Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.
Endoscopes used for viewing the interior of blood vessels.
Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
Techniques using laser energy in combination with a balloon catheter to perform angioplasty. These procedures can take several forms including: 1, laser fiber delivering the energy while the inflated balloon centers the fiber and occludes the blood flow; 2, balloon angioplasty immediately following laser angioplasty; or 3, laser energy transmitted through angioplasty balloons that contain an internal fiber.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.

A policy of quality control assessment helps to reduce the risk of intraoperative stroke during carotid endarterectomy. (1/180)

OBJECTIVES: A pilot study in our unit suggested that a combination of transcranial Doppler (TCD) plus completion angioscopy reduced incidence of intra-operative stroke (i.e. patients recovering from anaesthesia with a new deficit) during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The aim of the current study was to see whether routine implementation of this policy was both feasible and associated with a continued reduction in the rate of intraoperative stroke (IOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study in 252 consecutive patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy between March 1995 and December 1996. RESULTS: Continuous TCD monitoring was possible in 229 patients (91%), while 238 patients (94%) underwent angioscopic examination. Overall, angioscopy identified an intimal flap requiring correction in six patients (2.5%), whilst intraluminal thrombus was removed in a further six patients (2.5%). No patient in this series recovered from anaesthesia with an IOS, but the rate of postoperative stroke was 2.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Our policy of TCD plus angioscopy has continued to contribute towards a sustained reduction in the risk of IOS following CEA, but requires access to reliable equipment and technical support. However, a policy of intraoperative quality control assessment may not necessarily alter the rate of postoperative stroke.  (+info)

Intraoperative assessment of technical perfection in carotid endarterectomy: a prospective analysis of 1305 completion procedures. Collaborators of the EVEREST study group. Eversion versus standard carotid endartectomy. (2/180)

OBJECTIVE: to define the incidence of technical defects and the impact of technical errors on ipsilateral carotid occlusion, ipsilateral stroke, and early restenosis rates, we analysed 1305 patients undergoing carotid completion procedures. DESIGN: prospective multicentre study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: adequacy of CEA was assessed intraoperatively by angiography in 1004 (77%), by angioscopy in 299 (22%), and by duplex scan in two patients (1%). Arteriograms and angioscopic findings were interpreted at the time of the procedure by the operating surgeon, who also established the need for immediate surgical revision. RESULTS: perioperatively, 13 major strokes (0.9%, all ipsilateral) and six deaths (0.4%) were recorded. Overall, 112 defects (9%) were identified intraoperatively: 81 (72%) were located in the common carotid artery (CCA) or internal carotid artery (ICA), and 31 (28%) in the external carotid artery. In 48 patients (4%) the defects were revised. Logistic regression analysis revealed that carotid plaque extension >2 cm on the ICA was a positive independent predictor of CEA defects (odds ratio (OR) 1.5p=0.03). A significant association was found between the incidence of revised defects of the CCA and ICA and perioperative ipsilateral stroke (OR 11.5p=0.0002). In contrast, patients with minor non-revised defects had an ipsilateral stroke rate comparable to that of patients with no defects (p=0.4). No significant association was found between revised or non-revised defects and occurrence of restenosis/occlusion at 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: the incidence of major technical defects during CEA is low, yet the perioperative neurological prognosis of patients with major defects warranting revision is poor. Completion angiography or angioscopy and possible correction of defects did not protect per se from an unfavourable early outcome after CEA. Therefore, surgical excellence is mandatory to achieve satisfactory results after CEA.  (+info)

Valvulotomy of non-reversed saphenous vein bypass grafts: a randomised, blinded, angioscopy-controlled study. (3/180)

OBJECTIVES: to compare the result of vein valve disruption with two different valvulotomes during non-reversed saphenous vein bypass. DESIGN: a randomised, blinded clinical study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: twenty patients undergoing femorodistal non-reversed saphenous vein arterial bypass were randomised into two equal groups. Valve leaflet disruption was performed either with a standard size plastic valvulotome or with a metal valvulotome with an exchangeable cutting head. Valvulotomy was done after full exposure of the vein and completion of the proximal anastomosis. The result was evaluated by a surgeon blinded to the valvulotome used, using angioscopy. RESULTS: a total of 219 valve cusps were inspected with angioscopy. There were 83 completely lysed cusps (69%) by plastic and 76 (78%) by metallic valvulotomes (p=0.14). Of all the incompletely lysed cusps 12 (29%) occurred in the most proximal valve pocket treated with valvulotomy. CONCLUSIONS: no significant difference in performance between the investigated valvulotomes was found. Incomplete valvulotomy occurred mainly in the proximal part of the vein and was obviously caused by a size mismatch between the diameter of vein and the valvulotome. Construction of a valvulotome with a variable diameter cutting head is therefore recommended.  (+info)

Evaluation of disinfection and sterilization of reusable angioscopes with the duck hepatitis B model. (4/180)

PURPOSE: Nosocomial transmission of viral hepatitis and retrovirus infection has been reported. The expected risk is greatest for the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The duck HBV (DHBV) has similar biologic and structural characteristics to HBV and has been adopted as a suitable model for disinfectant testing. METHODS: Angioscopic examination of the external jugular vein was performed on DHBV-infected ducks. After use, the instrument was air dried for 3 minutes. Samples were obtained by flushing the channel with 5 mL of phosphate buffered saline solution. The samples were collected immediately after drying (control), after flushing with 5 mL of water, after glutaraldehyde disinfection for 5, 10, and 20 minutes, and after ethylene oxide gas sterilization. Angioscopes were either precleaned or uncleaned before disinfection/sterilization. Residual infectivity was assessed with inoculation of samples into the peritoneal cavity of day-old ducks (n = 231). RESULTS: DNA analysis results of liver samples showed that all 38 control ducks became infected. The frequency of DHBV infection was reduced to 93% (14 of 15) by flushing the angioscope with 5 mL of sterile water. No transmission occurred after the use of any of the properly precleaned and disinfected/sterilized angioscopes. However, after the use of the uncleaned angioscopes, the transmission rate was 90% (9 of 10) and 70% (7 of 10) after 5 and 10 minutes of contact time, respectively, in 2% glutaraldehyde. Even after the recommended 20 minutes of contact time, there was still 6% (2 of 35) transmission. After ethylene oxide sterilization, two of the recipient ducklings (2 of 35) were infected with DHBV. CONCLUSION: There was no disease transmission after reuse of disposable angioscopes adequately cleaned before disinfection or sterilization. However, if the angioscopes are inadequately cleaned, DHBV can survive despite glutaraldehyde disinfection or ethylene oxide sterilization. This contrasts with previous in vitro and in vivo data with solid surgical instruments. It is postulated that the presence of a narrow lumen or residual protein shielding within the lumen may compromise effective inactivation of hepadnaviruses on angioscopes, with the potential risk for patient-to-patient transmission.  (+info)

Stent attachment site-related endoleakage after stent graft treatment: An in vitro study of the effects of graft size, stent type, and atherosclerotic wall changes. (5/180)

OBJECTIVE: Perigraft endoleakage is a major complication of the endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The factors that cause this form of endoleakage are not completely identified. The effect of sizing of the prosthesis in combination with either self-expandable or balloon-expandable stents is evaluated in this study. Further, the influence of atherosclerotic changes on endoleakage is evaluated. METHODS: Eight human abdominal aortas were assessed macroscopically at 11 sites for the presence of atherosclerotic changes with intravascular ultrasound scanning (IVUS) and with computed tomography (CT). Five aortas were placed in in vitro circulation with physiologic parameters. After the determination of the proximal and distal landing site of the stent graft, the diameter and surface measurements of the cross sections were taken. The stent graft diameters were chosen from 4-mm undersizing to 6-mm oversizing, both for Gianturco stent grafts (William Cook Europe A/S, Bjaeverskov, Denmark) and for Palmaz stent grafts (Cordis/Johnson & Johnston Co, Warren, NJ). After placement of the stent graft, the diameter and surface measurements of the aortic cross section were determined at the proximal and distal stent attachment sites. The presence and size of the folds at the stent attachment site and the interface with the aortic wall were determined with IVUS and angioscopy. Endoleakage was evaluated with angiography. After angioplasty of the stent attachment site, IVUS, angioscopy, and angiography were repeated. RESULTS: Regarding atherosclerotic changes of the aortic wall, the correlations between clinical impression and CT, clinical impression and IVUS, and CT and IVUS were high (r = 0.77, r = 0.79 and r = 0.79, respectively). For the Gianturco stent grafts, no significant relationship existed between the diameters measured before and after stent graft placement, leading to great differences in intended and achieved oversizing. The achieved oversizing was less in the case of minimal atherosclerotic changes of the aortic wall. The Gianturco stent graft followed the aortic wall closely during the heart cycle. The sizes of the folds of the fabric were clearly correlated with the achieved oversizing (r = 0.83; P =.04) and the grade of endoleakage (r = 0.88; P =.022). Angioplasty after stent graft placement had no effect on the diameter and the grade of endoleakage. Palmaz stent grafts did not follow the aortic wall during the heart cycle. A significant correlation existed between oversizing and both space between aortic wall and stent graft (r = -0.88; P =.02) and grade of endoleakage (r = 0.84; P =.036). Grade of endoleakage in the Palmaz stent graft group was less than in the Gianturco stent graft group. CONCLUSION: With the use of Gianturco stents, a great difference between intended and achieved oversizing is accomplished. The atherosclerotic changes of the aortic wall possibly affect this finding. The configuration of the Gianturco stent results in the formation of fold in the case of oversizing, which is associated with endoleakage. However, the self-expandable character of the stent leads to a close relation to the aortic wall during the heart cycle, and this may possibly accommodate future aortic neck dilation. The Palmaz stent grafts do not follow the aortic wall during the heart cycle, but they do lead to better interface between the graft and the aortic wall, which results in less endoleakage.  (+info)

The use of arm vein in lower-extremity revascularization: results of 520 procedures performed in eight years. (6/180)

PURPOSE: The absence of an adequate ipsilateral saphenous vein in patients requiring lower-extremity revascularization poses a difficult clinical dilemma. This study examined the results of the use of autogenous arm vein bypass grafts in these patients. METHODS: Five hundred twenty lower-extremity revascularization procedures performed between 1990 and 1998 were followed prospectively with a computerized vascular registry. The arm vein conduit was prepared by using intraoperative angioscopy for valve lysis and identification of luminal abnormalities in 44.8% of cases. RESULTS: Seventy-two (13. 8%) femoropopliteal, 174 (33.5%) femorotibial, 29 (5.6%) femoropedal, 101 (19.4%) popliteo-tibial/pedal, and 144 (27.7%) extension "jump" graft bypass procedures were performed for limb salvage (98.2%) or disabling claudication (1.8%). The average age of patients was 68.5 years (range, 32 to 91 years); 63.1% of patients were men, and 36.9% of patients were women. Eighty-five percent of patients had diabetes mellitus, and 77% of patients had a recent history of smoking. The grafts were composed of a single arm vein segment in 363 cases (69. 8%) and of spliced composite vein with venovenostomy in 157 cases (30.2%). The mean follow-up period was 24.9 months (range, 1 month to 7.4 years). Overall patency and limb salvage rates for all graft types were: primary patency, 30-day = 97.0% +/- 0.7%, 1-year = 80.2% +/- 2.1%, 3-year = 68.9% +/- 3.6%, 5-year = 54.5% +/- 6.6%; secondary patency, 30-day = 97.0% +/- 0.7%, 1-year = 80.7% +/- 2.1%, 3-year = 70.3% +/- 3.4%, 5-year = 57.5% +/- 6.2%; limb salvage, 30-day = 97.6% +/- 0.7%, 1-year = 89.8% +/- 1.7%, 3-year = 82.1% +/- 3.3%, 5-year = 71.5% +/- 6.9%. Secondary patency and limb salvage rates were greatest at 5 years for femoropopliteal grafts (69.8% +/- 12.8%, 80.7% +/- 11.8%), as compared with femorotibial (59.6% +/- 10. 3%, 72.7% +/- 10.5%), femoropedal (54.9% +/- 25.7%, 56.8% +/- 26.9%, ) and popliteo-tibial/pedal grafts (39.0% +/- 7.3%, 47.6% +/- 15.4%). The patency rate of composite vein grafts was equal to that of single-vein conduits. The overall survival rate was 54% at 4 years. CONCLUSION: Autogenous arm vein has been used successfully in a wide variety of lower-extremity revascularization procedures and has achieved excellent long- and short-term patency and limb salvage rates, higher than those generally reported for prosthetic or cryopreserved grafts. Its durability and easy accessibility make it an alternative conduit of choice when an adequate saphenous vein is not available.  (+info)

Endovascular-assisted versus conventional in situ saphenous vein bypass grafting: cumulative patency, limb salvage, and cost results in a 39-month multicenter study. (7/180)

OBJECTIVE: In this retrospective multicenter study, the results of a minimally invasive method of endovascular-assisted in situ bypass grafting (EISB) versus "open" conventional in situ bypass grafting (CISB) were evaluated with a comparison of primary and secondary patency, limb salvage, and cost. METHODS: Enrolled in this study were 273 patients: 117 underwent CISB (42 femoropopliteal, 75 femorocrural) and 156 underwent EISB (41 femoropopliteal, 115 femorocrural). EISB was performed with an angioscopic Side Branch Occlusion system and an angioscopically guided valvulotome. All the patients underwent follow-up examination with serial color-flow ultrasound scanning. RESULTS: Both groups had similar comorbid risk factors for diabetes mellitus, coronary artery heart disease, hypertension, and cigarette smoking. The primary patency rates (CISB, 78.2% +/- 5% [SE]; EISB, 70.5% +/- 5%; P =.156), the secondary patency rates (CISB, 84.1% +/- 4%; EISB, 82.9% +/- 5%; P =.26), and the limb salvage rates (CISB, 85.8%; EISB, 88.4%; P =.127) were statistically similar, with a follow-up period that extended to 39 months (mean, 16.6 months; range, 1 to 40 months). In veins that were less than 2.5 to 3.0 mm in diameter, the EISB grafts fared poorly, with an increased incidence of early (12-month) graft thromboses (CISB, 10 grafts, 8.5%; EISB, 24 grafts, 15.3%). However, wound complications (CISB, 23%; EISB, 4%; P =.003), mean hospital length of stay (CISB, 6.5 days +/- 4.83; EISB, 3.2 days +/- 3.19; P =.001), and mean hospital charges (CISB, $25,349 +/- $19,476; EISB, $18,096 +/- $14,573; P =.001) were all significantly reduced in the EISB group. CONCLUSION: The CISB and EISB midterm primary and secondary patency and limb salvage rates were statistically similar. In smaller veins (< 2.5 to 3.0 mm in diameter), however, EISB is not appropriate because overly aggressive instrumentation may cause intimal trauma, with resultant early graft failure. With the avoidance of a long leg incision in the EISB group, wound complications and hospital length of stay were significantly reduced, which lowered hospital charges and justified the additional cost of the endovascular instruments. When in situ bypass grafting is contemplated, EISB in appropriate patients is a safe, minimally invasive, and cost-effective alternative to CISB.  (+info)

Minimally invasive approach for aortic arch branch vessel reconstruction. (8/180)

Minimally invasive aortic arch branch vessel reconstruction was successfully accomplished in four patients over the past 3 years. There were no operative complications. Three patients had an uneventful hospital course, ranging from 3 to 5 days. The fourth patient with multiple medical problems and severe peripheral vascular disease had a prolonged hospital course for reasons unrelated to the surgical procedure. This minimally invasive surgical exposure can be used to effectively and safely repair innominate and left common carotid artery lesions.  (+info)

Angioscopy is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses a small fiber-optic scope, called an angioscope, to directly visualize the interior of blood vessels. The angioscope is inserted into the vessel through a small incision or catheter and allows physicians to examine the vessel walls for abnormalities such as plaque buildup, inflammation, or damage. This procedure can be used to diagnose and monitor conditions such as coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and vasculitis. It can also be used during surgical procedures to assist with the placement of stents or other devices in the blood vessels.

An angioscope is a type of medical device that is used to visually examine the interior of blood vessels and other hollow structures within the body. It is a thin, flexible fiber-optic instrument that can be inserted into the vessel through a small incision or catheterization procedure. Once in place, the angioscope allows physicians to directly observe the internal lining of the vessel and identify any abnormalities, such as plaque buildup, inflammation, or tumors.

Angioscopes are often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tools, such as angiography or intravascular ultrasound, to provide a more complete picture of the condition of the blood vessels. They can be particularly useful in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, and vasculitis.

It's important to note that while angioscopes can provide valuable diagnostic information, they are typically used as part of a larger diagnostic workup and may not always be necessary or appropriate in every case. The decision to use an angioscope should be made by a qualified medical professional based on the individual patient's needs and circumstances.

Coronary thrombosis is a medical condition that refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a coronary artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. The development of a thrombus can partially or completely obstruct blood flow, leading to insufficient oxygen supply to the heart muscle. This can cause chest pain (angina) or a heart attack (myocardial infarction), depending on the severity and duration of the blockage.

Coronary thrombosis often results from the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, a buildup of cholesterol, fat, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining (endothelium) of the coronary artery. The ruptured plaque exposes the underlying tissue to the bloodstream, triggering the coagulation cascade and resulting in the formation of a thrombus.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for managing coronary thrombosis, as timely treatment can help restore blood flow, prevent further damage to the heart muscle, and reduce the risk of complications such as heart failure or life-threatening arrhythmias. Treatment options may include medications, such as antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, and thrombolytic drugs, or interventional procedures like angioplasty and stenting to open the blocked artery. In some cases, surgical intervention, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), may be necessary.

Coronary vessels refer to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the heart muscle, also known as the myocardium. The two main coronary arteries are the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery.

The left main coronary artery branches off into the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCx). The LAD supplies blood to the front of the heart, while the LCx supplies blood to the side and back of the heart.

The right coronary artery supplies blood to the right lower part of the heart, including the right atrium and ventricle, as well as the back of the heart.

Coronary vessel disease (CVD) occurs when these vessels become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque, leading to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. This can result in chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

Atherosclerotic plaque is a deposit of fatty (cholesterol and fat) substances, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of an artery. This plaque buildup causes the artery to narrow and harden, reducing blood flow through the artery, which can lead to serious cardiovascular conditions such as coronary artery disease, angina, heart attack, or stroke. The process of atherosclerosis develops gradually over decades and can start in childhood.

Laser-assisted angioplasty is a medical procedure used to open narrowed or blocked blood vessels. The term "angioplasty" refers to the use of a balloon to widen the affected blood vessel, while "laser-assisted" describes the use of a laser to help remove any blockages or obstructions in the vessel.

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel through a small incision in the groin or arm. The catheter is then guided to the narrowed or blocked section of the blood vessel using imaging techniques such as X-ray or ultrasound. Once the catheter is in place, a laser fiber is passed through the catheter and directed at the blockage.

The laser emits high-energy light that vaporizes the blockage, allowing it to be removed from the blood vessel. After the blockage has been removed, a balloon angioplasty may be performed to widen the blood vessel and improve blood flow. The catheter is then removed and the incision is closed.

Laser-assisted angioplasty is typically used in cases where traditional balloon angioplasty is not effective or when the blockage is composed of materials that are difficult to remove with conventional methods, such as calcified plaque. It may also be used in patients who have complex lesions or multiple blockages in their blood vessels.

While laser-assisted angioplasty is generally safe and effective, it does carry some risks, including bleeding, infection, damage to the blood vessel, and recurrence of the blockage. As with any medical procedure, it is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing treatment.

Interventional ultrasonography is a medical procedure that involves the use of real-time ultrasound imaging to guide minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This technique combines the advantages of ultrasound, such as its non-ionizing nature (no radiation exposure), relatively low cost, and portability, with the ability to perform precise and targeted procedures.

In interventional ultrasonography, a specialized physician called an interventional radiologist or an interventional sonographer uses high-frequency sound waves to create detailed images of internal organs and tissues. These images help guide the placement of needles, catheters, or other instruments used during the procedure. Common interventions include biopsies (tissue sampling), fluid drainage, tumor ablation, and targeted drug delivery.

The real-time visualization provided by ultrasonography allows for increased accuracy and safety during these procedures, minimizing complications and reducing recovery time compared to traditional surgical approaches. Additionally, interventional ultrasonography can be performed on an outpatient basis, further contributing to its appeal as a less invasive alternative in many clinical scenarios.

An endoscope is a medical device used for examining the interior of a body cavity or organ. It consists of a long, thin, flexible (or rigid) tube with a light and a camera at one end. The other end is connected to a video monitor that displays the images captured by the camera. Endoscopes can be inserted through natural openings in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through small incisions. They are used for diagnostic purposes, as well as for performing various medical procedures, including biopsies and surgeries. Different types of endoscopes include gastroscopes, colonoscopes, bronchoscopes, and arthroscopes, among others.

Coronary angiography is a medical procedure that uses X-ray imaging to visualize the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. During the procedure, a thin, flexible catheter is inserted into an artery in the arm or groin and threaded through the blood vessels to the heart. A contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken as the dye flows through the coronary arteries. These images can help doctors diagnose and treat various heart conditions, such as blockages or narrowing of the arteries, that can lead to chest pain or heart attacks. It is also known as coronary arteriography or cardiac catheterization.

The saphenous vein is a term used in anatomical description to refer to the great or small saphenous veins, which are superficial veins located in the lower extremities of the human body.

The great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body and originates from the medial aspect of the foot, ascending along the medial side of the leg and thigh, and drains into the femoral vein at the saphenofemoral junction, located in the upper third of the thigh.

The small saphenous vein (SSV) is a shorter vein that originates from the lateral aspect of the foot, ascends along the posterior calf, and drains into the popliteal vein at the saphenopopliteal junction, located in the popliteal fossa.

These veins are often used as conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery due to their consistent anatomy and length.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a medical condition in which the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fatty deposits, and other substances, known as plaque. Over time, this buildup can cause the arteries to harden and narrow (a process called atherosclerosis), reducing blood flow to the heart muscle.

The reduction in blood flow can lead to various symptoms and complications, including:

1. Angina (chest pain or discomfort) - This occurs when the heart muscle doesn't receive enough oxygen-rich blood, causing pain, pressure, or discomfort in the chest, arms, neck, jaw, or back.
2. Shortness of breath - When the heart isn't receiving adequate blood flow, it can't pump blood efficiently to meet the body's demands, leading to shortness of breath during physical activities or at rest.
3. Heart attack - If a piece of plaque ruptures or breaks off in a coronary artery, a blood clot can form and block the artery, causing a heart attack (myocardial infarction). This can damage or destroy part of the heart muscle.
4. Heart failure - Chronic reduced blood flow to the heart muscle can weaken it over time, leading to heart failure, a condition in which the heart can't pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs.
5. Arrhythmias - Reduced blood flow and damage to the heart muscle can lead to abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

Coronary artery disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress testing, cardiac catheterization, and imaging studies like coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Treatment options for CAD include lifestyle modifications, medications, medical procedures, and surgery.

Coronary artery angioscopy, which first was used to reveal the presence of a blood clot in the coronary arteries of patients ... Angioscopy is a medical technique for visualizing the interior of blood vessels. In this technique, a flexible fibre bundle ... It can be helpful in diagnosing (e.g., arterial embolism). Angioscopy is also used as an adjunctive procedure during vascular ... The instrument used to perform angioscopy is called as angioscope. Scanning Fiber Endoscope (SFE) is an emerging technology ...
"Dynamic anatomical study of cardiac shunting in crocodiles using high-resolution angioscopy" (PDF). The Journal of Experimental ...
"Dynamic Anatomical Study of Cardiac Shunting in Crocodiles Using High-Resolution Angioscopy" (PDF). The Journal of Experimental ...
Axelsson, Michael; Craig E. Franklin (1997). "From anatomy to angioscopy: 164 years of crocodilian cardiovascular research, ...
He is the first cardiologist in the region to perform an angioscopy and directional atherectomy. He is reported to be the first ... Atherectomy Drug Eluting Stents Ventricular assist device Angioscopy Embolectomy Transmyocardial revascularization India portal ...
OCT angioscopy is used in the intravascular evaluation of coronary artery plaques and to guide stent placement. Beyond ...
1991 Gershman, A., Chandra, M., Daykhovsky, L., Grundfest, W. Technical Parameters For Angioscopy: Critical Elements For ...
His research focuses on the use of intravascular ultrasound and angioscopy in coronary artery disease after heart ...
Fluorescein angiography and angioscopy is recommended for patients with abnormal findings that may be indicative of ...
... for detecting myocardial infarction Angioscopy using a flexible fiberoptic catheter inserted directly into an artery. ...
... angioscopy arthroscopy bronchoscopy colposcopy cystoscopy fetoscopy hysteroscopy gastrointestinal endoscopy including ...
... angioscopy endocoronary ultrasound coronary angiography magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Postmortem examiners may look for ...
Forrester led a team that developed coronary angioscopy, a method for seeing inside a living patient's coronary arteries using ...
... angioscopy MeSH E04.100.814.143 - arteriovenous shunt, surgical MeSH E04.100.814.200 - blood vessel prosthesis implantation ... angioscopy MeSH E04.800.250.070 - arthroscopy MeSH E04.800.250.100 - bronchoscopy MeSH E04.800.250.150 - colposcopy MeSH ...
... angioscopy MeSH E01.370.370.120 - blood circulation time MeSH E01.370.370.130 - blood flow velocity MeSH E01.370.370.140 - ... angioscopy MeSH E01.370.388.250.070 - arthroscopy MeSH E01.370.388.250.100 - bronchoscopy MeSH E01.370.388.250.150 - colposcopy ... microscopic angioscopy MeSH E01.370.370.610 - plethysmography MeSH E01.370.370.610.600 - photoplethysmography MeSH E01.370. ...
"Dynamic anatomical study of cardiac shunting in crocodiles using high-resolution angioscopy" (PDF), The Journal of Experimental ...
Fluorescein angiography or angioscopy of eye (95.13) Ultrasound study of eye (95.14) X-ray study of eye (95.15) Ocular motility ...
Coronary artery angioscopy, which first was used to reveal the presence of a blood clot in the coronary arteries of patients ... Angioscopy is a medical technique for visualizing the interior of blood vessels. In this technique, a flexible fibre bundle ... It can be helpful in diagnosing (e.g., arterial embolism). Angioscopy is also used as an adjunctive procedure during vascular ... The instrument used to perform angioscopy is called as angioscope. Scanning Fiber Endoscope (SFE) is an emerging technology ...
title = "Angioscopy, coronary thrombi and acute coronary syndromes",. abstract = "Coronary angioscopy is a new diagnostic ... Angioscopy, coronary thrombi and acute coronary syndromes. / Mizuno, K.; Arakawa, K.; Isojima, K. et al. In: Biomedicine and ... Angioscopy, coronary thrombi and acute coronary syndromes. K. Mizuno, K. Arakawa, K. Isojima, T. Shibuya, K. Satomura, A. ... Angioscopy, coronary thrombi and acute coronary syndromes. In: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy. 1993 ; Vol. 47, No. 5. pp. 187- ...
Angioscopy by a new percutaneous transluminal coronary angioscope」の研究トピックを掘り下げます。これらがまとまってユニークなフィンガープリントを構成します。 ... Angioscopy by a new percutaneous transluminal coronary angioscope. / Sakurada, Masami; Mizuno, Kyouichi; Miyamoto, Akira その他. ... Angioscopy by a new percutaneous transluminal coronary angioscope. Masami Sakurada, Kyouichi Mizuno, Akira Miyamoto, Kou ... Angioscopy by a new percutaneous transluminal
A PAPER ON CORONARY ANGIOSCOPY * Vishvanayak Abstract. Angioscopy empowers naturally visible neurotic finding of cardiovascular ... Color staining Angioscopy and close infrared fluorescence Angioscopy were produced for atomic imaging, and the last strategy ... Shading fluorescence Angioscopy was likewise settled for atomic and substance premise portrayal of weak coronary plaques in ... The impacts of lipid-bringing down treatments on coronary plaques were affirmed by Angioscopy. Be that as it may, since ...
Angioscopy. ISSN: 2188-6571. EISSN: 2188-7500. FREE. 2015 - present. Annals of Cardiac Anesthesia. English ISSN: 0971-9784. ...
Microscopic Angioscopy * Scleroderma, Systemic / classification* * Scleroderma, Systemic / diagnosis Substances * ...
CyhoeddwydImaging by Angioscopy. Rees, M. R., 1 Ion 2012, Intravascular Imaging. t. 138-144 Allbwn ymchwil: Pennod mewn Llyfr/ ...
angioscopy. visual examination of a blood vessel. aortogram. radiographic image of the aorta (after an injection of contrast ...
Angioscopy Vol. 1 (2015) - Vol. 8 (2022) JOURNAL PEER REVIEWED OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION ...
Other emerging methods including angioscopy (visualizes surface appearance of the plaque) and thermography (detects metabolic ... Biochemical imaging of human atherosclerotic plaques with fluorescence lifetime angioscopy. Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 727-731 ( ...
Asia Pacifics first Directional Atherectomy, Drug Eluting Stenting, and Angioscopy. *Specialized in Cardiac Bypass Surgery, ...
Balloon Angioplasty With Controlled Minimal Dissection Observed by High-Resolution Intravascular Ultrasound and Angioscopy ...
Bairey Merz: We didnt know that at that time, and this too was around the time that Cedars-Sinai was doing angioscopy, meaning ...
Angioscopy - Preferred Concept UI. M0026609. Scope note. Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior ... coordinate with specific vessel (IM); do not confuse with MICROSCOPIC ANGIOSCOPY; /instrum permitted but consider also ...
... and had a pattern of neointimal coverage similar to that of BMS on angioscopy. ...
This is not the same as endoscopic examination of blood vessels (ANGIOSCOPY).. Terms. Microscopic Angioscopy Preferred Term ... Microscopic Angioscopy. Tree Number(s). E01.370.350.515.277.500. E01.370.370.560. E05.595.185.500. Unique ID. D020678. RDF ... Angioscopy (1993-1999). Public MeSH Note. 2000. History Note. 2000. Date Established. 2000/01/01. Date of Entry. 1999/11/03. ... Microscopic Angioscopy Preferred Concept UI. M0328037. Scope Note. The noninvasive microscopic examination of the ...
Intraoperative angioscopy of saphenous vein and coronary arteries. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1986 Mar; 91(3):339-43. PMID: ...
Angioscopy/instrumentation (1993-1999). Endoscopes (1998-1999). See Also. Angioscopy. Public MeSH Note. 2000. History Note. ...
MICROSCOPIC ANGIOSCOPY. ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCÓPICA. ANGIOSCOPIOS. ANGIOSCOPES. ANGIOSCÓPIOS. APENDICE ATRIAL. ATRIAL APPENDAGE. ...
MICROSCOPIC ANGIOSCOPY. ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCÓPICA. ANGIOSCOPIOS. ANGIOSCOPES. ANGIOSCÓPIOS. APENDICE ATRIAL. ATRIAL APPENDAGE. ...
MICROSCOPIC ANGIOSCOPY. ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCÓPICA. ANGIOSCOPIOS. ANGIOSCOPES. ANGIOSCÓPIOS. APENDICE ATRIAL. ATRIAL APPENDAGE. ...
MICROSCOPIC ANGIOSCOPY ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCOPICA ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCÓPICA MICROSCOPY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPIA DE SONDA DE ...
MICROSCOPIC ANGIOSCOPY ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCOPICA ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCÓPICA MICROSCOPY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPIA DE SONDA DE ...
MICROSCOPIC ANGIOSCOPY ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCOPICA ANGIOSCÓPIOS ANGIOSCOPES ANGIOSCOPIOS APÊNDICE ATRIAL ATRIAL APPENDAGE APENDICE ...
MICROSCOPIC ANGIOSCOPY. ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCÓPICA. ANGIOSCOPIOS. ANGIOSCOPES. ANGIOSCÓPIOS. APENDICE ATRIAL. ATRIAL APPENDAGE. ...
MICROSCOPIC ANGIOSCOPY ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCOPICA ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCÓPICA MICROSCOPY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPIA DE SONDA DE ...
MICROSCOPIC ANGIOSCOPY ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCOPICA ANGIOSCÓPIOS ANGIOSCOPES ANGIOSCOPIOS APÊNDICE ATRIAL ATRIAL APPENDAGE APENDICE ...
MICROSCOPIC ANGIOSCOPY ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCOPICA ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCÓPICA MICROSCOPY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPIA DE SONDA DE ...
MICROSCOPIC ANGIOSCOPY ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCOPICA ANGIOSCOPIA MICROSCÓPICA MICROSCOPY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPIA DE SONDA DE ...
  • Coronary artery angioscopy, which first was used to reveal the presence of a blood clot in the coronary arteries of patients with unstable angina and myocardial infarction, is now widely used in catherization laboratories to visualize stents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronary angioscopy is a new diagnostic imaging technique in which optic fibres are used to directly observe the intracoronary lumen. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Studies using angioscopy revealed that the frequency of coronary thrombi in patients with acute coronary syndromes was higher than previous studies, based on arteriography, had reported. (elsevierpure.com)
  • We performed percutaneous transluminal coronary angioscopy during cardiac catheterization cosecutively in 155 patients. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The impacts of lipid-bringing down treatments on coronary plaques were affirmed by Angioscopy. (gujaratresearchsociety.in)
  • Shading fluorescence Angioscopy was likewise settled for atomic and substance premise portrayal of weak coronary plaques in both in vitro and in vivo. (gujaratresearchsociety.in)
  • Optical coherence tomography and coronary angioscopy assessment of healed vulnerable plaque components in patients with coronary artery lesions undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. (escardio.org)
  • Angioscopy is a medical technique for visualizing the interior of blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cobalt blue filter is used along with fluorescein dye for angioscopy. (eophtha.com)
  • Primarily indicated in diagnostic fluorescein angiography or angioscopy of the fundus and of the iris vasculature. (pharmacycode.com)
  • García-Vázquez V, Matysiak F, Jäckle S, Eixmann T, Sieren MM, von Haxthausen F, Ernst F (2020) Catheter pose-dependent virtual angioscopy images for endovascular aortic repair: validation with a video graphics array (VGA) camera. (fraunhofer.de)
  • The instrument used to perform angioscopy is called as angioscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angioscopy is also used as an adjunctive procedure during vascular bypass to visualize valves within venous conduits. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, thrombi were observed in 88% by angioscopy in patients with rest angina in our study. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Color staining Angioscopy and close infrared fluorescence Angioscopy were produced for atomic imaging, and the last strategy was effectively applied to patients. (gujaratresearchsociety.in)
  • Whereas ordinary arteriography provides only two-dimensional black and white images, angioscopy can distinguish between a thrombus and a plaque, even if the clot is very small. (elsevierpure.com)
  • von Haxthausen F, Jäckle S, Strehlow J, Ernst F, García-Vázquez V (2019) Catheter pose-dependent virtual angioscopy images visualized on augmented reality glasses. (fraunhofer.de)
  • The CT is also used to perform virtual endoscopies i.e. colonoscopy, bronchoscopy or angioscopy thereby avoiding an invasive process. (bharathhospital.co.in)
  • AK-FLUOR ® is indicated in diagnostic fluorescein angiography or angioscopy of the retina and iris vasculature. (nih.gov)
  • Intraoperative angioscopy allows direct visualization of the pulmonary arterial branches and appears to be very useful for detection of tumor thrombi even in emergency cases. (umin.ac.jp)
  • Angioscopy is also used as an adjunctive procedure during vascular bypass to visualize valves within venous conduits. (wikipedia.org)