Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Angioplasty, Laser: A technique utilizing a laser coupled to a catheter which is used in the dilatation of occluded blood vessels. This includes laser thermal angioplasty where the laser energy heats up a metal tip, and direct laser angioplasty where the laser energy directly ablates the occlusion. One form of the latter approach uses an EXCIMER LASER which creates microscopically precise cuts without thermal injury. When laser angioplasty is performed in combination with balloon angioplasty it is called laser-assisted balloon angioplasty (ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, LASER-ASSISTED).Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping: Counterpulsation in which a pumping unit synchronized with the patient's electrocardiogram rapidly fills a balloon in the aorta with helium or carbon dioxide in early diastole and evacuates the balloon at the onset of systole. As the balloon inflates, it raises aortic diastolic pressure, and as it deflates, it lowers aortic systolic pressure. The result is a decrease in left ventricular work and increased myocardial and peripheral perfusion.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Gastric Balloon: An inflatable device implanted in the stomach as an adjunct to therapy of morbid obesity. Specific types include the silicone Garren-Edwards Gastric Bubble (GEGB), approved by the FDA in 1985, and the Ballobes Balloon.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Atherectomy, Coronary: Percutaneous transluminal procedure for removing atheromatous plaque from the coronary arteries. Both directional (for removing focal atheromas) and rotational (for removing concentric atheromatous plaque) atherectomy devices have been used.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Aortic Coarctation: A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Balloon Valvuloplasty: Widening of a stenosed HEART VALVE by the insertion of a balloon CATHETER into the valve and inflation of the balloon.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Coronary Restenosis: Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Retreatment: The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Angioplasty, Balloon, Laser-Assisted: Techniques using laser energy in combination with a balloon catheter to perform angioplasty. These procedures can take several forms including: 1, laser fiber delivering the energy while the inflated balloon centers the fiber and occludes the blood flow; 2, balloon angioplasty immediately following laser angioplasty; or 3, laser energy transmitted through angioplasty balloons that contain an internal fiber.Beta Particles: High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.Pulmonary Valve Stenosis: The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the PULMONARY VALVE. This lesion restricts blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE to the PULMONARY ARTERY. When the trileaflet valve is fused into an imperforate membrane, the blockage is complete.Atherectomy: Endovascular procedure in which atheromatous plaque is excised by a cutting or rotating catheter. It differs from balloon and laser angioplasty procedures which enlarge vessels by dilation but frequently do not remove much plaque. If the plaque is removed by surgical excision under general anesthesia rather than by an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ENDARTERECTOMY.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Dilatation: The act of dilating.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Mitral Valve Stenosis: Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.Vascular Access Devices: Devices to be inserted into veins or arteries for the purpose of carrying fluids into or from a peripheral or central vascular location. They may include component parts such as catheters, ports, reservoirs, and valves. They may be left in place temporarily for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Limb Salvage: An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Angioscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Neointima: The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.Hirudin Therapy: Use of HIRUDINS as an anticoagulant in the treatment of cardiological and hematological disorders.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Amputation: The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Balloon Embolectomy: The use of balloon CATHETERS to remove emboli by retraction of the balloon that is inflated behind the EMBOLUS.Catheters: A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Cineradiography: Motion picture study of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen.Thrombectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.Cineangiography: Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.Shock, Cardiogenic: Shock resulting from diminution of cardiac output in heart disease.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Subclavian Steal Syndrome: A clinically significant reduction in blood supply to the BRAIN STEM and CEREBELLUM (i.e., VERTEBROBASILAR INSUFFICIENCY) resulting from reversal of blood flow through the VERTEBRAL ARTERY from occlusion or stenosis of the proximal subclavian or brachiocephalic artery. Common symptoms include VERTIGO; SYNCOPE; and INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION of the involved upper extremity. Subclavian steal may also occur in asymptomatic individuals. (From J Cardiovasc Surg 1994;35(1):11-4; Acta Neurol Scand 1994;90(3):174-8)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Drug-Eluting Stents: Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.Life Tables: Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Cardiac Catheters: Catheters inserted into various locations within the heart for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Swine, Miniature: Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.Tibial Arteries: The anterior and posterior arteries created at the bifurcation of the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle and lies along the tibia at the distal part of the leg to surface superficially anterior to the ankle joint. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg, ankle, and foot. The posterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, lies behind the tibia in the lower part of its course, and is found situated between the medial malleolus and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg and foot.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Hirudins: Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from LEECHES that have a neutral hydrophobic N terminus, an acidic hydrophilic C terminus, and a compact, hydrophobic core region. Recombinant hirudins lack tyr-63 sulfation and are referred to as 'desulfato-hirudins'. They form a stable non-covalent complex with ALPHA-THROMBIN, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave FIBRINOGEN.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)

Surgical transluminal iliac angioplasty with selective stenting: long-term results assessed by means of duplex scanning. (1/1972)

PURPOSE: The safety of iliac angioplasty and selective stenting performed in the operating room by vascular surgeons was evaluated, and the short- and long-term results were assessed by means of serial duplex scanning. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1996, 281 iliac stenotic or occlusive lesions in 235 consecutive patients with chronic limb ischemia were treated by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) alone (n = 214) or PTA with stent (n = 67, 23.8%). There were 260 primary lesions and 21 restenosis after a first PTA, which were analyzed separately. Stents were implanted in selected cases, either primarily in totally occluded arteries or after suboptimum results of PTA (ie, residual stenosis or a dissection). Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Results were reported in an intention-to-treat basis. Clinical results and patency were evaluated by means of symptom assessment, ankle brachial pressure index, and duplex scanning at discharge and 1, 3, 6, and every 12 months after angioplasty. To identify factors that may affect outcome, 12 clinical and radiological variables, including the four categories of lesions defined by the Standards of Practice Committee of the Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, were analyzed separately. The statistical significances of life-table analysis of patency were determined by means of the log-rank test. RESULTS: There were no postoperative deaths or amputations. Local, general, and vascular complications occurred in 2.1%, 1.3% and 4.7% of cases, respectively (total, 8.1%). The mean follow-up period was 29.6 months. The cumulative patency rates +/- SE of the 260 PTAs (including 55 PTAs plus stents) were 92.9% +/- 1.5% at 1 month, 86. 5% +/- 1.7% at 1 year, 81.2% +/- 2.3% at 2 years, 78.8% +/- 2.9% at 3 years, and 75.4% +/- 3.5% at 5 and 6 years. The two-year patency rate of 21 redo PTAs (including 11 PTAs plus stents) was 79.1% +/- 18.2%. Of 12 predictable variables studied in the first PTA group, only the category of the lesion was predictive of long-term patency. The two-year patency rate was 84% +/- 3% for 199 category 1 lesions and 69.7% +/- 6.5% for 61 category 2, 3, and 4 lesions together (P =. 02). There was no difference of patency in the stented and nonstented group. CONCLUSION: Iliac PTA alone or with the use of a stent (in cases of occlusion and/or suboptimal results of PTA) offers an excellent long-term patency rate. Categorization of lesions remains useful in predicting long-term outcome. PTA can be performed safely by vascular surgeons in the operating room and should be considered to be the primary treatment for localized iliac occlusive disease.  (+info)

Plaque area increase and vascular remodeling contribute to lumen area change after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the femoropopliteal artery: an intravascular ultrasound study. (2/1972)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the change in lumen area (LA), plaque area (PLA), and vessel area (VA) after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the femoropopliteal artery. METHODS: This was a prospective study. Twenty patients were studied with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) immediately after PTA and at follow-up examination. Multiple corresponding IVUS cross-sections were analyzed at the segments that were dilated by PTA (ie, treated sites; n = 168), including the most stenotic site (n = 20) and the nondilated segments (ie, reference sites; n = 77). RESULTS: At follow-up examination, both the PLA increase (13%) and the VA decrease (9%) resulted in a significant LA decrease (43%) at the most stenotic sites (P =.001). At the treated sites, the LA decrease (15%) was smaller and was caused by the PLA increase (15%). At the reference sites, the PLA increase (15%) and the VA increase (6%) resulted in a slight LA decrease (3%). An analysis of the IVUS cross-sections that were grouped according to LA change (difference >/=10%) revealed a similar PLA increase in all the groups: the type of vascular remodeling (VA decrease, no change, or increase) determined the LA change. At the treated sites, the LA change and the VA change correlated closely (r = 0.77, P <.001). At the treated sites, significantly more PLA increase was seen in the IVUS cross-sections that showed hard lesion or media rupture (P <.05). No relationship was found between the presence of dissection and the quantitative changes. CONCLUSION: At the most stenotic sites, lumen narrowing was caused by plaque increase and vessel shrinkage. Both the treated sites and the reference sites showed a significant PLA increase: the type of vascular remodeling determined the LA change at follow-up examination. The extent of the PLA increase was significantly larger in the IVUS cross-sections that showed hard lesion or media rupture.  (+info)

Intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography as an adjuvant to fluoroscopy during endovascular thoracic aortic repair. (3/1972)

OBJECTIVES: To define the utility of intraoperative transeophageal echocardiography (TEE) during endovascular thoracic aortic repair. DESIGN: Retrospective study. MATERIALS: Five patients underwent six transluminal endovascular stent-graft procedures for repair of thoracic aortic disease. METHODS: After induction of anaesthesia, a multiplane or biplane TEE probe was placed to obtain views of the diseased aorta. Both transverse and longitudinal planes of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aortic segments were imaged. The aortic pathology was confirmed by TEE and the proximal and distal extents of the intrathoracic lesion were defined. Doppler and colour-flow imaging was used to identify flow patterns through the aorta before and after stent-graft deployment. RESULTS: Visualisation and confirmation of the aortic pathology by ultrasonography was accomplished in all patients. TEE was able to confirm proper placement of the endograft relative to the aortic lesion after deployment and was able to confirm exclusion of blood flow into the aneurysm sacs. CONCLUSIONS: TEE may facilitate repair by confirming aortic pathology, identifying endograft placement, assessment of the adequacy of aneurysm sack isolation, as well as dynamic intraoperative cardiac assessment.  (+info)

Effect and outcome of balloon angioplasty and stenting of the iliac arteries evaluated by intravascular ultrasound. (4/1972)

OBJECTIVES: To document the mechanism of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting of the iliac arteries, and to relate the effect to patency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven stenotic iliac arteries were examined by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and arteriography before and after PTA, and after stent deployment (n = 16). The patients were followed prospectively by duplex scanning at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after the intervention. RESULTS: The effect of PTA was established by both compression and stretching with the major contribution arising from stretching. There were differences in the effect of PTA dependent on plaque morphology: in homogeneous eccentric lesions, stretching contributed significantly more than compression to the luminal gain, while stretching and compression contributed equally in concentric or heterogeneous plaques. Stenting of the arteries had no effect on the free luminal area as measured by IVUS. The primary 1-year patency rate was 72%. The patency was related to the free luminal area and diameter and the heterogenicity of the plaque as evaluated by IVUS. The arteriographic measurements did not have any predictive value. CONCLUSION: IVUS was able to document the effect of PTA and stenting in the iliac arteries, and predict the outcome. The luminal gain and reduction in degree of stenosis seemed to be accomplished primarily by stretching of the arteries and to a lesser extent by plaque compression. Stenting did not change the IVUS measurements. Patency was related to the size of the free lumen and the heterogenicity of the plaque.  (+info)

Antegrade visceral revascularisation via a thoracoabdominal approach for chronic mesenteric ischaemia. (5/1972)

OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that patients with chronic visceral ischaemia are elderly and emaciated hence they may not tolerate antegrade visceral revascularisation via a thoracoabdominal approach. There are no studies to support this assumption. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of this approach for the treatment of chronic visceral ischaemia. METHODS: Between 1988 and 1996, 10 patients underwent antegrade visceral revascularisation for chronic visceral ischaemia via a thoracoabdominal approach and were followed-up for a mean of 40 months. Eight patients were treated with aorto superior mesenteric artery bypass and implantation of the coeliac axis in the graft and two patients with aorto superior mesenteric bypass alone. Graft patency was monitored with duplex scanning. RESULTS: There were no postoperative deaths in this series. Two patients developed postoperative pulmonary infections and required intubation for a short period of time. All patients were discharged after a mean of 17 days (range 7-38). Follow up with duplex scanning revealed that all grafts were patent. One patient developed a high grade anastomotic stenosis which was followed by recurrence of the symptoms. This was dilated on three occasions by balloon angioplasty within a period of 17 months. On the last occasion a stent was placed and since the patient remains asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: Antegrade visceral revascularisation via a thoracoabdominal approach is a durable and effective method of relieving symptoms of chronic visceral ischaemia. The low morbidity in this series justifies larger studies in order to establish the true incidence of complications.  (+info)

Outcome of the first 100 femoropopliteal angioplasties performed in the operating theatre. (6/1972)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the factors influencing outcome and restenosis in an initial series of 100 infrainguinal angioplasties. DESIGN: Prospective study of angioplasties of the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries performed over a 42-month period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive angioplasties in 96 patients performed in the operating theatre between January 1993 and June 1996 were followed prospectively with clinical, ABI, and duplex assessment. Forty-four procedures were for disabling claudication and 56 for critical ischaemia. Stents were deployed in 30 limbs. RESULTS: Angioplasty was successful in 84 of 100 limbs. Cumulative patency of the entire group at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months was 78%, 60%, 53%, and 49% respectively, while excluding initial failures, gave patencies of 95%, 69%, 63%, and 58%, respectively. Claudicants with a 1-year patency of 64% did significantly better than patients with critical ischaemia (44% p < 0.05). Angioplasties performed during the initial 21 months had a 1-year patency of 42%, while those performed in the final 21 months had a 74% patency (p = N.S.). The patency for stented arteries was 66% vs. 49% for angioplasty alone (p = N.S.). The 2-year limb salvage rate was 91% in patents with critical ischaemia. Forty-six per cent of restenoses were asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that while angioplasty is useful in treating infrainguinal arterial disease, there is a learning curve, resulting in a high restenosis rate for occlusive and multilevel disease, while concomitant placement of stents may be beneficial.  (+info)

Managing Budd-Chiari syndrome: a retrospective review of percutaneous hepatic vein angioplasty and surgical shunting. (7/1972)

BACKGROUND: The role of percutaneous hepatic vein angioplasty in the management of Budd-Chiari syndrome has not been well defined. Over a 10 year period at our unit, we have often used this technique in cases of short length hepatic vein stenosis or occlusion, reserving surgical mesocaval shunting for cases of diffuse hepatic vein occlusion or failed angioplasty. AIMS: To review the outcome of angioplasty and surgical shunting to define their respective roles. PATIENTS: All patients treated by angioplasty or surgical shunting for non-malignant hepatic vein obstruction over a ten year period from 1987 to 1996. METHODS: A case note review of pretreatment features and clinical outcome. RESULTS: Angioplasty was attempted in 21 patients with patent hepatic vein branches and was successful in 18; in three patients treatment was unsuccessful and these patients had surgical shunts. Fifteen patients were treated by surgical shunting only. Mortality according to definitive treatment was 3/18 following angioplasty and 8/18 following surgery; in most cases this reflected high risk status prior to treatment. Venous or shunt reocclusion rates were similar for both groups and were associated with subtherapeutic warfarin in half of these cases. Most surviving patients in both groups are asymptomatic although one surgical patient has chronic hepatic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION: With appropriate case selection, many patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome caused by short length hepatic vein stenosis or occlusion may be managed successfully by angioplasty alone. Medium term outcome is good following this procedure provided that anticoagulation is maintained. Further follow up is required to assess for definitive benefits but we suggest that this should be included as a valid initial approach in the algorithm for management of Budd-Chiari syndrome.  (+info)

Follow-up results of transvenous occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus with the buttoned device. (8/1972)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this presentation is to document results of buttoned device (BD) occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in a large number of patients with particular emphasis on long-term follow-up in an attempt to provide evidence for feasibility, safety and effectiveness of this method of PDA closure. BACKGROUND: Immediate and short-term results of BD occlusion of PDA have been documented in a limited number of children. METHODS: During a six-year period ending August 1996, transcatheter BD closure of PDA was attempted in 284 patients, ages 0.3 to 92 years (median 7) under a protocol approved by the local institutional review boards and FDA with an investigational device exemption in U.S. cases. RESULTS: The PDAs measured 1 to 15 mm (median 4) at the narrowest diameter; 20 were larger than 8 mm and 10 larger than 10 mm. They were occluded with devices measuring from 15 to 35 mm delivered via 7F (N = 140) or 8F (N = 144) sheaths. Successful implantation of the device was accomplished in 278 (98%) of 284 patients. The Qp:Qs decreased from 1.8+/-0.6 (mean+/-SD) to 1.09+/-0.19 (p < 0.001). Effective occlusion defined as no (N = 167 [60%]) or trivial (N = 79 [28%]) residual shunt was achieved in 246 (88%) patients. All types of PDAs, irrespective of the shape (conical, tubular or short), size (small or large) or length (short or long) of the PDA and previously implanted Rashkind devices, could be occluded. Follow-up data, 1 to 60 months (median 24) after device implantation, were available in 234 (84%) patients. Seven (3%) patients required reintervention to treat residual shunt with (N = 2) or without (N = 5) hemolysis. Actuarial reintervention-free rates were 95% at 1 and 5 years. There was gradual reduction of actuarial residual shunts and were 40%, 28%, 21%, 14%, 11%, 10%, 6% and 0% respectively at 1 day, 1, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after device implantation. Incorporation of folding plug over the button loop in 10 additional patients produced immediate and complete occlusion of PDA. CONCLUSIONS: This large multiinstitutional experience confirms the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of buttoned device closure of PDAs. All types of PDAs irrespective of the shape, length and diameter can be effectively occluded. Incorporation of folding plug over the button loop produces complete PDA occlusion at the time of device implantation.  (+info)

  • Key questions of this analysis were: (1) whether AngioSculpt™ can be used as a safe and effective stand-alone treatment in heavily calcified lesions in a 24-month follow-up, as well as (2) whether target lesion preparation with scoring balloon bears additional benefits to standard treatment (PTA ± stent implantation). (springermedizin.de)
  • Lesion preparation with AngioSculpt™ scoring balloon represents a safe and effective tool in the treatment of complex femoropopliteal lesions. (springermedizin.de)
  • Stellarex drug-coated balloon (DCB), featuring EnduraCoat technology, provides top-tier patency to treat common-to-complex lesions with a low drug dose. (philips.hr)