Angiopoietin-2: An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.Angiopoietin-1: The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Receptor, TIE-2: A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).Angiopoietins: A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.Receptor, TIE-1: A TIE receptor found predominantly on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is considered essential for vascular development and can form a heterodimer with the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. The TIE-1 receptor may play a role in regulating BLOOD VESSEL stability and maturation.Receptors, TIE: A family of structurally-related tyrosine kinase receptors that are expressed predominantly in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and are essential for development of BLOOD VESSELS (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC). The name derives from the fact that they are tyrosine kinases that contain Ig and EGF domains.Angiogenesis Inducing Agents: Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Mycoplasma pulmonis: A species of gram-negative bacteria highly pathogenic to RATS and MICE. It is the primary cause of murine respiratory mycoplasmosis.Angiogenic Proteins: Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Pericytes: Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Retinal Perforations: Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Vitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mice, Inbred C57BLVitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel angiopoietin family protein, angiopoietin-3. (1/540)

Using homology-based PCR, we have isolated cDNA encoding a novel member (491 amino acids) of the angiopoietin (Ang) family from human adult heart cDNA and have designated it angiopoietin-3 (Ang3). The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal portions of Ang-3 contain the characteristic coiled-coil domain and fibrinogen-like domain that are conserved in other known Angs. Ang3 has a highly hydrophobic region at the N-terminus (approximately 21 amino acids) that is typical of a signal sequence for protein secretion. Ang3 mRNA is most abundant in adrenal gland, placenta, thyroid gland, heart and small intestine in human adult tissues. Additionally, Ang3 is a secretory protein, but is not a mitogen in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor selectively up-regulate angiopoietin-2 in bovine microvascular endothelial cells. (2/540)

Recent studies have shown that the angiopoietin-Tie2 system is a predominant regulator of vascular integrity. In this study, we investigated the effect of two known angiogenic stimuli, hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), on these molecules. VEGF induced both a time- and concentration-dependent increase in angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) mRNA expression in bovine microvascular endothelial cells. This up-regulation was derived primarily from an increased transcription rate as evidenced by nuclear run-on assay and mRNA decay study. The increased Ang2 expression upon VEGF treatment was almost totally abolished by inhibition of tyrosine kinase or mitogen-activated protein kinase and partially by suppression of protein kinase C. Hypoxia also directly increased Ang2 mRNA expression. In contrast, Ang1 and Tie2 responded to neither of these stimuli. The enhanced Ang2 expression following VEGF stimulation and hypoxia was accompanied by de novo protein synthesis as detected by immunoprecipitation. In a mouse model of ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization, Ang2 mRNA was up-regulated in the ischemic inner retinal layer, and remarkable expression was observed in neovascular vessels. These data suggest that both hypoxia- and VEGF-induced neovascularization might be facilitated by selective induction of Ang2, which deteriorates the integrity of preexisting vasculature.  (+info)

Vessel cooption, regression, and growth in tumors mediated by angiopoietins and VEGF. (3/540)

In contrast with the prevailing view that most tumors and metastases begin as avascular masses, evidence is presented here that a subset of tumors instead initially grows by coopting existing host vessels. This coopted host vasculature does not immediately undergo angiogenesis to support the tumor but instead regresses, leading to a secondarily avascular tumor and massive tumor cell loss. Ultimately, however, the remaining tumor is rescued by robust angiogenesis at the tumor margin. The expression patterns of the angiogenic antagonist angiopoietin-2 and of pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) suggest that these proteins may be critical regulators of this balance between vascular regression and growth.  (+info)

Expressions of angiopoietins and Tie2 in human choroidal neovascular membranes. (4/540)

PURPOSE: To elucidate the potential role of angiopoietins and the Tie2 system in choroidal neovascularization. METHODS: Surgically excised choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVMs) were obtained at vitrectomy from five eyes with age-related macular degeneration, three eyes with idiopathic neovascular maculopathy, and two eyes had degenerative myopia and two eyes had angioid streaks. Light microscopic immunohistochemistry was performed to detect cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Ang1, and Ang2 and cellular components such as retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Immunofluorescent double staining using confocal microscopy was performed to identify the cell types that secrete specific cytokines. RESULTS: Ang1 and Ang2 were positive in all surgically excised CNVMs, regardless of the primary disease. Double staining revealed that many of the cytokeratin, CD68 and factor VIII positive cells also had Ang1 and Ang2 immunoreactivities. In contrast to Ang1, Ang2 immunoreactivity tends to be higher in the highly vascularized regions of many CNVMs, and the localization was very similar to that of VEGF staining. Almost all vascular structures had prominent immunoreactivity for Tie2, which was confirmed by double staining for Tie2 and factor VIII. Tie2 immunoreactivity was also observed in the RPE monolayer and in pigmented, polygonal, and fibroblast-like cells in the stroma. CONCLUSIONS: Present findings that Ang2 and VEGF are co-upregulated and that Tie2 is expressed in a variety of cell types in CNVMs further support a crucial role of the interaction between VEGF and Ang2 in pathologic angiogenesis of CNVM formation.  (+info)

Expression of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and the Tie-2 receptor tyrosine kinase during mouse kidney maturation. (5/540)

The Tie-2 receptor tyrosine kinase transduces embryonic endothelial differentiation, with Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) acting as a stimulatory ligand and Ang-2 postulated to be a naturally occurring inhibitor. Expression of these genes was sought during mouse kidney maturation from the onset of glomerulogenesis (embryonic day 14 [E14]) to the end of nephron formation (2 wk postnatal [P2]), and during medullary maturation into adulthood (P8). Using Northern and slot blotting of RNA extracted from whole organs, these three genes were expressed throughout the experimental period with peak levels at P2 to P3. By in situ hybridization analysis at E18, P1, and P3, Ang-1 mRNA was found to localize to condensing renal mesenchymal cells, proximal tubules, and glomeruli in addition to maturing tubules of the outer medulla. In contrast, Ang-2 transcripts were more spatially restricted, being detected only in differentiating outer medullary tubules and the vasa recta bundle area. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, Tie-2 was detected in capillaries of the nephrogenic cortex, glomerular tufts, cortical interstitium, and medulla including vessels in the vasa recta. Using Western blotting of protein extracted from whole organs, Tie-2 protein was detected between E14 and P8 with tyrosine phosphorylated Tie-2 evident from E18. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Tie-2 has roles in maturation of both glomeruli and vasa rectae.  (+info)

New model of tumor angiogenesis: dynamic balance between vessel regression and growth mediated by angiopoietins and VEGF. (6/540)

Our analyses in several different tumor settings challenge the prevailing view that malignancies and metastases generally initiate as avascular masses that only belatedly induce vascular support. Instead, we find that malignant cells rapidly co-opt existing host vessels to form an initially well-vascularized tumor mass. Paradoxically, the co-opted vasculature does not undergo angiogenesis to support the growing tumor, but instead regresses (perhaps as part of a normal host defense mechanism) via a process that involves disruption of endothelial cell/smooth muscle cell interactions and endothelial cell apoptosis. This vessel regression in turn results in necrosis within the central part of the tumor. However, robust angiogenesis is initiated at the tumor margin, rescuing the surviving tumor and supporting further growth. The expression patterns of Angiopoietin-2 (the natural antagonist for the angiogenic Tie2 receptor) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) strongly implicate these factors in the above processes. Angiopoietin-2 is highly induced in co-opted vessels, prior to VEGF induction in the adjacent tumor cells, providing perhaps the earliest marker of tumor vasculature and apparently marking the co-opted vessels for regression. Subsequently, VEGF upregulation coincident with Angiopoietin-2 expression at the tumor periphery is associated with robust angiogenesis. Thus, in tumors, Angiopoietin-2 and VEGF seem to reprise the roles they play during vascular remodeling in normal tissues, acting to regulate the previously underappreciated balance between vascular regression and growth.  (+info)

Angiopoietin-1 and -2 coiled coil domains mediate distinct homo-oligomerization patterns, but fibrinogen-like domains mediate ligand activity. (7/540)

Activity of endothelial Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase is modulated by two naturally occurring, secreted ligands, angiopoietin-1 and -2, which have opposing effects on its phosphorylation. Receptor tyrosine kinase activation requires receptor dimerization/multimerization, which, for many receptors, is mediated by homo-oligomeric ligands binding to and bridging receptor molecules. We show here that angiopoietin-1 and -2 form distinct arrays of disulfide-linked homo-oligomeric complexes. Their mobilities on nonreducing gels suggest that angiopoietin-2 exists predominantly as a homodimer but also forms higher order multimers. In contrast, angiopoietin-1 forms some homotrimers, but predominantly exists in higher order multimers. These two structurally related, 60% homologous ligands are predominantly composed of an amino-terminal coiled coil domain and a carboxyl-terminal fibrinogen-like domain. We show that their distinct oligomerization patterns are determined by their coiled coil domains and, furthermore, that their coiled coil domains, but not their fibrinogen-like domains, are sufficient to mediate formation of disulfide-linked homo-oligomers. In contrast, the differential effects of these ligands on endothelial Tie2 phosphorylation is mediated by their fibrinogen-like domains. We conclude from these studies that the coiled coil and fibrinogen-like domains of the angiopoietins have distinct functions with the coiled coil domain mediating ligand homo-oligomerization and the fibrinogen-like domain mediating ligand activity.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin regulation by gonadotrophin and steroids in macaque granulosa cells during the peri-ovulatory interval. (8/540)

The role of endothelial cell-specific growth factors in the vascularization of the primate peri-ovulatory follicle was examined. Experiments were designed firstly to detect expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in granulosa cells and secondly, to determine whether gonadotrophins and/or steroids regulate their expression during the peri-ovulatory interval. Granulosa cells and follicular fluid were collected from rhesus macaques undergoing ovarian stimulation before (0 h), 12, or 36 h after a bolus of ovulatory human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), with or without steroid ablation and progestin replacement. VEGF, Ang-1 and Ang-2 mRNA were all detected prior to the ovulatory stimulus. Whereas follicular fluid VEGF concentrations increased 6-fold (P < 0.05) between 0 and 12 h, VEGF mRNA values were unchanged and were unaffected by steroid ablation. Ang-1 mRNA decreased from 0 to 12 h (P < 0.05), followed by a 30-fold increase (P < 0.05) at 36 h, while Ang-2 mRNA values were unchanged between 0, 12 and 36 h. Steroid ablation decreased (P < 0.05) Ang-1 mRNA at 36 h, and Ang-2 mRNA at 12 h, while only Ang-1 was restored by progestin replacement. These data suggest a dynamic expression of vascular-specific growth factors in a gonadotrophin-dependent, steroid-independent (VEGF) or steroid-dependent (Ang-1) manner in granulosa cells of peri-ovulatory follicles of primates.  (+info)

Published data on the role of the Ang/tie-2 system in cardiovascular diseases are limited. Most of our knowledge regarding the angiopoietins has come from oncology studies where angiogenesis is a prerequisite for tumor growth and metastasis. Indeed, Ang-2 has been shown to be a marker of a poor prognosis in breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (4,21). In the present paper, we describe a new assay for Ang-1 and, in addition, have demonstrated (for the first time in the literature) very abnormal levels of Ang-2 and tie-2, but normal Ang-1, in CHF. Vascular endothelial growth factor was marginally raised in the patients, suggesting that Ang-2 may be more relevant to the pathophysiology of this disease. In addition, there was a significant correlation between Ang-2 and tie-2.. That Ang-1 is not raised in CHF is consistent with currently held views that its secretion is not stimulated by hypoxia, as demonstrated in animal studies (13,14,22). Angiopoietin-1 has been shown to have antiapoptotic ...
Angiopoietins are a family of growth factors that are ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor, Tie2. Angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) is agonistic for Tie2, plays a key role in blood vessel maturation and stability and has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, Tie2 expression has been demonstrated on human neutrophils and the observation that neutrophils migrate in response to Ang-1 in vitro has confounded research into its exact role in inflammation as well as its potential use as a therapeutic agent. We used a mouse model of peritoneal neutrophilic inflammation to determine if Ang-1 could stimulate neutrophil migration in vivo. Tie2 expression was demonstrated on mouse neutrophils. In addition, recombinant human Ang-1 induced significant chemotaxis of isolated mouse neutrophils in a Tie2- and CD18-dependent manner. Subsequently, co-immunoprecipitation of Ang-1 and CD18 demonstrated their interaction. Intraperitoneal injection of an engineered angiopoietin-1, MAT.Ang-1, induced ...
Emerging evidence indicates that angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2), a well-recognized vascular destabilizing factor, is a biomarker of poor outcome in ischemic heart disease. However, its precise role in postischemic cardiovascular remodeling is poorly understood. Here, we show that Angpt2 plays multifaceted roles in the exacerbation of cardiac hypoxia and inflammation after myocardial ischemia. Angpt2 was highly expressed in endothelial cells at the infarct border zone after myocardial infarction (MI) or ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice. In the acute phase of MI, endothelial-derived Angpt2 antagonized Angpt1/Tie2 signaling, which was greatly involved in pericyte detachment, vascular leakage, increased adhesion molecular expression, degradation of the glycocalyx and extracellular matrix, and enhanced neutrophil infiltration and hypoxia in the infarct border area. In the chronic remodeling phase after MI, endothelial- and macrophage-derived Angpt2 continuously promoted abnormal vascular remodeling and ...
We have in this study identified a key role of EC-derived Wnt ligands as regulators of vessel regression by promoting EC survival. Previous studies have linked vessel regression to increased apoptosis. For instance, depletion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after primary network formation induced vessel regression correlating with detachment and increased apoptosis of ECs (Alon et al., 1995; Baffert et al., 2006). Furthermore, leukocytes promote pruning of retinal vessels by inducing EC apoptosis and FGD5/Cdkn1a/p53 signaling interferes with EC survival, stimulating subsequent vessel regression (Ishida et al., 2003; Cheng et al., 2012). However, whether vessel regression is initially triggered by apoptosis due to withdrawal of survival factors or whether regression is followed by apoptosis of retracted ECs that have lost cell-cell and cell-matrix contact remains elusive. The present study identified reduced numbers of ECs in Evi-ECKO mice in P6 retinal vessels, supporting the ...
This study demonstrates the distinct spatiotemporal expression profile of Angpt2 after MI and I/R, which, to date, has been obscure due to a lack of reliable antibodies (54). Using our recently developed anti-Angpt2 antibody (23), which is highly sensitive and specific to Angpt2, we demonstrate distinct expressions of Angpt2 on the ECs and proinflammatory macrophages after ischemia. This prompted us to further investigate the role of Angpt2 in postischemic cardiovascular remodeling. We recently reported that the FOXO1/Angpt2 axis suppresses the endothelial PI3K/Akt-signaling pathway, the main downstream pathway for Tie2 that plays a vital role in maintaining vascular integrity, inducing vascular destabilization in a positive feedback manner (25), and that it is central to the pathogenesis of sepsis (23), diabetic retinopathy (25), and tumor vessel destabilization (38). This study provides additional insights into the serious detrimental effects of the FOXO1/Angpt2 axis in exacerbating cardiac ...
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ANGPT2 (Human) ELISA Kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of human ANGPT2. (KA1867) - Products - Abnova
Polyclonal antibody for Angiopoietin 2/ANGPT2 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: IHC-P. Reactive species: Human. Angiopoietin 2/ANGPT2 information: Molecular Weight: 56919 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted.
Yn aml mae gan enynnau lawer o gyfystyron. Mae hyn oherwydd eu bod yn aml yn cael eu darganfod gan nifer o bobl mewn cyd-destunau gwahanol heb wybod mair un genynnau oeddyn nhw. Hefyd mae gan wahanol gymunedau gwyddonol safonau gwahanol ar gyfer enwi genynnau. Dyma restr o gyfystyron ar gyfer y genyn ANGPT2. ...
Angiopoietin 2 antibody (angiopoietin 2) for ELISA, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Angiopoietin 2 pAb (GTX10601) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Angiopoietin 1兔多克隆抗体(ab94684)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
To test the hypothesis that the concentration of angiopoietin-2 relative to angiopoietin-1 may be a useful biological marker of mortality in acute lung injury patients. We also tested the association of concentration of angiopoietin-2 relative to ang
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systemic analysis of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in angiopoietin-1 induced signaling pathway of endothelial cells. AU - Kim, Young-Mee. AU - Seo, Jawon. AU - Yung, Hee Kim. AU - Jeong, Jaeho. AU - Hye, Joon Joo. AU - Lee, Dong Hee. AU - Gou, Young Koh. AU - Lee, Kong Joo. PY - 2007/8/1. Y1 - 2007/8/1. N2 - Angiogenesis is an essential process in physiological and pathological processes and is well-regulated to maintain the cellular homeostasis by balancing the endothelial cells in proliferation and apoptosis. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) regulates angiogenesis as a ligand of Tie 2 receptor tyrosine kinase. However, the regulation pathways are not well-understood. To date, only a few of the signaling molecules involved in the Tie 2 receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated angiogenesis have been identified. In this study, we systematically identified tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in Ang1-induced signaling cascade in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), employing proteomic ...
Angiopoietin-related protein 2 also known as angiopoietin-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL2 gene. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 maintains tissue homeostasis by promoting adaptive inflammation and subsequent tissue reconstruction, whereas an excess of ANGPTL2 activation induced by prolonged stress promotes the breakdown of tissue homeostasis due to chronic inflammation, promoting the development of metabolic diseases. ANGPTL2 has a role also in angiogenesis, in tissue repair, in obesity, in atherosclerotic diseases and finally in cancerogenesis. Angiopoietins are members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family and the only known growth factors largely specific for vascular endothelium. Angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin-4 participate in the formation of blood vessels. ANGPTL2 protein is a secreted glycoprotein with homology to the angiopoietins and may exert a function on endothelial cells through autocrine or paracrine action. GRCh38: ...
Meyer Nuala J, Li Mingyao, Feng Rui, Bradfield Jonathan, Gallop Robert, Bellamy Scarlett, Fuchs Barry D, Lanken Paul N, Albelda Steven M, Rushefski Melanie, Aplenc Richard, Abramova Helen, Atochina-Vasserman Elena N, Beers Michael F, Calfee Carolyn S, Cohen Mitchell J, Pittet Jean-Francois, Christiani David C, OKeefe Grant E, Ware Lorraine B, May Addison K, Wurfel Mark M, Hakonarson Hakon, Christie Jason D: ANGPT2 Genetic Variant Is Associated with Trauma-associated Acute Lung Injury and Altered Plasma Angiopoietin-2 Isoform Ratio. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 183(10): 1344-53, May 2011 ...
Isolation of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, by secretion-trap expression cloning. The anticoagulation factor protein S and its relative, Gas6, are ligands for the Tyro 3/Axl family of receptor tyrosine kinases
Effects of Protein and Gene Transfer of the Angiopoietin-1 Fibrinogen-like Receptor-binding Domain on Endothelial and Vessel ...
Mice. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) C57BL/6J mice (catalog 000664), Tie2-GFP mice (catalog 003658), and UBC-Cre-ERT2 mice (catalog 007001) were purchased from the Jackson Laboratory. Angpt1fl/fl mice were a gift from Yoshikazu Nakaoka (Osaka University, Osaka, Japan), Angpt1-GFP mice were a gift from Sean J. Morrison (University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, USA), Angpt2-lacZ mice were a gift from Nicholas Gale (Regeneron Pharmaceuticals), and Vegfr2fl/fl mice were a gift from Masanori Hirashima (Kobe University, Kobe, Japan). Prox1-GFP (30), Angpt1-GFP (33), Prox1fl/fl (39), Tie2fl/fl (35), Angpt1fl/fl (36, 37), Angpt2fl/fl (38), Vegfr2fl/fl (55), and Angpt2-lacZ (22) mice were transferred and bred in our SPF animal facility at KAIST. To deplete Prox1, Tie2, or Vegfr2 genes specifically in ECs, VE-cadherin-Cre-ERT2 mice (34) were mated with either Prox1fl/fl, Tie2fl/fl, or Vegfr2fl/fl mice to obtain EC-specific Prox1-, Tie2-, or Vegfr2-deleted mice, respectively, in a tamoxifen-dependent ...
AREND, W.P., JOSLIN, F.G., THOMPSON, R.C. et al.: An IL-I inhibitor from human monocytes: Production and characterization of biological properties. J. Immunol., 143, 1851-1858 (1989).. BARRY, W.S., PIERCE, N.F.: Protein depreviation causes reversible impairment of mucosal immune response to cholera toxoid/toxin in rat gut. Nature, 281, 64-65 (1979).. BEACH, R.S., GERSHWIN, M.E., HURLEY, L.S.: Nutritional factors and autoimmunity. III. Zinc deprivation versus restricted food intake in MLR/J mice - the distinction between interacting dietary influences. J. Immunol., 129, 2682-2692 (1982).. REACH, R.S., GERSHWIN, M.E., HURLEY, L.S.: Persistent immunological consequences of gestational zinc deprivation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 38, 579-590 (1983).. BEISEL, W.R.: Metabolic effects of infection. Prog. Food Nutr. Sci., 8, 43-75 (1984).. BENSI, G., RAUGEI, G., PALLA, E. et al.: Human interleukin 1 beta gene. Gene, 52, 95-101 (1987). BEUTLER, B., MAHONEY, J., LETRANG, N., PEKALA, CERAMI, A.: Purification of ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits identical protein binding (ortholog); INVOLVED IN animal organ regeneration (ortholog); liver regeneration (ortholog); negative regulation of apoptotic process (ortholog); PARTICIPATES IN angiopoietin signaling pathway; ASSOCIATED WITH brain ischemia (ortholog); Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental (ortholog); diabetic retinopathy (ortholog); FOUND IN extracellular space (inferred); integral component of membrane (inferred); membrane raft (inferred)
Purified Recombinant Human ANGPT1/COMP protein, FLAG-tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human ANGPT1/COMP protein, FLAG-tagged can be used for research.
In this study we found that: (1) LS inhibits tubule formation in HUVECs and HMECs, but not BAECs, however CM from laminar sheared BAECs can inhibit tubule formation of HUVECs, (2) Preconditioning with LS inhibits migration in HUVECs and BAECs, whereas OS does not inhibit migration and this is mediated through secreted protein, (3) Ang2 is downregulated by LS both at the gene and protein level in vitro, (4) Ang2 is downregulated at sites of LS and upregulated at sites of OS in vivo, (5) Knockdown of Ang2 inhibits OS-mediated tubule formation and migration, and (6) Addition of recombinant Ang2 partially rescues LS-inhibited tubule formation. Collectively, these findings suggest that Ang2 secreted by ECs in response to OS, acts as a promigratory and proangiogenic molecule that could play an important role in diseases with altered shear stress.. Fluid shear stress is thought to play a role in angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In angiogenesis, endothelial proliferation and migration are 2 important ...
Detect and quantitate human angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1) in buffered solution and cell culture supernatants using a homogeneous LANCE Ultra TR-FRET assay.
Gremlin-1 (isoform-1) belongs to a group of diffusible proteins which bind to ligands of the TGF- β family and regulate their activity by inhibiting their access to signaling receptors. The interplay between TGF-β ligands and their natural antagonists has major biological significance during development processes, in which cellular response can vary considerably depending upon the local concentration of the signaling molecule. Gremlin is highly expressed in the small intestine, fetal brain, and colon and lower expression in brain, prostate, pancreas and skeletal muscle. Gremlin-1 regulates multiple functions in early development by specifically binding to and inhibiting the function of BMP-2, -4, and -7. It also plays a role in carcinogenesis and kidney branching morphogenesis. Recombinant Gremlin-1 is a 18.4 kDa protein containing 161 amino acid residues ...
Camenisch G et al. (2002) ANGPTL3 stimulates endothelial cell adhesion and migration via integrin alpha vbeta 3 and induces blood vessel formation in vivo.. [^] ...
The interaction between fluid status and angiopoietin-2 in adverse renal outcomes of chronic kidney disease. Yi-Chun Tsai, Yi-Wen Chiu, Hung-Tien Kuo, Jia-Jung Lee, Su-Chu Lee, Tzu-Hui Chen, Ming-Yen Lin, Shang-Jyh Hwang, Mei-Chuan Kuo, Ya-Ling Hsu, Hung-Chun Chen. Journal article , Research Article , Published 23 Mar 2017 , PLOS ONE ...
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AGPT2 - Angpt2 - Mouse, 4 unique 29mer shRNA constructs in retroviral untagged vector shRNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The popularity reached by the genetic manipulation of laboratory animals to create new models for studying human diseases, produced in turn, that the techniques for assisted reproduction cons
Looking for online definition of angiopoietin-2a in the Medical Dictionary? angiopoietin-2a explanation free. What is angiopoietin-2a? Meaning of angiopoietin-2a medical term. What does angiopoietin-2a mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiopoietin-1 regulates brain endothelial permeability through PTPN-2 mediated tyrosine dephosphorylation of occludin. AU - Siddiqui, M. Rizwan. AU - Mayanil, Chandra S.. AU - Kim, Kwang Sik. AU - Tomita, Tadanori. PY - 2015/6/19. Y1 - 2015/6/19. N2 - Objective Blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and increased endothelial permeability is a hallmark of neuro-vascular inflammation. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), a Tie-2 receptor agonist ligand, is known to modulate barrier function of endothelial cells; however the molecular mechanisms related to Ang-1 mediated repair of Tight Junctions (TJs) in brain endothelium still remain elusive. In this study, we investigated a novel role of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase N-2 (PTPN-2) in Ang-1 mediated stabilization of tight junction proteins. Method and Result To study the barrier protective mechanism of Ang-1, we challenged human brain microvascular endothelial cells in-vitro, with a potent inflammatory mediator thrombin. By using ...
TIE-1 and TIE-2/Tek comprise a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) subfamily with unique structural characteristics: two immunoglobulin-like domains flanking three epidermal growth factor (EGF)- like domains and followed by three fibronectin type III-like repeats in the extracellular region and a split tyrosine kinase domain in the cytoplasmic region. These receptors are expressed primarily on endothelial and hematopoietic progenitor cells and play critical roles in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and hematopoiesis. Murine TIE-1 cDNA encodes a 1134 amino acid (aa) precursor protein with a 22 aa putative signal peptide, a 733 aa extracellular domain and a 354 aa cytoplasmic domain. Whereas two ligands have been described for TIE-2 [angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2)], so far no ligand was found for TIE-1. Recombinant murine soluble TIE-1 was fused with the Fc part of human IgG1. The recombinant mature sTIE-1/hFc is a disulfide-linked homodimeric protein. The sTIE-1/hFc monomers have a mass ...
Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a leading cause of blindness in children worldwide and is caused by developmental defects in 2 aqueous humor outflow structures, Schlemms canal (SC) and the trabecular meshwork. We previously identified loss-of-function mutations in the angiopoietin (ANGPT) receptor TEK in families with PCG and showed that ANGPT/TEK signaling is essential for SC development. Here, we describe roles for the major ANGPT ligands in the development of the aqueous outflow pathway. We determined that ANGPT1 is essential for SC development, and that Angpt1-knockout mice form a severely hypomorphic canal with elevated intraocular pressure. By contrast, ANGPT2 was dispensable, although mice deficient in both Angpt1 and Angpt2 completely lacked SC, indicating that ANGPT2 compensates for the loss of ANGPT1. In addition, we identified 3 human subjects with rare ANGPT1 variants within an international cohort of 284 PCG patients. Loss of function in 2 of the 3 patient alleles was observed ...
Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a leading cause of blindness in children worldwide and is caused by developmental defects in 2 aqueous humor outflow structures, Schlemms canal (SC) and the trabecular meshwork. We previously identified loss-of-function mutations in the angiopoietin (ANGPT) receptor TEK in families with PCG and showed that ANGPT/TEK signaling is essential for SC development. Here, we describe roles for the major ANGPT ligands in the development of the aqueous outflow pathway. We determined that ANGPT1 is essential for SC development, and that Angpt1-knockout mice form a severely hypomorphic canal with elevated intraocular pressure. By contrast, ANGPT2 was dispensable, although mice deficient in both Angpt1 and Angpt2 completely lacked SC, indicating that ANGPT2 compensates for the loss of ANGPT1. In addition, we identified 3 human subjects with rare ANGPT1 variants within an international cohort of 284 PCG patients. Loss of function in 2 of the 3 patient alleles was observed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coadministration of adenoviral vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 enhances vascularization and reduces ventricular remodeling in the infarcted myocardium of type 1 diabetic rats. AU - Mathews Samuel, Samson. AU - Akita, Yuzo. AU - Paul, Debayon. AU - Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh. AU - Zhan, Lijun. AU - Sudhakaran, Perumana R.. AU - Li, Chuanfu. AU - Maulik, Nilanjana. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE - Hyperglycemia impairs angiogenesis in response to ischemia, leading to ventricular remodeling. Although the effects of overexpressing angiogenic growth factors have been studied in inducing angiogenesis, the formation of functional vessels remains a challenge. The present study evaluates the reversal of diabetes-mediated impairment of angiogenesis in the infarcted diabetic rat myocardium by proangiogenic gene therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Ad.VEGF and Ad.Ang1 were intramyocardially administered in combination immediately after myocardial ...
The functional consequences of angiopoietin/Tie-2 signaling have been well established through genetic loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments (Carmeliet, 2003; Maisonpierre et al., 1997; Suri et al., 1996; Yancopoulos et al., 2000). The phenotypes of Ang-1- and Ang-2-deficient and -overexpressing mice have led to an agonistic Ang-1/Tie-2 model and an antagonistic Ang-2/Tie-2 model (Hanahan, 1997). According to these, Ang-1 activates Tie-2 and induces subsequent signal transduction promoting endothelial-cell survival, endothelial quiescence and vessel assembly. Conversely, Ang-2 is believed to act as a non-signal-transducing Tie-2 ligand that binds to endothelial Tie-2 and thereby negatively interferes with agonistic Ang-1/Tie-2 functions. As such, it does not exert functions of its own but rather acts as a facilitator of other vascular cytokines. The net outcome of Ang-2 functions is therefore considered to be contextually determined by the presence of other cytokines. For example, ...
Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play complementary roles in vascular development during embryogenesis. In the adult, VEGF signaling increases vascular permeability and Ang1 blocks this VEGF-mediated response. Gavard et al. provide evidence that this function of Ang1 is mediated by its actions on the endothelial cells, preventing them from responding to VEGF signaling that triggers disruption of adherens junctions. When injected subcutaneously in mice, Ang1 prevented dermal vascular permeability in response to VEGF injection (acute in vivo vascular permeability model). Experiments with cultured mouse endothelial cells revealed that Ang1 did not prevent VEGF from stimulating downstream effectors involved in proliferation (phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, and focal adhesion kinase) but did prevent disruption of endothelial barrier function by VEGF. Preexposure of endothelial cell cultures to Ang1 inhibited the ability of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methylglyoxal modification of mSin3A links glycolysis to angiopoietin-2 transcription. AU - Yao, Dachun. AU - Taguchi, Tetsuya. AU - Matsumura, Takeshi. AU - Pestell, Richard. AU - Edelstein, Diane. AU - Giardino, Ida. AU - Suske, Guntram. AU - Ahmed, Naila. AU - Thornalley, Paul J.. AU - Sarthy, Vijay P.. AU - Hammes, Hans Peter. AU - Brownlee, Michael. PY - 2006/1/27. Y1 - 2006/1/27. N2 - Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl degradation product formed from triose phosphates during glycolysis. Methylglyoxal forms stable adducts primarily with arginine residues of intracellular proteins. The biologic role of this covalent modification in regulating cell function is not known. Here, we report that in retinal Müller cells, increased glycolytic flux causes increased methylglyoxal modification of the corepressor mSin3A. Methylglyoxal modification of mSin3A results in increased recruitment of O-GlcNAc transferase to an mSin3A-Sp3 complex, with consequent increased ...
The angiopoietin/Tie (ANG/Tie) receptor system controls developmental and tumor angiogenesis, inflammatory vascular remodeling, and vessel leakage. ANG1 is a Tie2 agonist that promotes vascular stabilization in inflammation and sepsis, whereas ANG2 is a context-dependent Tie2 agonist or antagonist. A limited understanding of ANG signaling mechanisms and the orphan receptor Tie1 has hindered development of ANG/Tie-targeted therapeutics. Here, we determined that both ANG1 and ANG2 binding to Tie2 increases Tie1-Tie2 interactions in a β1 integrin-dependent manner and that Tie1 regulates ANG-induced Tie2 trafficking in endothelial cells. Endothelial Tie1 was essential for the agonist activity of ANG1 and autocrine ANG2. Deletion of endothelial ...
Background Binds to TEK/TIE2, competing for the ANGPT1 binding site, and modulating ANGPT1 signaling. Can induce tyrosine phosphorylation of TEK/TIE2 in the absence of ANGPT1. In the absence of angiogenic inducers, such as...
DCE-MRI Provides Evidence for Vascular Effects of AMG 386, a First-In-Class Anti-Angiogenic Peptibody That Specifically Inhibits Interaction of Angiopoietins-1 and -2 with Tie-2. Yuying C. Hwang1, Ed Ashton2, Lee Rosen3, Roy Herbst4, Jeffrey Silverman5, Ngocdiep Le1, Erik Rasmussen1, Jon Oliner1, Juan Leal6, Robert Radinsky1, Ji-Rong Sun1, Jeff Evelhoch1, Ed Jackson4. 1Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, California , USA; 2VirtualScopics Inc., Rochester, New York, USA; 3Premiere Oncology, Santa Monica, California , USA; 4The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA; 5Landmark Imaging, Los Angeles, California , USA; 6University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA. AMG 386 is a peptide-fc fusion protein (peptibody) that specifically inhibits the interaction of angiopoietins-1 and -2 (Ang1/2) with Tie-2 receptor. We performed DCE-MRI in Colo205 xenografts and in the first in human (FIH) clinical trial to study the effect of AMG 386 on tumor vasculature. Both pre-clinical ...
To investigate the theory, Bhandari and colleagues first tested a cohort of lung secretion samples taken from premature infants. After testing the samples, the researchers found that miR-34a was significantly increased only in the samples taken from babies who went on to develop BPD. The researchers also tested lung tissue collected postmortem from babies who had died at different ages from lung disease. Again, they found that this particular microRNA was expressed in the samples and also its downstream targets (the production of proteins) were suppressed in the ones with BPD. Next, the researchers found that levels of miR-34a levels were increased in the lungs of neonatal mice exposed to high levels of oxygen. Bhandari and his team then blocked the microRNA by repressing gene expression, as well as pharmacologically, by injecting the mouse models with the downstream target of the miR-34a, angiopoietin-1. Blocking miR-34a or injecting angiopoietin-1 in the mouse models improved their lung ...
Compare & find the top performing anti-Mouse (Murine) Angiopoietin 1 antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)).
Endometriosis is a leading cause of infertility among young women. Little is known about the cause. Many theories exist, but nothing has proven to be the direct cause. Rosemary Gladstar has an excellent section on endometriosis in her book Herbal Healing for Women. Endometriosis is a "hyperestrogen" disease, produced by an over-secretion of estrogen which stimulates its growth. Reducing estrogen levels in the body and regulating hormone production is the specific goal in most natural therapies. To accomplish this the primary focus is on the liver and endocrine system. Natural therapies include diet, herbs, vitamins, and stress reduction. Seek to balance the entire system. Rosemary warns it may take several months for noticeable changes to occur. You should make a commitment to work on your health program for at least 4 to 6 months. Balancing the body is a gradual thing and takes time. If you need immediate results consult with a gynecologist. Vitamin E is a natural antagonist to estrogen, it ...
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Pathological neovascularization is a hallmark of numerous vascular diseases. Since the balance between neovessel formation and regression determines severity, modulating neovessel growth is highly desirable. Vascular regression coincides with a spike in immune activity. We therefore hypothesize (and pilot studies suggest) that pathologic vessel regression may be mediated, in part, through the complement system, an integral part of innate immunity. The complement system is an intricate immune surveillance system that is able to discriminate between healthy host tissue, diseased host tissue, apoptotic cells and foreign invaders and is able to modulate the elimination and repair of host tissue accordingly ...
Principal Investigator:KATO Tetsuro, Project Period (FY):1998 - 2000, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)., Section:一般, Research Field:Urology
Affiliation:名古屋市立大学,大学院医学研究科,講師, Research Field:Ophthalmology, Keywords:脈絡膜新生血管,炎症,加齢黄斑変性,ペリサイト,細胞生物学,リポフスチン,Angiopoietin-2,マウス,発現抑制,脂質, # of Research Projects:5, # of Research Products:33, Ongoing Project:加齢黄斑変性の病態におけるブルッフ膜への加齢性沈着脂質の役割の解明
Activation of the Tie2 receptor by the ligand Angiopoietin 2. This has been shown in vitro and in vivo. Activation of the ... Activation of the signaling pathway by Delta4, Angiopoietin 2, insulin, or a combination of the three and a JAK inhibitor ... Angiopoietin 2). Hes3, in turn, by regulating the expression of Shh and potentially other factors, can also exert an effect on ... Angiopoietin 2, insulin, or a combined treatment consisting of all three factors and an inhibitor of JAK) induce the increase ...
It targets the protein angiopoietin 2. As of May 2017[update], it is in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of diabetic ... "Anti-vasculaR Endothelial Growth Factor plUs Anti-angiopoietin 2 in Fixed comBination therapY: Evaluation for the Treatment of ... Clinical trial number NCT02713204 for "Anti-angiOpoeitin 2 Plus Anti-vascular eNdothelial Growth Factor as a therapY for ...
Angiopoietin 2. antagonist of angiopoietin 1. TSP-1 and TSP-2. inhibit cell migration, cell proliferation, cell adhesion and ... 2 (4): 263-70. doi:10.1021/cb600362d. PMID 17432820.. *^ Aftab, B. T.; Dobromilskaya, I.; Liu, J. O.; Rudin, C. M. (2011). " ... Meth-1 and Meth-2. IFN-α, -β and -γ, CXCL10, IL-4, -12 and -18. inhibit cell migration of endothelial cells, downregulate bFGF ... 275 (2): 1209-15. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.2.1209. PMID 10625665.. *^ Lee, SJ.; Nathans, D. (Mar 1988). "Proliferin secreted by ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... 274 (2): 337-43. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.3142. PMID 10913340.. *^ Koga C, Adati N, Nakata K, Mikoshiba K, Furuhata Y, Sato S, Tei ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 2] cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene was shown to be expressed in normal brain, ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 2 (3): 157-77. doi:10.1002/aur.80. PMID 19598235.. *. Mizuno N, Shiba H, Inui T, et al. (2008). "Effect of neurotrophin-4/5 on ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Phase II results for breast cancer that over-expresses the protein human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2-positive ... N-[4-[(3-Chloro-4-fluorophenyl)amino]-7-[[(3S)-tetrahydro-3-furanyl]oxy]-6-quinazolinyl]-4(dimethylamino)-2-butenamide ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... 88 (2): 595-603. doi:10.1152/jn.2002.88.2.595. PMID 12163512.. *^ Chou WH, Wang D, McMahon T, Qi ZH, Song M, Zhang C, Shokat KM ... 16 (2): 477-83. doi:10.1017/S1461145712000685. PMC 3802523. PMID 22827965.. *^ Egan MF, Kojima M, Callicott JH, Goldberg TE, ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... 28A (2): 102-8. doi:10.1007/BF02631013. PMID 1537750.. *^ "Researchers make older beta cells act young again". Eurekalert.org. ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... doi:10.1016/0896-6273(90)90215-2. PMID 2171589.. *^ Paul D, Lipton A, Klinger I (1971). "Serum factor requirements of normal ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 46 (2): 101-110. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.1998.00764.x. ISSN 0306-5251. PMC 1873672. PMID 9723817.. ... 4-methyl-N-[3-(4-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)- 5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3- [(4-pyridin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-yl) amino]benzamide ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 2 (3): 155-64. doi:10.1038/35058515. PMID 11256076.. *. Kozlosky CJ, Maraskovsky E, McGrew JT, et al. (1995). "Ligands for the ... 10 (2): 299-306. PMID 7838529.. *. Gale NW, Holland SJ, Valenzuela DM, et al. (1996). "Eph receptors and ligands comprise two ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... 15 (2): 120-5. doi:10.1177/1534734616645444. PMID 27151755.. *^ a b Martí-Carvajal AJ, Gluud C, Nicola S, Simancas-Racines D, ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... doi:10.1016/S0014-4827(02)00105-2. PMID 12648462.. *^ Carpenter G, Cohen S (May 1990). "Epidermal growth factor". The Journal ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 110 (2): 175-91. doi:10.1042/CS20050161. PMID 16411894.. *^ Eriksson; et al. (November 1998). "Neurogenesis in the adult human ... ISBN 978-0-12-385870-2.. *^ Bamji, SX (1998). "The p75 neurotrophin receptor mediates neuronal apoptosis and is essential for ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... 35 (2): 376-9. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0371. PMID 8661153.. *^ Kozlosky CJ, VandenBos T, Park L, Cerretti DP, Carpenter MK (Oct ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 2 (3): 155-64. doi:10.1038/35058515. PMID 11256076.. *. Winslow JW, Moran P, Valverde J, et al. (1995). "Cloning of AL-1, a ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 2,3-d]-pyrimidine derivatives such as NVP-AEW541[23]). The monoclonal antibody figitumumab which targets the IGF-1R is ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 9 (2): 97-109. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:2,97::AID-HUMU1,3.0.CO;2-M. PMID 9067749.. ... doi:10.1016/s0003-4266(05)81748-2. PMID 15988377.. *. Lantieri F, Griseri P, Ceccherini I (2006). "Molecular mechanisms of RET- ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 110 (2): 175-91. doi:10.1042/CS20050161. PMID 16411894.. *^ Eriksson PS, Perfilieva E, Björk-Eriksson T, Alborn AM, Nordborg C ... 978-0-12-385870-2. .. *^ Bamji SX, Majdan M, Pozniak CD, Belliveau DJ, Aloyz R, Kohn J, Causing CG, Miller FD (February 1998). ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... 356 (2): 125-34. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa060655. PMID 17215530.. *^ a b "Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) -SORAFENIB". ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 69 (2): 223-40. doi:10.2165/00003495-200969020-00006. PMID 19228077.. *^ Zhang Y (Jan 2014). "Screening of kinase inhibitors ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Vandetanib (INN, trade name Caprelsa)[2] is an anti-cancer drug that is used for the treatment of certain tumours of the ... Starkey, Jonathan (August 2, 2011). "AstraZeneca (finally) lands name for cancer drug". Delaware Inc.. ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... doi:10.1088/1741-2560/3/2/011. PMID 16705273.. *^ a b c d Henderson, Christopher E (1996-02-01). "Role of neurotrophic factors ... doi:10.1016/s0896-6273(00)80039-2. PMID 8789936.. *^ a b Lambert, P. D.; Anderson, K. D.; Sleeman, M. W.; Wong, V.; Tan, J.; ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
Angiopoietin. *Agonists: Angiopoietin 1. *Angiopoietin 4. *Antagonists: Angiopoietin 2. *Angiopoietin 3. *Kinase inhibitors: ... 2 (5): 561-6. doi:10.1038/nm0596-561. PMID 8616716.. *^ Strawn LM, McMahon G, App H, Schreck R, Kuchler WR, Longhi MP, Hui TH, ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... 2. Heterocyclic and alpha-substituted benzylidenemalononitrile tyrphostins as potent inhibitors of EGF receptor and ErbB2/neu ...
Also, angiopoietin 2 can act as an antagonist to Tie-2. This destabilizes the endothelial cells, which accounts for less ... Angiopoietin 1 and Tie-2 signaling is essential for maturation and stabilization of endothelial cells. Platelet-derived growth ... Similar to the inhibition of the PDGF pathway, angiopoietin 2 reduces levels of pericytes, leading to diabetic retinopathy. ... "Angiopoietin-2, a Natural Antagonist for Tie2 That Disrupts in vivo Angiogenesis". Science. 277 (5322): 55-60. doi:10.1126/ ...
... and angiopoietins, that play the key roles in the blood vessel formation. "Laboratory of Biodynamics and Integrative Biology". ... "Requisite role of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, during embryonic angiogenesis". Cell. 87 (7): 1171-1180. doi: ... "Angiopoietin-2, a Natural Antagonist for Tie2 That Disrupts in vivo Angiogenesis". Science. 277 (5322): 55-60. doi:10.1126/ ... October 1993). "Tie-1 and tie-2 define another class of putative receptor tyrosine kinase genes expressed in early embryonic ...
"Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 share the same binding domains in the Tie-2 receptor involving the first Ig-like loop and the ... angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, modulate VEGF-induced postnatal neovascularization". Circulation Research. 83 (3): 233-40. ... Angiopoietin-1 receptor also known as CD202B (cluster of differentiation 202B) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Master Z, Jones N, Tran J, Jones J, Kerbel RS, Dumont DJ (Nov 2001). "Dok-R plays a pivotal role in angiopoietin-1-dependent ...
Angiopoietin-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPT4 gene. Angiopoietins are proteins with important roles in ... 2005). "Biological characterization of angiopoietin-3 and angiopoietin-4". FASEB J. 18 (11): 1200-8. doi:10.1096/fj.03-1466com ... "Genomic structures of the human angiopoietins show polymorphism in angiopoietin-2". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 94 (3-4): 147-54. ... "Entrez Gene: ANGPT4 angiopoietin 4". Human ANGPT4 genome location and ANGPT4 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ...
In the combined absence of angiopoietin 1 and angiopoietin 2, Schlemm's canal and episcleral lymphatic vasculature completely ... 2][3][4] Developmental studies revealed that Schlemm's canal develops via a unique mechanism involving the transdifferentiation ... 2][3][4] It is named after Friedrich Schlemm (1795-1858), a German anatomist. ... of venous endothelial cells in the eye into lymphatic-like endothelial cells.[2][3][4] ...
Angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin-4 participate in the formation of blood vessels. ANGPTL2 protein is a secreted ... and characterization of angiopoietin-related protein. angiopoietin-related protein induces endothelial cell sprouting". J Biol ... Angiopoietin-related protein 2 also known as angiopoietin-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL2 ... Angiopoietins are members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family and the only known growth factors largely specific ...
Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) induces expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members. (a) Relative mRNA expression ... fig02: Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) induces expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members. (a) Relative mRNA ... fig02: Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) induces expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members. (a) Relative mRNA ... Angiopoietin-like protein 2 renders colorectal cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy by activating spleen tyrosine kinase- ...
Browse our Angiopoietin-like Protein 1/ANGPTL1 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Angiopoietin-like Protein 1/ANGPTL1 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... angiopoietin Y1 protein, angiopoietin-3 protein, angiopoietin-like 1 protein, Angiopoietin-like protein 1 protein, angiopoietin ... Angiopoietin-like Protein 1/ANGPTL1 Proteins. We offer Angiopoietin-like Protein 1/ANGPTL1 Peptides and Angiopoietin-like ...
Response of angiopoietin-like proteins 3 and 4 to hemodialysis.. [Dana Mahmood, Elena Makoveichuk, Solveig Nilsson, Gunilla ... Patients on chronic hemodialysis (cHD) have decreased activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTL ... o-Phenylenediamine dihydrochloride, tablet, 2 mg substrate per tablet C6H8N2 · 2HCl ...
Angiopoietin-like protein 4, Lipoprotein lipase, Macrophages, GW501516 National Category Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ... Angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) 4 inactivates LPL and ANGPTL4 expression is controlled by peroxisome proliferator-activated ... Inactivation of lipoprotein lipase occurs on the surface of THP-1 macrophages where oligomers of angiopoietin-like protein 4 ... 425, no 2, 138-143 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published Abstract [en] Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglycerides in ...
Buy our Human Angiopoietin 2 peptide. Ab172727 is a blocking peptide for ab125692 and has been validated in BL. Abcam provides ... Binds to TIE2 receptor and counteracts blood vessel maturation/stability mediated by angiopoietin-1. Its function may be ... Shipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C long term. Avoid freeze / thaw ...
Emerging evidence indicates that angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2), a well-recognized vascular destabilizing factor, is a biomarker of ...
Plasma angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, angiopoietin receptor tie-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in acute ... Angiopoietin-2 exacerbates cardiac hypoxia and inflammation after myocardial infarction. Seung-Jun Lee,1 Choong-kun Lee,1,2 ... Circulating angiopoietin-2, its soluble receptor Tie-2, and mortality in the general population. Eur J Heart Fail. 2013;15(12): ... Angiopoietin-2 sensitizes endothelial cells to TNF-alpha and has a crucial role in the induction of inflammation. Nat Med. 2006 ...
Abcams Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Urine, Serum, Heparin Plasma, EDTA Plasma in mouse. ... Abcams mouse Angiopoietin-2 in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the accurate quantitative ... An Angiopoietin-2 specific rat monoclonal antibody has been precoated onto 96-well plates. Standards and test samples are added ... Get better reproducibility in only 90 minutes with Mouse Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kit (ab209883) from our SimpleStep ELISA® range. ...
2007) Differential response of lymphatic, venous and arterial endothelial cells to angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2. BMC Cell ... 2011) Angiopoietin-1 is essential in mouse vasculature during development and in response to injury. J Clin Invest 121:2278- ... 2006) Angiopoietin-2 sensitizes endothelial cells to TNF-alpha and has a crucial role in the induction of inflammation. Nat Med ... 2016) Angiopoietin receptor Tie2 is required for vein specification and maintenance via regulating COUP-TFII. eLife 5:e21032. ...
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Endothelial Cell-Derived Angiopoietin-2 Controls Liver Regeneration as a Spatiotemporal Rheostat ... Endothelial Cell-Derived Angiopoietin-2 Controls Liver Regeneration as a Spatiotemporal Rheostat ... Endothelial Cell-Derived Angiopoietin-2 Controls Liver Regeneration as a Spatiotemporal Rheostat ... Endothelial Cell-Derived Angiopoietin-2 Controls Liver Regeneration as a Spatiotemporal Rheostat ...
Hu et al. (p. 416) found that rapid down-regulation of endothelial-derived Angiopoietin-2 following partial hepatectomy ... Here, we show that the expression of Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) in LSECs is dynamically regulated after partial hepatectomy. During ... Endothelial Cell-Derived Angiopoietin-2 Controls Liver Regeneration as a Spatiotemporal Rheostat ... Endothelial Cell-Derived Angiopoietin-2 Controls Liver Regeneration as a Spatiotemporal Rheostat ...
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Anti-Angiopoietin 2 pAb (GTX10601) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Angiopoietin 2 antibody (angiopoietin 2) for ELISA, IHC-P, WB. ... Angiopoietin 2 probably acts as a natural antagonist for Ang1 ... angiopoietin 2. Background. Angiopoietin 2 and angiopoietin 1 have an N-terminal coiled-coil domain and a C-terminal fibrinogen ... Recombinant human angiopoietin 2 has a molecular mass of approximately 66 kDa in SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing ...
Differential expression of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 in colon carcinoma. A possible mechanism for the initiation of ... Angiopoietin-2 Stimulates Breast Cancer Metastasis through the α5β1 Integrin-Mediated Pathway. Yorihisha Imanishi, Bo Hu, ... Angiopoietin-2 expression in breast cancer correlates with lymph node invasion and short survival. Int J Cancer 2003; 103: 466- ... Expression of angiopoietins and its clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 7124-9. ...
In our study, the expression of Angiopoietin-1 (ANG1) and Angiopoietin-2 (ANG2) mRNA in archival human breast cancer tumor ... In our study, the expression of Angiopoietin-1 (ANG1) and Angiopoietin-2 (ANG2) mRNA in archival human breast cancer tumor ... Angiopoietin-2 expression in breast cancer correlates with lymph node invasion and short survival Int J Cancer. 2003 Feb 10;103 ...
Order this anti-Angiopoietin 2 antibody. , Product number ABIN95113 ... Rabbit Polyclonal Angiopoietin 2 antibody N-Term for WB. Published in 1 Pubmed Reference. ... Product Details anti-Angiopoietin 2 Antibody References Images Handling Application Details Target Details back to top ... anti-Mouse (Murine) Angiopoietin 2 antibody for Western Blotting Show more 45 anti-Mouse (Murine) Angiopoietin 2 antibody for ...
What is angiopoietin 2? Meaning of angiopoietin 2 medical term. What does angiopoietin 2 mean? ... Looking for online definition of angiopoietin 2 in the Medical Dictionary? angiopoietin 2 explanation free. ... Most studies have reported vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1), and angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2) to be ... angiopoietin 1 and angiopoietin 2, placental growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor-B [29].. Comparative analysis of ...
Roles of Angiopoietin Like Protein-2 in Corneal Neovascularization You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected ... Purpose: : To examine the roles of angiopoietin like protein 2 (Angptl2) in corneal neovascularization using transgenic mice ... T. Usui, S. Yokoo, S. Amano, Y. Oike; Roles of Angiopoietin Like Protein-2 in Corneal Neovascularization. Invest. Ophthalmol. ...
Anti-vasculaR Endothelial Growth Factor plUs Anti-angiopoietin 2 in Fixed comBination therapY: Evaluation for the Treatment of ... Active Comparator: Aflibercept 2 mg Participants were administered intravitreal injection of Aflibercept (IAI) 2 mg Q4 on Day 1 ... Experimental: Aflibercept 2 mg Q4 to REGN910-3 (6 mg:2 mg) Q8 Participants were administered intravitreal injection of ... Experimental: Aflibercept 2 mg Q4 to Aflibercept 2 mg Q8 Participants were administered intravitreal injection of Aflibercept ( ...
  • Apoptosis induced by antineoplastic drug treatment was significantly decreased in SW480/ANGPTL2 compared to control cells.Expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family genes was upregulated in SW480/ANGPTL2 compared to SW480/Ctrl cells.To assess signaling downstream of ANGPTL2 underlying this effect, we carried out RNA sequencing analysis of SW480/ANGPTL2 and SW480/Ctrl cells. (nih.gov)
  • a) Relative mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members BCL-2 (left) and BCL-XL (middle) and of pro-apoptotic BAX (right) in SW480/ANGPTL2-1, SW480/ANGPTL2-2, or SW480/Ctrl cells. (nih.gov)
  • 19) Therefore, we examined the expression of BCL-2 family mRNAs in SW480/ANGPTL2-1 and -2 cells or SW480/Ctrl cells. (nih.gov)
  • 19,20) Therefore, we analyzed that ratio in SW480/ANGPTL2-1, SW480/ANGPTL2-2, and SW480/Ctrl cells and found that BCL-2/BAX and BCL-XL/BAX ratios were greater in both ANGPTL2-overexpressing lines than they were in controls (Fig. 2b). (nih.gov)
  • Recently, several reports suggested that a high BCL-2/BAX or BCL-XL/BAX ratio is positively correlated with progression of several diseases or malignant tumors and that the BCL-2/BAX ratio may serve as a prognostic marker for patients with rectal carcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • In Multiple Myeloma (MM), serum Ang-2 correlates with disease progression and response to therapy. (ovid.com)
  • Serum levels of angiopoietin-related growth factor in diabetes mellitus and chronic hemodialysis. (termedia.pl)
  • Angiopoietin-2 seems to be a crucial proangiogenic cytokine overproduced in patients with SRA characterized by repeated exacerbations and Angiopoietin-2 serum levels can serve as a biomarker of severe asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In one study, involving a small group of subjects elevated serum angiopoietins levels were found in asthma patients and have been associated with decreased lung function [ 16 ], suggesting that the serum level of proangiogenic factors may reflect ongoing asthmatic inflammation and serve as a potential biomarker of the disease severity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate serum CRP and Ang-2 levels on the first (D1) and seventh day (D7) of hospitalization due to a COPD exacerbation and to examine possible associations of CRP and Ang-2 levels and kinetics with the length of hospital stay and outcome. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Serum Ang-2 presented a significant positive correlation with CRP levels both on D1 and D7 (r = 0.315 and r = 0.228, respectively). (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Conclusions: Serum Ang-2 levels are elevated at the onset of COPD exacerbations and are positively associated with CRP levels. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Serum Ang-2 may serve as a biomarker that could predict the outcome of a COPD exacerbation. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Serum ANG-2 level is significantly increased in ARDS patients [ 18 , 19 ], and ANG-2 displays predictive value for ARDS [ 19 , 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Hence, we aimed to explore the correlations between serum levels of ANGPTL8 and subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. (eiaab.com)
  • Serum levels of ANGPTL8 and triglyceride (TG) were significantly increased in type 2 diabetic patients with subclinical atherosclerosis as compared with type 2 diabetic patients without subclinical atherosclerosis and control subjects (P? (eiaab.com)
  • To investigate the predictive value of the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation 2 (APACHE2) score and lung injury prediction score (LIPS) for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) when combined with biomarkers for this condition in patients with ARDS risk factors. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical utility of whole blood angiopoietin (ANG) levels as biomarkers of disease severity in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that whole blood ANG-1/2 levels are promising clinically informative biomarkers of disease severity in malarial syndromes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Objectives The goal of this research was to test the hypothesis that plasma angiopoietin (Ang-1), its soluble receptor tie-2, and Ang-2 levels would be abnormal in patients with acute and chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) when compared with healthy controls. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Ang-2 concentrations were elevated in SM and associated with increased venous lactate, plasma intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations, parasite biomass, and mortality. (mysciencework.com)
  • Plasma ANG-2 level, sE-selectin level, LIPS, and APACHE2 score in ARDS patients were significantly higher than those in non-ARDS patients. (hindawi.com)
  • In conclusion, plasma ANG-2 level, LIPS, and APACHE2 score are correlated with ARDS. (hindawi.com)
  • Plasma angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) is a proinflammatory cytokine that can regulate endothelial permeability [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The current study addresses this issue, focusing on angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2) and endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 (endocan) in ARDS patients. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The LIPS, APACHE2 score, primary diagnosis at admission, and ARDS risk factors were determined within 6 h of admission, and PaO 2 /FiO 2 was determined on the day of admission. (hindawi.com)
  • When the APACHE2 score was used in combination with the LIPS and ANG-2 level to predict ARDS, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was not significantly increased. (hindawi.com)
  • Compared to LIPS or ANG-2 alone, LIPS in combination with ANG-2 had significantly increased positive predictive value (PPV) and AUC for the prediction of ARDS. (hindawi.com)
  • Combined LIPS and ANG-2 level displays favorable sensitivity, specificity, and AUC for the prediction of ARDS. (hindawi.com)
  • Although great progress has been made in the methods used to improve the clinical prognosis of ARDS (such as the use of protective mechanical ventilation [ 2 - 4 ] and fluid balance therapy [ 5 ]), the morbidity and mortality of ARDS remain largely unchanged. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients with unfavorable outcome had significantly higher Ang-2 levels both on D1 (p = 0.04) and D7 (p = 0.01). (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Kanda, " Angiopoietin 2 stimulates migration and tube-like structure formation of murine brain capillary endothelial cells through c-Fes and c-Fyn," Journal of Cell Science, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)