reciprocal Interaction of Angiosperm Evolution and Tetrapod Herbivory. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 50 (1-2):179-210 ...
Magnoliid genomes provide novel insight into early angiosperm evolution, showing how whole-genome duplication and proliferation of transposable elements have shaped these genomes. Now, two papers giving differing views of early angiosperm phylogeny, raise questions about the relationships among eudicots, monocots and magnoliids.. ...
Best Carnivorous Plants Store - The ultimate offer of seeds, plants, hibernacula and turions (winter buds) of carnivorous plants for sale at a good rate in the plant and seed bank
Perennial herb 6 - 20 cm tall Stem: submersed or free-floating. Leaves: submersed, 1 - 5 cm long, often two-parted at base, each segment forking several times, progressively getting shorter and narrower toward tip, end segments circular in cross section, the central axis (rachis) becoming zigzag or indistinct. The leafy branches float beneath the water surface and have numerous well-developed bladders that are often dark red to black and more than 2 mm across. Flowers: borne six to twenty on a stalk (scape) 1 mm or more in diameter, subtended by bracts, yellow petals are two-lipped with upper and lower lip nearly equal in length, lower lip having a half-spherical projection. The spur (extended sac at base of petals) is two-thirds as long as the lower lip, curving forward. Fruit: a two-valved capsule on recurved stalks, containing small seeds. Similar species: Utricularia radiata, Utricularia intermedia, Utricularia minor, Utricularia geminiscapa, and Utricularia gibba are other aquatic or ...
While the monocotyledons have remained extremely stable in their outer borders as a well-defined and coherent monophylectic group, the deeper internal relationships have undergone considerable flux, with many competing classification systems over time.[33]. Historically, Bentham (1877), considered the monocots to consist of four alliances, Epigynae, Coronariae, Nudiflorae and Glumales, based on floral characteristics. He describes the attempts to subdivide the group since the days of Lindley as largely unsuccessful.[83] Like most subsequent classification systems it failed to distinguish between two major orders, Liliales and Asparagales, now recognised as quite separate.[84] A major advance in this respect was the work of Rolf Dahlgren (1980),[85] which would form the basis of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Groups (APG) subsequent modern classification of monocot families. Dahlgren who used the alternate name Lilliidae considered the monocots as a subclass of angiosperms characterised by a single ...
The word angiosperm is made from two words ANGION which means hidden and SPERMA which means seed. These are flowering plants. They have seeds enclosed within fruits. Flowers are the most attractive part of any angiospermic plant. It adds to the beauty of these plants. Flowers are the characteristic features of angiosperms. Flowers attract insects and birds and help in pollination. Reproduction is of sexual type. These undergo double fertilization and endosperms are formed. Angiosperms are further divided into dicots and monocots. For example, peas, sunflower, maize, etc. Angiosperms are the most evolved group of the whole Plant Kingdom. Angiosperms provide us with all crop plants that are used as food and fodder plants. These are economically very important of all other plants. ...
The evolutionary history of flowering plants is poorly known, represented by remnant fossils only weakly identified as angiosperms. Until recently, fossil evidence of early angiosperms was based on vegetative materials and pollen. None of these fossils, however, showed the presence of ovules or seeds enclosed in carpels, the true distinction of the angiosperm lineage.. A team of paleontologists and paleobotanists led by Ge Sun of Jilin University, China, and David Dilcher of the Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, recently announced the discovery of a new basal angiosperm family, Archaefructaceae (Ge Sun et al. 2002). The new family is represented only by the two species, Archaefructus liaoningensis and A. sinensis. Five virtually complete fossils of these plants, including flowers, seeds, and fruits, were found in the Yixian Formation in Liaoning, northeastern China. The fossils are believed to be between 125 and 145 million years old, placing them within the Lower ...
അംബോറില്ലേൽസ് നിരയിലെ ഏക കുടുംബമായ അംബോറില്ലേസീയിലെ ഏക ജനുസാണ് അംബോറില. ഈ ജനുസിലും ഒറ്റ സ്പീഷിസ് മാത്രമേയുള്ളൂ, അംബോറില ട്രിക്കോപോഡ. (ശാസ്ത്രീയനാമം: Amborella trichopoda). അടിക്കാടുകളായി കാണപ്പെടുന്ന ചെറുവൃക്ഷങ്ങളായ ഇത് ന്യൂ കാലിഡോണിയയിലെ ഗ്രാന്റ് ടെറ ദ്വീപിലെ തദ്ദേശവാസിയാണ്.[4][4] സപുഷ്‌പിസസ്യങ്ങളിലെ ഏറ്റവും ചുവട്ടിൽ പ്രതിഷ്ഠിക്കപ്പെട്ടിട്ടുള്ള ഈ സസ്യം സസ്യപഠിതാക്കൾക്ക് വളരെ ...
Angiosperm - Angiosperm - Leaves: Leaves initially arise from cell divisions in the shoot apical meristem. A slight bulge (a leaf buttress) is produced, which in dicots continues to grow and elongate to form a leaf primordium. (Stipules, if present, appear as two small protuberances.) Marginal and submarginal meristems on opposite flanks of the primordium initiate leaf-blade formation. Differences in the local activity of marginal meristems cause the lobed shapes of simple leaves and the leaflets in compound leaves. An increase in width and in the number of cell layers is brought about by marginal meristems. Subsequent expansion and increase in length is achieved by
Genome sequence assemblies of many angiosperm trees used in forestry are now emerging, in addition to the well-characterised genomes of black poplar and eucalyptus reviewed in previous chapters of...
Buy Fossilium Catalogus Plantae, Volume 108 (9789057821844): Index of Angiosperm Leaf Species Names C, 1823-2005: NHBS - J van der Burgh, HWJ van Amerom, Backhuys
Angiosperm and Gymnosperm Definition. Angiosperm and Gymnosperm Examples. Angiosperm vs Gymnosperm. 27 key differences you should know.
Read Large distribution and high sequence identity of a Copia-type retrotransposon in angiosperm families, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Cladus: asterids • Cladus: euasterids I • Ordo: Lamiales • Familia: Lentibulariaceae Rich. (1808) ...
Phylogenetic analyses of angiosperm relationships have used only a small percentage of available sequence data, but phylogenetic data matrices often can be augmented with existing data, especially if one allows missing characters. We explore the effects on phylogenetic analyses of adding 378 matK sequences and 240 26S rDNA sequences to the complete 3-gene, 567-taxon angiosperm phylogenetic matrix of Soltis et al. We performed maximum likelihood bootstrap analyses of the complete, 3-gene 567-taxon data matrix and the incomplete, 5-gene 567-taxon data matrix. Although the 5-gene matrix has more missing data (27.5%) than the 3-gene data matrix (2.9%), the 5-gene analysis resulted in higher levels of bootstrap support. Within the 567-taxon tree, the increase in support is most evident for relationships among the 170 taxa for which both matK and 26S rDNA sequences were added, and there is little gain in support for relationships among the 119 taxa having neither matK nor 26S rDNA sequences. The 5-gene
Read How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals?, Oikos on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The angiosperms. Greek: angeion case; sperma seed. By far the most diverse group of plants that has ever existed with more than 240,000 different species. Why are there so many species. Angiosperms. Time scale. Origin of angiosperms. Mosses. Ferns . Slideshow 154268 by...
Mon. afternoon (8/2) - Moss phylogeny (Goffinet and Hedderson) Tues. afternoon (8/3) - Basal angiosperms: molecular and developmental (Qiu and Zimmer) Tues. afternoon (8/3) - Liverwort & Hornwort phylogeny (Crandall-Stotler and Hasegawa) Tues. evening (8/3) - Basal angiosperms: structural and paleobotanical (Endress and Friis) Tues. evening (8/3) - Fern phylogeny (Pryer and DuBuisson) Wed. afternoon (8/4) - Angiosperm phylogeny (within major clades) (Soltis, Soltis, and Chase) Wed. afternoon (8/4) - Lycophyte phylogeny (Taylor & Wikstrom) Wed. evening (8/4) - Green Plant Phylogeny (overall) (Buchheim and Kenrick) In addition, the GPPRCG has facilitated a Keynote Symposium that will place the green plants into the context of the rest of the tree of life (organized by Mishler and Huss): Fri. morning (8/5) - Phylogeny of Life (where Mishler will give the overview talk on green plants, drawing from the 8 symposia above ...
APG III. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Vol 161: 3. Pp. 105-121.. Brummitt, R.K. 2007. Picramniaceae. In: V.H. Heywood, R.K. Brummitt, A. Culham and O. Seberg (eds.). Flowering plant families of the world. Pp. 253-254. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.. Mabberley, D.J. 2008. Mabberleys plant book. Third edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.. Stevens, P.F. 2008. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9 onwards. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/ Thomas, W.W. 2004. Picramniaceae. In: Smith, N., Mori, S.A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D.W. and Heald, S.V. (eds). Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Pp. 294-295. The New York Botanical Garden, Princeton University Press, Princeton.. Watson, L. and Dallwitz, M.J. (1992 onwards). The Families of Flowering Plants: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. Version 3rd March 2009. ...
The common ancestor to Genlisea and Utricularia may have had forks at the tip of the leaves. Both genera have traps with tube openings at a fork. In the Genlisea clade the trap elongated and the forks developed into long spirals. In the Utricularia clade the trap shortened, folded back, and developed the sophisticated trap door mechanism at the leaf fork.. The most basal species of Genlisea and Utricularia have a common feature that gives an additional clue as to how those genera evolved from a proto-Pinguicula. They have two kinds of leaves. Some Pinguicula species such as Pinguicula lusitanica have only one kind of leaf. However, a very similar species, Pinguicula villosa, has two kinds of leaves. The carnivorous summer leaves of Pinguicula villosa look just like the leaves of Pinguicula lusitanica, but the non-carnivorous winter leaves of Pinguicula villosa form a hibernacula. These winter leaves are barely differentiated and serve to protect the apex of the plant during the arctic winters. ...
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Velloziaceae are xeromorphic and sometimes tree-like monocots (but the trunk is made up largely of adventitious roots) that may be recognised by their usually 3-ranked leaves with persistent bases and spiny margins. The inflorescences are terminal, although often appearing to be axillary, and often have one flower. The flowers are rather large, with violet petal-like tepals and a long style; there may be a corona, and the stamens can be many. Evolution: Divergence & Distribution. Mello-Silva et al. (2011) interpreted the split of Acanthochlamys from the rest of the family and other generic disjunctions in terms of drift-induced vicariant events.. African Velloziaceae are all polyploid, the base number for the family perhaps being x = 6 (de Melo et al. 1997; Costa et al. 2017).. Ecology & Physiology. African Velloziaceae include many dessication-tolerant taxa common on inselbergs and a number of arborescent taxa (Porembski & Barthlott 2000; Farrant 2000: Xerophyta; Naidoo et al. 2009: Xerophyta ...
The Carambola or Star Fruit is an unique and flavorful fruit. The fruits flavor ranges from very sour to mildly sweetish and tastes something like a mix of apple, pineapple, and kiwi fruit. Slices cut in cross-section have the form of a star.
A survey of the extensive fruit and seed collections from the Middle Eocene oil shale of the Messel Formation now reveals at least 140 genera, representing more than 34 families of seed plants. The flora includes occasional conifer and numerous angiosperm remains. There are 34 extant angiosperm families represented of which ten are new records for Messel, plus 65 morphotypes of unknown familial affinity. Three extant genera are recorded for the first time from the Paleogene. The assemblage indicates a wide range of dispersal strategies including pods, capsules, explosive dehiscence, a single arillate seed, two seed-types with dispersal hairs and most modern categories of winged disseminules. In terms of mammalian frugivory the flora contains examples of all potential dietary categories. Tough and hard materials are abundant and soft material is common. Gut contents preserved in many birds and mammals prove that fruits and seeds played an integral part in vertebrate diets and borings in one seed ...
A survey of the extensive fruit and seed collections from the Middle Eocene oil shale of the Messel Formation now reveals at least 140 genera, representing more than 34 families of seed plants. The flora includes occasional conifer and numerous angiosperm remains. There are 34 extant angiosperm families represented of which ten are new records for Messel, plus 65 morphotypes of unknown familial affinity. Three extant genera are recorded for the first time from the Paleogene. The assemblage indicates a wide range of dispersal strategies including pods, capsules, explosive dehiscence, a single arillate seed, two seed-types with dispersal hairs and most modern categories of winged disseminules. In terms of mammalian frugivory the flora contains examples of all potential dietary categories. Tough and hard materials are abundant and soft material is common. Gut contents preserved in many birds and mammals prove that fruits and seeds played an integral part in vertebrate diets and borings in one seed ...
Utricularia species capture small prey in traps. The prey spectrum of aquatic Utricularia species includes a large variety of organisms (e.g. copepods, cladocerans, crustacea, rotifers, algae). This study focuses on selected attributes (species richness, density, biovolume, C and N contents) of microalgae captured inside the traps of aquatic Utricularia spp.. A total of 850 traps of four aquatic bladderwort species (Utricularia australis, U. foliosa, U. gibba and U. vulgaris) from tropical (Ivory Coast) and temperate (Canada, Germany) regions has been investigated concerning the algae captured. In total, 302 microalgal taxa have been identified with Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Charophyceae being most species rich. The number of microalgae species captured was different among the Utricularia spp. It was relatively low inside the traps of U. gibba and U. foliosa from tropical Africa, with the greatest species diversity observed within the Charophyceae (Desmidiaceae). The highest ...
[Objective] The aim was to research the technique conditions on polyphenol extraction from carambola dregs with microwave method.[Method] The effect of 5 factors on polyphenol extraction rate from carambola was studied through single factor by using microwave method,and the best technique conditions for extracting polyphenol from carambola dregs were screened through orthogonal test.[Result] The single factor experiment showed that the optimum effect of extracting the polyphenol from carambola dregs could be obtained when the size of raw material was 30 meshes,microwave power 560 W,ethanol concn.60%,solid-liquid ratio 1∶50,extracting time 60 s and the extracting was twice.The orthogonal test indicated the influence of 4 factors on polyphenol extraction from carambola dregs with microwave was in the order as: solvent concn. solid-liquid ratio extracting time power.The best technique conditions for extracting polyphenol from carambola dregs with microwave method were as: the ethanol concn.was 50%,size
Numerous studies, using in aggregate some 28 genes, have achieved a consensus in recognizing three groups of plants, including Amborella, as comprising the basal-most grade of all other angiosperms. A major exception is the recent study by Goremykin et al. (2003; Mol. Biol. Evol. 20:1499-1505), whose analyses of 61 genes from 13 sequenced chloroplast genomes of land plants nearly always found 100% support for monocots as the deepest angiosperms relative to Amborella, Calycanthus, and eudicots. We hypothesized that this conflict reflects a misrooting of angiosperms resulting from inadequate taxon sampling, inappropriate phylogenetic methodology, and rapid evolution in the grass lineage used to represent monocots. We used two main approaches to test this hypothesis. First, we sequenced a large number of chloroplast genes from the monocot Acorus and added these plus previously sequenced Acorus genes to the Goremykin et al. (2003) dataset in order to explore the effects of altered monocot sampling under the
Polyploidy was first discovered by Winkler in 1916 during his observations of a spontaneous autopolyploid induced by mechanically damaged tissue (Grant, 1971). Winge (1917) proposed an explanation for polyploidy using an arithmetic series he had observed in Chrysanthemum (2n=18, 36, 54, 72, and 90) and Chenopodium (2n=18, 36) (Grant, 1971). Winge hypothesized that polyploidy occurred by successive increases in the original somatic chromosome number. The most comprehensive work on polyploidy and its relationship to plant evolution is the book Plant Speciation by Vern Grant (1981). It has been estimated that 30% to 70% of angiosperms are polyploids (Grant, 1971). The broad range in estimates for angiosperm polyploidy is due to a lack of knowledge about whether these plants are ancient polyploids, or whether more recent events have caused the polyploidy we observe today. Furthermore, no one really knows the true base number of the angiosperms, making estimates of polyploidy for this large and ...
The Ray Ethan Torrey Botanical Greenhouse currently housed by the Department of Biology includes nearly 700 genera in more than 225 families. The collection is especially rich in basal angiosperms, including members some of the most primitive families of flowering plants.. Of particular interest in this regard are plants of Amborella trichopoda of the family Amborellaceae, which is widely considered to represent the most primitive living angiosperm. This rare plant, a native of New Caledonia, is one of a handful of living flowering plants that are primitively vesselless, instead making wood that, like that of gymnosperms, has only tracheids and lacks vessel members.. Another rare, primitive angiosperm in the collection is Austrobaileya, of the family Austrobaileyaceae. This plant, a native of Queensland, Australia, has exceedingly primitive, leaf-like stamens that have no anther- rather the pollen sacs, technically microsporangia, attach directly to a laminar stamen instead of forming the ...
Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla
PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION. UNIT SIX Chapters 35,36,37,38,39. Angiosperm Structure. Angiosperms are further divided into 4 major categories: Basal Angiosperms (older angiosperms like Water lilies) Magnoliids (newer like the Magnolia) Monocotyledons a.k.a. monocots (newer still) Slideshow 1211230 by Jimmy
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The majority of tree species are angiosperms. There are about 1000 species of gymnosperm trees,[21] including conifers, cycads, ginkgophytes and gnetales; they produce seeds which are not enclosed in fruits, but in open structures such as pine cones, and many have tough waxy leaves, such as pine needles.[22] Most angiosperm trees are eudicots, the true dicotyledons, so named because the seeds contain two cotyledons or seed leaves. There are also some trees among the old lineages of flowering plants called basal angiosperms or paleodicots; these include Amborella, Magnolia, nutmeg and avocado,[23] while trees such as bamboo, palms and bananas are monocots. Wood gives structural strength to the trunk of most types of tree; this supports the plant as it grows larger. The vascular system of trees allows water, nutrients and other chemicals to be distributed around the plant, and without it trees would not be able to grow as large as they do. Trees, as relatively tall plants, need to draw water up ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. ,em,Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society.,/em, 161(2): 105-121. 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. ,em,Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society.,/em, 161(2): 105-121. 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399-436. dostupno online. ...
The newly sequenced genome of the Amborella plant addresses Darwins abominable mystery -- the question of why flowers suddenly proliferated on Earth millions of years ago. The genome sequence sheds new light on a major event in the history of life on Earth: the origin of flowering plants, including all major food crop species. On 20 December 2013, a paper by the Amborella Genome Sequencing Project that includes a full description of the analyses performed by the project, as well as implications for flowering plant research, will be published in the journal Science. The paper is among three on different research areas related to the Amborella genome that will be published in the same issue of the journal ...
Background and aims: Bilirubin is an orange-yellow tetrapyrrole produced from the breakdown of heme by mammals and some other vertebrates. Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria synthesize molecules similar to bilirubin, including the protein-bound bilins and phytochromobilin which harvest or sense light. Recently, we discovered bilirubin in the arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the White Bird of Paradise Tree, which was the first example of this molecule in a higher plant. Subsequently, we identified bilirubin in both the arils and flowers of Strelitzia reginae, the Bird of Paradise Flower. In the arils of both species, bilirubin is present as the primary pigment, and thus functions to produce color. Previously, no tetrapyrroles were known to generate display color in plants. We were therefore interested in determining whether bilirubin is broadly distributed in the plant kingdom, and whether it contributes to color in other species.
1. Utricularia minutissima Vahl, Enum. Pl. 1: 204. 1804. 斜果挖耳草 xie guo wa er cao Utricularia brevilabris Lace; U. brevilabris var. parviflora Pellegrin; U. evrardii Pellegrin; U. lilliput Pellegrin; U. nigricaulis Ridley; U. nipponica Makino; U. siamensis Ostenfeld.. Annuals, terrestrial. Rhizoids capillary, simple. Stolons capillary, sparsely branched. Traps on rhizoids, stolons, and leaves, stalked, ovoid, ca. 0.2 mm, mouth lateral; appendage 1, dorsal, subulate, with 1 or 2 ventral pairs of trichome rows. Leaves few, from peduncle base and stolons, glabrous; leaf blade narrowly obovate to linear, 0.3-2 cm × 0.4-0.8 mm, membranous, vein 1, base attenuate onto petiole, margin entire, apex slightly obtuse. Inflorescences erect, 3-12 cm, 1-10-flowered, glabrous; peduncle terete, 0.2-0.4 mm thick; scales few, similar to bracts; bracts basifixed, narrowly ovate, 0.5-1 mm, apex acute. Pedicel erect, ± as long as bracts, filiform; bracteoles similar to bracts but sometimes narrower or ...
7. Utricularia graminifolia Vahl, Enum. Pl. 1: 195. 1804. 禾叶挖耳草 he ye wa er cao Utricularia caerulea Linnaeus var. graminifolia (Vahl) P. K. Bhattacharyya; U. conferta Wight; U. equiseticaulis Blatter & McCann; U. parviflora Buchanan-Hamilton ex Smith; U. pedicellata Wight; U. purpurascens Graham; U. subrecta Lace; U. uliginoides Wight.. Perennials or perhaps sometimes annuals, terrestrial. Rhizoids and stolons capillary, branched. Traps on rhizoids, stolons, and leaves, stalked, globose, 0.5-1.3 mm, mouth basal; appendages 2, dorsal, simple, subulate. Leaves numerous, from stolon nodes, glabrous; leaf blade linear to narrowly obovate, 0.4-2 cm × 0.8-3 mm, membranous, veins 3, base attenuate onto petiole, margin entire, apex rounded to subacute. Inflorescences erect, 2.5-30 cm, 1-6-flowered, glabrous; peduncle terete, 0.4-1 mm thick; scales few to many, similar to bracts; bracts basifixed, ovate, 2-2.5 mm, apex acuminate. Pedicel ascending, 3-13 mm, filiform, narrowly winged; ...
This phylogenetic tree traces the lineage of Cuscuta pentagaon from phylum to order. We start with the phylum, Angiosperms, and can follow the tree to the class Eudicots, through a few sublevels, and finally to the order Solanales. A known relative of Cuscuta pentagona in the order Lamiales is sage, which Cuscuta also parasitizes (Ombrello). This tree uses DNA to determine relatedness. The sequences of 545 rbcL, atpB, and 18S rDNA genes were used as well as values of 2538 rbcL sequences. This information can be seen in the caption of the figure. More can be read on the original site by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.. Return to Home ...
Unlike the gymnosperms where the ovules are naked, in the angiosperms or flowering plants, the pollen grains and ovules are developed in specialised structures called flowers. The female sex organs in a flower is the carpel. Pistil consists of an ovary enclosing one to many ovules. Within ovules are present highly reduced female gametophytes termed embryosacs ...
The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Juncus gerardii . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles ...
Sex lives of early hominins; Amborella trichopoda genome; surface topography and stem cells; how HIV weakens immune cells; dogs, dust microbes, and mouse allergies; news from ASCB. 0 Comments. ...
Sex lives of early hominins; Amborella trichopoda genome; surface topography and stem cells; how HIV weakens immune cells; dogs, dust microbes, and mouse allergies; news from ASCB. 0 Comments. ...
Plants have been growing on land for at least 450 million years. The bryophytes comprising the three phyla liverworts, mosses and hornworts, are considered to be the closest extant relatives to the plants that colonized land. Bryophytes has been described as evolutionary unchanging sphinxes of the past regarding both morphological and genetic potential. This suggestion has some support in limited studies of molecular evolution within bryophytes, but has also been questioned based on e.g., studies of species diversification rates. To shed more light on this controversy, the overall aim of this thesis is to investigate rates and patterns of bryophyte molecular evolution.. Our data suggest that the per nucleotide mutation rates in bryophytes are lower than those in angiosperms. Likewise, angiosperms are also more dynamic in terms of genome size, structural rearrangements, genome duplications and transposon activity. However, our data show that mutation rates of bryophytes are higher or at least ...
Yu J.,Xue J. H.,Zhou S. L.. New universal matK primers for DNA barcoding angiosperms[J]. Journal of Systematics and Evolution,2011,49(3):176-181 ...
S: By: Shundar Ahad AP Biology Mrs. Caro. FC: AP Biology Summer Project. 1: Amylase- This is an enzyme in saliva that breaks down starch into simple sugars. The saliva glands are located under the tongue.. 2: Porifera- Porifera are multicelled organisms that have many watter intake and outtake vessels. We call them sponges, the kids call him Spongebob.. 3: Stem - woody- This is when the structure of the plant stem is hard and more brownish. The primary example is obviously trees.. 4: . Angiosperm- Angiosperm is the sex organ of plants. This helps the plant reproduce and comes in a variety of systems. The most popular angiosperm are flowers and fruits, which attract all kinds of organisms to spread pollen and seeds. In this case I am showing you a flower, and the pollen inside it.. 5: Stem - woody- This is when the structure of the plant stem is hard and more brownish. The primary example is obviously trees.. 6: Chlorophyta- Chlorophyta is a division of green algae. These green algae can be found ...
Upper Paleocene and lowermost Eocene angiosperm pollen biostratigraphy of the eastern Gulf Coast and Virginia Norman O. Frederiksen. Micropaleontology Volume 44, No. 1 pp. 45-68 ...
What if all Insects Died?. If insects were to disappear, the world would fall apart - theres no two ways about it, said Goggy Davidowitz, a professor in the departments of entomology and ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Arizona.. Although the world would fall apart, there would be no pesky mosquito bites or fleas on dogs. Insect spread diseases such as malaria and dengue fever, which affects millions and kills hundreds of thousands of people a year would be over.. There are most certainly pros and cons of losing insects. One of the biggest cons would be that approximately 80% of the worlds plant life is angiosperms, which means in order to reproduce they have to have pollen physically transferred to one another, which without inspects would not happen.. Between 50% to 90% of the human diet, depending on the country, comes directly from flowering (angiosperm) plants.. Global climate change, is also throwing off the synchronicity of insect hatchings and flower blooms ...
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Rosopsida Batsch - klasa roślin okrytonasiennych wydzielona w systemie Reveala (wraz z czterema innymi) w miejsce dwuliściennych (po odkryciu ich parafiletycznego charakteru). W nowszych systemach (system APG I, APG II) klasy nie są wyróżniane, a rośliny okrytonasienne klasyfikowane są w systemie kladów uporządkowanych z użyciem rang rzędów i rodzin. Zgodnie z aktualną wiedzą[1][2] taksony skupione przez Reveala w klasie Rosopsida są w istocie grupą niemal monofiletyczną i odpowiadają tzw. dwuliściennym właściwym (z wyjątkiem odrębnie przez Reveala sklasyfikowaną klasą Ranunculopsida odpowiadającą rzędowi Ranunculales w systemie APG II). Klasyfikacja taksonów niższego rzędu w klasyfikacji Reveala odbiega w wielu miejscach od bardziej aktualnych ujęć systematycznych prezentowanych w systemie APG II (zresztą współtworzonego przez Jamesa Reveala wchodzącego w skład Angiosperm Phylogeny Group). W 2007 roku Reveal opublikował wspólnie z Robertem F. Thorne nową ...
In the APG II seestem (2003) for the classification o flouerin plants, the name asterids denotes a clade (a monophyletic group).[1] Maist o the taxa belangin tae this clade had been referred tae the Asteridae in the Cronquist seestem (1981) an tae the Sympetalae in earlier seestems. The name asterids (nae necessarily caipitalised) resembles the earlier botanical name but is intendit tae be the name o a clade rather than a formal ranked name, in the sense o the ICBN. This clade is ane o the twa maist speciose groups o eudicots, the ither bein the rosids. It consists o:[1] ...
4. The polystelic condition in the axis of plants is supposed to have developed due to parenchymatic syngenesis of several monostelic axes. The actinostelic condition is supposed to be the product of radial fusion of steles in polystelic axis. Such an explanation is diametrically opposed to the widely accepted concept of stelar theory (Stewart, 1964).. 5. Andrews (1963) has given a series of diagrams of Palaeozoic seeds to explain the origin of cupule. Pettitt (1970) found them to be more or less of the same age.. 6. The theory has received little attention by angiosperm centred morphologists. Its application to stamens (Puri, 1947, 1951, 1955), venation pattern of leaves (Foster, 1950), morphological nature of angiosperm leaves and sporophylls, and carpels (Eames 1961) have been criticized from time to time.. To sum up it would be worth to quote the reaction of Andrews and Eames. Andrews (1961) says, Zimmermanns scheme for the pteropsids, or atleast some pteropsids, has much supporting ...
Broad leafed flowering plants are plant species with wide flat leaves that develop flowers. The leaf characteristics of broad leaf plants include various traits like arrangement, shape, margin and texture. Broad leaf flowering plants come in both deciduous and evergreen varieties.
This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Chirita (family Gesneriaceae). The record derives from WCSP (in review) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details ...
Angiosperms[edit]. As the anther of a flowering plant develops, four patches of tissue differentiate from the main mass of ... It was found that over 250 different species of angiosperms responded this way.[6] In the anther, after a microspore undergoes ... all gymnosperms and all angiosperms. Plants with heterosporous life cycles using microspores and megaspores arose independently ...
Angiosperm derived characteristics[edit]. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table ... The great angiosperm radiation, when a great diversity of angiosperms appears in the fossil record, occurred in the mid- ... There are eight groups of living angiosperms: *Basal angiosperms (ANA: Amborella, Nymphaeales, Austrobaileyales) *Amborella, a ... A Bayesian analysis of 52 angiosperm taxa suggested that the crown group of angiosperms evolved between 178 million years ago ...
Bessey, Charles (September 1897). "Phylogeny and Taxonomy of the Angiosperms". Botanical Gazette. XXIV (3): 145-178. doi: ... Angiosperms). In that he used the same names for the subclasses of both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, this is contrary to ...
Pooja (2004). Angiosperms. New Delhi: Discovery. ISBN 9788171417889. Retrieved 7 January 2016. Rudall, P.J.; Cribb, P.J.; ... "A commentary on a diagrammatic presentation of the angiosperms in relation to the distribution of character states". In ... Thorne, Robert F. (February 1983). "Proposed new realignments in the angiosperms". Nordic Journal of Botany. 3 (1): 85-117. doi ... Dahlgren, Gertrud (July 1989). "An updated angiosperm classification". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 100 (3): 197- ...
The earliest evidence for the angiosperms evolving flowers is during the Cretaceous period, some 20 million years later (132 Ma ... Soltis, Pam; Doug Soltis; Christine Edwards (2005). "Angiosperms". The Tree of Life Project. Retrieved 2006-04-09. "Big crater ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.01002.x The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group ... The circumscription is: The clade includes most of the basal groups of the angiosperms. This clade was formally named ... Dahlgren, R.M.T. (1980). "A revised system of classification of angiosperms". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 80 (2 ...
Walker, James W. (1976). "Evolutionary Significance of the Exine in the Pollen of Primative [sic?] Angiosperms". In Ferguson, I ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... Alapi helyzetű zárvatermők (Basal angiosperms)[szerkesztés]. *Amborellales Melikyan et al. *Amborellaceae Pichon, nom. cons. ...
"Angiosperms: Dicotyledons". Poisonous Plants of California. California natural history guides. 53. University of California ...
Angiosperms diversify. c. 52.5 Ma - First passerine (perching) birds. c. 52 Ma - First bats. c. 50 Ma - Africa collides with ...
Naik, V.N. (1984). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 9780074517888. Stace, Clive A. (1989) [ ... 2015). A. Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien Part 4: Pinopsida (Gymnosperms), Magnoliopsida (Angiosperms) p.p. (13th ed.). ... angiosperms) Magnoliidae [Part 4, to be published] Lilianae (monocotyledons) Acorales, Alismatales, Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales ...
Rhytidosporum Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and ... A Voyage to Terra Australis 2, Appendix III: 542 Sambamurty, A. V. S. S. (1 January 2005). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. I. K. ... Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards) Pittosporaceae at 'Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less ...
... angiosperms). It is the most popular system of classification based on key characteristics enabling taxonomic students to ... Dicotyledons, Gamopetalae "Angiosperms. Part 9". chestofbooks.com. Retrieved 11 October 2018. http://www.tutorvista.com/content ... biology-iii/angiosperm-classification/bentham-hookers-classification.php Bentham and Hookers Classification of plants. ...
Naik, V.N. (1984). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 9780074517888. Stuessy, Tod F. (2009). ... angiosperms), but were later subdivided. Embryophyta Siphonogama replaced the older term Phanerogamae, and the classes were ...
ISBN 978-0-8493-2677-6. Sambamurty, A.V.S.S. (2005). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. p. 404. ISBN 978-81- ...
Sambamurty, A. V. S. S. (2005). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. New Delhi: I.K. International. ISBN 8188237167. OCLC 841013792. ...
In the context of the plant sexuality of flowering plants (angiosperms), there are two forms of dichogamy: protogyny-female ... However, a survey of the angiosperms found that self-incompatible (SI) plants, which are incapable of inbreeding, were as ... Bertin, R.I. (1993). "Incidence of monoecy and dichogamy in relation to self-fertilization in angiosperms". Am. J. Bot. 80 (5 ... 191-216.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Bertin, R. I.; Newman, C. M. (1993). "Dichogamy in angiosperms". Bot. ...
Sambamurthy, A. V. S. S. (2005). Taxonomy Of Angiosperms. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. p. 72. ISBN 8188237167. Harden, Gwen. " ...
... angiosperms), systematists formed the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG), resulting in a new classification published in 1998. ... The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (APWeb) includes four of Takhtajan's families in Liliaceae, recognizing three subfamilies, one ... Soltis, D.E.; Soltis, P.F.; Endress, P.K.; Chase, M.W. (2005). Phylogeny and evolution of angiosperms. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer ... doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x. APG III (2009). "An Update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the ...
China has been a focus to botanist for its rich biota as it holds the record for the earliest known angiosperm megafossil. ... Taxonomy of Angiosperms. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. p. 188. ISBN 978-81-88237-16-6. Craw, Robin C.; Grehan, John R.; Heads, ...
Xin Wang (2017). "Fossil Plants Possibly Related to Angiosperms". In Xin Wang (ed.). The Dawn Angiosperms. Uncovering the ... Mohamed I.A. Ibrahim; Mohamed K. Zobaa; Zainab M. El-Noamani; Sameh S. Tahoun (2017). "A review of the angiosperm pollen genus ... A study on the diversity of insect herbivory on fossil angiosperm leaves from the Miocene Hindon Maar fossil lagerstätte (Otago ... Gang Han; Zhongjian Liu; Xin Wang (2017). "A Dichocarpum-like Angiosperm from the Early Cretaceous of China". Acta Geologica ...
ISBN 978-0-521-42785-2. V. N. Naik (1984). "A review of pre-Darwinian classification". Taxonomy of Angiosperms. Tata McGraw- ...
Embryology of Angiosperms. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 159-196. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-69302-1_4. ISBN 9783642693021. ...
Gupta, D. P. (1968). Taxonomy of angiosperms. Asian Pub. Retrieved 23 February 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ...
ISBN 978-3-642-50733-5. Naik, V. N. (1984). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, p. 2. ICZN (1999) ...
Dickinson, T.A. (1978). "Epiphylly in angiosperms". The Botanical Review. 44 (2): 181-232. doi:10.1007/bf02919079.. ...
A. V. S. S. Sambamurty (2005). "Caryophyllaceae (pink family)". Taxonomy of Angiosperms. I. K. International. pp. 270-279. ISBN ... ISBN 978-0-87893-407-2. P. F. Stevens (9 June 2008). "Caryophyllaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved 6 August 2008. ... "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical ... stitchworts Stipulicida Thurya Thylacospermum Uebelinia Vaccaria Velezia Wilhelmsia Xerotia Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009 ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families ... Sympetalous flowers are found in many angiosperms, but it was the combination of sympetaly with a "stamen whorl isomerous and ... Sambamurty, A. V. S. S. (2005). Taxonomy of angiosperms. New Delhi: I.K. International. ISBN 81-88237-16-7. Erbar, Claudia (26 ... angiosperms). In this group the flowers have a separate calyx and corolla and in which the corolla petals are fused, at least ...
Phanerogams 494-494.5........Gymnosperms 495..............Angiosperms 504-638...........Cryptogams 640-707...........Plant ...
In particular, the most basal angiosperms were called the ANITA grade which is made up of Amborella (a single species of shrub ... The basal angiosperms are only a few hundred species, compared with hundreds of thousands of species of eudicots, monocots or ... The basal angiosperms are the flowering plants which diverged from the lineage leading to most flowering plants. ... The earliest angiosperms: evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genomes Yin-Long Qiu, Jungho Lee, Fabiana Bernasconi ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny-APG III. Downloadable PDF of poster of Angiosperm phylogeny. T.C.H. Cole and H.H. Hilger. Institut f r ... Furthermore, angiosperms are crucial for human existence; the vast majority of the worlds crops are angiosperms, as are most ... The basal angiosperms. The basal angiosperms represent a grade that includes the following groups: Amborellaceae (discussed ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG II). 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and ...
We obtained information on dichogamy and other aspects of the biology of over 4200 species of angiosperms from several hundred ... Incidence of monoecy and dichogamy in relation to self-fertilization in angiosperms. Amer. J. Bot. 80 (in press).Google Scholar ... We obtained information on dichogamy and other aspects of the biology of over 4200 species of angiosperms from several hundred ... The avoidance of interference between the presentation of pollen and stigmas in angiosperms. II. Herkogamy. New Zealand J. Bot. ...
... Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. System (1998-2009). *An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I) ... Spears, Priscilla (2006), A tour of the flowering plants based on the classification system of the Angiosperm phylogeny group, ... An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II ...
Angiosperm - Leaves: Leaves initially arise from cell divisions in the shoot apical meristem. A slight bulge (a leaf buttress) ... ": { "url": "/plant/angiosperm", "shareUrl": "https://www.britannica.com/plant/angiosperm", "title": "Angiosperm" ," ...
There is not a single living plant species whose status as an angiosperm or non-angiosperm is in doubt. Even the fossil record ... Most typically, angiosperms are seed plants. This separates them from all other plants except the gymnosperms, of which the ... The ovules (forerunners of the seeds) of angiosperms are characteristically enclosed in an ovary, in contrast to those ... The angiosperms are a well-characterized, sharply defined group. ... Pollen of angiosperms is received by the stigma, a specialized ...
Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy: Angiosperms. Volume 1 of Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy. Volume 1 of Pollen ... Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy: Angiosperms, with 261 illus. (or .... Gunnar Erdtman,P. Sorsa. Snippet view - 1952. ... Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy: Angiosperms ; an Introduction to .... G. Erdtman. No preview available - 1986. ...
We sell many angiosperms and gymnosperms including cacti, succulents, and venus flytraps! ...
Angiosperms, are the dominant group of plants on land, with around 230,000 described species. Daylilies are angiosperms. See ...
Pages in category "Angiosperms Templates to include in Taxonavigation". The following 200 pages are in this category, out of ... Category:Angiosperms Templates to include in Taxonavigation. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Angiosperms_Templates_to_include_in_Taxonavigation& ...
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 1998. An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri ... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) - międzynarodowa grupa systematyków roślin (taksonomów) stworzona w celu ustalenia wspólnego ...
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (or APweb) is a well-known website dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy ... Peter F. Stevens is a member of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). The taxonomy presented is broadly based on the work of ... "The angiosperm phylogeny Website - a tool for reference and teaching in a time of change". Proceedings of the American Society ... http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/~david/flora/links.html Angiosperm Phylogeny Website hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden Website v ...
ANGIOSPERMS. The botanical term "Angiosperm" (ἀγγεῖον, receptacle, and σπέρμα, seed) was coined in the form Angiospermae by ... The position of Angiosperms as the highest plant-group is unassailable, but of the point or points of their origin from the ... There is no land-area from the poles to the equator, where plant-life is possible, upon which Angiosperms are not found. They ... In the larger of the two great groups into which the Angiosperms are divided, the Dicotyledons, the bundles in the very young ...
Genome sequence assemblies of many angiosperm trees used in forestry are now emerging, in addition to the well-characterised ... Whilst the number of published genomes of angiosperm forest trees lags behind that of angiosperm trees grown commercially for ... Genome sequence assemblies of many angiosperm trees used in forestry are now emerging, in addition to the well-characterised ... Sollars E., Buggs R. (2016) Emerging Genomics of Angiosperm Trees. In: Groover A., Cronk Q. (eds) Comparative and Evolutionary ...
Make research projects and school reports about angiosperm easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Angiosperms Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Angiosperms. The angiosperms, or flowering plants, are the largest and ... Angiosperms Plant Sciences COPYRIGHT 2001 The Gale Group Inc.. Angiosperms. The angiosperms, or flowering plants (division ... The term "angiosperm" derives from two Greek words: angeion, meaning "vessel," and sperma, meaning "seed." The angiosperms are ...
Angiosperm, Angiosperm Diversity, Angiosperm Life Cycle, Anther, Anthophyta, Basal Angiosperm, Calyx, Carpel, Corolla, ... Diversity of Angiosperms Angiosperms are classified in a single phylum: the Anthophyta. Modern angiosperms appear to be a ... The Life Cycle of an Angiosperm The adult, or sporophyte, phase is the main phase of an angiosperms life cycle (Figure). Like ... The angiosperm life cycle is dominated by the sporophyte stage. Double fertilization is an event unique to angiosperms. One ...
... of angiosperms are polyploids (Grant, 1971). The broad range in estimates for angiosperm polyploidy is due to a lack of ... Furthermore, no one really knows the true base number of the angiosperms, making estimates of polyploidy for this large and ...
Lignin in angiosperms is composed of guaiacyl and syringyl monomers, whereas gymnosperm lignin consists almost entirely of ... Coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylation and methylation direct syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Keishi Osakabe, Cheng ... We therefore examined the 5-hydroxylation and methylation reactions in lignifying xylem of an angiosperm tree species, sweetgum ... Coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylation and methylation direct syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms ...
Knowing about some of the flowering angiosperms makes it easier to start and maintain a gardening hobby or other floral ... ... Angiosperms comprise more than 300,000 different plant species throughout the world. They make up approximately 80 percent of ... Angiosperms comprise more than 300,000 different plant species throughout the world. They make up approximately 80 percent of ... An interesting flowering angiosperm, the Brazilian Dutchmans pipe grows throughout tropical and subtropical regions. It has ...
... BMC Genomics. 2002;3:2. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-3-2. Epub 2002 Feb 1. ...
An example of the time gap surrounds the age of angiosperms origin. We calculate molecular ages of the earliest flowering ... Keywords: Calibration density; Permian; ecophysiology; molecular dating; origin of angiosperms; rate heterogeneity ... Our results, when integrated with the ecophysiological evolution of early angiosperms, imply that the ecology of the earliest ... The Emergence of Earliest Angiosperms May be Earlier than Fossil Evidence Indicates ...
Name the 13 angiosperm families we need to know:. Hint: BARB CRASH & FLIP. ...
Angiosperm plants and mammal dung food for evolution. 06.08.2014 - (idw) Stiftung Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander ... Instead, the evolution of angiosperm plants provided a new resource that first enabled the origins of herbivory in mammals and ... It might thus be possible that the copious leaf litter produced by the angiosperms created highly suitable conditions for these ... The sequential evolution of angiosperm plants and their mammal herbivores was tracked by the evolution of beetles, shows a ...
How does the record impinge on our understanding of within angiosperm relationships, angiosperm success, and angiosperm origins ... There is no exact congruence between any angiosperm phylogeny based on existing taxa and angiosperm fossil history. It is too ... essentially unique to angiosperms, has been considered one of the foundations of relative angiosperm success. Thus, assertions ... a wider range of characters might be expected in archetypal angiosperms or angiosperm sister groups than that implied by the ...
a b c Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and ... The great angiosperm radiation, when a great diversity of angiosperms appears in the fossil record, occurred in the mid- ... while in angiosperms the fertilization begins very soon after pollination. The shorter time leads to angiosperm plants setting ... through the work of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, who published an influential reclassification of the angiosperms in 1998. ...
... DSpace/Manakin Repository. * DASH Home ... Phylogenetic Analyses of Basal Angiosperms Based on Nine Plastid, Mitochondrial, and Nuclear Genes ...
In the anther of angiosperms, all types of plastids are found in the course of pollen development. They are located in the ... 36-42in E. Ottaviano, D. L. Mulcahy & M. Sari-Gorla (eds.), Angiosperm pollen and ovules. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google ... The cytological basis of the plastid inheritance in angiosperms. Protoplasma 152: 57-64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... In the anther of angiosperms, all types of plastids are found in the course of pollen development. They are located in the ...
  • The ovules (forerunners of the seeds) of angiosperms are characteristically enclosed in an ovary , in contrast to those of gymnosperms, which are exposed to the air at the time of pollination and never enclosed in an ovary. (britannica.com)
  • Furthermore, angiosperms have a more complex set of conducting tissues than do gymnosperms. (britannica.com)
  • From that time onwards, so long as these Gymnosperms were, as was usual, reckoned as dicotyledonous flowering plants, the term Angiosperm was used antithetically by botanical writers, but with varying limitation, as a group-name for other dicotyledonous plants. (wikisource.org)
  • The enclosed seeds and the presence of carpels distinguish angiosperms from their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms , in which the seed is not enclosed within a fruit, but rather sits exposed to the environment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Stamens are much lighter than the corresponding organs of gymnosperms and have contributed to the diversification of angiosperms through time with adaptations to specialized pollination syndromes, such as particular pollinators. (thefullwiki.org)
  • in gymnosperms fertilization can occur up to a year after pollination, while in angiosperms the fertilization begins very soon after pollination. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The shorter time leads to angiosperm plants setting seeds sooner and faster than gymnosperms, which is a distinct evolutionary advantage. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The angiosperms and the gymnosperms are part of the kingdom of plants. (differencebetween.net)
  • Scientifically, the seed bearing plants are divided into the angiosperms and gymnosperms. (differencebetween.net)
  • The gymnosperms are those that also have roots and stem but lack the ovary and the stigma found on the angiosperms. (differencebetween.net)
  • However, the gymnosperms are those plants who are considered to be unisexual in nature while the angiosperms are bisexual. (differencebetween.net)
  • 2. The angiosperms are those plants that have triploid tissues while the gymnosperms have haploid. (differencebetween.net)
  • 3. The leaves of the angiosperms are flat while those of the gymnosperms are cone bearing or needle like. (differencebetween.net)
  • 4. The gymnosperms are known as softwood as they have the ability to last during the winter while the angiosperms are known as hardwood and usually changes color during and die. (differencebetween.net)
  • Here I present a comparative analysis of data drawn from the literature, indicating that time to first reproduction is shorter in woody angiosperms than in gymnosperms. (csic.es)
  • This series of pages is a set of characterizations of all orders and families of extant angiosperms (flowering plants) and gymnosperms, i.e. all seed plants, as well as many clades grouping families and orders and some smaller clades, especially within larger families. (vifabio.de)
  • These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage-specific gene duplication and functional divergence, and analyses of adaptive molecular evolution. (elsevier.com)
  • In particular, the most basal angiosperms were called the ANITA grade which is made up of Amborella (a single species of shrub from New Caledonia), Nymphaeales (water lilies, together with some other aquatic plants) and Austrobaileyales (woody aromatic plants including star anise). (wikipedia.org)
  • The basal angiosperms are only a few hundred species, compared with hundreds of thousands of species of eudicots , monocots or magnoliids . (wikipedia.org)
  • The angiosperms, or flowering plants, are one of the major groups of extant seed plants and arguably the most diverse major extant plant group on the planet, with at least 260,000 living species classified in 453 families (Judd et al. (tolweb.org)
  • We obtained information on dichogamy and other aspects of the biology of over 4200 species of angiosperms from several hundred published and unpublished sources. (springer.com)
  • There is not a single living plant species whose status as an angiosperm or non-angiosperm is in doubt. (britannica.com)
  • Angiosperms, are the dominant group of plants on land, with around 230,000 described species . (daylilies.org)
  • The angiosperms, or flowering plants, are the largest and most species-rich phylum of plants, with more than 250,000 species estimated. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is postulated that coevolution with animal pollinators, especially insects, may have contributed to the explosion and abundance of angiosperm species which characterize the modern earth's flora. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, studies indicate that the earliest lineage of flowering plants, or basal angiosperms, may include the family Amborellaceae (with the single living species Amborella trichopoda, a shrub from the South Pacific island of New Caledonia). (encyclopedia.com)
  • With more than 250,000 species, the angiosperm phylum (Anthophyta) is second only to insects in terms of diversification. (oercommons.org)
  • It is also known that, based on in vitro studies, proteins from various angiosperm species cannot activate sinapate into its CoA derivative for syringyl lignin biosynthesis ( 13 - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • We therefore examined the 5-hydroxylation and methylation reactions in lignifying xylem of an angiosperm tree species, sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua ), to investigate the entrance pathways to syringyl lignin and thereby test the validity of the traditionally accepted pathway. (pnas.org)
  • Angiosperms comprise more than 300,000 different plant species throughout the world. (gardenguides.com)
  • The angiosperms dominate the terrestrial biota with between 300,000 and 400,000 species ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • When it comes to variety of the plants, the angiosperms are considered to be having more varied species that would include the trees, herbs, and shrubs. (differencebetween.net)
  • The role of specialized biotic pollination in the diversification of angiosperms is a long-standing question [ 8 ], but the mechanisms that led to the apparent association between pollination and species richness are still rather unexplored [ 9 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This book summarizes the taxonomic details of selected fossil angiosperm pollen genera and species along with their affinity and occurrences in space and time. (springer.com)
  • Emerging genetic and genomic tools for A. fimbriata and closely related species can aid the investigation of floral biology, developmental genetics, biochemical pathways important in plant-insect interactions as well as human health, and various other features present in early angiosperms. (7thspace.com)
  • Although they are relative latecomers on the evolutionary scene, having emerged only 135-170 million years ago, angiosperms - or flowering plants - are the most diverse and species-rich group of seed-producing land plants, comprising more than 15,000 genera and over 350,000 species. (nhbs.com)
  • The extraordinary contemporary species richness and ecological predominance of flowering plants (angiosperms) are even more remarkable when considering the relatively recent onset of their evolutionary diversification. (nih.gov)
  • We examine the evolutionary diversification of angiosperms and the observed differential distribution of species in angiosperm clades by estimating the rate of diversification for angiosperms as a whole and for a large set of angiosperm clades. (nih.gov)
  • A statistical analysis of the birth and death process was then used to obtain 95% confidence intervals for the expected number of species through time in a clade that diversifies at a rate equal to that of angiosperms as a whole. (nih.gov)
  • The standing diversity of angiosperm clades was then compared to expected species diversity according to the background rate of diversification, and, depending on their placement with respect to the calculated confidence intervals, exceedingly species-rich or exceedingly species-poor clades were identified. (nih.gov)
  • The phylogenetic distribution of clades with an exceedingly high number of species suggests that traits that confer high rates of diversification evolved independently in different instances and do not characterize the angiosperms as a whole. (nih.gov)
  • Which angiosperm lineage includes the most species? (bartleby.com)
  • We compiled a data set for vessel density, vessel diameter ( D ), potential hydraulic conductivity ( K p ), wood density (WD), modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) from 316 angiosperm tree species. (wiley.com)
  • Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants, originated in the Mesozoic and are the most diverse group of land plants, with approximately 300,000 known species. (brightsurf.com)
  • Pollen morphology of fourteen species of angiosperms from Kathmandu valley was investigated using aceto-carmine and palynological characters such as pollen size, shape, aperture numbers and exine sculpture were evaluated. (nepjol.info)
  • From the study site, 245 angiosperm species including cultivated and planted in 183 genera under 72 families are documented. (banglajol.info)
  • The survey has also confirmed the occurrence of seven threatened angiosperm species, one tree fern and one gynosperm in the Park area. (banglajol.info)
  • The sequences contain many variable sites and potential informative sites among related species, and have been proven to be a useful molecular marker in phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of many angiosperm taxa. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Insect pollination in basal angiosperms is assumed to mostly involve 'generalized' insects looking for food, but direct observations of ANITA grade (283 species) pollinators are sparse. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Whole-plant nitrogen use efficiency was also significantly higher in angiosperm than in gymnosperm species, and was primarily controlled by the rate of photosynthesis for a given amount of leaf nitrogen. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In this study, we grew seedlings of several species of gymnosperm trees, angiosperm trees, and angiosperm lianas in a tropical environment. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We used phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the evolution of global meiotic recombination rate in angiosperms and its effects on genome architecture and selection at the molecular level using genetic maps and genome sequences from thirty angiosperm species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An analysis of the correlation between the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates ( dN/dS ) and recombination rate in 3748 genes indicates that higher recombination rates are associated with an increased efficacy of purifying selection, suggesting that global recombination rates affect variation in rates of molecular evolution across distantly related angiosperm species, not just between populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, Pentapetalae clade contains ~73% of all angiosperm species and is mostly characterized by a generalized floral groundplan with whorled phyllotaxy, a pentamerous (or tetramerous) perianth and androecium, and a perianth differentiated into calyx and corolla. (botanyconference.org)
  • After accounting for size effects, there were no significant differences in conductances between evergreen angiosperms (nine species) and conifers (three species). (oup.com)
  • 1998 [6] ) to refer to angiosperms which are not monocots or eudicots . (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the entomological and palynological evidence, the research team believes this amber specimen proves a beetle-angiosperm pollination mode, supporting the hypothesis that specialized insect pollination modes were present in eudicots at least 99 million years ago. (brightsurf.com)
  • The origin of the crown group of extant angiosperms is indicated to be Early to Middle Jurassic (179-158 Myr), and the origin of eudicots is resolved as Late Jurassic to mid Cretaceous (147-131 Myr). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The Cretaceous rise of angiosperms involved the radiation not only of magnoliids, eudicots, and monocots but also of basal ANITA lines, including both aquatic Nymphaeales and woody groups. (uzh.ch)
  • All available evidence strongly rejects hypotheses of more than one evolutionary origin of extant angiosperms. (tolweb.org)
  • Most analyses of the past five years concur in placing the monotypic Amborella as the sister to all other extant angiosperms, although some analyses suggest Amborella plus water lilies may occupy this pivotal position (see below). (tolweb.org)
  • Features that unify all extant angiosperms except Amborella include vessels (Judd et al. (tolweb.org)
  • Synapomorphies for all extant angiosperms except Amborella and Nymphaeaceae (sensu APG II, 2003) include ethereal oil cells-common throughout basal angiosperms-and columellate pollen grains with a perforate tectum (Doyle and Endress, 2001). (tolweb.org)
  • This is in part due to the extremely fast evolution of this group of plants, over a relatively short period of time, and the extinction of many closely related lineages of seed plants, some of which may be more closely related to the modern angiosperms than extant seed plant lineages. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Actually the article referred to a consensus of independent studies of extant angiosperms. (pnas.org)
  • Although not all scientists were convinced that the matter of the basal angiosperm was settled, the response was dramatic with one morphologist heralding the identification of a basal angiosperm as "the answer" ( 15 ), even though it conflicted with his own previous analyses ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Results: We have considered all basal angiosperm families for general characteristics important for experimental systems, including availability to the scientific community, growth habit, and membership in a large basal angiosperm group that displays a wide spectrum of phenotypic diversity. (7thspace.com)
  • These studies generally have focused on the basal angiosperm splits, and more comprehensive taxon sampling is necessary to address backbone relationships throughout the angiosperms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous studies in basal angiosperms have provided insight into the diversity within the angiosperm lineage and helped to polarize analyses of flowering plant evolution. (7thspace.com)
  • We also identify angiosperm clades with a standing diversity that is either much higher or lower than expected, given the estimated background diversification rate. (nih.gov)
  • Angiosperms self-pollinate as well as use insects, animals, wind and water to achieve pollination, thus enhancing gene flow and increasing diversity. (brightsurf.com)
  • The high diversity of exine ornamentation type in pollen grains of angiosperms has been associated to diversity in pollination systems. (nepjol.info)
  • Growing evidence of morphological diversity in angiosperm flowers, seeds and pollen from the mid Cretaceous and the presence of derived lineages from increasingly older geological deposits both imply that the timing of early angiosperm cladogenesis is older than fossil-based estimates have indicated. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • His main research interests are in the field of macrosystematics of angiosperms, and flower diversity and evolution. (oup.com)
  • Conifers dominated the world's forests prior to the Cretaceous radiation in angiosperm diversity. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The effects of specific functional groups of pollinators in the diversification of angiosperms are still to be elucidated. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The flower itself, which comprises most of the evolutionary innovations of flowering plants, bears special significance for understanding the origin and diversification of angiosperms. (ufl.edu)
  • The closed carpel of angiosperms also allows adaptations to specialized pollination syndromes and controls. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Angiosperm diversification has been associated with plant-animal interactions such as seed dispersal and pollination and life-history characters such as rapid growth and fast reproduction. (csic.es)
  • Furthermore, this correlation is not a confounding effect of the association between age at maturity and other ecological factors that promote angiosperm diversification, such as pollination and seed dispersal systems. (csic.es)
  • We investigated whether the pollination shifts or the specific association with hummingbirds affected the diversification of a highly diverse angiosperm lineage in the Neotropics. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In angiosperms, traits such as biotic pollination, floral symmetry and nectar spurs, which are all related to specialized pollination and the ability to generate reproductive isolation, have been proposed as key innovations due to their positive effects on diversification [ 6 , 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Although these results suggest that frequent pollination shifts have occurred during the speciation events in angiosperms, a large proportion of these events could still occur within specific pollination systems. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Most of our food is from angiosperms, while more than 90% of angiosperms require insect pollination - making this pollination method hugely important. (brightsurf.com)
  • Now, however, an international research group from China and the U.S. has provided the earliest evidence of insect-angiosperm pollination - by analyzing a sample of Cretaceous Burmese amber. (brightsurf.com)
  • Since Darwin's time, numerous scholars have thought that insect pollination must be a key contributor to the Cretaceous radiation of angiosperms since insects and flowering plants were both common by this time. (brightsurf.com)
  • However, direct evidence of a Cretaceous insect-angiosperm pollination mode was missing and related theories remained hypothetical until now. (brightsurf.com)
  • Working with Burmese amber dating to the mid-Cretaceous - 99 million years ago - the researchers discovered evidence of beetle pollination, thus confirming the hypothesis of Cretaceous insect-angiosperm interaction and offering the earliest evidence for entomophily. (brightsurf.com)
  • The angiosperms are a relatively recent group of land plants, and are thought to have originated in the early Cretaceous, only 130 million years ago. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The angiosperms increased dramatically in abundance during the Cretaceous. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Our results, when integrated with the ecophysiological evolution of early angiosperms, imply that the ecology of the earliest angiosperms is critical to understand the pre-Cretaceous evolution of flowering plants. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The researchers showed that plant-feeding chafers, which are among the most diverse beetle groups in the world, arose almost immediately after the origin of the angiosperms in the Middle Cretaceous. (uni-protokolle.de)
  • Angiosperms, or flowering plants, diversified during the Early Cretaceous, about 100 to 130 million years ago. (psi.ch)
  • These observations have given us critical insights into the early part of the life cycle of early angiosperms, which is important for understanding the ecology of flowering plants during their emergence and dramatic radiation through the Early Cretaceous. (psi.ch)
  • Angiosperms experienced rapid radiation by the mid-Cretaceous, which Darwin called an "abominable mystery. (brightsurf.com)
  • Evidence for an extinct lineage of angiosperms from the Early Cretaceous of Patagonia and implications for the early radiation of flowering plants. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The angiosperms have historically been divided into two groups: the monocotyledons (monocots) and the dicotyledons (dicots). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Recent large-scale studies of tree growth in the Iberian Peninsula reported contrasting positive and negative effects of temperature in Mediterranean angiosperms and conifers. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we review the different hypotheses that may explain these trends and propose that the observed contrasting responses of tree growth to temperature in this region could be associated with a continuum of trait differences between angiosperms and conifers. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, angiosperms and conifers significantly differ in hydraulic safety margins, sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor-pressure deficit (VPD), xylem recovery capacity or the rate of carbon transfer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Contrary to prediction, leaf hydraulic conductance (normalized by projected leaf area) was unrelated to complexity of venation in conifers and angiosperms, but was highly correlated with whole-plant conductance. (oup.com)
  • Analyses of published data showed that leafless branches of temperate deciduous angiosperms had higher leaf-area normalized hydraulic conductivity than conifers, but there was no significant difference in adult, whole-plant conductance between these taxa. (oup.com)
  • Thus, at the branch level, conifers with narrow tracheids have less efficient transport than angiosperms with wider vessels, but variations in other resistance components and hydraulic architecture (e.g., sapwood/leaf area ratio) ultimately equalize the sufficiency of water transport to leaves of conifers and angiosperms. (oup.com)
  • The basal angiosperms are the flowering plants which diverged from the lineage leading to most flowering plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • They diverged from the ancestral angiosperm lineage before the five groups comprising the mesangiosperms diverged from each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same lineage also gave rise to dung beetles, but they originated much later, and only after the mammals, including the even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla) as the most important herbivores, had themselves started to use the angiosperms as their food source. (uni-protokolle.de)
  • Before the availability of genetic evidence, the classification of angiosperms (also known as flowering plants , Angiospermae , Anthophyta or Magnoliophyta ) was based on their morphology (particularly of their flower) and biochemistry (the kinds of chemical compounds in the plant). (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, rather than naming all the individual contributors a decision was made to adopt the name Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification, or APG for short. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] The intention was to provide a widely accepted and more stable point of reference for angiosperm classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here I very largely follow the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification (APG 1999, 2003), although with one or two more orders and with a number of unplaced families in slightly more resolved positions in the tree - recent examples are Hydatellaceae, Perrottetia and Bhesa (Zhang & Simmons 2006). (vifabio.de)
  • We explore the effects on phylogenetic analyses of adding 378 matK sequences and 240 26S rDNA sequences to the complete 3-gene, 567-taxon angiosperm phylogenetic matrix of Soltis et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The big picture of angiosperm phylogeny emerged suddenly as a direct result of collaborative molecular analyses, and longstanding views of deep level relationships required revision. (addall.com)
  • We performed parsimony analyses of a morphological data set of Recent angiosperms and published fossils, with the arrangement of Recent taxa constrained to backbone trees based primarily on molecular data. (uzh.ch)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of angiosperm relationships have used only a small percentage of available sequence data, but phylogenetic data matrices often can be augmented with existing data, especially if one allows missing characters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While GenBank currently contains over 1.7 million core nucleotide sequences from angiosperms, with over 160,000 of these being from often phylogenetically useful plastid loci [ 6 ], few phylogenetic analyses of angiosperms have included more than a thousand sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous analyses of molecular data across all angiosperms mostly used complete or nearly complete data matrices (but see [ 25 , 26 ]), in which all taxa have sequences from all, or nearly all, genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Preliminarily, (i) proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii) many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii) phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. (elsevier.com)
  • The origins of angiosperms are not well understood and remain problematic, in part because many seed plant lineages have already gone extinct. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although most studies show that Amborella and Nymphaeales are more basal than Austrobaileyales, and all three are more basal than the mesangiosperms, there is significant molecular evidence in favor of two different trees, one in which Amborella is sister to the rest of the angiosperms, and one in which a clade of Amborella and Nymphaeales is in this position. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amborella trichopoda , endemic to cloud forests of New Caledonia, was described in the mid-nineteenth century (Baillon, 1869) and has since been classified with various groups of basal angiosperms, most often with Laurales (e.g. (tolweb.org)
  • 2004). Amborella has carpels that are closed only by secretion, rather than by fused tissue as in most angiosperms (Endress and Igersheim, 2000b)-a feature that may represent a plesiomorphy (i.e., ancestral feature) for the angiosperms. (tolweb.org)
  • A number of other studies identify Amborella the most basal of all angiosperms. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, even today, it is not clear what group of nonflowering plants the angiosperms are most closely related to, or what the relationships of the early lineages of flowering plants are to one another. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Angiosperms (flowering plants) are the most diverse of all major lineages of land plants and the dominant autotrophs in most terrestrial ecosystems. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, it is not known whether this 'passive dilution' mechanism is present in plant lineages other than angiosperms and is another key feature of the angiosperms' evolutionary success. (edu.au)
  • Furthermore, the propensity for gene and genome duplications in angiosperms provides abundant raw material for novel floral features-emphasizing the importance of understanding the conservation and diversification of gene lineages and functions in studies of macroevolution. (ufl.edu)
  • The angiosperms are those plants whose seeds develop within a surrounding layer of plant tissue, called the carpel, with seeds attached around the margins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some defining characteristics of angiosperms include flowers, carpels, and the presence of endosperm, a nutritive substance found in seeds, produced via a second fertilization event. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Using a visualization technique known as synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy - which allows researchers to examine the internal features of delicate fossils in a non-destructive way - the authors analyzed more than 250 mature seeds encompassing roughly 75 angiosperm taxa, some of which had the seed embryo fully preserved. (psi.ch)
  • However, the embryo to seed ratio in the fossil seeds is much smaller than in seeds of most living angiosperms and an order of magnitude smaller than has been hypothesized for the ancestral angiosperm embryo based on studies of living plants. (psi.ch)
  • Seed dormancy would have ensured that the seeds of early angiosperms could survive until conditions for germination and seedling establishment were favorable, lead author Else Marie Friis said. (psi.ch)
  • The angiosperm seeds are those that are concealed within the fruit. (differencebetween.net)
  • 1. The angiosperms are seed bearing plants whose seeds are contained in an ovary inside a fruit. (differencebetween.net)
  • Nuclear rRNA genes (rDNA) in angiosperms are arranged in long tandem repeating units, much like those of other higher eukaryotes. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes(3), genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. (ugent.be)
  • Here we explore daily variations in the expression of clock genes in the marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica along its bathymetric distribution, where plants are exposed to a natural cline of light and temperature. (peerj.com)
  • The results indicate that various types of pollen grains are in angiosperms. (nepjol.info)
  • Genome sequence assemblies of many angiosperm trees used in forestry are now emerging, in addition to the well-characterised genomes of black poplar and eucalyptus reviewed in previous chapters of this book. (springer.com)
  • Whilst the number of published genomes of angiosperm forest trees lags behind that of angiosperm trees grown commercially for fruit or nuts, many new projects are underway. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, A. fimbriata was easily cultivated with a life cycle of just three months, could be regenerated in a tissue culture system, and had one of the smallest genomes among basal angiosperms. (7thspace.com)
  • Similarly, in plants, Cavalier-Smith [ 6 ] proposed that the recombination rate is higher in smaller angiosperm genomes than in larger genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group , or APG , is an informal international group of systematic botanists who collaborate to establish a consensus on the taxonomy of flowering plants (angiosperms) that reflects new knowledge about plant relationships discovered through phylogenetic studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • From their humble and still obscure beginning during the early Jurassic period, the angiosperms-or flowering plants-have evolved to dominate most terrestrial ecosystems ( Figure ). (oercommons.org)
  • Knowing about some of the flowering angiosperms makes it easier to start and maintain a gardening hobby or other floral projects. (gardenguides.com)
  • An interesting flowering angiosperm, the Brazilian Dutchman's pipe grows throughout tropical and subtropical regions. (gardenguides.com)
  • The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta ) are the most diverse group of land plants . (thefullwiki.org)
  • For example, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), 1 identified as a component of the florigenic signal in the angiosperms, is translocated through the phloem to the shoot apex where it induces flowering ( 11 - 15 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. (elsevier.com)
  • The " Angiosperm Phylogeny Poster - Flowering Plant Systematics " is an educational tool presenting an overview of the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants according to APG IV and APweb as of 2016. (peerj.com)
  • The sudden origin of angiosperms in the fossil record poses unanswered questions on both the origins of flowering plants and their rapid spread and diversification. (ufl.edu)
  • Based on evidence from living and fossil plants, the earliest angiosperms are usually thought to have had small stature. (psi.ch)
  • However, there is still not an experimental system for genetic studies among basal angiosperms to facilitate comparative studies and functional investigation. (7thspace.com)
  • Many major clades of angiosperms did not correspond to the classes, subclasses, and orders of modern classifications. (addall.com)
  • Recognition of angiosperm clades, the phylogenetic relationships among them, and their taxonomic composition are based on an empirical compilation of primary phylogenetic studies. (nih.gov)
  • By making an integrative and critical use of the paleobotanical record, we obtain reasonably secure approximations for the age of a large set of angiosperm clades. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. (ugent.be)
  • In this study, we take advantage of these new data to explore the relationship between recombination rate, genome structure, and patterns of molecular evolution throughout angiosperms in order to better characterize the broad macroevolutionary patterns of recombination rate variation and its possible consequences for genome evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To Charles Darwin the suddenness of the angiosperm appearance and their rapid rise to dominance in the fossil record was both a "perplexing phenomenon" to "those who believe in extremely gradual evolution" and an "abominable mystery" ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Added Crane: "This is the first time that we have had direct fossil evidence of the embryos of early angiosperms and how they compare with those of living plants. (psi.ch)
  • It provides information about the historical background of palynology from Palaeogene and Neogene sediments in India, general pollen morphology along with the terms commonly used in describing fossil angiosperm pollen and an overview of the Indian Tertiary sediments. (springer.com)
  • It also includes a key for identification of Indian angiosperm genera as well as a description of selected fossil angiosperm pollen from India along with their Indian records, illustrations, locality, age and horizon from where these have been reported. (springer.com)
  • Incorporating molecular phylogenetics with morphological, chemical, developmental, and paleobotanical data, as well as presenting a more detailed account of early angiosperm fossils and important fossil information for each evolutionary branch of the angiosperms, the new edition integrates fossil evidence into a robust phylogenetic framework. (nhbs.com)
  • How deep is the conflict between molecular and fossil evidence on the age of angiosperms? (semanticscholar.org)
  • Only 2 years ago it seemed that a consensus, based on molecular data, would emerge on angiosperm relationships within 10 years ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Molecular data have had an enormous impact on angiosperm phylogenetic hypotheses (e.g. [ 1 - 5 ]), and the abundance of new sequence data provides the potential for further resolving angiosperm relationships. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Still, molecular phylogenetic studies across all angiosperms have utilized only a small fraction of the available sequence data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (or APweb) is a well-known website dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • This absence of a link is explained because angiosperms have xylem tissue that specifically functions in either mechanical strength or water transport. (wiley.com)
  • The trend of the evolution of the plant kingdom has been in the direction of the establishment of a vegetation of fixed habit and adapted to the vicissitudes of a life on land, and the Angiosperms are the highest expression of this evolution and constitute the dominant vegetation of the earth's surface at the present epoch. (wikisource.org)
  • There is no land-area from the poles to the equator, where plant-life is possible, upon which Angiosperms are not found. (wikisource.org)
  • plant sexuality is most diverse among angiosperms ? (thefullwiki.org)
  • In physical appearances, the seed-bearing plants of the angiosperms have roots that will hold the plant in its position and gather minerals and vitamins for its nutrition. (differencebetween.net)
  • We examine whether augmenting existing plant data matrices with incomplete data assembled from publicly available sources can enhance the understanding of the backbone phylogenetic relationships across angiosperms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A close geometric link between veins and stomata in angiosperms ensures that investment in enhanced venous water transport provides the strongest net carbon return to the plant. (edu.au)
  • Funk, J.L. and Amatangelo, K.L. (2013) Physiological Mechanisms Drive Differing Foliar Calcium Content in Ferns and Angiosperms. (scirp.org)
  • i) exclusive to the angiosperms, (ii) a conserved mechanism that evolved in the common ancestor of ferns and angiosperms, or (iii) has evolved continuously over time. (edu.au)
  • We then compared the relationships between these traits found among ferns with modelled relationships that assume vein and stomatal density respond passively to epidermal cell expansion, and with those previously observed in angiosperms. (edu.au)
  • Vein density, stomatal density and epidermal cell size were linked in ferns with remarkably similar relationships to those observed in angiosperms, except that fern leaves had fewer veins per stomata. (edu.au)
  • Thus, ferns (like angiosperms) appear to coordinate vein and stomatal density with epidermal cell expansion to some extent to maintain a constant ratio between veins and stomata in the leaf. (edu.au)
  • The different general relationships between vein density and stomatal density in ferns and angiosperms suggests the groups have different optimum balances between the production of vein tissue dedicated to water supply and stomatal tissue for gas exchange. (edu.au)
  • One hypothesis is that diversification in angiosperms has been enhanced by the effect of pollinator specialization on reproductive isolation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Indeed, an alternative hypothesis proposes that diversification rates in angiosperms increase with specialization on certain guilds of pollinators, rather than with pollinator shifts per se [ 12 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Consistent with our hypothesis, both hydraulic efficiency and mechanical strength of angiosperm trees are influenced by the environment, with temperature having a more important effect on hydraulic efficiency than precipitation. (wiley.com)
  • The results provide an initial hypothesis of angiosperm diversification times. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Bond's "slow seedling" hypothesis proposes that, because of slow growth rates caused by an inefficient transport system and low leaf photosynthetic capacity, gymnosperm seedlings are weak competitors with angiosperms in productive habitats. (oup.com)
  • Independent researchers, including members of the APG, continue to publish their own views on areas of angiosperm taxonomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • alignments and trees of 9 sequenced genomesData from: Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms. (datadryad.org)
  • Data from: Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms. (datadryad.org)
  • In addition to addressing one of the greatest fundamental gaps in our understanding of evolutionary history, an understanding of precise relationships within the angiosperms would have remarkable practical value and relevance. (pnas.org)
  • Our understanding of angiosperm relationships has changed dramatically during the past ten years. (addall.com)
  • This fully revised edition of Phylogeny and Evolution of the Angiosperms provides an up-to-date, comprehensive overview of the evolution of and relationships among these vital plants. (nhbs.com)
  • In this context, we examined the empirical relationships between the responses of tree growth to temperature and hydraulic safety margins in angiosperm and coniferous trees. (frontiersin.org)
  • While more data are needed to further resolve backbone relationships in angiosperms, it is not clear what the most efficient sampling strategies for adding new data would be. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans. (thefullwiki.org)
  • This is important because it suggests that while early angiosperms may have had many characteristics of modern weedy early colonizers, they would have been unable to match the very rapid germination of the many different kinds of angiosperm herbs that evolved later and that ultimately proved even more effective in exploiting ephemeral ecological opportunities," Friis said. (psi.ch)
  • The tiny embryo shown in 3D has two rudimentary cotyledon primordia documenting the dicotyledonous nature of this extinct angiosperm. (psi.ch)
  • article{osti_1247638, title = {Phylogenetically structured traits in root systems influence arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in woody angiosperms}, author = {Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J. and Horning, Amber L. and Smemo, Kurt A. and Blackwood, Christopher B.}, abstractNote = {In this study, there is little quantitative information about the relationship between root traits and the extent of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization. (osti.gov)
  • This correlation suggests that early reproduction promotes diversification in woody angiosperms. (csic.es)
  • An important motivation for the group was what they considered deficiencies in prior angiosperm classifications since they were not based on monophyletic groups (i.e., groups that include all the descendants of a common ancestor). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, angiosperm divergence times are estimated using non-parametric rate smoothing and a three-gene dataset covering ca. 75- of all angiosperm families recognized in recent classifications. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • An example of the time gap surrounds the age of angiosperms' origin. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Our results reveal the origin of angiosperms at the late Permian, ∼275 million years ago. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • These approaches have failed to illuminate the mystery that has now grown to include major aspects of angiosperm phylogeny, evolutionary success, and origin ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Pollen of angiosperms is received by the stigma , a specialized structure that is usually elevated above the ovary on a more slender structure known as the style . (britannica.com)
  • The angiosperms are those kinds of plants who contain an ovary within the flower, and fruits are often produced from the ripened ones. (differencebetween.net)
  • the vast majority of the world's crops are angiosperms, as are most natural clothing fibers. (tolweb.org)
  • The sampling strategies of phylogenetic studies across angiosperms demonstrate a tradeoff between taxonomic sampling and the number of gene sequences per taxon. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The broad range in estimates for angiosperm polyploidy is due to a lack of knowledge about whether these plants are ancient polyploids, or whether more recent events have caused the polyploidy we observe today. (ualberta.ca)
  • The rate of diversification for angiosperms as a whole ranges from 0.077 (epsilon = 0.9) to 0.089 (epsilon = 0.0) net speciation events per million years. (nih.gov)
  • Conifer tracheid diameters are biomechanically constrained because these cells must perform the dual function of conducting water and providing structural support to woody tissues, whereas vessels need not perform the latter function in angiosperm wood. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Arnault G, Vialette ACM, Andres-Robin A, Fogliani B, Gâteblé G, Scutt CP "Evidence for the Extensive Conservation of Mechanisms of Ovule Integument Development Since the Most Recent Common Ancestor of Living Angiosperms" . (ens-lyon.fr)
  • Increasing evidence suggests that proteins present in the angiosperm sieve tube system play an important role in the long distance signaling system of plants. (mcponline.org)