An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.
The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).
A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.
A TIE receptor found predominantly on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is considered essential for vascular development and can form a heterodimer with the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. The TIE-1 receptor may play a role in regulating BLOOD VESSEL stability and maturation.
A family of structurally-related tyrosine kinase receptors that are expressed predominantly in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and are essential for development of BLOOD VESSELS (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC). The name derives from the fact that they are tyrosine kinases that contain Ig and EGF domains.
Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
A species of gram-negative bacteria highly pathogenic to RATS and MICE. It is the primary cause of murine respiratory mycoplasmosis.
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.
Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel angiopoietin family protein, angiopoietin-3. (1/540)

Using homology-based PCR, we have isolated cDNA encoding a novel member (491 amino acids) of the angiopoietin (Ang) family from human adult heart cDNA and have designated it angiopoietin-3 (Ang3). The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal portions of Ang-3 contain the characteristic coiled-coil domain and fibrinogen-like domain that are conserved in other known Angs. Ang3 has a highly hydrophobic region at the N-terminus (approximately 21 amino acids) that is typical of a signal sequence for protein secretion. Ang3 mRNA is most abundant in adrenal gland, placenta, thyroid gland, heart and small intestine in human adult tissues. Additionally, Ang3 is a secretory protein, but is not a mitogen in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor selectively up-regulate angiopoietin-2 in bovine microvascular endothelial cells. (2/540)

Recent studies have shown that the angiopoietin-Tie2 system is a predominant regulator of vascular integrity. In this study, we investigated the effect of two known angiogenic stimuli, hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), on these molecules. VEGF induced both a time- and concentration-dependent increase in angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) mRNA expression in bovine microvascular endothelial cells. This up-regulation was derived primarily from an increased transcription rate as evidenced by nuclear run-on assay and mRNA decay study. The increased Ang2 expression upon VEGF treatment was almost totally abolished by inhibition of tyrosine kinase or mitogen-activated protein kinase and partially by suppression of protein kinase C. Hypoxia also directly increased Ang2 mRNA expression. In contrast, Ang1 and Tie2 responded to neither of these stimuli. The enhanced Ang2 expression following VEGF stimulation and hypoxia was accompanied by de novo protein synthesis as detected by immunoprecipitation. In a mouse model of ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization, Ang2 mRNA was up-regulated in the ischemic inner retinal layer, and remarkable expression was observed in neovascular vessels. These data suggest that both hypoxia- and VEGF-induced neovascularization might be facilitated by selective induction of Ang2, which deteriorates the integrity of preexisting vasculature.  (+info)

Vessel cooption, regression, and growth in tumors mediated by angiopoietins and VEGF. (3/540)

In contrast with the prevailing view that most tumors and metastases begin as avascular masses, evidence is presented here that a subset of tumors instead initially grows by coopting existing host vessels. This coopted host vasculature does not immediately undergo angiogenesis to support the tumor but instead regresses, leading to a secondarily avascular tumor and massive tumor cell loss. Ultimately, however, the remaining tumor is rescued by robust angiogenesis at the tumor margin. The expression patterns of the angiogenic antagonist angiopoietin-2 and of pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) suggest that these proteins may be critical regulators of this balance between vascular regression and growth.  (+info)

Expressions of angiopoietins and Tie2 in human choroidal neovascular membranes. (4/540)

PURPOSE: To elucidate the potential role of angiopoietins and the Tie2 system in choroidal neovascularization. METHODS: Surgically excised choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVMs) were obtained at vitrectomy from five eyes with age-related macular degeneration, three eyes with idiopathic neovascular maculopathy, and two eyes had degenerative myopia and two eyes had angioid streaks. Light microscopic immunohistochemistry was performed to detect cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Ang1, and Ang2 and cellular components such as retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Immunofluorescent double staining using confocal microscopy was performed to identify the cell types that secrete specific cytokines. RESULTS: Ang1 and Ang2 were positive in all surgically excised CNVMs, regardless of the primary disease. Double staining revealed that many of the cytokeratin, CD68 and factor VIII positive cells also had Ang1 and Ang2 immunoreactivities. In contrast to Ang1, Ang2 immunoreactivity tends to be higher in the highly vascularized regions of many CNVMs, and the localization was very similar to that of VEGF staining. Almost all vascular structures had prominent immunoreactivity for Tie2, which was confirmed by double staining for Tie2 and factor VIII. Tie2 immunoreactivity was also observed in the RPE monolayer and in pigmented, polygonal, and fibroblast-like cells in the stroma. CONCLUSIONS: Present findings that Ang2 and VEGF are co-upregulated and that Tie2 is expressed in a variety of cell types in CNVMs further support a crucial role of the interaction between VEGF and Ang2 in pathologic angiogenesis of CNVM formation.  (+info)

Expression of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and the Tie-2 receptor tyrosine kinase during mouse kidney maturation. (5/540)

The Tie-2 receptor tyrosine kinase transduces embryonic endothelial differentiation, with Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) acting as a stimulatory ligand and Ang-2 postulated to be a naturally occurring inhibitor. Expression of these genes was sought during mouse kidney maturation from the onset of glomerulogenesis (embryonic day 14 [E14]) to the end of nephron formation (2 wk postnatal [P2]), and during medullary maturation into adulthood (P8). Using Northern and slot blotting of RNA extracted from whole organs, these three genes were expressed throughout the experimental period with peak levels at P2 to P3. By in situ hybridization analysis at E18, P1, and P3, Ang-1 mRNA was found to localize to condensing renal mesenchymal cells, proximal tubules, and glomeruli in addition to maturing tubules of the outer medulla. In contrast, Ang-2 transcripts were more spatially restricted, being detected only in differentiating outer medullary tubules and the vasa recta bundle area. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, Tie-2 was detected in capillaries of the nephrogenic cortex, glomerular tufts, cortical interstitium, and medulla including vessels in the vasa recta. Using Western blotting of protein extracted from whole organs, Tie-2 protein was detected between E14 and P8 with tyrosine phosphorylated Tie-2 evident from E18. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Tie-2 has roles in maturation of both glomeruli and vasa rectae.  (+info)

New model of tumor angiogenesis: dynamic balance between vessel regression and growth mediated by angiopoietins and VEGF. (6/540)

Our analyses in several different tumor settings challenge the prevailing view that malignancies and metastases generally initiate as avascular masses that only belatedly induce vascular support. Instead, we find that malignant cells rapidly co-opt existing host vessels to form an initially well-vascularized tumor mass. Paradoxically, the co-opted vasculature does not undergo angiogenesis to support the growing tumor, but instead regresses (perhaps as part of a normal host defense mechanism) via a process that involves disruption of endothelial cell/smooth muscle cell interactions and endothelial cell apoptosis. This vessel regression in turn results in necrosis within the central part of the tumor. However, robust angiogenesis is initiated at the tumor margin, rescuing the surviving tumor and supporting further growth. The expression patterns of Angiopoietin-2 (the natural antagonist for the angiogenic Tie2 receptor) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) strongly implicate these factors in the above processes. Angiopoietin-2 is highly induced in co-opted vessels, prior to VEGF induction in the adjacent tumor cells, providing perhaps the earliest marker of tumor vasculature and apparently marking the co-opted vessels for regression. Subsequently, VEGF upregulation coincident with Angiopoietin-2 expression at the tumor periphery is associated with robust angiogenesis. Thus, in tumors, Angiopoietin-2 and VEGF seem to reprise the roles they play during vascular remodeling in normal tissues, acting to regulate the previously underappreciated balance between vascular regression and growth.  (+info)

Angiopoietin-1 and -2 coiled coil domains mediate distinct homo-oligomerization patterns, but fibrinogen-like domains mediate ligand activity. (7/540)

Activity of endothelial Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase is modulated by two naturally occurring, secreted ligands, angiopoietin-1 and -2, which have opposing effects on its phosphorylation. Receptor tyrosine kinase activation requires receptor dimerization/multimerization, which, for many receptors, is mediated by homo-oligomeric ligands binding to and bridging receptor molecules. We show here that angiopoietin-1 and -2 form distinct arrays of disulfide-linked homo-oligomeric complexes. Their mobilities on nonreducing gels suggest that angiopoietin-2 exists predominantly as a homodimer but also forms higher order multimers. In contrast, angiopoietin-1 forms some homotrimers, but predominantly exists in higher order multimers. These two structurally related, 60% homologous ligands are predominantly composed of an amino-terminal coiled coil domain and a carboxyl-terminal fibrinogen-like domain. We show that their distinct oligomerization patterns are determined by their coiled coil domains and, furthermore, that their coiled coil domains, but not their fibrinogen-like domains, are sufficient to mediate formation of disulfide-linked homo-oligomers. In contrast, the differential effects of these ligands on endothelial Tie2 phosphorylation is mediated by their fibrinogen-like domains. We conclude from these studies that the coiled coil and fibrinogen-like domains of the angiopoietins have distinct functions with the coiled coil domain mediating ligand homo-oligomerization and the fibrinogen-like domain mediating ligand activity.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin regulation by gonadotrophin and steroids in macaque granulosa cells during the peri-ovulatory interval. (8/540)

The role of endothelial cell-specific growth factors in the vascularization of the primate peri-ovulatory follicle was examined. Experiments were designed firstly to detect expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in granulosa cells and secondly, to determine whether gonadotrophins and/or steroids regulate their expression during the peri-ovulatory interval. Granulosa cells and follicular fluid were collected from rhesus macaques undergoing ovarian stimulation before (0 h), 12, or 36 h after a bolus of ovulatory human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), with or without steroid ablation and progestin replacement. VEGF, Ang-1 and Ang-2 mRNA were all detected prior to the ovulatory stimulus. Whereas follicular fluid VEGF concentrations increased 6-fold (P < 0.05) between 0 and 12 h, VEGF mRNA values were unchanged and were unaffected by steroid ablation. Ang-1 mRNA decreased from 0 to 12 h (P < 0.05), followed by a 30-fold increase (P < 0.05) at 36 h, while Ang-2 mRNA values were unchanged between 0, 12 and 36 h. Steroid ablation decreased (P < 0.05) Ang-1 mRNA at 36 h, and Ang-2 mRNA at 12 h, while only Ang-1 was restored by progestin replacement. These data suggest a dynamic expression of vascular-specific growth factors in a gonadotrophin-dependent, steroid-independent (VEGF) or steroid-dependent (Ang-1) manner in granulosa cells of peri-ovulatory follicles of primates.  (+info)

Pathologic neovascularization can be seen in a variety of conditions, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. In cancer, for example, the formation of new blood vessels can help the tumor grow and spread to other parts of the body. In diabetic retinopathy, the growth of new blood vessels in the retina can cause vision loss and other complications.

There are several different types of pathologic neovascularization, including:

* Angiosarcoma: a type of cancer that arises from the cells lining blood vessels
* Hemangiomas: benign tumors that are composed of blood vessels
* Cavernous malformations: abnormal collections of blood vessels in the brain or other parts of the body
* Pyogenic granulomas: inflammatory lesions that can form in response to trauma or infection.

The diagnosis of pathologic neovascularization is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

In summary, pathologic neovascularization is a process that occurs in response to injury or disease, and it can lead to serious complications. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of this condition and its various forms in order to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

The growth of new blood vessels in the retina is a natural response to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) and inflammation caused by these diseases. However, these new blood vessels are fragile and can cause damage to the retina, leading to vision loss. In some cases, RNV can also lead to vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, or glaucoma, which can further exacerbate vision loss.

The diagnosis of RNV is typically made through a comprehensive eye exam, including a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as fluorescein angiography or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Treatment options for RNV depend on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications, laser therapy, or vitrectomy.

In summary, retinal neovascularization is a common complication of various retinal diseases that can lead to vision loss if left untreated. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential to prevent further damage and preserve visual function.

Symptoms of retinal perforations may include flashes of light, floaters, blurred vision, and loss of peripheral vision. These symptoms can be caused by a variety of factors, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and trauma to the eye.

Retinal perforations are typically diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include imaging tests such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography. Treatment for retinal perforations depends on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include laser surgery, cryotherapy, or vitrectomy.

In summary, retinal perforations are a serious condition that can cause significant vision loss if left untreated. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential to prevent long-term vision loss and improve outcomes for patients with retinal perforations.

There are two main types of DR:

1. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR): This is the early stage of DR, where the blood vessels in the retina become damaged and start to leak fluid or bleed. The symptoms can be mild or severe and may include blurred vision, floaters, and flashes of light.
2. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR): This is the advanced stage of DR, where new blood vessels start to grow in the retina. These vessels are weak and can cause severe bleeding, leading to vision loss.

DR is a common complication of diabetes, and it is estimated that up to 80% of people with diabetes will develop some form of DR over their lifetime. The risk of developing DR increases with the duration of diabetes and the level of blood sugar control.

Early detection and treatment of DR can help to prevent vision loss, so it is important for people with diabetes to have regular eye exams to monitor their retinal health. Treatment options for DR include laser surgery, injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) medications, and vitrectomy, a surgical procedure to remove the vitreous gel and blood from the eye.

Preventing Diabetic Retinopathy

While there is no surefire way to prevent diabetic retinopathy (DR), there are several steps that people with diabetes can take to reduce their risk of developing this complication:

1. Control blood sugar levels: Keeping blood sugar levels within a healthy range can help to slow the progression of DR. This can be achieved through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication.
2. Monitor blood pressure: High blood pressure can damage the blood vessels in the retina, so it is important to monitor and control blood pressure to reduce the risk of DR.
3. Maintain healthy blood lipids: Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol can increase the risk of DR.
4. Quit smoking: Smoking can damage the blood vessels in the retina and increase the risk of DR.
5. Maintain a healthy weight: Obesity is a risk factor for DR, so maintaining a healthy weight can help to reduce the risk of this complication.
6. Get regular eye exams: Regular eye exams can help to detect DR in its early stages, when it is easier to treat and prevent vision loss.

Preventing Diabetic Retinopathy

While there is no cure for diabetic retinopathy (DR), there are several treatment options available to help manage the condition and prevent vision loss. These include:

1. Laser surgery: This is a common treatment for early-stage DR, where a laser is used to shrink abnormal blood vessels in the retina and reduce the risk of further damage.
2. Injection therapy: Medications such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections can be used to shrink abnormal blood vessels and reduce swelling in the retina.
3. Vitrectomy: In severe cases of DR, a vitrectomy may be performed to remove scar tissue and blood from the center of the eye.
4. Blood pressure control: Maintaining healthy blood pressure can help to slow the progression of DR.
5. Blood glucose control: Keeping blood sugar levels under control can also slow the progression of DR.
6. Follow-up care: Regular follow-up appointments with an eye doctor are important to monitor the progress of DR and adjust treatment as needed.

Early detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy can help to prevent vision loss and improve outcomes for individuals with this complication of diabetes. By managing blood sugar levels, blood pressure, and cholesterol, and by getting regular eye exams, individuals with diabetes can reduce their risk of developing DR and other diabetic complications.

Symptoms of macular edema may include blurred vision, distorted vision, blind spots, and sensitivity to light. Diagnosis is typically made through a comprehensive eye exam, including a visual acuity test and imaging tests such as optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Treatment for macular edema depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, medications such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections or corticosteroids may be prescribed to reduce fluid buildup and swelling in the retina. In more severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary, such as a vitrectomy to remove the vitreous gel and relieve pressure on the retina.

Prevention of macular edema includes managing underlying conditions such as diabetes and age-related macular degeneration, as well as maintaining regular eye exams to detect and treat any changes in the retina early on. Early detection and treatment can help prevent vision loss from macular edema.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are several types of ischemia, including:

1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.

Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.

Angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin-4 participate in the formation of blood vessels. ANGPTL2 protein is a secreted ... and characterization of angiopoietin-related protein. angiopoietin-related protein induces endothelial cell sprouting". J Biol ... Angiopoietin-related protein 2 also known as angiopoietin-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL2 ... Angiopoietins are members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family and the only known growth factors largely specific ...
... is a type of angiopoietin and is encoded by the gene ANGPT1. Angiopoietins are proteins with important roles in ... Dunk C, Shams M, Nijjar S (2000). "Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 activate trophoblast Tie-2 to promote growth and migration ... Cheung AH, Stewart RJ, Marsden PA (1998). "Endothelial Tie2/Tek ligands angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1) and angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2): ... "Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 share the same binding domains in the Tie-2 receptor involving the first Ig-like loop and the ...
To be specific, angiopoietin levels provide an indication for sepsis. Research on angiopoietin-2 has shown that it is involved ... Angiopoietin-1 encodes a 498 amino acid polypeptide with a molecular weight of 57 kDa whereas angiopoietin-2 encodes a 496 ... Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 can form dimers, trimers, and tetramers. Angiopoietin-1 has the ability to form higher order ... Angiopoietins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "angiopoietin.de: endothelia activation ...
... also known as angiopoietin-3 (ANG-3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL1 gene ... Angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin-4 participate in the formation of blood vessels. The protein encoded by this ... 2005). "Biological characterization of angiopoietin-3 and angiopoietin-4". FASEB J. 18 (11): 1200-8. doi:10.1096/fj.03-1466com ... 1999). "Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of angiopoietin-related protein. angiopoietin-related protein ...
Activation of the Tie2 receptor by the ligand Angiopoietin 2. This has been shown in vitro and in vivo. Activation of the ... Activation of the signaling pathway by Delta4, Angiopoietin 2, insulin, or a combination of the three and a JAK inhibitor ... Angiopoietin 2). Hes3, in turn, by regulating the expression of Shh and potentially other factors, can also exert an effect on ... Angiopoietin 2, insulin, or a combined treatment consisting of all three factors and an inhibitor of JAK) induce the increase ...
It targets the protein angiopoietin 2. As of May 2017[update], it is in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of diabetic ... "Anti-vasculaR Endothelial Growth Factor plUs Anti-angiopoietin 2 in Fixed comBination therapY: Evaluation for the Treatment of ... Clinical trial number NCT02713204 for "Anti-angiOpoeitin 2 Plus Anti-vascular eNdothelial Growth Factor as a therapY for ...
Angiopoietin-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPT4 gene. Angiopoietins are proteins with important roles in ... 2005). "Biological characterization of angiopoietin-3 and angiopoietin-4". FASEB J. 18 (11): 1200-8. doi:10.1096/fj.03-1466com ... "Genomic structures of the human angiopoietins show polymorphism in angiopoietin-2". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 94 (3-4): 147-54. ... "Entrez Gene: ANGPT4 angiopoietin 4". Human ANGPT4 genome location and ANGPT4 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ...
... and angiopoietins, that play the key roles in the blood vessel formation. National Science Contest for Elementary School ... "Requisite role of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, during embryonic angiogenesis". Cell. 87 (7): 1171-1180. doi: ... "Angiopoietin-2, a Natural Antagonist for Tie2 That Disrupts in vivo Angiogenesis". Science. 277 (5322): 55-60. doi:10.1126/ ... October 1993). "Tie-1 and tie-2 define another class of putative receptor tyrosine kinase genes expressed in early embryonic ...
January 2003). "Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 share the same binding domains in the Tie-2 receptor involving the first Ig- ... angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, modulate VEGF-induced postnatal neovascularization". Circulation Research. 83 (3): 233-40. ... Angiopoietin-1 receptor also known as CD202B (cluster of differentiation 202B) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Master Z, Jones N, Tran J, Jones J, Kerbel RS, Dumont DJ (November 2001). "Dok-R plays a pivotal role in angiopoietin-1- ...
Angiopoietin 2 can act as an antagonist to Tie-2, destabilizing the endothelial cells, which results in less endothelial cell ... Angiopoietin 1 and Tie-2 signaling is essential for maturation and stabilization of endothelial cells. Platelet-derived growth ... Similar to the inhibition of the PDGF pathway, angiopoietin 2 reduces levels of pericytes, leading to diabetic retinopathy. ... "Angiopoietin-2, a natural antagonist for Tie2 that disrupts in vivo angiogenesis". Science. 277 (5322): 55-60. doi:10.1126/ ...
He later showed that inhibition of the Tie2-ligand Angiopoietin 2 induces tumor regression and inhibits metastasis by ... He also identified expression of Angiopoietin 2 as an adaptive resistance mechanism upon anti-angiogenic treatment by VEGF ... "Role of Angiopoietin-2 in Adaptive Tumor Resistance to VEGF Signaling Blockade". Cell Reports. 8 (3): 696-706. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Dual angiopoietin-2 and VEGFA inhibition elicits antitumor immunity that is enhanced by PD-1 checkpoint blockade". Science ...
Regulation by Hypoxia and Angiopoietin-2". Cancer Research. 67 (18): 8429-8432. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-1684. ISSN 0008- ... 2: 89. doi:10.3389/fonc.2012.00089. ISSN 2234-943X. PMC 3412458. PMID 22888475. Okubo, Makiko; Kioi, Mitomu; Nakashima, ...
Angiopoietin-2 works with VEGF to facilitate cell proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. The general outline of ... These pro- and antiangiogenic signals including integrins, chemokines, angiopoietins, oxygen sensing agents, junctional ... 53 (2): 89-103. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2005.10.006. PMID 16321545. Krausgruber T, Fortelny N, Fife-Gernedl V, Senekowitsch M, ... 22 (2): 71-88. doi:10.1038/s41576-020-00292-x. PMC 7649713. PMID 33168968. Minton K (September 2020). "A gene atlas of ' ...
The extracellular region was shown to interact with the angiopoietin receptor Tie-2 and with the adhesion protein VE-cadherin. ... "Functional interaction of vascular endothelial-protein-tyrosine phosphatase with the angiopoietin receptor Tie-2". Oncogene. 18 ...
Activation of the Hedgehog pathway leads to an increase in Angiogenic Factors (angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2), Cyclins ( ... "Sonic hedgehog inversely regulates the expression of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 in fibroblasts". International Journal ... 3.0.CO;2-G. PMID 9671939. Dorus S, Anderson JR, Vallender EJ, Gilbert SL, Zhang L, Chemnick LG, Ryder OA, Li W, Lahn BT (July ... Hedgehog-like genes, 2 Patched homologs and Patched-related genes exist in the worm C. elegans. These genes have been shown to ...
Hata K, Udagawa J, Fujiwaki R, Nakayama K, Otani H, Miyazaki K (2002). "Expression of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and Tie2 ... Xu Y, Yu Q (September 2001). "Angiopoietin-1, unlike angiopoietin-2, is incorporated into the extracellular matrix via its ... Cheung AH, Stewart RJ, Marsden PA (March 1998). "Endothelial Tie2/Tek ligands angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1) and angiopoietin-2 ( ... "Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 share the same binding domains in the Tie-2 receptor involving the first Ig-like loop and the ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL7 gene. It is one of the 8 angiopoietin-like ... "Entrez Gene: ANGPTL7 angiopoietin-like 7". Angiopoietin-like proteins: a comprehensive look Tanigawa, Yosuke; Wainberg, Michael ... Peek R, Kammerer RA, Frank S, Otte-Holler I, Westphal JR (Jan 2002). "The angiopoietin-like factor cornea-derived transcript 6 ... 140 (2): 279-84. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90558-4. PMID 8144038. Stover C, Endo Y, Takahashi M, et al. (2001). "The human gene ...
"Vitreous levels of angiopoietin 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy". ... 30 (2): 179-191. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.325.6534. doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00047.2007. PMID 17426116. Huusko J, Merentie M, ... Lamalice L, Houle F, Huot J (November 2006). "Phosphorylation of Tyr1214 within VEGFR-2 triggers the recruitment of Nck and ... Kobayashi M, Nishita M, Mishima T, Ohashi K, Mizuno K (February 2006). "MAPKAPK-2-mediated LIM-kinase activation is critical ...
When angiopoietin-2 is bound, these TAMs upregulate expression of more angiogenic factors, such as thymidine phosphorylase and ... April 2011). "Angiopoietin 2 stimulates TIE2-expressing monocytes to suppress T cell activation and to promote regulatory T ... Tie2+ TAMs associate with blood vessels through angiopoietin-2 produced by endothelial cells and activate angiogenesis through ... Angiopoietin-2 also causes Tie2+ TAMs to express T-cell regulating factors interleukin (IL)-10 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand ...
"Methylseleninic acid restricts tumor growth in nude mice model of metastatic breast cancer probably via inhibiting angiopoietin ... 212 (2): 199-205. doi:10.1530/JOE-11-0363. PMID 22128327. Yin, S; Dong, Y; Li, J; Fan, L; Wang, L; Lu, J; Vang, O; Hu, H (2012 ... 15 (2): 506-519. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-07-0501. PMC 329225. PMID 14617803. Li, G. X.; Lee, H. J.; Wang, Z.; Hu, H.; Liao, J. D.; ... MeSeSeMe + H2O2 → 2 MeSeO2H Seleninic acids can be prepared by oxidation of selenoesters with one equivalent of ...
Khan M, Aziz AA, Shafi NA, Abbas T, Khanani AM (August 2020). "Targeting Angiopoietin in Retinal Vascular Diseases: A ... "Phase II data support potential for Roche's novel anti-VEGF/anti-angiopoietin-2 bispecific antibody, RG7716, for people with ... and Angiopoietin (Ang-2). By blocking the action of these two growth factors, faricimab decreases migration and replication of ... and angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2) inhibitor. By targeting these pathways, faricimab stabilizes blood vessels in the retina. It is ...
Makinde T, Murphy RF, Agrawal DK (2007). "Immunomodulatory role of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 in ... The expression of angiopoietin-2 in the absence of VEGF leads to endothelial cell death and vascular regression. Conversely, a ... 3.0.CO;2-E. PMID 8953654. S2CID 35946525. Muller, Yves A.; Li, Bing; Christinger, Hans W.; Wells, James A.; Cunningham, Brian C ... 13 (2 Pt 2): 741s-746s. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-2110. PMID 17255303. Jiang, Chao; Zuo, Fangfang; Wang, Yuejuan; Lu, Hong; ...
2016). "Angiopoietin-2 impairs collateral artery growth associated with the suppression of the infiltration of macrophages in ... 2014). "Endothelial HIF-2 mediates protection and recovery from ischemic kidney injury". J Clin Invest. 124 (6): 2396-2409. doi ... These tourniquets are often 1-2″ in width, which concentrates the pressure to a narrow band of tissue. They can result in ... "Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 inhibits angiogenic signaling by uncoupling vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2- ...
In the combined absence of angiopoietin 1 and angiopoietin 2, Schlemm's canal and episcleral lymphatic vasculature completely ... Schlemm's canal and episcleral lymphatic vasculature completely failed to develop in the combined absence of angiopoietin 1 and ... angiopoietin 2. This causes buphthalmos and glaucoma. Glaucoma may be related to drainage of aqueous humor from the eye. This ...
The angiopoietin receptors are receptors that bind angiopoietin. TIE-1 and TIE-2 comprise the cell-surface receptors that bind ... The angiopoietins are protein growth factors required for the formation of blood vessels (angiogenesis). The angiopoietins are ... In humans, three angiopoietins have been identified: Ang1, Ang2, and Ang4 (Ang 3 is the mouse ortholog of human Ang4). Ang1 and ... Angiopoietin#Tie pathway TIE+Receptor+Tyrosine+Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
2004). "ABIN-2 Forms a Ternary Complex with TPL-2 and NF-κB1 p105 and Is Essential for TPL-2 Protein Stability". Mol. Cell. ... TNFAIP3-interacting protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNIP2 gene. TNIP2 contains multiple amino acid ... 343 (2): 591-6. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.03.015. PMID 16554025. Liu Y, Nakahara T, Miyakoshi J, et al. (2007). "Nuclear ... Tadros A, Hughes DP, Dunmore BJ, Brindle NP (Dec 2003). "ABIN-2 protects endothelial cells from death and has a role in the ...
Additional Weibel-Palade body components are the chemokines Interleukin-8 and eotaxin-3, endothelin-1, angiopoietin-2, ...
... angiopoietin-1 MeSH D12.776.467.100.100.200 - angiopoietin-2 MeSH D12.776.467.100.450.500 - angiostatins MeSH D12.776.467.100. ... cofilin 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525.212.875 - destrin MeSH D12.776.220.525.246.500 - actin-related protein 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525. ... iron regulatory protein 2 MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.863 - electron transport complex i MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.863.500 ... muts homolog 2 protein MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.148 - myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.167 - proto- ...
Example of these growth factors are angiopoietin 1 (ANG1), ANG 2, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), ephrin-B2, vascular ... 35 (2): 148-159. doi:10.1016/j.ctrv.2008.09.006. PMID 19013721. Yuan R, Kay A, Berg WJ, Lebwohl D (October 2009). "Targeting ... 21 (2): 194-198. doi:10.1016/j.ceb.2008.12.011. PMID 19201591. Zhang YJ, Duan Y, Zheng XF (April 2011). "Targeting the mTOR ... Everolimus has O-2 hydroxyethyl chain substitution and deforolimus has a phosphine oxide substitution at position C-43 in the ...
... angiopoietin-related protein 2 ASS: argininosuccinate synthetase BANCR: encoding protein BRAF-activated non-protein coding RNA ... 5 (2): 157-74. doi:10.1089/109065701753145664. PMID 11551106. Humphray SJ, Oliver K, Hunt AR, et al. (2004). "DNA sequence and ... ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2. Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last ... Tom Strachan; Andrew Read (2 April 2010). Human Molecular Genetics. Garland Science. p. 45. ...
2002). "NERF2, a member of the Ets family of transcription factors, is increased in response to hypoxia and angiopoietin-1: a ... E74-like factor 2 (ELF2), formerly known as new Ets-related factor (NERF), is an ETS family transcription factor. In humans ... 1997). "Elf-2, a rhombotin-2 binding ets transcription factor: discovery and potential role in T cell leukemia". Leukemia. 11 ( ... 2004). "Isoforms of the Ets transcription factor NERF/ELF-2 physically interact with AML1 and mediate opposing effects on AML1- ...
HSCs secrete angiopoietin, and its receptor molecule Tie2 has been implicated in angiogenesis of tumors in both humans and mice ... 31 (2): 206-12. doi:10.1016/S1079-9796(03)00159-1. PMID 12972028. Yatsula B, Lin S, Read AJ, Poholek A, Yates K, Yue D, Hui P, ... 271 (2): 1104-10. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.1104. PMID 8557637. Fears S, Mathieu C, Zeleznik-Le N, Huang S, Rowley JD, Nucifora G ( ... 16 (2): 119-27. doi:10.1097/00001813-200502000-00002. PMID 15655408. Izutsu K, Kurokawa M, Imai Y, Maki K, Mitani K, Hirai H ( ...
A paracrine factor, NRG1 β, utilizes GAB2 to activate the ERK and AKT pathways in the heart to produce angiopoietin 1. The C- ... 21 (1-2): 72-82. doi:10.1093/emboj/21.1.72. PMC 125816. PMID 11782427. Pan XL, Ren RJ, Wang G, Tang HD, Chen SD (June 2010). " ... 2 (6): 729-40. doi:10.1016/s1097-2765(00)80288-9. PMID 9885561. Zhao C, Yu DH, Shen R, Feng GS (July 1999). "Gab2, a new ... 1 (2): 130-134. PMC 3232456. PMID 22163099. Zhao C, Ma H, Bossy-Wetzel E, Lipton SA, Zhang Z, Feng GS (September 2003). "GC-GAP ...
Tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 1 also known as TIE1 is an angiopoietin receptor which in humans ... Angiopoietin#Tie pathway GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000066056 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... 12 (2): 397-404. PMID 8570217. Tsiamis AC, Hayes P, Box H, Goodall AH, Bell PR, Brindle NP (2000). "Characterization and ...
... against angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) mRNA, for safety and efficacy in non-HDL-C lowering. There are several TIMI Risk Score ... TRA 2°P-TIMI 50 was designed to determine whether SCH 530348, when added to the existing standard of care for preventing heart ... placebo in a 2 x 2 factorial design among patients presenting with unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. ENTIRE- ... TIMI 2 flow (partial reperfusion) is delayed or sluggish antegrade flow with complete filling of the distal territory. TIMI 3 ...
"Hydrogels With Integrin-Binding Angiopoietin-1-Derived Peptide, QHREDGS, for Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction". ... 6 (2): 024113. doi:10.1088/1758-5082/6/2/024113. PMC 4108215. PMID 24876342. Iyer, R. K.; Odedra, D.; Chiu, L. L.; Vunjak- ... 8 (2): 333-341. doi:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.114.001881. PMID 25632037. S2CID 2180167. Chiu, Loraine L.Y.; Janic, Katarina; ...
... while the angiopoietin receptor Tie-1 facilitates embryonic blood vessel formation. Upon binding of their ligands, Notch-1 and ... ErbB-4 and the angiopoietin receptor Tie-1. Notch-1 signaling is essential for endothelial differentiation, and tumor ... 3.0.CO;2-A. hdl:2066/22707. PMID 8869294. Saunders, W; Bohnsack, BL; Faske, JB; Anthis, NJ; Bayless, KJ; Hirschi, KK; Davis, GE ... 123 (2): 291-304. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.014. PMID 16239146. Kumar, P; Amin, MA; Harlow, LA; Polverini, PJ; Koch, AE (2003 ...
... angiopoietin-1 receptor (TEK), perlecan (HSPG2), tenascin N (TNN), and usherin (USH2A). Laminin G domain: all laminin alpha ... 251 (1-2): 1-7. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(89)81417-6. PMID 2666164. S2CID 36607427. Stetefeld J, Mayer U, Timpl R, Huber R (April ... 3.0.CO;2-R. PMID 10842354. Royce, Peter M., ed. (2002). Connective tissue and its heritable disorders: molecular, genetic, and ... 365 (2-3): 129-32. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00438-F. PMID 7781764. S2CID 21559588. Beck K, Hunter I, Engel J (February 1990). " ...
July 2007). "Lipid-lowering effects of anti-angiopoietin-like 4 antibody recapitulate the lipid phenotype found in angiopoietin ... Angiopoietin-like 4 is a protein that in human is encoded by the ANGPTL4 gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants ... July 2017). "Angiopoietin-like 4 induces a β-catenin-mediated upregulation of ID3 in fibroblasts to reduce scar collagen ... June 2015). "Angiopoietin-like 4 is a potent angiogenic factor and a novel therapeutic target for patients with proliferative ...
Three dimensional structure of none of the members of Angiopoietin like proteins (ANGPTLs) is available up until now.[when?] ... "Atypical angiopoietin-like protein that regulates ANGPTL3". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... is a novel but atypical member of the angiopoietin-like protein family". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. ... "Visualizing the regulatory role of Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) in glucose and lipid metabolic pathways". Genomics. ...
"GPIHBP1 stabilizes lipoprotein lipase and prevents its inhibition by angiopoietin-like 3 and angiopoietin-like 4". The Journal ... angiopoietin-like protein 4, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein binding protein 1 in subjects ... with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus". Metabolism. 61 (5): 652-660. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2011.09.014. PMID 22078753. This ...
Zeng L, Dai J, Ying K (2003). "Identification of a novel human angiopoietin-like gene expressed mainly in heart". J. Hum. Genet ... 12 (2): 117-26. doi:10.1093/dnares/12.2.117. PMID 16303743. Liu T, Qian WJ, Gritsenko MA (2006). "Human plasma N-glycoproteome ... The protein encoded by this gene is a thermolabile beta-2-macroglycoprotein found in all human serum and is a member of the ... 325 (1-2): 139-46. doi:10.1016/S0009-8981(02)00274-7. PMID 12367778. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH (2003). "Generation ...
2003). "Identification of a novel human angiopoietin-like gene expressed mainly in heart". J. Hum. Genet. 48 (3): 159-62. doi: ... 199 (2): 190-9. doi:10.1016/s0171-2985(98)80026-0. PMID 9777405. Ichijo H, Hellman U, Wernstedt C, et al. (1993). "Molecular ... 2): 473-8. doi:10.1042/bj3130473. PMC 1216931. PMID 8573080. Endo Y, Sato Y, Matsushita M, Fujita T (Feb 1997). "Cloning and ...
Mammoto T, Parikh SM, Mammoto A, Gallagher D, Chan B, Mostoslavsky G, Ingber DE, Sukhatme VP (Aug 2007). "Angiopoietin-1 ... doi:10.1007/s00335-005-0075-2. PMID 16341674. S2CID 69278. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M ( ...
One arm of the antibody binds Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) and the other is based on bevacizumab (Avastin), binding Vascular ... 28 (2). v t e (Drugs not assigned an ATC code, Chemicals that do not have a ChemSpider ID assigned, Articles without EBI source ...
Chugh, S; Macé, C; Clement, L; Del Nogal, A; Marshall, C (2014). "Angiopoietin-like 4 based therapeutics for proteinuria and ... The UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase kinase is the rate limiting step in sialic acid biosynthesis. If the enzyme does not work ... 66 (2): 131-6 and references cited within. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0290(1999)66:2. 3.0.co;2-x. PMID 10567071. Bodner, R; ... 3.3.co;2-a. PMID 10099302. Weiss, P; Ashwell, G (1989). "The asialoglycoprotein receptor: properties and modulation by ligand ...
"Angiopoietin-like protein 4 decreases blood glucose and improves glucose tolerance but induces hyperlipidemia and hepatic ... p. 2. ProQuest 266687557. Retrieved 2022-03-27 - via ProQuest. Lee, Chi Ho; Lui, David T W; Cheung, Chloe Y Y; Fong, Carol H Y ... 2 (1): e004176. doi:10.1161/JAHA.112.004176. ISSN 2047-9980. PMC 3603238. PMID 23525430. Lee, Chi-Ho; Lui, David T. W.; Lam, ... 150 (2): 625-633. doi:10.1210/en.2008-0999. ISSN 0013-7227. PMC 2732290. PMID 18927219. Chow, Wing Sun; Tso, Annette Wai Kwan; ...
The angiopoietin (Angpt)-TIE signaling pathway controls vascular maturation and maintains the quiescent phenotype of resting ... Tumor Cell-Derived Angiopoietin-2 Promotes Metastasis in Melanoma Ashik Ahmed Abdul Pari # 1 2 , Mahak Singhal # 1 2 , Corinne ... Tumor Cell-Derived Angiopoietin-2 Promotes Metastasis in Melanoma Ashik Ahmed Abdul Pari et al. Cancer Res. 2020. . ... Ashik Ahmed Abdul Pari # 1 2 , Mahak Singhal # 1 2 , Corinne Hübers 2 3 , Carolin Mogler 4 , Benjamin Schieb 1 2 , Anja Gampp 1 ...
Genetic mediation analysis provides supportive evidence that angiopoietin-2 plays a causal role in risk for AKI-SP2. ... Methods: We tested for associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, and ... Pavan K Bhatraju 1 2 , Max Cohen 3 , Ryan J Nagao 4 5 , Eric D Morrell 3 , Susanna Kosamo 3 , Xin-Ya Chai 3 , Robin Nance 6 , ... Pavan K Bhatraju 1 2 , Max Cohen 3 , Ryan J Nagao 4 5 , Eric D Morrell 3 , Susanna Kosamo 3 , Xin-Ya Chai 3 , Robin Nance 6 , ...
Angiopoietin 2 displays a vascular endothelial growth factor dependent synergistic effect in hepatocellular carcinoma ... Angiopoietin 2 displays a vascular endothelial growth factor dependent synergistic effect in hepatocellular carcinoma ... Angiopoietin 2 displays a vascular endothelial growth factor dependent synergistic effect in hepatocellular carcinoma ...
An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and ... Placental expression of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2 and tie-2 during placental development in an ovine model of placental ... Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction study of the angiopoietin-1/angiopoietin-2-inhibiting peptibody trebananib (AMG 386) and ... Circulating angiopoietin-2 is a marker for early cardiovascular disease in children on chronic dialysis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): ...
The Angiopoietin-2 mouse rat ELISA is an enzyme immunoassay intended for the quantitative determination of mouse or rat ANG-2. ... Angiopoietin-2 mouse rat ELISA quantity. Add to cart. SKU: BI-ANG2MR Categories: All Products, Assay Kits, Cardiovascular Assay ... Angiopoietin-2 mouse rat ELISA. $520.00. The Angiopoietin-2 mouse rat ELISA is an enzyme immunoassay intended for the ... Angiopoietin-2 present in the sample binds to the pre-coated antibody in the well. After a first wash step, which removes non- ...
Angiopoietin 2 stimulates TIE2-expressing monocytes to suppress T cell activation and to promote regulatory T cell expansion.. ... Angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) is a proangiogenic cytokine whose expression is often upregulated by endothelial cells in tumors. ... Angiopoyetina 2/fisiología Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/fisiología Diferenciación Celular/inmunología Proteínas de Unión al ADN/ ...
Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 share the same binding domains in the Tie-2 receptor involving the first Ig-like loop and the ... Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 share the same binding domains in the Tie-2 receptor involving the first Ig-like loop and the ... Cell type-specific expression of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 suggests a role in glioblastoma angiogenesis. Am. J. Pathol. ... Cell type-specific expression of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 suggests a role in glioblastoma angiogenesis. Am. J. Pathol. ...
The potential role of angiopoietin-like protein-8 in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a possibility for predictive diagnosis and ... Table 2 Selected clinical characteristics of T1D patients stratified according to TP53 codon 72 genotypes and alleles. Full ... 2) The Arg/Arg variant is associated with a decreased risk of autoimmune thyroiditis (OR = 0.553) and celiac disease (OR = ... The genotypes and allele frequencies of the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism were compared using Pearsons χ2 test. Differences ...
von Willebrand Factor and Angiopoietin-2 are Sensitive Biomarkers of Pulsatility in Continuous-Flow Ventricular Assist Device ... In Vivo Testing of an Ambient Air Based, Portable, and Automated CO2 Removal Controller for Artificial Lungs. Spencer, Brianna ... Association of Angiopoetin-2 and TNF-α With Bleeding During Left Ventricular Assist Device Support: Analysis from the PREVENT ...
Angiopoietin-like Proteins, and Receptors including related products, articles and interactive pathways. ... Angiopoietins, Angiopoietin-like Proteins, and Receptors. Angiopoietins, Ang-1, Ang-2, and Ang-3 (mouse)/Ang-4 (human), are ... Oligomerization of Angiopoietin-like proteins via the N-terminal coiled-coil domain is required to trigger LILR signaling. The ... Additional Angiopoietin-like proteins interact with various members of the LILR family to promote regulation of innate immunity ...
angiopoietin-Tie-2. Azu/HBP azurocidin 1/heparin binding protein. FLT-1 fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 ... The 2-hour session was chaired by Dr Siho Sengsavang, Deputy Director of Vientiane Provincial Hospital and Prof Mayfong Mayxay ... I felt very safe as I was tested for fever and symptoms every morning by a team of about 2 doctors and 3 nurses wearing full ... The standard specimen is a dry, flocked cotton throat swab head in a 2 ml tube. These are inventoried and transferred to -80◦C ...
Here, we demonstrated that genetic disruption of the angiopoietin/TIE2 (ANGP … ... Impaired angiopoietin/Tie2 signaling compromises Schlemms canal integrity and induces glaucoma. Kim J, Park DY, Bae H, Park DY ... Cooperation of Angiopoietin-2 and Angiopoietin-4 in Schlemms Canal Maintenance. Kapiainen E, Elamaa H, Miinalainen I, Izzi V, ... Here, we demonstrated that genetic disruption of the angiopoietin/TIE2 (ANGPT/TIE2) signaling pathway results in high IOP, ...
Angiopoietin-2 Asprosin BAFF BMP-10 BMP-14 CCL1 CCL2 CCL3 CCL4 CCL5 CCL6 CCL8 CCL11 CCL17 CCL19 CCL20 CCL21 CNTF CXCL1 CXCL2 ... IL-2 IL-3 IL-4 IL-5 IL-6 IL-7 IL-8 IL-9 IL-10 IL-11 IL-12 p40 IL-12 p70 IL-13 IL-15 IL-17A IL-17A/F IL-17F IL-21 IL-22 IL-23 IL ... ELISPOT (2) ELISPOT Capture (128) ELISPOT Detection (60) FA (4) FC (148) ICC (67) ICFC (853) ICPG (6) IHC (72) IHC-F (72) IHC-P ... Activ (2) BA (895) Block (29) Cell Culture (32) CyTOF® (86) Depletion (14) Direct ELISA (10) ELISA (306) ELISA Capture (291) ...
Angiopoietin-2 in experimental colitis.. Ganta VC; Cromer W; Mills GL; Traylor J; Jennings M; Daley S; Clark B; Mathis JM; ... 5. COMP-angiopoietin-1 promotes wound healing through enhanced angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and blood flow in a diabetic ... 1. COMP-angiopoietin-1 ameliorates inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model ... 2. The Effect of Artemisinin on Inflammation-Associated Lymphangiogenesis in Experimental Acute Colitis.. Lee AS; Hur HJ; Sung ...
Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis treated with multimodal therapy improves coagulopathy and reduces blood angiopoietin-2 levels. ... Pericytes from infantile hemangioma display proangiogenic properties and dysregulated angiopoietin-1. Arteriosclerosis, ... Figure 2. Schematic model of combination therapy for the treatment of VM. Mutant VM EC show constitutive activation of TIE2 and ...
Angiopoietin-2 induces human glioma invasion through the activation of matrix metalloprotease-2.. Hu B; Guo P; Fang Q; Tao HQ; ... Angiopoietin-2 TIEs up macrophages in tumor angiogenesis.. De Palma M; Naldini L. Clin Cancer Res; 2011 Aug; 17(16):5226-32. ... Targeting the Angiopoietin-2/Tie-2 axis in conjunction with VEGF signal interference.. Biel NM; Siemann DW. Cancer Lett; 2016 ... T11TS inhibits Angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 signaling, EGFR activation and Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in brain endothelial cells restraining ...
cGVHD exacerbation and low antibody titres were both associated with higher angiopoietin-2 (ANG2) serum levels. In conclusion, ... Here, we monitored antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S1) in 167 vaccinated alloSCT patients. Humoral immune ... Angiopoietin-2 as a marker of endothelial activation is a good predictor factor for intensive care unit admission of COVID-19 ... Interleukin 18 (IL18, n = 110), interferon gamma (IFNg, n = 108), Angiopoietin-2 (ANG2, n = 103), and CXCL9/MIG (MIG, n = 1 08 ...
1 VEGFA=Vascular endothelial growth factor A; ANGPT1=Angiopoietin 1; ANGPT2=Angiopoietin 2; FASN=Fatty acid synthase; PPARy= ... Angiopoietin-l; ANGPT2= Angiopoietin-2; COL1A1=Collagen type I alpha1; COL1A2=Collagen type 1 alpha 2; COL6A2=Collagen type VI ... Angiopoietin-l; ANGPT2= Angiopoietin-2; MSTN= Myostatin; IGF-I = Insulin-like growth factor 1; MyoD8 Myogenic differentiation 1 ... Angiopoietin-l; ANGPT2= Angiopoietin-2; MSTN= Myostatin; IGF-I = Insulin-like growth factor 1; MyoD8 Myogenic differentiation 1 ...
NogoR/Nogo and angiopoietins/Ties. Recently we also became interested in how henipaviruses interact and fuse with target cells ...
Angiopoietin-like protein 8/betatrophin as a new determinant of type 2 diabetes remission after bariatric surgery. Ejarque M, ... Plasma Amino Acids and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease. McCann A, Giil LM, Ulvik A, Seifert R ... 2020 Feb;1865(2):158543. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2019.158543. Epub 2019 Oct 30. PMID: 31676443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] ... Iodine Status and Growth In 0-2-Year-Old Infants With Cows Milk Protein Allergy. Thomassen RA, Kvammen JA, Eskerud MB, ...
Structural basis for angiopoietin-1 mediated signaling initiation. 4k24. Structure of anti-uPAR Fab ATN-658 in complex with ... Angiopoietin-2/Tie2 Complex Crystal Structure. 2i9a. Crystal structure of the free aminoterminal fragment of urokinase type ... Crystal structure of COX-2 with selective compound 23d-(R). 3olt. X-ray crystal structure of arachidonic acid bound to the ... Fibrillin-2 (P35556) (SMART). OMIM:121050: Contractural arachnodactyly, congenital. Vitamin K-dependent protein S (P07225) ( ...
Angiopoietin-2 is associated with capillary leak and predicts complications after cardiac surgery ...
Dysmorphogenesis of kidney cortical peritubular capillaries in angiopoietin-2-deficient mice. Pitera, J.E., Woolf, A.S., Gale, ... Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) modulates Tie-2 receptor activation. In mouse kidney maturation, Ang-2 is expressed in arteries, with ... Dysmorphogenesis of kidney cortical peritubular capillaries in angiopoietin-2-deficient mice.. ... In Ang-2 null mutants, alpha SMA, desmin, and PDGFR beta prominently immunolocalized in cortical peritubular locations. Some ...
Angiopoietin-2 as a biomarker and target for immune checkpoint therapy. . Cancer Immunol Res ... Validation set 2 N = 25 . Validation set 3 N = 46 . Validation set 4 N = 48 . Validation set 5 N = 21 . ... Validation set 2 N = 25 . Validation set 3 N = 46 . Validation set 4 N = 48 . Validation set 5 N = 21 . ... 1C-F, and performance estimates of the test are summarized in the respective columns of Table 2. Given the small cohort sizes ...
Complementary actions of inhibitors of angiopoietin-2 and VEGF on tumor angiogenesis and growth. Cancer Res. 2010;70:2213-2223 ... 2015;8(2):1594-1603 31. Xu Z, Zhang Y, Xu M. et al. Demethylation and Overexpression of CSF2 are Involved in Immune Response, ... including angiopoietin (ANG), fibroblast growth factor2 (FGF2), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and IL-17 [17]. Lymphangiogenic ... 2018;173(2):338-354.e15 23. Wang B, Pan W, Yang M. et al. Programmed death ligand-1 is associated with tumor infiltrating ...
Endothelial exocytosis of angiopoietin-2 resulting from CCM3 deficiency contributes to cerebral cavernous malformation.. Jenny ... 2. Low frequency of PDCD10 mutations in a panel of CCM3 probands: potential for a fourth CCM locus.. Liquori CL; Berg MJ; ... Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2014 Dec; 455(1-2):98-106. PubMed ID: 25451273. [TBL] ... J Neurol Sci; 2008 Apr; 267(1-2):177-81. PubMed ID: 18035376. [TBL] ...
An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and ... An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and ... Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.. Terms. Angiopoietin-2 ... Angiopoietin-2. Tree Number(s). D12.644.276.100.100.200. D12.776.467.100.100.200. D23.529.100.100.200. Unique ID. D042702. RDF ...
Angiopoietin-2 is a Tie-2 receptor ligand that is selectively released from WPB secretory granules. We identify a critical role ... Synaptotagmin-Like Protein 2a Regulates Angiogenic Lumen Formation via Weibel-Palade Body Apical Secretion of Angiopoietin-2 ... This disrupts the release of angiopoietin-2 and blocks Tie-2 signaling necessary for proper lumen formation. ... Furthermore, we provide evidence that WPB-housed angiopoietin-2 is required for vascular lumen formation. ...
  • Two domains characterize the angiopoietin family of proteins: an N-terminal coiled-coil domain that mediates homo-oligomerization, and a C-terminal fibrinogen-like domain that binds Tie-2. (rndsystems.com)
  • Leukocyte Immunoglogulin-like Receptors (LILRs), also called CD85 or Immunoglobulin-like Transcripts (ILTs), have recently been described as receptors for several Angiopoietin-like proteins. (rndsystems.com)
  • Oligomerization of Angiopoietin-like proteins via the N-terminal coiled-coil domain is required to trigger LILR signaling. (rndsystems.com)
  • Additional Angiopoietin-like proteins interact with various members of the LILR family to promote regulation of innate immunity. (rndsystems.com)
  • During angiogenesis, ANG2 exerts its effects via the angiopoietin-1/TIE2 receptor signaling system on endothelial cells. (eaglebio.com)
  • Thus, in cancer, targeting the TIE2-Angiopoietin pathway has shown promising results in some preclinical and clinical trials, including studies on recurrent or metastatic breast and renal cell carcinomas. (eaglebio.com)
  • Angiopoietin 2 stimulates TIE2-expressing monocytes to suppress T cell activation and to promote regulatory T cell expansion. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we demonstrated that genetic disruption of the angiopoietin/TIE2 (ANGPT/TIE2) signaling pathway results in high IOP, buphthalmos, and classic features of glaucoma, including retinal ganglion degeneration and vision loss. (nih.gov)
  • 21. Toll-like receptor 2 induced angiogenesis and invasion is mediated through the Tie2 signalling pathway in rheumatoid arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • 24. A designed angiopoietin-2 variant, pentameric COMP-Ang2, strongly activates Tie2 receptor and stimulates angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • 27. Tie1 regulates the Tie2 agonistic role of angiopoietin-2 in human lymphatic endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • 32. Rat aorta-derived mural precursor cells express the Tie2 receptor and respond directly to stimulation by angiopoietins. (nih.gov)
  • Angiopoietin/Tie receptor signaling cascades are involved in fundamental angiogenesis events including vascular stabilization and remodeling, as well as recruitment of pericytes and smooth muscle cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • 5. COMP-angiopoietin-1 promotes wound healing through enhanced angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and blood flow in a diabetic mouse model. (nih.gov)
  • 22. T11TS inhibits Angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 signaling, EGFR activation and Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in brain endothelial cells restraining angiogenesis in glioma model. (nih.gov)
  • 35. Angiopoietin-2 TIEs up macrophages in tumor angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • 39. Curcumin Suppresses Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in Human Glioma Cells Through Modulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/ Angiopoietin-2/Thrombospondin-1 Signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Some of the ligand/receptor signaling systems that we currently study include ephrins/Eph receptors, netrins/DCC/Unc5, NogoR/Nogo and angiopoietins/Ties. (sloankettering.edu)
  • binds to the 3 major VEGF-A isoforms (eg, VEGF110, VEGF121, VEGF165), thereby preventing interaction with receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. (medscape.com)
  • 31. The Angiopoietin-2 and TIE Pathway as a Therapeutic Target for Enhancing Antiangiogenic Therapy and Immunotherapy in Patients with Advanced Cancer. (nih.gov)
  • It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Angiopoietin-2 present in the sample binds to the pre-coated antibody in the well. (eaglebio.com)
  • These data reveal a pathogenetic and molecular basis for glaucoma and demonstrate the importance of angiopoietin ligand cooperation in the lymphatic endothelium. (nih.gov)
  • Endothelial-cell monolayer integrity in this model is dependent on Tie-2 signaling, as evidenced by detaching endothelial cells following exposure to the small molecular weight Tie-2 inhibitor A-422885.66, which cannot be overcome by exogenous Ang-1. (biologists.com)
  • Accordingly, exogenous Ang-2 rapidly destabilizes the endothelial layer, which can be observed within 30-60 minutes and leads to prominent endothelial-cell detachment within 4 hours. (biologists.com)
  • Exogenous Ang-2-mediated endothelial-cell detachment can be rescued by Ang-1, soluble Tie-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor. (biologists.com)
  • However, autocrine Ang-2-mediated endothelial-cell detachment cannot be blocked by soluble Tie-2. (biologists.com)
  • Faricimab targets 2 distinct pathways - angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). By inhibiting VEGF-A, faricimab suppresses endothelial cell proliferation, neovascularization and vascular permeability. (medscape.com)
  • 2 Vascular Oncology and Metastasis, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance), Germany. (nih.gov)
  • The angiopoietins Ang-1 and Ang-2 have been identified as ligands of the endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase Tie-2, which controls vascular assembly and endothelial quiescence. (biologists.com)
  • Thus, stimulated release of endogenous Ang-2 or overexpression of Ang-2 in endothelial cells perturbs co-culture spheroid integrity, which can be rescued by exogenous Ang-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. (biologists.com)
  • The Role of Angiopoietin-2 in Vascular Calcification (Doctoral dissertation). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • By inhibiting Ang-2, faricimab promotes vascular stability and desensitize blood vessels to the effects of VEGF-A. (medscape.com)
  • The Angiopoietin-2 mouse rat ELISA is an enzyme immunoassay intended for the quantitative determination of mouse or rat angiopoietin-2 in serum or plasma. (eaglebio.com)
  • The Eagle Biosciences Angiopoietin-2 mouse rat ELISA is for research use only and is not to be used in diagnostic procedures. (eaglebio.com)
  • In addition, since an adequate blood supply is required for tumor growth, Angiopoietin/Tie receptor signaling is believed to play an important role in many cancer pathologies. (rndsystems.com)
  • Angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) is a proangiogenic cytokine whose expression is often upregulated by endothelial cells in tumors . (bvsalud.org)
  • In a first step, STD/CTRL/Sample are pipetted into the wells of the microtiter strips, which are pre-coated with a recombinant monoclonal Angiopoietin-2 antibody. (eaglebio.com)
  • Additionally, IL-2 producing T cells and plasma levels of IL-2 were positively correlated with antibody levels. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2. Low frequency of PDCD10 mutations in a panel of CCM3 probands: potential for a fourth CCM locus. (nih.gov)
  • The largely complementary phenotypes of Ang-1-deficient mice and Ang-2-overexpressing mice have led to an antagonistic model in which Ang-1 acts as Tie-2-activating agonist and Ang-2 acts as a Tie-2-inhibiting antagonist. (biologists.com)
  • To date, no mechanistic equivalent of the antagonistic Ang-1/Ang-2 model has been established and the mechanisms of Ang-2 function in particular remain mysterious. (biologists.com)
  • Taken together, the data demonstrate for the first time the antagonistic Ang-1/Ang-2 concept in a defined cellular model and identify Ang-2 as a rapidly acting autocrine regulator of the endothelium that acts through an internal autocrine loop mechanism. (biologists.com)
  • Angiopoietins, Ang-1, Ang-2, and Ang-3 (mouse)/Ang-4 (human), are natural ligands of the Tie-2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is expressed primarily on endothelial cells and early hematopoietic cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • 18. Endothelial exocytosis of angiopoietin-2 resulting from CCM3 deficiency contributes to cerebral cavernous malformation. (nih.gov)
  • It is indicated for seizures associated with cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) deficiency disorder (CDD) in patients aged 2 years and older. (medscape.com)
  • Angiopoietin-2" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • The potential role of angiopoietin-like protein-8 in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a possibility for predictive diagnosis and targeted preventive measures? (springer.com)
  • The P53 protein is activated when DNA damage occurs by stress such as ultraviolet radiation, heat shock, growth factor withdrawal, hypoxia, and inflammation in various cells and tissues [ 2 ]. (springer.com)
  • Iodine Status and Growth In 0-2-Year-Old Infants With Cow's Milk Protein Allergy. (uib.no)
  • The first member of the Angiopoietin-like protein family to be discovered. (nih.gov)
  • A circulating angiopoietin-like protein that is expressed in a variety of tissues in response to HYPOXIA . (nih.gov)
  • PTH-enhanced structural allograft healing is associated with decreased angiopoietin-2-mediated arteriogenesis, mast cell accumulation, and fibrosis. (ucdenver.edu)
  • 29. Targeting the Angiopoietin-2/Tie-2 axis in conjunction with VEGF signal interference. (nih.gov)
  • Indicated for treatment of neovascular (wet) AMD in patients who have previously responded to at least 2 intravitreal injections of a VEGF inhibitor. (medscape.com)
  • 2017 Mar;56(2):621-634. (uib.no)
  • 2017 Mar - Apr;17(2):182-187. (uib.no)
  • Int Breastfeed J. 2017 May 2;12:22. (uib.no)
  • This heterogeneity has been explained in part by the identification of 2 distinct genes. (jci.org)
  • 28. Angiopoietin-2 induces human glioma invasion through the activation of matrix metalloprotease-2. (nih.gov)
  • The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has recently been found to be a major cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo ( 1 , 2 ), with the disease also reported from southern and eastern Asia ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. (ucdenver.edu)
  • At most recent follow-up, patients needed mean of 5 treatments in first 2 y. (medscape.com)
  • Subsequently, a prospective study from the Kapit District Hospital in Sarawak enrolled 107 persons with P. knowlesi monoinfection and demonstrated that 10 patients had severe disease as defined by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, resulting in 2 deaths ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Assessment of Angiopoietin-2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. (cdc.gov)
  • 1. COMP-angiopoietin-1 ameliorates inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. (nih.gov)
  • 2. The Effect of Artemisinin on Inflammation-Associated Lymphangiogenesis in Experimental Acute Colitis. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Carvacrol exhibits anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects against 1, 2-dimethyl hydrazine plus dextran sodium sulfate induced inflammation associated carcinogenicity in the colon of Fischer 344 rats. (nih.gov)
  • Circulating angiopoietin-2 is a marker for early cardiovascular disease in children on chronic dialysis. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Accelerated approval from the FDA was supported by interim results from the phase 2/3 STARBEAM study, which concluded that elivaldogene autotemcel may be an effective alternative to allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in boys with early stage CALD. (medscape.com)
  • The kit utilizes recombinant mouse Angiopoetin-2 as a calibrator. (eaglebio.com)
  • 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 developed by Moderna. (nih.gov)
  • 34. Preliminary evidence of sustained expression of angiopoietin-2 during monocyte differentiation in chronic hepatitis C. (nih.gov)
  • doi: 10.1186/s13006-017-0112-2. (uib.no)
  • Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, 105 (2), 255 - 262. (up.pt)
  • This kit is a sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative determination of mouse/rat Angiopoietin-2 inserum and plasma samples. (eaglebio.com)
  • The enzyme catalysed color change of the substrate is directly proportional to the amount of mouse/rat Angiopoietin-2 present in the sample. (eaglebio.com)
  • A viral vector vaccine designed against SARS-CoV-2 developed by Johnson & Johnson. (nih.gov)
  • Tie-1 may also act as an angiopoietin receptor, possibly in complex with Tie-2. (rndsystems.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Angiopoietin-2" by people in this website by year, and whether "Angiopoietin-2" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The concentration of Angiopoietin-2 in the sample is determined directly from the dose response curve. (eaglebio.com)