Angiopoietin-2: An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.Angiopoietin-1: The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Receptor, TIE-2: A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).Angiopoietins: A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.Receptor, TIE-1: A TIE receptor found predominantly on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is considered essential for vascular development and can form a heterodimer with the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. The TIE-1 receptor may play a role in regulating BLOOD VESSEL stability and maturation.Receptors, TIE: A family of structurally-related tyrosine kinase receptors that are expressed predominantly in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and are essential for development of BLOOD VESSELS (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC). The name derives from the fact that they are tyrosine kinases that contain Ig and EGF domains.Angiogenesis Inducing Agents: Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Mycoplasma pulmonis: A species of gram-negative bacteria highly pathogenic to RATS and MICE. It is the primary cause of murine respiratory mycoplasmosis.Angiogenic Proteins: Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Pericytes: Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Retinal Perforations: Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Vitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mice, Inbred C57BLVitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel angiopoietin family protein, angiopoietin-3. (1/540)

Using homology-based PCR, we have isolated cDNA encoding a novel member (491 amino acids) of the angiopoietin (Ang) family from human adult heart cDNA and have designated it angiopoietin-3 (Ang3). The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal portions of Ang-3 contain the characteristic coiled-coil domain and fibrinogen-like domain that are conserved in other known Angs. Ang3 has a highly hydrophobic region at the N-terminus (approximately 21 amino acids) that is typical of a signal sequence for protein secretion. Ang3 mRNA is most abundant in adrenal gland, placenta, thyroid gland, heart and small intestine in human adult tissues. Additionally, Ang3 is a secretory protein, but is not a mitogen in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor selectively up-regulate angiopoietin-2 in bovine microvascular endothelial cells. (2/540)

Recent studies have shown that the angiopoietin-Tie2 system is a predominant regulator of vascular integrity. In this study, we investigated the effect of two known angiogenic stimuli, hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), on these molecules. VEGF induced both a time- and concentration-dependent increase in angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) mRNA expression in bovine microvascular endothelial cells. This up-regulation was derived primarily from an increased transcription rate as evidenced by nuclear run-on assay and mRNA decay study. The increased Ang2 expression upon VEGF treatment was almost totally abolished by inhibition of tyrosine kinase or mitogen-activated protein kinase and partially by suppression of protein kinase C. Hypoxia also directly increased Ang2 mRNA expression. In contrast, Ang1 and Tie2 responded to neither of these stimuli. The enhanced Ang2 expression following VEGF stimulation and hypoxia was accompanied by de novo protein synthesis as detected by immunoprecipitation. In a mouse model of ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization, Ang2 mRNA was up-regulated in the ischemic inner retinal layer, and remarkable expression was observed in neovascular vessels. These data suggest that both hypoxia- and VEGF-induced neovascularization might be facilitated by selective induction of Ang2, which deteriorates the integrity of preexisting vasculature.  (+info)

Vessel cooption, regression, and growth in tumors mediated by angiopoietins and VEGF. (3/540)

In contrast with the prevailing view that most tumors and metastases begin as avascular masses, evidence is presented here that a subset of tumors instead initially grows by coopting existing host vessels. This coopted host vasculature does not immediately undergo angiogenesis to support the tumor but instead regresses, leading to a secondarily avascular tumor and massive tumor cell loss. Ultimately, however, the remaining tumor is rescued by robust angiogenesis at the tumor margin. The expression patterns of the angiogenic antagonist angiopoietin-2 and of pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) suggest that these proteins may be critical regulators of this balance between vascular regression and growth.  (+info)

Expressions of angiopoietins and Tie2 in human choroidal neovascular membranes. (4/540)

PURPOSE: To elucidate the potential role of angiopoietins and the Tie2 system in choroidal neovascularization. METHODS: Surgically excised choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVMs) were obtained at vitrectomy from five eyes with age-related macular degeneration, three eyes with idiopathic neovascular maculopathy, and two eyes had degenerative myopia and two eyes had angioid streaks. Light microscopic immunohistochemistry was performed to detect cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Ang1, and Ang2 and cellular components such as retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Immunofluorescent double staining using confocal microscopy was performed to identify the cell types that secrete specific cytokines. RESULTS: Ang1 and Ang2 were positive in all surgically excised CNVMs, regardless of the primary disease. Double staining revealed that many of the cytokeratin, CD68 and factor VIII positive cells also had Ang1 and Ang2 immunoreactivities. In contrast to Ang1, Ang2 immunoreactivity tends to be higher in the highly vascularized regions of many CNVMs, and the localization was very similar to that of VEGF staining. Almost all vascular structures had prominent immunoreactivity for Tie2, which was confirmed by double staining for Tie2 and factor VIII. Tie2 immunoreactivity was also observed in the RPE monolayer and in pigmented, polygonal, and fibroblast-like cells in the stroma. CONCLUSIONS: Present findings that Ang2 and VEGF are co-upregulated and that Tie2 is expressed in a variety of cell types in CNVMs further support a crucial role of the interaction between VEGF and Ang2 in pathologic angiogenesis of CNVM formation.  (+info)

Expression of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and the Tie-2 receptor tyrosine kinase during mouse kidney maturation. (5/540)

The Tie-2 receptor tyrosine kinase transduces embryonic endothelial differentiation, with Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) acting as a stimulatory ligand and Ang-2 postulated to be a naturally occurring inhibitor. Expression of these genes was sought during mouse kidney maturation from the onset of glomerulogenesis (embryonic day 14 [E14]) to the end of nephron formation (2 wk postnatal [P2]), and during medullary maturation into adulthood (P8). Using Northern and slot blotting of RNA extracted from whole organs, these three genes were expressed throughout the experimental period with peak levels at P2 to P3. By in situ hybridization analysis at E18, P1, and P3, Ang-1 mRNA was found to localize to condensing renal mesenchymal cells, proximal tubules, and glomeruli in addition to maturing tubules of the outer medulla. In contrast, Ang-2 transcripts were more spatially restricted, being detected only in differentiating outer medullary tubules and the vasa recta bundle area. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, Tie-2 was detected in capillaries of the nephrogenic cortex, glomerular tufts, cortical interstitium, and medulla including vessels in the vasa recta. Using Western blotting of protein extracted from whole organs, Tie-2 protein was detected between E14 and P8 with tyrosine phosphorylated Tie-2 evident from E18. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Tie-2 has roles in maturation of both glomeruli and vasa rectae.  (+info)

New model of tumor angiogenesis: dynamic balance between vessel regression and growth mediated by angiopoietins and VEGF. (6/540)

Our analyses in several different tumor settings challenge the prevailing view that malignancies and metastases generally initiate as avascular masses that only belatedly induce vascular support. Instead, we find that malignant cells rapidly co-opt existing host vessels to form an initially well-vascularized tumor mass. Paradoxically, the co-opted vasculature does not undergo angiogenesis to support the growing tumor, but instead regresses (perhaps as part of a normal host defense mechanism) via a process that involves disruption of endothelial cell/smooth muscle cell interactions and endothelial cell apoptosis. This vessel regression in turn results in necrosis within the central part of the tumor. However, robust angiogenesis is initiated at the tumor margin, rescuing the surviving tumor and supporting further growth. The expression patterns of Angiopoietin-2 (the natural antagonist for the angiogenic Tie2 receptor) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) strongly implicate these factors in the above processes. Angiopoietin-2 is highly induced in co-opted vessels, prior to VEGF induction in the adjacent tumor cells, providing perhaps the earliest marker of tumor vasculature and apparently marking the co-opted vessels for regression. Subsequently, VEGF upregulation coincident with Angiopoietin-2 expression at the tumor periphery is associated with robust angiogenesis. Thus, in tumors, Angiopoietin-2 and VEGF seem to reprise the roles they play during vascular remodeling in normal tissues, acting to regulate the previously underappreciated balance between vascular regression and growth.  (+info)

Angiopoietin-1 and -2 coiled coil domains mediate distinct homo-oligomerization patterns, but fibrinogen-like domains mediate ligand activity. (7/540)

Activity of endothelial Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase is modulated by two naturally occurring, secreted ligands, angiopoietin-1 and -2, which have opposing effects on its phosphorylation. Receptor tyrosine kinase activation requires receptor dimerization/multimerization, which, for many receptors, is mediated by homo-oligomeric ligands binding to and bridging receptor molecules. We show here that angiopoietin-1 and -2 form distinct arrays of disulfide-linked homo-oligomeric complexes. Their mobilities on nonreducing gels suggest that angiopoietin-2 exists predominantly as a homodimer but also forms higher order multimers. In contrast, angiopoietin-1 forms some homotrimers, but predominantly exists in higher order multimers. These two structurally related, 60% homologous ligands are predominantly composed of an amino-terminal coiled coil domain and a carboxyl-terminal fibrinogen-like domain. We show that their distinct oligomerization patterns are determined by their coiled coil domains and, furthermore, that their coiled coil domains, but not their fibrinogen-like domains, are sufficient to mediate formation of disulfide-linked homo-oligomers. In contrast, the differential effects of these ligands on endothelial Tie2 phosphorylation is mediated by their fibrinogen-like domains. We conclude from these studies that the coiled coil and fibrinogen-like domains of the angiopoietins have distinct functions with the coiled coil domain mediating ligand homo-oligomerization and the fibrinogen-like domain mediating ligand activity.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin regulation by gonadotrophin and steroids in macaque granulosa cells during the peri-ovulatory interval. (8/540)

The role of endothelial cell-specific growth factors in the vascularization of the primate peri-ovulatory follicle was examined. Experiments were designed firstly to detect expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in granulosa cells and secondly, to determine whether gonadotrophins and/or steroids regulate their expression during the peri-ovulatory interval. Granulosa cells and follicular fluid were collected from rhesus macaques undergoing ovarian stimulation before (0 h), 12, or 36 h after a bolus of ovulatory human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), with or without steroid ablation and progestin replacement. VEGF, Ang-1 and Ang-2 mRNA were all detected prior to the ovulatory stimulus. Whereas follicular fluid VEGF concentrations increased 6-fold (P < 0.05) between 0 and 12 h, VEGF mRNA values were unchanged and were unaffected by steroid ablation. Ang-1 mRNA decreased from 0 to 12 h (P < 0.05), followed by a 30-fold increase (P < 0.05) at 36 h, while Ang-2 mRNA values were unchanged between 0, 12 and 36 h. Steroid ablation decreased (P < 0.05) Ang-1 mRNA at 36 h, and Ang-2 mRNA at 12 h, while only Ang-1 was restored by progestin replacement. These data suggest a dynamic expression of vascular-specific growth factors in a gonadotrophin-dependent, steroid-independent (VEGF) or steroid-dependent (Ang-1) manner in granulosa cells of peri-ovulatory follicles of primates.  (+info)

*Vascular endothelial growth factor A

"Vitreous levels of angiopoietin 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy". ... 30 (2): 179-191. doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00047.2007. PMID 17426116. Huusko J, Merentie M, Dijkstra MH, Ryhänen MM, Karvinen ... Lamalice L, Houle F, Huot J (November 2006). "Phosphorylation of Tyr1214 within VEGFR-2 triggers the recruitment of Nck and ... Kobayashi M, Nishita M, Mishima T, Ohashi K, Mizuno K (February 2006). "MAPKAPK-2-mediated LIM-kinase activation is critical ...

*Angiopoietin-related protein 2

Angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin-4 participate in the formation of blood vessels. ANGPTL2 protein is a secreted ... and characterization of angiopoietin-related protein. angiopoietin-related protein induces endothelial cell sprouting". J Biol ... Angiopoietin-related protein 2 also known as angiopoietin-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL2 ... Angiopoietins are members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family and the only known growth factors largely specific ...

*Hes3 signaling axis

Activation of the Tie2 receptor by the ligand Angiopoietin 2. This has been shown in vitro and in vivo. Activation of the ... Activation of the signaling pathway by Delta4, Angiopoietin 2, insulin, or a combination of the three and a JAK inhibitor ... Angiopoietin 2). Hes3, in turn, by regulating the expression of Shh and potentially other factors, can also exert an effect on ... Angiopoietin 2, insulin, or a combined treatment consisting of all three factors and an inhibitor of JAK) induce the increase ...

*Nesvacumab

It targets the protein angiopoietin 2. As of May 2017[update], it is in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of diabetic ... "Anti-vasculaR Endothelial Growth Factor plUs Anti-angiopoietin 2 in Fixed comBination therapY: Evaluation for the Treatment of ... Clinical trial number NCT02713204 for "Anti-angiOpoeitin 2 Plus Anti-vascular eNdothelial Growth Factor as a therapY for ...

*Pericyte

Also, angiopoietin 2 can act as an antagonist to Tie-2. This destabilizes the endothelial cells, which accounts for less ... Angiopoietin 1 and Tie-2 signaling is essential for maturation and stabilization of endothelial cells. Platelet-derived growth ... Similar to the inhibition of the PDGF pathway, angiopoietin 2 reduces levels of pericytes, leading to diabetic retinopathy. ... "Angiopoietin-2, a Natural Antagonist for Tie2 That Disrupts in vivo Angiogenesis". Science. 277 (5322): 55-60. doi:10.1126/ ...

*Thomas N. Sato

... and angiopoietins, that play the key roles in the blood vessel formation. "Laboratory of Biodynamics and Integrative Biology". ... "Requisite role of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, during embryonic angiogenesis". Cell. 87 (7): 1171-1180. doi: ... "Angiopoietin-2, a Natural Antagonist for Tie2 That Disrupts in vivo Angiogenesis". Science. 277 (5322): 55-60. doi:10.1126/ ... October 1993). "Tie-1 and tie-2 define another class of putative receptor tyrosine kinase genes expressed in early embryonic ...

*TEK tyrosine kinase

"Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 share the same binding domains in the Tie-2 receptor involving the first Ig-like loop and the ... angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, modulate VEGF-induced postnatal neovascularization". Circulation Research. 83 (3): 233-40. ... Angiopoietin-1 receptor also known as CD202B (cluster of differentiation 202B) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Master Z, Jones N, Tran J, Jones J, Kerbel RS, Dumont DJ (Nov 2001). "Dok-R plays a pivotal role in angiopoietin-1-dependent ...

*ANGPT4

Angiopoietin-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPT4 gene. Angiopoietins are proteins with important roles in ... 2005). "Biological characterization of angiopoietin-3 and angiopoietin-4". FASEB J. 18 (11): 1200-8. doi:10.1096/fj.03-1466com ... "Genomic structures of the human angiopoietins show polymorphism in angiopoietin-2". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 94 (3-4): 147-54. ... "Entrez Gene: ANGPT4 angiopoietin 4". Human ANGPT4 genome location and ANGPT4 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ...

*Hedgehog signaling pathway

Activation of the Hedgehog pathway leads to an increase in Angiogenic Factors (angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2), Cyclins ( ... Lee, SW; Moskowitz, MA; Sims, JR (2007). "Sonic hedgehog inversely regulates the expression of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin- ... 3.0.CO;2-G. PMID 9671939. Dorus, S.; Anderson, JR; Vallender, EJ; Gilbert, SL; Zhang, L; Chemnick, LG; Ryder, OA; Li, W; Lahn, ... Costal-2 is particularly important in Drosophila. The protein kinase Fused is a regulator of SUFU in Drosophila, but may not ...

*ANGPT2

Hata K, Udagawa J, Fujiwaki R, Nakayama K, Otani H, Miyazaki K (2002). "Expression of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and Tie2 ... Xu Y, Yu Q (September 2001). "Angiopoietin-1, unlike angiopoietin-2, is incorporated into the extracellular matrix via its ... "Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 share the same binding domains in the Tie-2 receptor involving the first Ig-like loop and the ... similar to angiopoietin-1 See Angiopoietin#Clinical_relevance ANGPT2 has been shown to interact with TEK tyrosine kinase. ...

*Angiopoietin 1

... is a type of angiopoietin and is encoded by the gene ANGPT1. Angiopoietins are proteins with important roles in ... Dunk C, Shams M, Nijjar S (2000). "Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 activate trophoblast Tie-2 to promote growth and migration ... Cheung AH, Stewart RJ, Marsden PA (1998). "Endothelial Tie2/Tek ligands angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1) and angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2): ... "Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 share the same binding domains in the Tie-2 receptor involving the first Ig-like loop and the ...

*Vascular endothelial growth factor

The expression of angiopoietin-2 in the absence of VEGF leads to endothelial cell death and vascular regression. Conversely, a ... Makinde T, Murphy RF, Agrawal DK (2007). "Immunomodulatory role of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 in ... 13 (2 Pt 2): 741s-746s. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-2110. PMID 17255303. Jiang C, Zuo F, Wang Y, Lu H, Yang Q, Wang J (2016 ... 3.0.CO;2-E. Muller, YA; Li, B; Christinger, HW; Wells, JA; Cunningham, BC; de Vos, AM (8 July 1997). "Vascular endothelial ...

*Methaneseleninic acid

"Methylseleninic acid restricts tumor growth in nude mice model of metastatic breast cancer probably via inhibiting angiopoietin ... MeSeSeMe + H2O2 → 2 MeSeO2H Seleninic acids can be prepared by oxidation of selenoesters with one equivalent of ... 2". BMC Cancer. 12: 192. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-192. PMC 3517305 . PMID 22640261. Yan, L.; DeMars, L.C. (2012). "Dietary ... 2 RSeOH → RSeO2H + 1/2 RSeSeR Methaneseleninic acid, from decomposition of Se-methylselenocysteine Se-oxide but also available ...

*Ischemia-reperfusion injury of the appendicular musculoskeletal system

Tan, X., et al., Angiopoietin-2 impairs collateral artery growth associated with the suppression of the infiltration of ... These tourniquets are often 1-2" in width, which concentrates the pressure to a narrow band of tissue. They can result in ... Surgical tourniquet times in excess of 2 hours have been associated with an increased risk of nerve damage (e.g., neuropraxia ... 23(10): p. 1305-19 Kapitsinou, P.P., et al., Endothelial HIF-2 mediates protection and recovery from ischemic kidney injury. J ...

*Angiopoietin-related protein 1

... also known as angiopoietin-3 (ANG-3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL1 gene ... Angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin-4 participate in the formation of blood vessels. The protein encoded by this ... 2005). "Biological characterization of angiopoietin-3 and angiopoietin-4". FASEB J. 18 (11): 1200-8. doi:10.1096/fj.03-1466com ... 1999). "Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of angiopoietin-related protein. angiopoietin-related protein ...

*Schlemm's canal

In the combined absence of angiopoietin 1 and angiopoietin 2, Schlemm's canal and episcleral lymphatic vasculature completely ...

*Weibel-Palade body

Additional Weibel-Palade body components are the chemokines Interleukin-8 and eotaxin-3, endothelin-1, angiopoietin-2, ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... angiopoietin-1 MeSH D12.776.467.100.100.200 - angiopoietin-2 MeSH D12.776.467.100.450.500 - angiostatins MeSH D12.776.467.100. ... cofilin 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525.212.875 - destrin MeSH D12.776.220.525.246.500 - actin-related protein 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525. ... iron regulatory protein 2 MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.863 - electron transport complex i MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.863.500 ... muts homolog 2 protein MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.148 - myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.167 - proto- ...

*Endothelium

... hence the control of blood pressure Repair of damaged or diseased organs via an injection of blood vessel cells Angiopoietin-2 ...

*Vanucizumab

One arm of the antibody binds Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) and the other is based on bevacizumab (Avastin), binding Vascular ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... angiopoietins MeSH D23.348.479.311.100.100 --- angiopoietin-1 MeSH D23.348.479.311.100.200 --- angiopoietin-2 MeSH D23.348. ... h-2 antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.400.370 --- HLA-A MeSH D23.050.301.500.400.370.372 --- HLA-A1 MeSH D23.050.301.500.400.370. ... h-2 antigens MeSH D23.050.705.552.400.370 --- hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.705.552.400.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050. ... erbb-2 MeSH D23.101.840.721 --- receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D23.101.840.800 --- synaptophysin MeSH D23.101.840.870 --- tissue ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.644)

... angiopoietins MeSH D12.644.276.100.100.100 --- angiopoietin-1 MeSH D12.644.276.100.100.200 --- angiopoietin-2 MeSH D12.644. ... map kinase kinase 2 MeSH D12.644.360.440.300 --- map kinase kinase 3 MeSH D12.644.360.440.400 --- map kinase kinase 4 MeSH ... bcl-2 homologous antagonist-killer protein MeSH D12.644.360.075.718.937 --- bcl-x protein MeSH D12.644.360.075.718.968 --- bh3 ... leucine-2-alanine MeSH D12.644.468.281.381 --- enkephalin, methionine MeSH D12.644.468.281.381.300 --- d-ala(2),mephe(4),met(0 ...

*Angiopoietin

To be specific, angiopoietin levels provide an indication for sepsis. Research on angiopoietin-2 has shown that it is involved ... Angiopoietin-1 encodes a 498 amino acid polypeptide with a molecular weight of 57 kDa whereas angiopoietin-2 encodes a 496 ... Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 can form dimers, trimers, and tetramers. Angiopoietin-1 has the ability to form higher order ... Angiopoietins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "angiopoietin.de: endothelia activation ...

*PTPRB

The extracellular region was shown to interact with the angiopoietin receptor Tie-2 and with the adhesion protein VE-cadherin. ... "Functional interaction of vascular endothelial-protein-tyrosine phosphatase with the angiopoietin receptor Tie-2". Oncogene. 18 ...

*Inflammation

The fat-derived protein called angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) elevates in fat tissues. Higher than normal Angptl2 level ... Kadomatsu T, Tabata M, Oike Y (Feb 2011). "Angiopoietin-like proteins: emerging targets for treatment of obesity and related ... 262 (2 Pt 1): C445-52. PMID 1371643. Lang, CH; Frost, RA; Bronson, SK; Lynch, CJ; Vary, TC (Jun 2010). "Skeletal muscle protein ... 179 (1/2): 159-168. doi:10.1023/A:1006828425418. PMID 9543358. Lang, Charles H.; Hong-Brown, Ly; Frost, Robert A. (10 November ...

*ELF2

2002). "NERF2, a member of the Ets family of transcription factors, is increased in response to hypoxia and angiopoietin-1: a ... E74-like factor 2 (ELF2), formerly known as new Ets-related factor (NERF), is an ETS family transcription factor. In humans ... 1997). "Elf-2, a rhombotin-2 binding ets transcription factor: discovery and potential role in T cell leukemia". Leukemia. 11 ( ... 2004). "Isoforms of the Ets transcription factor NERF/ELF-2 physically interact with AML1 and mediate opposing effects on AML1- ...
Published data on the role of the Ang/tie-2 system in cardiovascular diseases are limited. Most of our knowledge regarding the angiopoietins has come from oncology studies where angiogenesis is a prerequisite for tumor growth and metastasis. Indeed, Ang-2 has been shown to be a marker of a poor prognosis in breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (4,21). In the present paper, we describe a new assay for Ang-1 and, in addition, have demonstrated (for the first time in the literature) very abnormal levels of Ang-2 and tie-2, but normal Ang-1, in CHF. Vascular endothelial growth factor was marginally raised in the patients, suggesting that Ang-2 may be more relevant to the pathophysiology of this disease. In addition, there was a significant correlation between Ang-2 and tie-2.. That Ang-1 is not raised in CHF is consistent with currently held views that its secretion is not stimulated by hypoxia, as demonstrated in animal studies (13,14,22). Angiopoietin-1 has been shown to have antiapoptotic ...
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is characterized by inflammatory process and endothelial dysfunction. To investigate angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) profiles, we evaluated serum Ang-2 levels in different types of CHD in 166 subjects. Ang-2 was measured by enzyme
Angiopoietins are a family of growth factors that are ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor, Tie2. Angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) is agonistic for Tie2, plays a key role in blood vessel maturation and stability and has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, Tie2 expression has been demonstrated on human neutrophils and the observation that neutrophils migrate in response to Ang-1 in vitro has confounded research into its exact role in inflammation as well as its potential use as a therapeutic agent. We used a mouse model of peritoneal neutrophilic inflammation to determine if Ang-1 could stimulate neutrophil migration in vivo. Tie2 expression was demonstrated on mouse neutrophils. In addition, recombinant human Ang-1 induced significant chemotaxis of isolated mouse neutrophils in a Tie2- and CD18-dependent manner. Subsequently, co-immunoprecipitation of Ang-1 and CD18 demonstrated their interaction. Intraperitoneal injection of an engineered angiopoietin-1, MAT.Ang-1, induced ...
To the Editor:. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor and plays a key role in postnatal angiogenesis in human pathophysiology, including cardiovascular disease. The activation of the renin-angiotensin system has been similarly implicated in the cardiovascular pathophysiology. Indeed, an interaction between the renin-angiotensin system and VEGF has been established. It is against this background that we read with great interest the report by Zhao and colleagues1 on the central role of VEGF on angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated vascular inflammation.. However, it is now increasingly evident that molecules traditionally regarded as angiogenic growth factors have effects that extend beyond these conventionally defined roles. In particular, angiopoietin-1 and its natural antagonist angiopoietin-2, in conjunction with VEGF, are key mediators of angiogenesis and are involved in the regulation of vascular inflammation and integrity.2 Angiopoietin-1 induces the recruitment ...
We have in this study identified a key role of EC-derived Wnt ligands as regulators of vessel regression by promoting EC survival. Previous studies have linked vessel regression to increased apoptosis. For instance, depletion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after primary network formation induced vessel regression correlating with detachment and increased apoptosis of ECs (Alon et al., 1995; Baffert et al., 2006). Furthermore, leukocytes promote pruning of retinal vessels by inducing EC apoptosis and FGD5/Cdkn1a/p53 signaling interferes with EC survival, stimulating subsequent vessel regression (Ishida et al., 2003; Cheng et al., 2012). However, whether vessel regression is initially triggered by apoptosis due to withdrawal of survival factors or whether regression is followed by apoptosis of retracted ECs that have lost cell-cell and cell-matrix contact remains elusive. The present study identified reduced numbers of ECs in Evi-ECKO mice in P6 retinal vessels, supporting the ...
This study demonstrates the distinct spatiotemporal expression profile of Angpt2 after MI and I/R, which, to date, has been obscure due to a lack of reliable antibodies (54). Using our recently developed anti-Angpt2 antibody (23), which is highly sensitive and specific to Angpt2, we demonstrate distinct expressions of Angpt2 on the ECs and proinflammatory macrophages after ischemia. This prompted us to further investigate the role of Angpt2 in postischemic cardiovascular remodeling. We recently reported that the FOXO1/Angpt2 axis suppresses the endothelial PI3K/Akt-signaling pathway, the main downstream pathway for Tie2 that plays a vital role in maintaining vascular integrity, inducing vascular destabilization in a positive feedback manner (25), and that it is central to the pathogenesis of sepsis (23), diabetic retinopathy (25), and tumor vessel destabilization (38). This study provides additional insights into the serious detrimental effects of the FOXO1/Angpt2 axis in exacerbating cardiac ...
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ANGPT2 (Human) ELISA Kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of human ANGPT2. (KA1867) - Products - Abnova
Polyclonal antibody for Angiopoietin 2/ANGPT2 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: IHC-P. Reactive species: Human. Angiopoietin 2/ANGPT2 information: Molecular Weight: 56919 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted.
Angiopoietin 2 antibody (angiopoietin 2) for ELISA, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Angiopoietin 2 pAb (GTX10601) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Angiopoietin 1兔多克隆抗体(ab94684)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Well, there is the funny part. Originally the doctor said I was going to deliver by 39 weeks or be induced. I was told today that he wont deliver me by induction before 39 weeks without an amnio, which Im not into the "Oh Happy Dagger" routine like Shakespeare. LOL ... The BPP went fine today as he practiced his breathing, showed off his "gross" body movements and his heartbeat. Its a strange feeling but now its like Im nervous because things are going good versus being nervous about possible problems in the past. I cannot believe it myself as I have gotten this far and show no signs of going anytime soon. Cervix is soft but not effaced nor dilated. Hes a stubborn cuss, this little boy of mine! I mean, I am glad that hes taking all the time he needs to "bake" properly but WOW .. whats up with being healthy? LOL ...
Teilmann, S. C. and Christensen, S. T. (2005), Localization of the angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 on the primary cilia in the female reproductive organs. Cell Biology International, 29: 340-346. doi: 10.1016/j.cellbi.2005.03.006 ...
Angiopoietin 1 and Angiopoietin 2 are important for development of the endothelium, by regulating tyrosine phosphorylation of the membrane receptor Tie 2. Angiopoietin 2 is only 60% homologous with Angiopoietin 1. Angiopoietin-2 is a naturally occurring antagonist of angiopoietin-1 that competes for binding to the TIE2 receptor and blocks ANGPT1-induced TIE2 autophosphorylation. Angiopoietin 1 binding to Tie 2 causes phosphorylation of the receptor. Angiopoietin 2 competes for this binding, and thus blocks receptor phosphorylation. Angiopoietin 2 expression occurs at sites of vascular remodelling: dorsal aorta and major aortic branches, ovary, placenta and uterus. ...
To test the hypothesis that the concentration of angiopoietin-2 relative to angiopoietin-1 may be a useful biological marker of mortality in acute lung injury patients. We also tested the association of concentration of angiopoietin-2 relative to ang
Angiopoietin-related protein 2 also known as angiopoietin-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL2 gene. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 maintains tissue homeostasis by promoting adaptive inflammation and subsequent tissue reconstruction, whereas an excess of ANGPTL2 activation induced by prolonged stress promotes the breakdown of tissue homeostasis due to chronic inflammation, promoting the development of metabolic diseases. ANGPTL2 has a role also in angiogenesis, in tissue repair, in obesity, in atherosclerotic diseases and finally in cancerogenesis. Angiopoietins are members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family and the only known growth factors largely specific for vascular endothelium. Angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin-4 participate in the formation of blood vessels. ANGPTL2 protein is a secreted glycoprotein with homology to the angiopoietins and may exert a function on endothelial cells through autocrine or paracrine action. GRCh38: ...
Meyer Nuala J, Li Mingyao, Feng Rui, Bradfield Jonathan, Gallop Robert, Bellamy Scarlett, Fuchs Barry D, Lanken Paul N, Albelda Steven M, Rushefski Melanie, Aplenc Richard, Abramova Helen, Atochina-Vasserman Elena N, Beers Michael F, Calfee Carolyn S, Cohen Mitchell J, Pittet Jean-Francois, Christiani David C, OKeefe Grant E, Ware Lorraine B, May Addison K, Wurfel Mark M, Hakonarson Hakon, Christie Jason D: ANGPT2 Genetic Variant Is Associated with Trauma-associated Acute Lung Injury and Altered Plasma Angiopoietin-2 Isoform Ratio. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 183(10): 1344-53, May 2011 ...
Background - Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are endothelial cell-specific growth factors. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that co-expression of AngI and VEGF could have an effect on development of leakage-resistant vessels.. Methods and results - Expression plasmids, pcD2 (control plasmid), pcD2/Ang1, pcD2/VEGF(121), or pcD2/AngI + pcD2/VEGF(121), were injected intramuscularly into an ischaemic hindlimb rat model, followed by electroporation. Collateral vessel development and skeletal muscle atrophy were assessed before and 7, 14, 28 days after treatment. Capillary density was significantly increased in the rats transfected with Ang1 or VEGF compared with that in the rats transfected with pcD2 alone (P < 0.05). Rats transfected with AngI + VEGF had the highest capillary density (P < 0.05). The mean perimeter ratio of ligated hindlimb to non-ligated hindlimb was lower with pcD2 treatment rats compared with that in the rats transfected with Ang1, ...
Isolation of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, by secretion-trap expression cloning. The anticoagulation factor protein S and its relative, Gas6, are ligands for the Tyro 3/Axl family of receptor tyrosine kinases
Mice. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) C57BL/6J mice (catalog 000664), Tie2-GFP mice (catalog 003658), and UBC-Cre-ERT2 mice (catalog 007001) were purchased from the Jackson Laboratory. Angpt1fl/fl mice were a gift from Yoshikazu Nakaoka (Osaka University, Osaka, Japan), Angpt1-GFP mice were a gift from Sean J. Morrison (University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, USA), Angpt2-lacZ mice were a gift from Nicholas Gale (Regeneron Pharmaceuticals), and Vegfr2fl/fl mice were a gift from Masanori Hirashima (Kobe University, Kobe, Japan). Prox1-GFP (30), Angpt1-GFP (33), Prox1fl/fl (39), Tie2fl/fl (35), Angpt1fl/fl (36, 37), Angpt2fl/fl (38), Vegfr2fl/fl (55), and Angpt2-lacZ (22) mice were transferred and bred in our SPF animal facility at KAIST. To deplete Prox1, Tie2, or Vegfr2 genes specifically in ECs, VE-cadherin-Cre-ERT2 mice (34) were mated with either Prox1fl/fl, Tie2fl/fl, or Vegfr2fl/fl mice to obtain EC-specific Prox1-, Tie2-, or Vegfr2-deleted mice, respectively, in a tamoxifen-dependent ...
Mice. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) C57BL/6J mice (catalog 000664), Tie2-GFP mice (catalog 003658), and UBC-Cre-ERT2 mice (catalog 007001) were purchased from the Jackson Laboratory. Angpt1fl/fl mice were a gift from Yoshikazu Nakaoka (Osaka University, Osaka, Japan), Angpt1-GFP mice were a gift from Sean J. Morrison (University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, USA), Angpt2-lacZ mice were a gift from Nicholas Gale (Regeneron Pharmaceuticals), and Vegfr2fl/fl mice were a gift from Masanori Hirashima (Kobe University, Kobe, Japan). Prox1-GFP (30), Angpt1-GFP (33), Prox1fl/fl (39), Tie2fl/fl (35), Angpt1fl/fl (36, 37), Angpt2fl/fl (38), Vegfr2fl/fl (55), and Angpt2-lacZ (22) mice were transferred and bred in our SPF animal facility at KAIST. To deplete Prox1, Tie2, or Vegfr2 genes specifically in ECs, VE-cadherin-Cre-ERT2 mice (34) were mated with either Prox1fl/fl, Tie2fl/fl, or Vegfr2fl/fl mice to obtain EC-specific Prox1-, Tie2-, or Vegfr2-deleted mice, respectively, in a tamoxifen-dependent ...
AREND, W.P., JOSLIN, F.G., THOMPSON, R.C. et al.: An IL-I inhibitor from human monocytes: Production and characterization of biological properties. J. Immunol., 143, 1851-1858 (1989).. BARRY, W.S., PIERCE, N.F.: Protein depreviation causes reversible impairment of mucosal immune response to cholera toxoid/toxin in rat gut. Nature, 281, 64-65 (1979).. BEACH, R.S., GERSHWIN, M.E., HURLEY, L.S.: Nutritional factors and autoimmunity. III. Zinc deprivation versus restricted food intake in MLR/J mice - the distinction between interacting dietary influences. J. Immunol., 129, 2682-2692 (1982).. REACH, R.S., GERSHWIN, M.E., HURLEY, L.S.: Persistent immunological consequences of gestational zinc deprivation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 38, 579-590 (1983).. BEISEL, W.R.: Metabolic effects of infection. Prog. Food Nutr. Sci., 8, 43-75 (1984).. BENSI, G., RAUGEI, G., PALLA, E. et al.: Human interleukin 1 beta gene. Gene, 52, 95-101 (1987). BEUTLER, B., MAHONEY, J., LETRANG, N., PEKALA, CERAMI, A.: Purification of ...
Vascular remodeling is characterized by a reorganization of blood vessel geometry in response to physiological alterations in blood flow or to pathophysiological stimuli. Physiologically, long-term increases in blood flow will increase lumen diameter and thus accommodate increased blood supply, for example, after surgical anastomosis or arteriovenous fistula, whereas regression of the uterus postpartum is associated with dramatic reductions of arterial diameters up to complete vessel occlusion. Because of its strategic location, positioned at the interface between the flowing blood and the underlying vessel wall, the endothelium should serve as the primary mediator of flow-mediated mechanotransduction to initiate vascular remodeling processes. Indeed, reductions in arterial diameter by long-term decreases in blood flow are strictly endothelium-dependent.36 A physiological role for endothelial cell apoptosis to contribute to vessel regression was suggested by Langille et al,37 who demonstrated ...
Purified Recombinant Human ANGPT1/COMP protein, FLAG-tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human ANGPT1/COMP protein, FLAG-tagged can be used for research.
In this study we found that: (1) LS inhibits tubule formation in HUVECs and HMECs, but not BAECs, however CM from laminar sheared BAECs can inhibit tubule formation of HUVECs, (2) Preconditioning with LS inhibits migration in HUVECs and BAECs, whereas OS does not inhibit migration and this is mediated through secreted protein, (3) Ang2 is downregulated by LS both at the gene and protein level in vitro, (4) Ang2 is downregulated at sites of LS and upregulated at sites of OS in vivo, (5) Knockdown of Ang2 inhibits OS-mediated tubule formation and migration, and (6) Addition of recombinant Ang2 partially rescues LS-inhibited tubule formation. Collectively, these findings suggest that Ang2 secreted by ECs in response to OS, acts as a promigratory and proangiogenic molecule that could play an important role in diseases with altered shear stress.. Fluid shear stress is thought to play a role in angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In angiogenesis, endothelial proliferation and migration are 2 important ...
Detect and quantitate human angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1) in buffered solution and cell culture supernatants using a homogeneous LANCE Ultra TR-FRET assay.
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Camenisch G et al. (2002) ANGPTL3 stimulates endothelial cell adhesion and migration via integrin alpha vbeta 3 and induces blood vessel formation in vivo.. [^] ...
The interaction between fluid status and angiopoietin-2 in adverse renal outcomes of chronic kidney disease. Yi-Chun Tsai, Yi-Wen Chiu, Hung-Tien Kuo, Jia-Jung Lee, Su-Chu Lee, Tzu-Hui Chen, Ming-Yen Lin, Shang-Jyh Hwang, Mei-Chuan Kuo, Ya-Ling Hsu, Hung-Chun Chen. Journal article , Research Article , Published 23 Mar 2017 , PLOS ONE ...
We read with great interest the recent report by Cho et al in a July issue of Circulation Research.1 However, we were struck by a remarkable feature in a Figure 1B of their article, reproduced here in the accompanying Figure (panel I). In the upper right corner there is the unmistakable resemblance to a human face, albeit with a somewhat skeletal appearance. But what is even more surprising is that a very similar face is clearly visible in the lower right panel of their Figure 3B, reproduced here in panel II, even though this image is representative of a different animal that was studied in a separate experiment. A closer examination reveals that not only is this very same ghostly face seen in the previous image, but that the vasculature architecture in these two figures is also identical, apart from slight horizontal compression. The facial resemblance can be even better appreciated after enlargement of the region within the box (panel III). We would thus submit that there has been an ...
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AGPT2 - Angpt2 - Mouse, 4 unique 29mer shRNA constructs in retroviral untagged vector shRNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The popularity reached by the genetic manipulation of laboratory animals to create new models for studying human diseases, produced in turn, that the techniques for assisted reproduction cons
Looking for online definition of angiopoietin-2a in the Medical Dictionary? angiopoietin-2a explanation free. What is angiopoietin-2a? Meaning of angiopoietin-2a medical term. What does angiopoietin-2a mean?
In this study, we have confirmed previous observations of increased plasma VEGF levels in diabetic patients, as well as previous observations of higher plasma VEGF levels in patients with more severe retinopathy,13 with the highest median VEGF levels among patients with pre-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy (grades 2 and 3). We also show, for the first time, that Ang-2 levels are increased in diabetics, with the highest levels among patients with grade 2 and 3 retinopathy. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that soluble tie-2 levels are lower among diabetics than controls, with no relation to the severity of retinopathy.. VEGF correlated with both Ang-2 and tie-2 among diabetics and in the whole study cohort, in keeping with these three indices being possible indices of angiogenesis. Interestingly, the correlation between Ang-2 and tie-2 was only significant in the diabetic patients, as has previously been shown in cancer patients.10 We have previously reported plasma tie-2 levels to be ...
TIE-1 and TIE-2/Tek comprise a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) subfamily with unique structural characteristics: two immunoglobulin-like domains flanking three epidermal growth factor (EGF)- like domains and followed by three fibronectin type III-like repeats in the extracellular region and a split tyrosine kinase domain in the cytoplasmic region. These receptors are expressed primarily on endothelial and hematopoietic progenitor cells and play critical roles in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and hematopoiesis. Murine TIE-1 cDNA encodes a 1134 amino acid (aa) precursor protein with a 22 aa putative signal peptide, a 733 aa extracellular domain and a 354 aa cytoplasmic domain. Whereas two ligands have been described for TIE-2 [angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2)], so far no ligand was found for TIE-1. Recombinant murine soluble TIE-1 was fused with the Fc part of human IgG1. The recombinant mature sTIE-1/hFc is a disulfide-linked homodimeric protein. The sTIE-1/hFc monomers have a mass ...
Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a leading cause of blindness in children worldwide and is caused by developmental defects in 2 aqueous humor outflow structures, Schlemms canal (SC) and the trabecular meshwork. We previously identified loss-of-function mutations in the angiopoietin (ANGPT) receptor TEK in families with PCG and showed that ANGPT/TEK signaling is essential for SC development. Here, we describe roles for the major ANGPT ligands in the development of the aqueous outflow pathway. We determined that ANGPT1 is essential for SC development, and that Angpt1-knockout mice form a severely hypomorphic canal with elevated intraocular pressure. By contrast, ANGPT2 was dispensable, although mice deficient in both Angpt1 and Angpt2 completely lacked SC, indicating that ANGPT2 compensates for the loss of ANGPT1. In addition, we identified 3 human subjects with rare ANGPT1 variants within an international cohort of 284 PCG patients. Loss of function in 2 of the 3 patient alleles was observed ...
Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a leading cause of blindness in children worldwide and is caused by developmental defects in 2 aqueous humor outflow structures, Schlemms canal (SC) and the trabecular meshwork. We previously identified loss-of-function mutations in the angiopoietin (ANGPT) receptor TEK in families with PCG and showed that ANGPT/TEK signaling is essential for SC development. Here, we describe roles for the major ANGPT ligands in the development of the aqueous outflow pathway. We determined that ANGPT1 is essential for SC development, and that Angpt1-knockout mice form a severely hypomorphic canal with elevated intraocular pressure. By contrast, ANGPT2 was dispensable, although mice deficient in both Angpt1 and Angpt2 completely lacked SC, indicating that ANGPT2 compensates for the loss of ANGPT1. In addition, we identified 3 human subjects with rare ANGPT1 variants within an international cohort of 284 PCG patients. Loss of function in 2 of the 3 patient alleles was observed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coadministration of adenoviral vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 enhances vascularization and reduces ventricular remodeling in the infarcted myocardium of type 1 diabetic rats. AU - Mathews Samuel, Samson. AU - Akita, Yuzo. AU - Paul, Debayon. AU - Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh. AU - Zhan, Lijun. AU - Sudhakaran, Perumana R.. AU - Li, Chuanfu. AU - Maulik, Nilanjana. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE - Hyperglycemia impairs angiogenesis in response to ischemia, leading to ventricular remodeling. Although the effects of overexpressing angiogenic growth factors have been studied in inducing angiogenesis, the formation of functional vessels remains a challenge. The present study evaluates the reversal of diabetes-mediated impairment of angiogenesis in the infarcted diabetic rat myocardium by proangiogenic gene therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Ad.VEGF and Ad.Ang1 were intramyocardially administered in combination immediately after myocardial ...
The functional consequences of angiopoietin/Tie-2 signaling have been well established through genetic loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments (Carmeliet, 2003; Maisonpierre et al., 1997; Suri et al., 1996; Yancopoulos et al., 2000). The phenotypes of Ang-1- and Ang-2-deficient and -overexpressing mice have led to an agonistic Ang-1/Tie-2 model and an antagonistic Ang-2/Tie-2 model (Hanahan, 1997). According to these, Ang-1 activates Tie-2 and induces subsequent signal transduction promoting endothelial-cell survival, endothelial quiescence and vessel assembly. Conversely, Ang-2 is believed to act as a non-signal-transducing Tie-2 ligand that binds to endothelial Tie-2 and thereby negatively interferes with agonistic Ang-1/Tie-2 functions. As such, it does not exert functions of its own but rather acts as a facilitator of other vascular cytokines. The net outcome of Ang-2 functions is therefore considered to be contextually determined by the presence of other cytokines. For example, ...
Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play complementary roles in vascular development during embryogenesis. In the adult, VEGF signaling increases vascular permeability and Ang1 blocks this VEGF-mediated response. Gavard et al. provide evidence that this function of Ang1 is mediated by its actions on the endothelial cells, preventing them from responding to VEGF signaling that triggers disruption of adherens junctions. When injected subcutaneously in mice, Ang1 prevented dermal vascular permeability in response to VEGF injection (acute in vivo vascular permeability model). Experiments with cultured mouse endothelial cells revealed that Ang1 did not prevent VEGF from stimulating downstream effectors involved in proliferation (phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, and focal adhesion kinase) but did prevent disruption of endothelial barrier function by VEGF. Preexposure of endothelial cell cultures to Ang1 inhibited the ability of ...
4652 Communications between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells is critical in vascular maturation. Genetic studies suggest that angiopoietin/Tie-2 signaling may play a role in the recruitment of pericytes or smooth muscle cells (SMCs) during vascular maturation. However, the molecular mechanism is unclear. We used microarray technology to analyze genes regulated by angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), an agonist ligand for Tie2, in endothelial cells (ECs). We observed that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a mediator of mural cell motility, was upregulated by Ang1 stimulation. We confirmed this finding by Northern blotting and Western blotting in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, stimulation of ECs with Ang1 increased SMC migration toward endothelial cells in a co-culture assay. Addition of a neutralizing anti-HGF antibody inhibited the Ang1-induced SMC recruitment, indicating that the induction of SMC migration by Ang1 was due to the increase of HGF. Very interestingly, angiopoietin-2 ...
The angiopoietin/Tie (ANG/Tie) receptor system controls developmental and tumor angiogenesis, inflammatory vascular remodeling, and vessel leakage. ANG1 is a Tie2 agonist that promotes vascular stabilization in inflammation and sepsis, whereas ANG2 is a context-dependent Tie2 agonist or antagonist. A limited understanding of ANG signaling mechanisms and the orphan receptor Tie1 has hindered development of ANG/Tie-targeted therapeutics. Here, we determined that both ANG1 and ANG2 binding to Tie2 increases Tie1-Tie2 interactions in a β1 integrin-dependent manner and that Tie1 regulates ANG-induced Tie2 trafficking in endothelial cells. Endothelial Tie1 was essential for the agonist activity of ANG1 and autocrine ANG2. Deletion of endothelial ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [K Teichert-Kuliszewska, P C Maisonpierre, N Jones, A I Campbell, Z Master, M P Bendeck, K Alitalo, D J Dumont, G D Yancopoulos, D J Stewart].
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Qiupeng Zheng, Jing Du, Zhaofeng Zhang, Jianhua Xu, Lingyuan Fu, Yunlei Cao, Xianliang Huang, Lingli Guo].
DCE-MRI Provides Evidence for Vascular Effects of AMG 386, a First-In-Class Anti-Angiogenic Peptibody That Specifically Inhibits Interaction of Angiopoietins-1 and -2 with Tie-2. Yuying C. Hwang1, Ed Ashton2, Lee Rosen3, Roy Herbst4, Jeffrey Silverman5, Ngocdiep Le1, Erik Rasmussen1, Jon Oliner1, Juan Leal6, Robert Radinsky1, Ji-Rong Sun1, Jeff Evelhoch1, Ed Jackson4. 1Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, California , USA; 2VirtualScopics Inc., Rochester, New York, USA; 3Premiere Oncology, Santa Monica, California , USA; 4The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA; 5Landmark Imaging, Los Angeles, California , USA; 6University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA. AMG 386 is a peptide-fc fusion protein (peptibody) that specifically inhibits the interaction of angiopoietins-1 and -2 (Ang1/2) with Tie-2 receptor. We performed DCE-MRI in Colo205 xenografts and in the first in human (FIH) clinical trial to study the effect of AMG 386 on tumor vasculature. Both pre-clinical ...
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A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY ...
Endometriosis is a leading cause of infertility among young women. Little is known about the cause. Many theories exist, but nothing has proven to be the direct cause. Rosemary Gladstar has an excellent section on endometriosis in her book Herbal Healing for Women. Endometriosis is a "hyperestrogen" disease, produced by an over-secretion of estrogen which stimulates its growth. Reducing estrogen levels in the body and regulating hormone production is the specific goal in most natural therapies. To accomplish this the primary focus is on the liver and endocrine system. Natural therapies include diet, herbs, vitamins, and stress reduction. Seek to balance the entire system. Rosemary warns it may take several months for noticeable changes to occur. You should make a commitment to work on your health program for at least 4 to 6 months. Balancing the body is a gradual thing and takes time. If you need immediate results consult with a gynecologist. Vitamin E is a natural antagonist to estrogen, it ...
Biology Animations includes selected, high quality biological animations; about cell biology, microbiology, genetics, immunology, cancer treatments and diagnosis.... ...
Pathological neovascularization is a hallmark of numerous vascular diseases. Since the balance between neovessel formation and regression determines severity, modulating neovessel growth is highly desirable. Vascular regression coincides with a spike in immune activity. We therefore hypothesize (and pilot studies suggest) that pathologic vessel regression may be mediated, in part, through the complement system, an integral part of innate immunity. The complement system is an intricate immune surveillance system that is able to discriminate between healthy host tissue, diseased host tissue, apoptotic cells and foreign invaders and is able to modulate the elimination and repair of host tissue accordingly ...
infection by acting as a Tie2 antagonist, which led to p-Tie2 suppression, forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) activation, increased ANG2 expression, and vessel leakiness. These changes were exaggerated by anti-Tie2 antibody, inhibition of PI3K signaling, or ANG2 overexpression and were reduced by anti-ANG2 antibody or exogenous ANG1. In contrast, under pathogen-free conditions, ANG2 drove vascular remodeling by acting as an agonist, promoting high p-Tie2, low FOXO1 activation, and no leakage. Tie1 activation was strong under pathogen-free conditions, but infection or TNF-α led to Tie1 inactivation by ectodomain cleavage and promoted the Tie2 antagonist action of ANG2. Together, these data indicate that ANG2 activation of Tie2 supports stable enlargement of normal nonleaky vessels, but reduction of Tie1 in inflammation leads to ANG2 antagonism of Tie2 and initiates a positive feedback loop wherein FOXO1-driven ANG2 expression promotes vascular remodeling and leakage.. ...
Principal Investigator:KATO Tetsuro, Project Period (FY):1998 - 2000, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)., Section:一般, Research Field:Urology
Affiliation:名古屋市立大学,大学院医学研究科,講師, Research Field:Ophthalmology, Keywords:脈絡膜新生血管,炎症,加齢黄斑変性,ペリサイト,細胞生物学,リポフスチン,Angiopoietin-2,マウス,発現抑制,脂質, # of Research Projects:5, # of Research Products:33, Ongoing Project:加齢黄斑変性の病態におけるブルッフ膜への加齢性沈着脂質の役割の解明
Background: Microcirculatory dysfunction is associated with multiple organ failure and unfavorable patient outcome. We investigated whether therapeutically targeting the endothelial angiopoietin/Tie2 system preserves microvascular integrity during hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Rats were treated with the angiopoietin-1 mimetic vasculotide and subjected to hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation. Microcirculatory perfusion and leakage were assessed with intravital microscopy (n = 7 per group) and Evans blue dye extravasation (n = 8 per group), respectively. The angiopoietin/Tie2 system was studied at protein and RNA level in plasma, kidneys, and lungs. Results: Hemorrhagic shock significantly reduced continuously perfused capillaries (7 ± 2 vs. 11 ± 2) and increased nonperfused vessels (9 ± 3 vs. 5 ± 2) during hemorrhagic shock, which could not be restored by fluid resuscitation. Hemorrhagic shock increased circulating angiopoietin-2 and soluble Tie2 significantly, which associated with ...
OBJECTIVES: To examine the potential role of the angiogenic growth factor angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) in inflammatory arthritis. METHODS: Eighteen synovial tissue samples were obtained from 17 patients with a clinical diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and compared with six synovial tissue samples from six patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Ang-1 expression in synovial tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation. Ang-1 mRNA and protein expression were also examined by northern blot analysis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in cultured synovial fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) before and after treatment with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha. RESULTS: Ang-1 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 16/18 RA synovial tissue samples. Ang-1 protein was frequently observed in the synovial lining layer and in cells within the sublining synovial tissue, in both perivascular areas and in areas remote from vessels. In
Background. In sepsis and various other inflammatory conditions, elevated circulating levels of angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) are detected, but the precise functional role of Ang2 in these conditions is not well understood. Here, we investigated the contribution of Ang2 to the inflammatory response and renal function impairment in a mouse model of endotoxaemia.. Methods. Ang2-deficient mice and wild-type littermates were challenged with lipopolysaccharide [LPS; 1500 EU/g, intraperitoneal (i.p.)]. In additional experiments, wild-type C57Bl/6 mice were depleted of circulating neutrophils by antibody treatment (NIMPR14) prior to LPS challenge to study the role of neutrophils in regulating LPS-induced cytokine release. After 8 or 24 h of LPS challenge, the mice were sacrificed and organs were harvested. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed for endothelial adhesion molecules (P-selectin, E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) and plasma ...
Hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (HALI) is a key contributor to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in neonates, for which no specific preventive or therapeutic agent is available. Here we show that lung micro-RNA (miR)-34a levels are significantly increased in lungs of neonatal mice exposed to hyperoxia. Deletion or inhibition of miR-34a improves the pulmonary phenotype and BPD-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in BPD mouse models, which, conversely, is worsened by miR-34a overexpression. Administration of angiopoietin-1, which is one of the downstream targets of miR34a, is able to ameliorate the BPD pulmonary and PAH phenotypes. Using three independent cohorts of human samples, we show that miR-34a expression is increased in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome and BPD. Our data suggest that pharmacologic miR-34a inhibition may be a therapeutic option to prevent or ameliorate HALI/BPD in neonates.
Human platelet lysate (PL) is a cost-effective and human source of autologous multiple and potent pro-angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF A), fibroblast growth factor b (FGF b) and angiopoietin-1. Nanocoatings previously characterized were prepared by layer-by-layer assembling incorporating PL with marine-origin polysaccharides and were shown to activate human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Within 20 h of incubation, the more sulfated coatings induced the HUVECS to the form tube-like structures accompanied by an increased expression of angiogenic-associated genes, such as angiopoietin-1 and VEGF A. This may be a cost-effective approach to modify 2D/3D constructs to instruct angiogenic cells towards the formation of neo-vascularization, driven by multiple and synergistic stimulations from the PL combined with sulfated polysaccharides.. ...
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Ngok, S., R. Geyer, S. Agrawal, A. Kourtidis, L. J. Lewis-Tuffin, K. L. Moodie3, D Huveldt, C. Wu, M. Liu, R. Marx, J. M. Baraban, P. Storz, A. Horowitz*, and P. Z. Anastasiadis*. VEGF and Angiopoietin-1 exert opposing effects on cell junctions by regulating the Rho GEF Syx. J. Cell Biol., 199:1103-1115, 2012 (* - co senior authors). Discussed by the JCB editors in "In this Issue" and in Sci. Signal. editorial (Converging on Syx, Vol. 6, Issue 257, p. ec9); recommended by Faculty of 1000 (http://f1000.com/prime/717978940), PubMed ID: 23253477; PubMed Central ID: PMC3529520.. We report a new molecular mechanism that may account in part for the opposite effects of VEGF and Angiopoietin-1 on vascular permeability. VEGF triggers endothelial cell junction disassembly, whereas Ang1 stabilizes them. We found that the key to these effects is the location of the RhoA-specific GEF Syx: in quiescent or Ang1-treated cells, Syx is anchored to a junctional protein complex where it stabilizes the actin fibers ...
401366DNAHomo sapiens 1gaggtgcagc tggtggagtc tgggggaggc ttggtccagc ctggggggtc cctgagactc 60tcctgtgcag tctctggatt cacctttagt agctattgga tgagctgggt ccgccaggct 120ccagggaagg ggctggagtg ggtggccaac ataaagcaag atggaagtga gaaatactat 180gtggactctg tgaagggccg attcaccatc tccagagaca acgccaagaa ctcactgtat 240ctgcaaatga acagcctgag agccgaggac acggctgtgt attactgtgc gagagatcaa 300ggtatagcag tggctgggcc ctttgactac tggggccagg gaaccctggt caccgtctcc 360tcagcc 3662122PRTHomo Sapiens 2Glu Val Gln Leu Val Glu Ser Gly Gly Gly Leu Val Gln Pro Gly Gly1 5 10 15Ser Leu Arg Leu Ser Cys Ala Val Ser Gly Phe Thr Phe Ser Ser Tyr 20 25 30Trp Met Ser Trp Val Arg Gln Ala Pro Gly Lys Gly Leu Glu Trp Val 35 40 45Ala Asn Ile Lys Gln Asp Gly Ser Glu Lys Tyr Tyr Val Asp Ser Val 50 55 60Lys Gly Arg Phe Thr Ile Ser Arg Asp Asn Ala Lys Asn Ser Leu Tyr65 70 75 80Leu Gln Met Asn Ser Leu Arg Ala Glu Asp Thr Ala Val Tyr Tyr Cys 85 90 95Ala Arg Asp Gln Gly Ile Ala Val Ala Gly Pro Phe Asp Tyr Trp Gly 100 105 110Gln Gly Thr Leu Val Thr Val Ser ...
In cancer models, TIE2 kinase plays an important role in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and tumor metastasis. TIE2 expression is largely restricted to vascular endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, and bone marrow derived TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs), which are proangiogenic, provasculogenic and enhance invasiveness. The hypoxic tumor environment engendered by damaging the vasculature with chemotherapy, radiation, or anti-angiogenic treatments leads to rebound tumor vascularization by an angiogenic switch from the VEGF pathway to the angiopoietin/TIE2 pathway. This leads to recruitment of provasculogenic TEMs from the bone marrow, leading to the growth of residual tumor cells and disease progression. Significantly, a subset of TIE2-expressing macrophages are located within specialized vascular structures known as tumor microenvironment for metastases (TMEMs). Recent observations have linked TIE2-expressing macrophages within TMEM structures to intravasation of cancer cells into circulation ...
Genomic abnormalities lead to aberrant cell growth and signalling, contributing to the development of malignancy. Growth and metastasis also require the development of tumour vasculature. The VEGFs and angiopoietins are growth factor families central to this process. This thesis examines their expression in endometrial cancer. Genomic and post-genomic studies are used to broaden the investigation of angiogenesis and include related pathways. Using in situ hybridisation VEGF-A mRNA was detected in epithelial cancer cells but not pre-malignant and benign endometrium while VEGF-B was localised to both epithelial and stromal cells and was most abundant in benign endometrium. These findings suggest that VEGF-B may modulate the actions of VEGF-A by occupying receptors. Larger, gene microarray studies confirmed the differential expression of angiogenic factors and also identified a distinct set of coherently regulated genes in endometrial cancers. Within this gene set, PPARα, a transcription factor ...
Myostatin, a key regulator of muscle mass in vertebrates, is biosynthesised as a latent precursor in muscle and is activated by sequential proteolysis of the pro-domain. To investigate the molecular mechanism by which pro-myostatin remains latent, we have determined the structure of unprocessed pro-myostatin and analysed the properties of the protein in its different forms. Crystal structures and SAXS analyses show that pro-myostatin adopts an open, V-shaped structure with a domain-swapped arrangement. The pro-mature complex, after cleavage of the furin site, has significantly reduced activity compared with the mature growth factor and persists as a stable complex that is resistant to the natural antagonist follistatin ...
Proteolytic enzymes and their natural antagonists, the protease inhibitor pro- teins, play a crucial role in the physiology and pathology of living organisms including humans. Remark able advantages revealed their wide functional context. Proteases digest food proteinase in the digestive tract and liberate poly- peptide hormones, stimulating gastric and pancreatic secretion. Proteases are involved during fertilization in sperm - egg interaction, ovulation, ovum implantation and parturition. Proteases of the renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems act synergistically to generate blood pressure regu- lating polypeptides. In wound healing a battery of proteases is involved in the proteolytic cascades of clotting, fibrinolysis and tissue repair.Another battery of very different proteases directs the immune defense via several routes, i.e. complement activation, antigen presentation, the generation of chemokines and chemotaxins directing phagocytes to the site of injury or infection and the generation
La dérégulation de la formation et lintégrité des vaisseaux sanguins peut conduire à un état pathologique tel quobservé dans de nombreuses maladies ischémiques telles que: la croissance de tumeur solide, larthrite rhumatoïde, le psoriasis, les rétinopathies et lathérosclérose. Par conséquent, la possibilité de moduler langiogenèse régionale chez les patients souffrant dischémie est cliniquement pertinente. Un élément clé dans linduction de langiogenèse pathologique est une inflammation qui précède et accompagne la formation des nouveaux vaisseaux. Ce phénomène est démontré par laugmentation de la perméabilité vasculaire et le recrutement de monocytes/ macrophages et cellules polynucléaires (neutrophiles). En collaboration avec dautres groupes, nous avons montré que différents facteurs de croissance tels que le facteur de croissance endothélial vasculaire et les angiopoïétines peuvent non seulement promouvoir langiogenèse mais aussi induire diverses ...
Molecules of the Angiopoietin/Tie ligand/receptor family exert gatekeeper functions within the vascular system to control tissue homeostasis and serve metabolic maintenance functions. Future work of the laboratory will be aimed at better understanding the molecular mechanisms of the vessel wall in the control of tissue homeostasis, most notably as it relates to maintenance and repair processes. Experimental approaches include (i) the vascular control of liver regeneration and liver tumorigenesis, (ii) the role of blood vessels in contributing to fibrotic tissue remodeling, (iii) the role of the vasculature in controlling tissue metabolism, including obesity, (iv) the role of blood vessels during aging and the role of vessel wall resident and bone marrow-derived stem cells during this process, and (v) the role of blood vessels in mediating the metastatic dissemination of circulating tumor cells. The lab will further intensify its efforts to elucidate the molecular and functional properties of the ...
Complete information for ANGPTL2 gene (Protein Coding), Angiopoietin Like 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
I will start my gcmaf treatment in a month once i finish some tests and the doctor get the gcmaf bottles from europe ,, he said that he would start me...
Its been researched in relation to cancer, autism, and Alzheimers, but just what is GcMAF and how does it work? Dr. Connealy explains.
Plasmodium knowlesi parasitemia correlated with age (Spearmans correlation coefficient [rs] = 0.36; P < .0001). In knowlesi malaria, IL-6, angiopoietin-2, and microvascular dysfunction were increased in severe compared to nonsevere disease, and all correlated with age, independent of parasitemia. In falciparum malaria, angiopoietin-2 increased with age, independent of parasite biomass (histidine-rich protein 2 [HRP2]). Independent risk factors for severe malaria included parasitemia and angiopoietin-2 in knowlesi malaria, and HRP2, angiopoietin-2, and microvascular dysfunction in falciparum malaria ...
Tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 1 (TIE-1) is a tyrosine kinase cell-surface receptor that is expressed primarily in endothelial cells. It exhibits high homology to TEK/TIE-2 and inhibits the binding of TEK/TIE-2 to the growth factor angiopoietin-1. The extracellular domain of TIE-1 can be cleaved by multiple factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); this results in loss of its ability to inhibit TEK/TIE-2. In addition to its role in angiogenesis, TIE-1 is reported to have proinflammatory effects in endothelial cells. TIE-1 is also known as tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Tie-1, TIE, and JTK14.. ...
The endothelial tyrosine kinase TEK is a cell-surface receptor that binds the growth factor angiopoietin-1. It is closely related to the TIE receptor tyrosine kinase. TEK-mediated signaling regulates angiogenesis, reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, and survival, proliferation, migration, adhesion, and spreading of endothelial cells. Activation of TEK leads to downstream activation of MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 kinases. Mutations in the TEK gene are associated with inherited venous malformations. TEK is also known as TEK tyrosine kinase, endothelial; endothelial tyrosine kinase, Tunica interna endothelial cell kinase, tyrosine kinase with Ig and EGF homology domains-2 (TIE-2), hTIE2, p140 TEK, CD202b, angiopoietin-1 receptor, VMCM, and VMCM1.. ...
Pre-eclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A predictor of pre-eclampsia would enable intervention, close surveillance and timely delivery, and thereby reduce the negative consequences of the disorder.. The overall aim of this thesis was to study potential predictors of pre-eclampsia by biochemical and epidemiological methods.. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) are regulators of angiogenesis, which is important for placental development. In a prospective and longitudinal study of a low-risk population the Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio was evaluated. The Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio increased during pregnancy in all women but at gestational week 25 and 28 the ratios were significantly lower in women who later developed pre-eclampsia. The relevance of Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), a protein with angiogenic properties, was furthermore evaluated. HRG levels decreased in all women, with significantly lower levels at gestational week 10, 25 and 28 in women ...
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Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are uncommon tumours which have a diverse biology. The aims of this thesis were to identify potential new biomarkers and further develop understanding of tumour biology in NETs. The following were assessed i) somatostatin receptor (SSTR) and dopamine-2 receptor (D2R) expression in NETs, ii)HER expression and their associated prognosis, iii) Angiopoietin expression in NETs and their prognostic significance, iv) proteomic analysis of serum and NET cell lines to identify novel markers and finally v) the role of 68Ga-DOTATATE PET in imaging of NETs. Immunohistochemical studies were performed to determine whether SSTR and D2R are co-expressed in NETs. D2R was co-expressed with SSTR-2 and -5 in 93% of low grade tumours, with lower co-expression in higher grade tumours. HER family of receptors are involved in oncogenesis; the expressions of these receptors were assessed. Immunohistochemical analysis of these receptors was performed in 82 cases. EGFR was expressed in 86%, ...
Angiopoietins (Ang) are vascular endothelial cell-specific growth factors that play important roles principally during the later stages of angiogenesis. We have compared the distribution of the...
Expression of ANGPT1 (Ang1, KIAA0003) in salivary gland tissue. Antibody staining with HPA018793, HPA018816 and CAB017815 in immunohistochemistry.
Our results show that genetic elimination of BAMBI as a modulator of the signaling of the family of TGF cytokines renders the almost-resistant C57BL/6 mouse strain more susceptible to the development of diabetic glomerular abnormalities, as determined by proteinuria with a widening of the FPs. This is associated with increased activation of ERK1/2 and Smad1/5 alternative TGF-β signaling pathways. The Vegfr2 and Angpt1 genes, which control glomerular endothelial survival and microvascular stability, were downmodulated in glomeruli from diabetic BAMBI−/− mice compared with BAMBI+/+ mice. Incubation of glomeruli from nondiabetic BAMBI+/+ or BAMBI−/− mice with TGF-β resulted in further downregulation of Angpt1 and Vegfr2 in glomeruli from BAMBI−/− compared with BAMBI+/+ mice. The enhanced downregulation of Vegfr2 in glomeruli of diabetic mice by eliminating BAMBI could be localized to glomerular endothelial cells using an H2B-EYFP reporter under the control of Vegfr2/Flk1 regulatory ...
Rat monoclonal Angiopoietin 3 antibody [RM0073-2H34] validated for WB and tested in Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length protein
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Pre-eclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A predictor of pre-eclampsia would enable intervention, close surveillance and timely delivery, and thereby reduce the negative consequences of the disorder.. The overall aim of this thesis was to study potential predictors of pre-eclampsia by biochemical and epidemiological methods.. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) are regulators of angiogenesis, which is important for placental development. In a prospective and longitudinal study of a low-risk population the Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio was evaluated. The Ang-1/Ang-2 ratio increased during pregnancy in all women but at gestational week 25 and 28 the ratios were significantly lower in women who later developed pre-eclampsia. The relevance of Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), a protein with angiogenic properties, was furthermore evaluated. HRG levels decreased in all women, with significantly lower levels at gestational week 10, 25 and 28 in women ...
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TIE2 a tyrosine kinase receptor of the Tie family. Receptor for angiopoietin 1. Expressed almost exclusively in endothelial cells. May constitute the earliest mammalian endothelial cell lineage marker. Appears to be critical for endothelial cell-smooth muscle cell communication in venous morphogenesis. TEK is closely related to the TIE receptor tyrosine kinase. Findings establish that simultaneous Tie 2 activation and Angiopoietin 2 inhibition form a powerful therapeutic strategy to elicit a favorable tumor microenvironment and enhanced delivery of a chemotherapeutic agent into tumors 1). ...
OBJECTIVES: Tie2 and its ligands, the angiopoietins (Ang), are required for embryonic and postnatal angiogenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that Tie2 is proteolytically cleaved from endothelial cells and produces a 75 kDa soluble receptor fragment (sTie2), however, the signaling mechanisms and effector molecules responsible for the shedding phenomenon are unknown. We investigated mechanisms responsible for Tie2 shedding.. MATERIALS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), NIH-3T3, or HEK293 cells exogenously expressing full-length Tie2 were serum starved for varying timepoints. The conditioned media (CM) were then analyzed for the presence of Tie2 by ELISA or westernblot using a Tie2-specific antibody recognizing the extracellular domain. VEGF-A165 (R&D systems) was used for experimentation. Pharmacologic inhibitors of p38 MAPK, Akt, and PI3K were also used. Adenovirus encoding myristylated Akt, wildtype PTEN, dominant negative PTEN and catalytically inactive PTEN were used to ...
A single gene called Angiopoietin-1 drives brain size and intelligence in fish according to a new study by researchers at Stockholm University, UCL an
GcMAF is a natural, immune stimulating protein in all healthy people. But, cancer patients need to learn about a degrading enzyme that inhibits GcMAF.
EK1711大鼠角化细胞内分泌因子(KAF)/双调蛋白(AR)ELISA试剂盒Ratkeratinocyteautocrinefactor/Amphiregulin,KAF/ARELISAkitEK1712大鼠白细胞活化黏附因子(ALCAM)ELISA试剂盒RatActivatedLeukocyteCellAdhesionMolecule,ALCAMELISAkitEK1713大鼠白介素9(IL-
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Creatine Monohydrate is a naturally occurring compound found in the human body and obtained in the diet primarily from meat and fish. Creatine is a popular supplement among active individuals because of its ability to serve as an energy reservoir, especially during intense physical exertion. During short, intense bursts of activity, the body breaks down adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenolsine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphate for energy. Creatine helps the body convert ADP back to ATP, providing greater amounts of ATP for energy, which may increase short-term endurance and strength. Creatine can also be stored for later use by cells creating the energy reservoir active individuals desire.Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement, mix 1 level teaspoon in fruit juice or other sweetened liquid 4 to 6 times daily, before and after exercise, for the first 7 days. Thereafter, for maintenance use, consume 1 to 3 times daily. Allow 3 to 4 hours between doses.Nutrition InfoServings Per Container: 120Serving
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But Im making GcMAF kefir at home - its amazing. My son gets so social with GcMAF kefir, his speech gets better every day. I honestly think GcMAF kefir is the answer to overcoming autism altogether. Please google GcMAF protein and do some research on this topic. Also, some parents have posted some feedback on Bravo kefir /probiotic, and GcMAF intravenous injections here. This is all true, this works so well I should sit down and post a homemade recipe of GcMAF kefir here. My son still has issues with social interactions, otherwise he is almost normal in everyday life. With GcMAF kefir, he says hi to people outside and wants to share his thoughts with everyone. Imagination, receptive speech, eye contact is better. Everything is better with GcMAF kefir. He gets quiet and plays by himself for 2 hours after taking GcMAF kefir, then he has a short cry (gets a bit upset), and then he gets very interactive and social for 3-4 hours. It works, you should try it ...
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Vessel maturation involves recruitment of mural cells. Laminar shear stress is a major trigger for vessel maturation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which shear stress affects recruitment of pericytes are unclear. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which post-transcriptionally control gene expression. Since shear stress regulates various miRs, we hypothesize that flow-induced miRs inhibit repulsive cues and facilitate mural cell coverage.. Laminar shear stress for 72h induces the up-regulation of miR-27b (2.8±0.24-fold vs static, p,0.05) in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) and in mouse femoral artery segments that were exposed to physiological shear stress ex vivo (1.5±0.14-fold vs no flow, p,0.05). Predicted targets for miR-27b include members of the semaphorin (SEMA) family (known to regulate repulsive signaling) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), which causes vessel destabilization. MiR-27b overexpression reduces SEMA6A (63.5±13.5%), SEMA6D (58±26%), and Ang2 (51.5±11%) ...
The present results show a switch in the expression of factors involved in vascular destabilization and angiogenic activation at the superficial and noninvasive stage of bladder cancer. Briefly, we show here that (a) the Ang-1 expression is dramatically reduced in tumor stage Ta in comparison with normal bladder epithelium; (b) in contrast, the highest level of Ang-2 and VEGF expression is measured in this tumor stage; (c) high level of Ang-2 expression seems to be a strong independent predictor of tumor recurrence; and (d) enhanced expression of Tie2 is identified as an independent favorable prognostic factor of disease-specific survival. Particularly, the reduced expression of Ang-1 accompanied by enhanced expression of Ang-2 and VEGF in bladder cancer stage Ta in comparison with normal bladder epithelium suggests an establishment of a potent proangiogenic stimulus at the superficial bladder cancer stage Ta.. Angiopoietins represent a family of extracellular ligands of the tyrosine kinase ...

Plasma angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin receptor tie-2 levels in congestive heart failure | JACC: Journal of...Plasma angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin receptor tie-2 levels in congestive heart failure | JACC: Journal of...

2003) Plasma angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2 and tie-2 in breast and prostate cancer: a comparison with VEGF and Flt-1. Eur J ... 2001) Angiopoietin-1, unlike angiopoietin-2, is incorporated into the extracellular matrix via its linker peptide region. J ... 2000) Expression of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and tie receptors after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. Am J ... Plasma angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin receptor tie-2 levels in congestive heart failure ...
more infohttp://www.onlinejacc.org/content/43/3/423

Angiopoietin-related protein 2 - WikipediaAngiopoietin-related protein 2 - Wikipedia

Angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin-4 participate in the formation of blood vessels. ANGPTL2 protein is a secreted ... and characterization of angiopoietin-related protein. angiopoietin-related protein induces endothelial cell sprouting". J Biol ... Angiopoietin-related protein 2 also known as angiopoietin-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL2 ... Angiopoietins are members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family and the only known growth factors largely specific ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiopoietin-related_protein_2

Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) induces expressio | Open-iAngiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) induces expressio | Open-i

Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) induces expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members. (a) Relative mRNA expression ... fig02: Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) induces expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members. (a) Relative mRNA ... fig02: Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) induces expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members. (a) Relative mRNA ... Angiopoietin-like protein 2 renders colorectal cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy by activating spleen tyrosine kinase- ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4317964_cas0105-1550-f2&req=4

Response of angiopoietin-like proteins 3 and 4 to hemodialysis. | Sigma-AldrichResponse of angiopoietin-like proteins 3 and 4 to hemodialysis. | Sigma-Aldrich

Response of angiopoietin-like proteins 3 and 4 to hemodialysis.. [Dana Mahmood, Elena Makoveichuk, Solveig Nilsson, Gunilla ... Patients on chronic hemodialysis (cHD) have decreased activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTL ... o-Phenylenediamine dihydrochloride, tablet, 2 mg substrate per tablet C6H8N2 · 2HCl ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/24634330

Inactivation of lipoprotein lipase occurs on the surface of THP-1 macrophages where oligomers of angiopoietin-like protein 4...Inactivation of lipoprotein lipase occurs on the surface of THP-1 macrophages where oligomers of angiopoietin-like protein 4...

Angiopoietin-like protein 4, Lipoprotein lipase, Macrophages, GW501516 National Category Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ... Angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) 4 inactivates LPL and ANGPTL4 expression is controlled by peroxisome proliferator-activated ... Inactivation of lipoprotein lipase occurs on the surface of THP-1 macrophages where oligomers of angiopoietin-like protein 4 ... 425, no 2, 138-143 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published Abstract [en] Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglycerides in ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:559139

A Polyglucuronic Acid to Target the FIAF Adipokine for Slimming EffectsA Polyglucuronic Acid to Target the FIAF Adipokine for Slimming Effects

... angiopoietin-related protein 4 (ARP4), PPARγ angiopoietin related gene (PGAR), ANGPTL2, pp1158 and NL2. ... 6. S Mandard, F Zandbergen, E Va Straten, W Wahli, M Muller and S Kersten, The fasting induced adipose factor/angiopoietin-like ... It belongs to the family of fibrinogen/angiopoietinlike proteins and is also referred to as: angiopoietin-like protein 4 ( ... 5. A Xu et al, Angiopoietin-like protein 4 decreases blood glucose and improves glucose tolerance but induces hyperlipidemia ...
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Human Angiopoietin 2 peptide (ab172727) | AbcamHuman Angiopoietin 2 peptide (ab172727) | Abcam

Buy our Human Angiopoietin 2 peptide. Ab172727 is a blocking peptide for ab125692 and has been validated in BL. Abcam provides ... Binds to TIE2 receptor and counteracts blood vessel maturation/stability mediated by angiopoietin-1. Its function may be ... Shipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C long term. Avoid freeze / thaw ...
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Angiopoietin-2 Antibodies: Novus BiologicalsAngiopoietin-2 Antibodies: Novus Biologicals

Browse our Angiopoietin-2 Antibodies all backed by our Guarantee+. ... anti-angiopoietin-2a antibody, anti-angiopoietin-2B antibody, anti-angiopoitin 2 antibody, anti-Tie2-ligand antibody ... Each Angiopoietin-2 Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you ... Our Angiopoietin-2 Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Chicken, Human, Mouse. Use the list below to choose ...
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Mouse Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kit (ab171335) | AbcamMouse Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kit (ab171335) | Abcam

Abcams Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Urine, Serum, Heparin Plasma, EDTA Plasma in mouse. ... Abcams mouse Angiopoietin-2 in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the accurate quantitative ... An Angiopoietin-2 specific rat monoclonal antibody has been precoated onto 96-well plates. Standards and test samples are added ... Get better reproducibility in only 90 minutes with Mouse Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kit (ab209883) from our SimpleStep ELISA® range. ...
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Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kits from Biorbyt | Biocompare.comAngiopoietin 2 ELISA Kits from Biorbyt | Biocompare.com

Compare Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kits from Biorbyt from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kits from Biorbyt. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool ... Your search returned 7 Angiopoietin 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ... 1 x 48 Discovery (pre-coated), 1 x 96 (pre-coated), 2 x 96 (pre-coated) ...
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Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kits from RayBiotech | Biocompare.comAngiopoietin 2 ELISA Kits from RayBiotech | Biocompare.com

Compare Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kits from RayBiotech from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kits from RayBiotech. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based ... Your search returned 5 Angiopoietin 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
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anti-Angiopoietin 2 antibody  | GeneTexanti-Angiopoietin 2 antibody | GeneTex

Anti-Angiopoietin 2 pAb (GTX10601) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Angiopoietin 2 antibody (angiopoietin 2) for ELISA, IHC-P, WB. ... Angiopoietin 2 probably acts as a natural antagonist for Ang1 ... angiopoietin 2. Background. Angiopoietin 2 and angiopoietin 1 have an N-terminal coiled-coil domain and a C-terminal fibrinogen ... Recombinant human angiopoietin 2 has a molecular mass of approximately 66 kDa in SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing ...
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Angiopoietin-2 exacerbates cardiac hypoxia and inflammation after myocardial infarctionJCI - Angiopoietin-2 exacerbates cardiac hypoxia and inflammation after myocardial infarction

Emerging evidence indicates that angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2), a well-recognized vascular destabilizing factor, is a biomarker of ...
more infohttps://jci.org/articles/view/99659/figure/1

Context-dependent functions of angiopoietin 2 are determined by the endothelial phosphatase VEPTP | PNASContext-dependent functions of angiopoietin 2 are determined by the endothelial phosphatase VEPTP | PNAS

2007) Differential response of lymphatic, venous and arterial endothelial cells to angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2. BMC Cell ... 2011) Angiopoietin-1 is essential in mouse vasculature during development and in response to injury. J Clin Invest 121:2278- ... 2006) Angiopoietin-2 sensitizes endothelial cells to TNF-alpha and has a crucial role in the induction of inflammation. Nat Med ... 2016) Angiopoietin receptor Tie2 is required for vein specification and maintenance via regulating COUP-TFII. eLife 5:e21032. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/115/6/1298

Angiopoietin 2 ELISA & Assay KitsAngiopoietin 2 ELISA & Assay Kits

Compare and order Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. ... angiopoietin-2B , angiopoietin-2a , Angiopoietin-2B (Ang-2B) , angiopoietin-2A ... Angiopoietin 2 Antigen Profile Antigen Summary The protein encoded by this gene is an antagonist of angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1) and ... Search Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kits for other reactivities: Rabbit,. Chicken,. Guinea Pig,. Wild boar (Sus scrofa),. Cow (Bovine), ...
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anti-Angiopoietin 2 antibody (N-Term) | Product No. ABIN95113anti-Angiopoietin 2 antibody (N-Term) | Product No. ABIN95113

Order this anti-Angiopoietin 2 antibody. , Product number ABIN95113 ... Rabbit Polyclonal Angiopoietin 2 antibody N-Term for WB. Published in 1 Pubmed Reference. ... Product Details anti-Angiopoietin 2 Antibody References Images Handling Application Details Target Details back to top ... anti-Mouse (Murine) Angiopoietin 2 antibody for Western Blotting Show more 45 anti-Mouse (Murine) Angiopoietin 2 antibody for ...
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Anti-Angiopoietin-2 Rabbit pAb | 176002Anti-Angiopoietin-2 Rabbit pAb | 176002

Anti-Angiopoietin-2, rabbit polyclonal, recognizes the ~55 kDa non-glycosylated and the ~70 kDa glycosylated, secreted Ang-2 ... Angiopoietin (Ang-2) is a recently identified secreted protein that may act as an antagonist for Ang-1 and Tie-2. Ang-1 and Ang ... Anti-Angiopoietin-2 Rabbit pAb MSDS (material safety data sheet) or SDS, CoA and CoQ, dossiers, brochures and other available ... Anti-Angiopoietin-2, rabbit polyclonal, recognizes the ~55 kDa non-glycosylated and the ~70 kDa glycosylated, secreted Ang-2 ...
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Angiopoietin-2 in Bone Marrow milieu promotes Multiple Myeloma-associated angiogenesisAngiopoietin-2 in Bone Marrow milieu promotes Multiple Myeloma-associated angiogenesis

Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is involved in angiogenesis in both solid and hematological malignancies. In Multiple Myeloma (MM), ... Notably, Ang-2 but not VEGF serum levels correlated with BM micro-vessel density, further underscoring the key role of Ang-2 in ... These data suggest that Ang-2 produced in the BM milieu may contribute to MM angiogenesis and suggest that the molecule can be ... To address the patho-physiologic role of Ang-2 in MM associated angiogenesis, we used sera from patients with active MM, which ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/excer/201501000/00076208-201501000-00001

Angiopoietin-2 Stimulates Breast Cancer Metastasis through the α5β1 Integrin-Mediated Pathway | Cancer ResearchAngiopoietin-2 Stimulates Breast Cancer Metastasis through the α5β1 Integrin-Mediated Pathway | Cancer Research

Differential expression of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 in colon carcinoma. A possible mechanism for the initiation of ... Angiopoietin-2 Stimulates Breast Cancer Metastasis through the α5β1 Integrin-Mediated Pathway. Yorihisha Imanishi, Bo Hu, ... Angiopoietin-2 expression in breast cancer correlates with lymph node invasion and short survival. Int J Cancer 2003; 103: 466- ... Expression of angiopoietins and its clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 7124-9. ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/67/9/4254

Angiopoietin-2 Stimulates Breast Cancer Metastasis through the α5β1 Integrin-Mediated Pathway | Cancer ResearchAngiopoietin-2 Stimulates Breast Cancer Metastasis through the α5β1 Integrin-Mediated Pathway | Cancer Research

Differential expression of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 in colon carcinoma. A possible mechanism for the initiation of ... Angiopoietin-2 Stimulates Breast Cancer Metastasis through the α5β1 Integrin-Mediated Pathway. Yorihisha Imanishi, Bo Hu, ... Angiopoietin-2 expression in breast cancer correlates with lymph node invasion and short survival. Int J Cancer 2003; 103: 466- ... Expression of angiopoietins and its clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 2002; 62: 7124-9. ...
more infohttps://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/67/9/4254?ijkey=644bc18c0907547ae5735d1c7f9e8562806caf0c&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Anti-Human Angiopoietin 2 antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p))Anti-Human Angiopoietin 2 antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p))

... find the top performing anti-Human Angiopoietin 2 antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)). ... Recommended Angiopoietin 2 Antibody (supplied by: Log in to see ) Antigen Angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) Antibodies show synonyms for ... This Angiopoietin 2 antibody is un-conjugated Alternatives Biotin. (13), FITC. (8), HRP. (7), Alexa Fluor 488. (2), Alexa Fluor ... 2 antibody 1 antibody Immunoprecipitation (IP). 3 antibody 7 antibody 3 antibody 2 antibody 1 antibody 2 antibody 1 antibody 1 ...
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Angiopoietin-2 Causes Inflammation in Vivo by Promoting Vascular Leakage | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental TherapeuticsAngiopoietin-2 Causes Inflammation in Vivo by Promoting Vascular Leakage | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

The angiopoietin family of proteins includes four different angiopoietins termed Ang-1 through Ang-4 (Yancopoulos et al., 2000 ... Biological characterization of angiopoietin-3 and angiopoietin-4. FASEB J 18: 1200-1208. ... B, angiopoietins administered at 300 ng/paw, and edema measured up to 4 h. Values are mean + S.E.M.; n = 8 mice; *, p , 0.05 ... Because of its interaction with the angiopoietins during angiogenesis, we sought to determine whether angiopoietins modify VEGF ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/314/2/738

Ratio of angiopoietin-2 to angiopoietin-1 as a predictor of mortality in acute lung injury patients.Ratio of angiopoietin-2 to angiopoietin-1 as a predictor of mortality in acute lung injury patients.

We also tested the association of concentration of angiopoietin-2 relative to ang ... To test the hypothesis that the concentration of angiopoietin-2 relative to angiopoietin-1 may be a useful biological marker of ... Angiopoietin-1 / blood*. Angiopoietin-2 / blood*. Biological Markers / blood*. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. ... MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Plasma levels of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 and of biomarkers of endothelial activation ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Ratio-angiopoietin-2-to-1/20581666.html

Anti-vasculaR Endothelial Growth Factor plUs Anti-angiopoietin 2 in Fixed comBination therapY: Evaluation for the Treatment of...Anti-vasculaR Endothelial Growth Factor plUs Anti-angiopoietin 2 in Fixed comBination therapY: Evaluation for the Treatment of...

Anti-vasculaR Endothelial Growth Factor plUs Anti-angiopoietin 2 in Fixed comBination therapY: Evaluation for the Treatment of ... Active Comparator: Aflibercept 2 mg Participants were administered intravitreal injection of Aflibercept (IAI) 2 mg Q4 on Day 1 ... Experimental: Aflibercept 2 mg Q4 to REGN910-3 (6 mg:2 mg) Q8 Participants were administered intravitreal injection of ... Experimental: Aflibercept 2 mg Q4 to Aflibercept 2 mg Q8 Participants were administered intravitreal injection of Aflibercept ( ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02712008?term=RUBY&rank=3

The Tie2 receptor antagonist Angiopoietin-2 facilitates vascular inflammation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus | Annals of the...The Tie2 receptor antagonist Angiopoietin-2 facilitates vascular inflammation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus | Annals of the...

The Tie2 receptor antagonist Angiopoietin-2 facilitates vascular inflammation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ... The Tie2 receptor antagonist Angiopoietin-2 facilitates vascular inflammation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ...
more infohttp://ard.bmj.com/content/early/2008/10/17/ard.2008.094664.responses
  • Apoptosis induced by antineoplastic drug treatment was significantly decreased in SW480/ANGPTL2 compared to control cells.Expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family genes was upregulated in SW480/ANGPTL2 compared to SW480/Ctrl cells.To assess signaling downstream of ANGPTL2 underlying this effect, we carried out RNA sequencing analysis of SW480/ANGPTL2 and SW480/Ctrl cells. (nih.gov)
  • a) Relative mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members BCL-2 (left) and BCL-XL (middle) and of pro-apoptotic BAX (right) in SW480/ANGPTL2-1, SW480/ANGPTL2-2, or SW480/Ctrl cells. (nih.gov)
  • 19) Therefore, we examined the expression of BCL-2 family mRNAs in SW480/ANGPTL2-1 and -2 cells or SW480/Ctrl cells. (nih.gov)
  • 19,20) Therefore, we analyzed that ratio in SW480/ANGPTL2-1, SW480/ANGPTL2-2, and SW480/Ctrl cells and found that BCL-2/BAX and BCL-XL/BAX ratios were greater in both ANGPTL2-overexpressing lines than they were in controls (Fig. 2b). (nih.gov)
  • 11) It is comprised of both pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, and the latter (BCL-2, BCL-XL and MCL-1) reportedly inhibit 5-FU-induced apoptosis in CRC cells. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, several reports suggested that a high BCL-2/BAX or BCL-XL/BAX ratio is positively correlated with progression of several diseases or malignant tumors and that the BCL-2/BAX ratio may serve as a prognostic marker for patients with rectal carcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • The BCL-2 family is a key regulator of programmed cell death. (nih.gov)
  • Western Blot, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry identified MMEC as the major source of Ang-2, at variance with MM cells and CD14+ BM monocytes. (ovid.com)
  • Human and mouse angiopoietin 2 share 85% sequence identity and are 60% identical to their Ang1 homologs. (genetex.com)
  • To define the role of Ang-2 in acute inflammation, we studied the effects of recombinant Ang-2 administration in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We conclude that Ang-2 by itself stimulates the extravasation of cell-poor fluid, but in the presence of ongoing inflammation it reduces cellular infiltration in tissues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • MM Bone Marrow (BM) sera with high Ang-2 concentration specifically contributed to endothelial cell (EC) activation, while Ang-1 containing sera maintained EC stabilization. (ovid.com)
  • Methods and Results- Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), human microvascular ECs (HMECs), or bovine aortic ECs (BAECs) were subjected to either LS (15 dyn/cm 2 ) or OS (±5 dyn/cm 2 ) for 24 hours and used in Matrigel tubule formation or scratch migration assays. (ahajournals.org)
  • Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), bovine aortic ECs (BAECs), and human microvascular EC line (HMEC-1) were grown to confluence and exposed to unidirectional LS (5 or 15 dyn/cm 2 ), OS (±5 or ±15 dyn/cm 2 at 1 Hz frequency), or static control (ST) for 24 hours using a cone-and-plate device as described by us. (ahajournals.org)
  • Human Angiopoietin 2 shares 84% and 85% amino acid (aa) sequences identity with mouse and rat Angiopoietin 2, respectively. (bosterbio.com)
  • We measured plasma Ang-2 and VEGF, together with biomarkers of severity from 146 adults with and without SM, in parallel with longitudinal measures of endothelial function by using reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (a measure of endothelial NO bioavailability). (mysciencework.com)
  • Regression was used to relate concentrations of Ang-2/VEGF with malaria disease severity, biomarkers of perfusion, endothelial activation, and parasite biomass. (mysciencework.com)
  • p = .01) in those with an elevated pulmonary dead-space fraction (p = .03 for interaction between pulmonary dead-space fraction and concentration of angiopoietin-2 relative to angiopoietin-1). (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of concentration of angiopoietin-2 relative to angiopoietin-1 may be a prognostic biomarker of endothelial activation in acute lung injury patients and, along with pulmonary dead-space fraction, may be useful for risk stratification of acute lung injury patients, particularly in identifying subgroups for future research and therapeutic trials. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ang-2 concentrations were elevated in SM and associated with increased venous lactate, plasma intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations, parasite biomass, and mortality. (mysciencework.com)
  • BOULEVARD (NCT02699450) 2 is a Phase II study designed to assess the efficacy and safety of RG7716 compared with ranibizumab in people with diabetic macular edema (DME). (chemdiv.com)
  • The density of yellow coloration is directly proportional to the mouse Angiopoietin-2 amount of sample captured in plate. (abcam.com)
  • Get better reproducibility in only 90 minutes with Mouse Angiopoietin 2 ELISA Kit ( ab209883 ) from our SimpleStep ELISA ® range. (abcam.com)
  • NO and prostaglandin E 2 levels in mouse paw following the injection of Ang-2 remained unaltered, suggesting that the action of Ang-2 does not involve these mediators. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, Ang-2 exerted a weak stimulatory effect on leukocyte migration in the mouse paw. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Similarly, Ang-2 injected into the mouse air pouch produced only a modest effect on cell extravasation that peaked at 30 min. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The roles of two members of this family, Ang-1 and Ang-2, are becoming understood and may act alongside VEGF. (onlinejacc.org)