Angiography, Digital Subtraction
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Radiographic Image Enhancement
Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Sensitivity and Specificity
Carotid Artery, Internal
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations
Arterial Occlusive Diseases
Tomography, Spiral Computed
Salivary Gland Calculi
Reproducibility of Results
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
Radiography, Dental, Digital
X-Ray Intensifying Screens
Carotid Artery Diseases
Predictive Value of Tests
Anterior Cerebral Artery
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
Circle of Willis
Blood Flow Velocity
Carotid Artery, External
Immediate Dental Implant Loading
Ischemic Attack, Transient
Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea
Severity of Illness Index
Renal Artery Obstruction
Coronary Artery Disease
Radiography, Dual-Energy Scanned Projection
False Negative Reactions
False Positive Reactions
Peripheral Vascular Diseases
Middle Cerebral Artery
Equipment Failure Analysis
Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
Blood Vessel Prosthesis
Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
Radiology Information Systems
Multidetector Computed Tomography
Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Carotid Artery, Common
Combined carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass graft. (1/1139)Atherosclerosis is a generalized disease which afflicts a considerable number of patients in both the carotid and coronary arteries. Although the risk of stroke or death use to combined carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is thought to be higher than that of each individual operation, the combined procedure is generally preferred over staged operations to treat such patients. We performed the combined procedure safely with the aid of intraoperative portable digital subtraction angiography (DSA). This report describes our experience with the operative strategy of simultaneous CEA and CABG. Ninety CEA and 404 CABG were carried out between January 1989 and December 1997. A total of six patients received the combined procedure with the aid of intraoperative DSA; they were studied retrospectively. Postoperative mortality and morbidity after the combined procedure was 0%. In the combined procedure, neurological complications are difficult to detect after CEA because the patient must be maintained under general anesthesia and extracorporeal circulation during the subsequent CABG. However, intraoperative DSA can confirm patency of the internal carotid artery and absence of flap formation after CEA, and the CABG can be performed safely. Intraoperative portable DSA between CEA and CABG is helpful in preventing perioperative stroke in the combined procedure. (+info)
Popliteal artery occlusion as a late complication of liquid acrylate embolization for cerebral vascular malformation. (2/1139)Occlusion of arteriovenous malformations of the brain (BAVMs) by means of an endovascular approach with liquid acrylate glue is an established treatment modality. The specific hazards of this procedure are related to the central nervous system. In the case of unexpectedly rapid polymerization of the cyanoacrylate glue and adhesion of the delivering microcatheter to the BAVM, severing the catheter at the site of vascular access is considered an acceptable and safe management. We present a unique complication related to this technique that has not been described yet. Fragmentation and migration of the microcatheter, originally left in place, had caused popliteal artery occlusion, which required saphenous vein interposition, in a 25-year-old man. Suggestions for avoiding this complication are discussed. (+info)
Factors influencing the development of vein-graft stenosis and their significance for clinical management. (3/1139)OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of clinical and graft factors on the development of stenotic lesions. In addition the implications of any significant correlation for duplex surveillance schedules or surgical bypass techniques was examined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective three centre study, preoperative and peroperative data on 300 infrainguinal autologous vein grafts was analysed. All grafts were monitored by a strict duplex surveillance program and all received an angiogram in the first postoperative year. A revision was only performed if there was evidence of a stenosis of 70% diameter reduction or greater on the angiogram. RESULTS: The minimum graft diameter was the only factor correlated significantly with the development of a significant graft stenosis (PSV-ratio > or = 2.5) during follow-up (p = 0.002). Factors that correlated with the development of event-causing graft stenosis, associated with revision or occlusion, were minimal graft diameter (p = 0.001), the use of a venovenous anastomosis (p = 0.005) and length of the graft (p = 0.025). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the minimal graft diameter was the only independent factor that significantly correlated with an event-causing graft stenosis (p = 0.009). The stenosis-free rates for grafts with a minimal diameter < 3.5 mm, between 3.5-4.5 and > or = 4.5 mm were 40%, 58% and 75%, respectively (p = < 0.05). Composite vein and arm-vein grafts with minimal diameters > or = 3.5 mm were compared with grafts which consisted of a single uninterrupted greater saphenous vein with a minimal diameter of < 3.5 mm. One-year secondary patency rates in these categories were of 94% and 76%, respectively (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: A minimal graft diameter < 3.5 mm was the only factor that significantly correlated with the development of a graft-stenosis. However, veins with larger diameters may still develop stenotic lesions. Composite vein and arm-vein grafts should be used rather than uninterrupted small caliber saphenous veins. (+info)
Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion following cervical spine trauma--case report. (4/1139)A 41-year-old female presented with a rare case of bilateral vertebral artery occlusion following C5-6 cervical spine subluxation after a fall of 30 feet. Digital subtraction angiography showed occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries. Unlocking of the facet joint, posterior wiring with iliac crest grafting, and anterior fusion were performed. The patient died on the 3rd day after the operation. This type of injury has a grim prognosis with less than a third of the patients achieving a good outcome. (+info)
Evaluation of cerebral aneurysms with high-resolution MR angiography using a section-interpolation technique: correlation with digital subtraction angiography. (5/1139)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective was to evaluate the results of high-resolution, fast-speed, section-interpolation MR angiography and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), thereby examining the potential use of a primary noninvasive screening test for intracranial aneurysms. METHODS: The images were obtained in 39 cerebral aneurysmal lesions from 30 patients with a time-of-flight MR angiographic technique using a 1.5-T superconducting MR system. The total image volume was divided into four slabs, with 48 partitions each. To save time, only 24 phase-encoded steps were measured and interpolated to 48. The parameters used included 30/6.4 (TR/TE), a flip angle of 25 degrees , a 160x512 matrix, a field of view of 150x200, 7 minutes 42 seconds of scan time, an effective thickness of 0.7 mm, and an entire thickness of 102.2 mm. Maximum intensity projection was used for the image analysis, and a multiplanar reconstruction technique was used for patients with intracranial aneurysms. RESULTS: Among 39 intracranial aneurysmal lesions in 30 patients, 21 were ruptured and 18 were unruptured. Twelve lesions were less than 2 mm in size, 12 were 3 to 5 mm, 12 were 6 to 9 mm, and three were larger than 10 mm. At initial examinations, 38 of 39 aneurysmal lesions were detected by both MR angiography and DSA, with 97% sensitivity. In confirming aneurysms in neck and parent vessels, multiplanar reconstruction was successful in detecting all 39 aneurysms, whereas MR angiography was successful in detecting 27 (69%) and DSA was successful in detecting 32 (82%) of the lesions. CONCLUSION: High-resolution MR angiography with a section-interpolation technique showed equal results to those of DSA for the detection of intracranial aneurysms and may be used as a primary noninvasive screening test. In the evaluation of aneurysms in neck and parent vessels, the concurrent use of MR angiography and multiplanar reconstruction was far superior to the use of either MR angiography or DSA alone. (+info)
Twinkling artifact on intracerebral color Doppler sonography. (6/1139)Transcranial Doppler sonography shows potential as a noninvasive technique for long-term follow-up of treated intracranial saccular aneurysms. This technical note describes a color Doppler artifact related to microcoil architecture that might represent a potential pitfall in transcranial Doppler sonographic evaluation of aneurysmal cavity thrombosis, since it may be wrongly interpreted as residual flow or aneurysmal cavity recanalization. (+info)
Cerebral veins: comparative study of CT venography with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography. (7/1139)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our objective was to compare the reliability of CT venography with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in imaging cerebral venous anatomy and pathology. METHODS: In 25 consecutive patients, 426 venous structures were determined as present, partially present, or absent by three observers evaluating CT multiplanar reformatted (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) images. These results were compared with the results from intraarterial DSA and, in a second step, with the results of an intraobserver consensus. In addition, pathologic conditions were described. RESULTS: Using DSA as the standard of reference, MPR images had an overall sensitivity of 95% (specificity, 19%) and MIP images a sensitivity of 80% (specificity, 44%) in depicting the cerebral venous anatomy. On the basis of an intraobserver consensus including DSA, MPR, and MIP images (415 vessels present), the sensitivity/specificity was 95%/91% for MPR, 90%/100% for DSA, and 79%/91% for MIP images. MPR images were superior to DSA images in showing the cavernous sinus, the inferior sagittal sinus, and the basal vein of Rosenthal. Venous occlusive diseases were correctly recognized on both MPR and MIP images. Only DSA images provided reliable information of invasion of a sinus by an adjacent meningioma. CONCLUSION: CT venography proved to be a reliable method to depict the cerebral venous structures. MPR images were superior to MIP images. (+info)
A persistent pharyngohyostapedial artery: embryologic implications. (8/1139)A 3-year-old child was examined because of otorrhagia. CT scans showed an unusual vessel, confirmed by angiography, related to a persistent pharyngohyostapedial artery. This embryonic persistent artery associated with the normal internal carotid artery would explain the "duplication" aspect of the internal carotid artery. (+info)
Intracranial aneurysms are relatively rare but can have serious consequences if they rupture and cause bleeding in the brain.
The symptoms of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm may include headaches, seizures, and visual disturbances.
If an intracranial aneurysm ruptures, it can lead to a subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding in the space around the brain), which is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
Diagnosis of an intracranial aneurysm typically involves imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and may also involve catheter angiography.
Treatment for intracranial aneurysms usually involves surgical clipping or endovascular coiling, depending on the size, location, and severity of the aneurysm.
Preventing rupture of intracranial aneurysms is important, as they can be difficult to treat once they have ruptured.
Endovascular coiling is a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the affected artery and a small coil is inserted into the aneurysm, causing it to clot and preventing further bleeding.
Surgical clipping involves placing a small metal clip across the base of the aneurysm to prevent further bleeding.
In addition to these treatments, medications such as anticonvulsants and antihypertensives may be used to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
There are several types of intracranial AVMs, including:
1. Cerebral AVMs: These are the most common type of AVM and occur in the cerebral hemispheres of the brain.
2. Spinal AVMs: These occur in the spinal cord and are less common than cerebral AVMs.
3. Multiple AVMs: Some people may have multiple AVMs, which can be located in different parts of the brain or spine.
The symptoms of intracranial AVMs can vary depending on the location and size of the malformation. They may include:
1. Seizures: AVMs can cause seizures, which can be a sign of the malformation.
2. Headaches: Patients with AVMs may experience frequent and severe headaches.
3. Weakness or numbness: AVMs can cause weakness or numbness in the arms or legs.
4. Vision problems: AVMs can affect the vision, including blurriness, double vision, or loss of peripheral vision.
5. Confusion or disorientation: Patients with AVMs may experience confusion or disorientation.
6. Seizures: AVMs can cause seizures, which can be a sign of the malformation.
7. Cranial nerve deficits: AVMs can affect the cranial nerves, leading to problems with speech, hearing, or facial movements.
8. Hydrocephalus: AVMs can cause hydrocephalus, which is an accumulation of fluid in the brain.
The diagnosis of intracranial AVMs is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, neuroimaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and angiography. Angiography is a test that uses dye and X-rays to visualize the blood vessels in the brain.
Treatment of intracranial AVMs usually involves a multidisciplinary approach, including neurosurgeons, interventional neuroradiologists, and neurologists. Treatment options may include:
1. Observation: Small AVMs that are not causing symptoms may be monitored with regular imaging studies to see if they grow or change over time.
2. Endovascular embolization: This is a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted through a blood vessel in the leg and directed to the AVM in the brain. Once there, the catheter releases tiny particles that block the flow of blood into the AVM, causing it to shrink or disappear.
3. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the AVM. This is usually done when the AVM is large or in a location that makes it difficult to treat with endovascular embolization.
4. Radiation therapy: This may be used to shrink the AVM before surgery or as a standalone treatment.
5. Chemotherapy: This may be used in combination with radiation therapy to treat AVMs that are caused by a genetic condition called hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT).
The choice of treatment depends on the location and size of the AVM, as well as the patient's overall health and other medical conditions. In some cases, a combination of treatments may be necessary to achieve the best outcome.
Here are some examples of how 'Aneurysm, Ruptured' is used in different contexts:
1. Medical literature: "The patient was rushed to the hospital with a ruptured aneurysm after experiencing sudden severe headaches and vomiting."
2. Doctor-patient communication: "You have a ruptured aneurysm, which means that your blood vessel has burst and is causing bleeding inside your body."
3. Medical research: "The study found that patients with a history of smoking are at increased risk of developing a ruptured aneurysm."
4. Emergency medical services: "The patient was transported to the hospital with a ruptured aneurysm and was in critical condition upon arrival."
5. Patient education: "To prevent a ruptured aneurysm, it is important to manage high blood pressure and avoid smoking."
The different types of CNSVMs include:
1. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These are abnormal connections between arteries and veins that can cause bleeding, seizures, and neurological deficits.
2. Cavernous malformations: These are abnormal collections of blood vessels that can cause seizures, headaches, and neurological deficits.
3. Capillary telangiectasia: These are small, fragile blood vessels that can cause seizures, headaches, and neurological deficits.
4. Venous malformations: These are abnormalities of the veins that can cause neurological symptoms and cosmetic deformities.
The diagnosis of CNSVMs is based on a combination of clinical presentation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and angiography. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the malformation and may include observation, surgery, embolization, or radiosurgery. The prognosis for CNSVMs varies depending on the specific type and location of the malformation, as well as the severity of the symptoms. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
Types of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a condition where plaque builds up inside the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockages that can restrict blood flow to certain areas of the body.
2. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): PAD is a condition where the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain or cramping in the affected limbs.
3. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): CAD is a condition where the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart, become narrowed or blocked, leading to chest pain or a heart attack.
4. Carotid Artery Disease: Carotid artery disease is a condition where the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, become narrowed or blocked, leading to stroke or mini-stroke.
5. Renal Artery Stenosis: Renal artery stenosis is a condition where the blood vessels that supply the kidneys become narrowed or blocked, leading to high blood pressure and decreased kidney function.
Symptoms of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Pain or cramping in the affected limbs
2. Weakness or fatigue
3. Difficulty walking or standing
4. Chest pain or discomfort
5. Shortness of breath
6. Dizziness or lightheadedness
7. Stroke or mini-stroke
Treatment for Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Medications: Medications such as blood thinners, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and blood pressure medications may be prescribed to treat arterial occlusive diseases.
2. Lifestyle Changes: Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
3. Endovascular Procedures: Endovascular procedures such as angioplasty and stenting may be performed to open up narrowed or blocked blood vessels.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat arterial occlusive diseases, such as bypass surgery or carotid endarterectomy.
Prevention of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Quit smoking and avoid exposure to secondhand smoke
3. Exercise regularly
4. Manage high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes
5. Avoid excessive alcohol consumption
6. Get regular check-ups with your healthcare provider
Early detection and treatment of arterial occlusive diseases can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and prevent complications such as heart attack or stroke.
There are two main types of carotid stenosis:
1. Internal carotid artery stenosis: This type of stenosis occurs when the internal carotid artery, which supplies blood to the brain, becomes narrowed or blocked.
2. Common carotid artery stenosis: This type of stenosis occurs when the common carotid artery, which supplies blood to the head and neck, becomes narrowed or blocked.
The symptoms of carotid stenosis can vary depending on the severity of the blockage and the extent of the affected area. Some common symptoms include:
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Vertigo (a feeling of spinning)
* Blurred vision or double vision
* Memory loss or confusion
* Slurred speech
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
If left untreated, carotid stenosis can lead to a stroke or other serious complications. Treatment options for carotid stenosis include medications to lower cholesterol and blood pressure, as well as surgical procedures such as endarterectomy (removing plaque from the artery) or stenting (placing a small mesh tube in the artery to keep it open).
In conclusion, carotid stenosis is a serious medical condition that can lead to stroke and other complications if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
The term "calculus" refers to a small, hard deposit that has formed within the salivary gland ducts or sacs. These deposits are made up of crystallized minerals, such as calcium phosphate, ammonium urate, or magnesium ammonium phosphate, which can accumulate in the salivary glands over time due to a variety of factors.
Salivary gland calculi are relatively rare, but they can be quite painful and can cause significant discomfort and difficulty for patients. Treatment options for salivary gland calculi include medications to dissolve the calculi, surgery to remove the calculi, or sialography, a minimally invasive procedure that uses dye to visualize the salivary glands and locate any blockages or stones.
The medical field recognizes several types of salivary gland calculi, including:
1. Parotid calculi: These are the most common type of salivary gland calculus and form in the parotid gland, which is located in front of the ear.
2. Submandibular calculi: These form in the submandibular gland, which is located under the tongue.
3. Sublingual calculi: These form in the sublingual gland, which is located under the tongue.
4. Warthin's tumor: This is a rare type of salivary gland calculus that forms in the parotid gland and can be benign or malignant.
In summary, salivary gland calculi are small, hard deposits that can form within the salivary glands, causing pain, swelling, and difficulty opening the mouth. Treatment options include medications to dissolve the calculi, surgery to remove the calculi, or sialography. The medical field recognizes several types of salivary gland calculi, including parotid, submandibular, sublingual, and Warthin's tumor.
Some examples of pathologic constrictions include:
1. Stenosis: A narrowing or constriction of a blood vessel or other tubular structure, often caused by the buildup of plaque or scar tissue.
2. Asthma: A condition characterized by inflammation and constriction of the airways, which can make breathing difficult.
3. Esophageal stricture: A narrowing of the esophagus that can cause difficulty swallowing.
4. Gastric ring constriction: A narrowing of the stomach caused by a band of tissue that forms in the upper part of the stomach.
5. Anal fissure: A tear in the lining of the anus that can cause pain and difficulty passing stools.
Pathologic constrictions can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation, infection, injury, or genetic disorders. They can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or endoscopies, and may require surgical treatment to relieve symptoms and improve function.
AVMs are characterized by a tangle of abnormal blood vessels that can cause a variety of symptoms, including:
* Stroke-like episodes
* Neurological deficits such as weakness or numbness
* Vision problems
AVMs can be diagnosed through a combination of imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and catheter angiography. Treatment options for AVMs include:
* Endovascular embolization, which involves using a catheter to inject materials into the abnormal blood vessels to block them off
* Surgery to remove the AVM
* Radiation therapy to shrink the AVM
The goal of treatment is to prevent bleeding, seizures, and other complications associated with AVMs. In some cases, treatment may not be necessary if the AVM is small and not causing any symptoms. However, in more severe cases, prompt treatment can significantly improve outcomes.
The condition is often caused by atherosclerosis, a buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can reduce blood flow to the brain and cause damage to the blood vessels. Other factors that can contribute to vertebrobasilar insufficiency include blood clots, high blood pressure, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes and high cholesterol.
Vertebrobasilar insufficiency is typically diagnosed through a physical examination, imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, andDoppler ultrasound. Treatment options for the condition may include lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, and stress management, as well as medications to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to improve blood flow to the brain.
It is important to note that vertebrobasilar insufficiency can be a serious condition and can lead to more severe complications such as stroke if left untreated. If you are experiencing symptoms of the condition, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible.
The most common carotid artery disease is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque in the inner lining of the arteries. This buildup can lead to a narrowing or blockage of the arteries, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Other conditions that can affect the carotid arteries include:
1. Carotid artery stenosis: A narrowing of the carotid arteries caused by atherosclerosis or other factors.
2. Carotid artery dissection: A tear in the inner lining of the arteries that can cause bleeding and blockage.
3. Carotid artery aneurysm: A bulge in the wall of the arteries that can lead to rupture and stroke.
4. Temporal bone fracture: A break in the bones of the skull that can cause damage to the carotid arteries and result in stroke or other complications.
Carotid artery diseases are typically diagnosed using imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Treatment options for carotid artery diseases depend on the underlying condition and its severity, but may include lifestyle changes, medications, surgery, or endovascular procedures.
Prevention of carotid artery diseases is key to reducing the risk of stroke and other complications. This includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes, as well as maintaining a healthy lifestyle and getting regular check-ups with your doctor.
The term "carotid-cavernous sinus fistula" is not commonly used in medical practice or medical literature. Instead, this condition is more often referred to as a carotid-cavernous fistula or a cavernous sinus fistula.
Carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas are classified into two types: direct and indirect. Direct fistulas occur when there is a direct connection between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, while indirect fistulas occur when there is a connection through a shared blood vessel or through the internal carotid artery.
The exact cause of carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas is not well understood, but they are thought to be due to trauma, surgical complications, or certain medical conditions such as high blood pressure or aneurysms.
Diagnosis of a carotid-cavernous sinus fistula typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for this condition include endovascular embolization or surgical ligation of the fistula.
Overall, carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas are a rare and complex vascular abnormality that can have serious consequences if left untreated. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.
If you suspect vasospasm, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. A healthcare professional will perform a physical examination and order imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans, to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options may include medications to dilate blood vessels, surgery to relieve pressure on affected areas, or other interventions depending on the severity of the condition.
Preventing vasospasm can be challenging, but some measures can reduce the risk of developing this condition. These include managing underlying conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or high cholesterol levels; avoiding head injuries by wearing protective gear during sports and other activities; and adopting a healthy lifestyle that includes regular exercise and a balanced diet.
Early diagnosis and treatment are critical in managing vasospasm and preventing long-term damage to the brain tissue. If you experience any symptoms suggestive of vasospasm, seek medical attention promptly to receive appropriate care and improve outcomes.
1. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted, either due to a blockage or a rupture of the blood vessels. This can lead to cell death and permanent brain damage.
2. Cerebral vasospasm: Vasospasm is a temporary constriction of the blood vessels in the brain, which can occur after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding in the space surrounding the brain).
3. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare condition caused by narrowing or blockage of the internal carotid artery and its branches. It can lead to recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIs) or stroke.
4. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: This is a condition where abnormal protein deposits accumulate in the blood vessels of the brain, leading to inflammation and bleeding.
5. Cavernous malformations: These are abnormal collections of blood vessels in the brain that can cause seizures, headaches, and other symptoms.
6. Carotid artery disease: Atherosclerosis (hardening) of the carotid arteries can lead to a stroke or TIAs.
7. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency: This is a condition where the blood flow to the brain is reduced due to narrowing or blockage of the vertebral and basilar arteries.
8. Temporal lobe dementia: This is a type of dementia that affects the temporal lobe of the brain, leading to memory loss and other cognitive symptoms.
9. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the blood vessels in the brain, leading to recurrent stroke-like events.
10. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare condition caused by narrowing or blockage of the internal carotid artery and its branches, leading to decreased blood flow to the brain and increased risk of stroke.
It's important to note that this list is not exhaustive and there may be other causes of stroke and TIAs that are not included here. A proper diagnosis can only be made by a qualified medical professional after conducting a thorough examination and reviewing the individual's medical history.
The AVF is created by joining a radial or brachial artery to a vein in the forearm or upper arm. The vein is typically a radiocephalic vein, which is a vein that drains blood from the hand and forearm. The fistula is formed by sewing the artery and vein together with a specialized suture material.
Once the AVF is created, it needs time to mature before it can be used for hemodialysis. This process can take several weeks or months, depending on the size of the fistula and the individual patient's healing response. During this time, the patient may need to undergo regular monitoring and testing to ensure that the fistula is functioning properly.
The advantages of an AVF over other types of hemodialysis access include:
1. Improved blood flow: The high-flow path created by the AVF allows for more efficient removal of waste products from the blood.
2. Reduced risk of infection: The connection between the artery and vein is less likely to become infected than other types of hemodialysis access.
3. Longer duration: AVFs can last for several years, providing a reliable and consistent source of hemodialysis access.
4. Improved patient comfort: The fistula is typically located in the arm or forearm, which is less invasive and more comfortable for the patient than other types of hemodialysis access.
However, there are also potential risks and complications associated with AVFs, including:
1. Access failure: The fistula may not mature properly or may become blocked, requiring alternative access methods.
2. Infection: As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of infection with AVF creation.
3. Steal syndrome: This is a rare complication that occurs when the flow of blood through the fistula interferes with the normal flow of blood through the arm.
4. Thrombosis: The fistula may become occluded due to clotting, which can be treated with thrombolysis or surgical intervention.
In summary, an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a type of hemodialysis access that is created by connecting an artery and a vein, providing a high-flow path for hemodialysis. AVFs offer several advantages over other types of hemodialysis access, including improved blood flow, reduced risk of infection, longer duration, and improved patient comfort. However, there are also potential risks and complications associated with AVFs, including access failure, infection, steal syndrome, and thrombosis. Regular monitoring and testing are necessary to ensure that the fistula is functioning properly and to minimize the risk of these complications.
There are several types of aneurysms, including:
1. Thoracic aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the chest cavity and is usually caused by atherosclerosis or other conditions that affect the aorta.
2. Abdominal aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the abdomen and is usually caused by high blood pressure or atherosclerosis.
3. Cerebral aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the brain and can cause symptoms such as headaches, seizures, and stroke.
4. Peripheral aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the peripheral arteries, which are the blood vessels that carry blood to the arms and legs.
Symptoms of an aneurysm can include:
1. Pain or discomfort in the affected area
2. Swelling or bulging of the affected area
3. Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain (in the case of a thoracic aneurysm)
5. Headaches, seizures, or stroke (in the case of a cerebral aneurysm)
If an aneurysm is not treated, it can lead to serious complications such as:
1. Rupture: This is the most serious complication of an aneurysm and occurs when the aneurysm sac bursts, leading to severe bleeding and potentially life-threatening consequences.
2. Stroke or brain damage: If a cerebral aneurysm ruptures, it can cause a stroke or brain damage.
3. Infection: An aneurysm can become infected, which can lead to serious health problems.
4. Blood clots: An aneurysm can form blood clots, which can break loose and travel to other parts of the body, causing blockages or further complications.
5. Kidney failure: If an aneurysm is not treated, it can cause kidney failure due to the pressure on the renal arteries.
6. Heart problems: An aneurysm in the aorta can lead to heart problems such as heart failure or cardiac arrest.
7. Sepsis: If an aneurysm becomes infected, it can lead to sepsis, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause organ failure and death.
Treatment options for an aneurysm include:
1. Observation: Small aneurysms that are not causing any symptoms may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular check-ups to see if they are growing or changing.
2. Surgery: Open surgery or endovascular repair are two common methods for treating aneurysms. In open surgery, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to repair the aneurysm. In endovascular repair, a small tube is inserted into the affected blood vessel through an incision in the groin, and then guided to the site of the aneurysm where it is expanded to fill the aneurysm sac and seal off the aneurysm.
3. Embolization: This is a minimally invasive procedure where a small catheter is inserted into the affected blood vessel through an incision in the groin, and then guided to the site of the aneurysm where it releases tiny particles or coils that fill the aneurysm sac and seal off the aneurysm.
4. Medications: Certain medications such as antibiotics and blood thinners may be prescribed to treat related complications such as infection or blood clots.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of an aneurysm, such as sudden severe headache, vision changes, difficulty speaking, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Intracranial arteriosclerosis is often caused by high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and smoking, as well as other factors such as age, family history, and diabetes. The condition can be diagnosed using imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and may be treated with medications to manage underlying risk factors, or surgery to open up narrowed arteries.
There are several types of salivary gland diseases, including:
1. Parotid gland disease: This type of disease affects the parotid gland, which is located in the jaw and produces saliva to aid in digestion.
2. Sublingual gland disease: This type of disease affects the sublingual gland, which is located under the tongue and produces saliva to keep the mouth moist.
3. Submandibular gland disease: This type of disease affects the submandibular gland, which is located below the jaw and produces saliva to aid in digestion.
4. Mucocele: This is a benign tumor that occurs in the salivary glands and can cause swelling and pain.
5. Mucoceles: These are benign tumors that occur in the salivary glands and can cause swelling and pain.
6. Salivary gland stones: This is a condition where small stones form in the salivary glands and can cause pain and swelling.
7. Salivary gland cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the salivary glands and can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
8. Sialadenitis: This is an inflammation of the salivary glands that can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing.
9. Sialosis: This is a condition where the salivary glands become blocked and cannot produce saliva.
10. Salivary gland cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that occur in the salivary glands and can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing.
Salivary gland diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment for these conditions depends on the specific type of disease and may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.
The symptoms of moyamoya disease typically begin in childhood or adolescence and can include:
* Recurring transient ischemic attacks (TIA, or "mini-strokes")
* Stroke or cerebral infarction
* Cognitive impairment or developmental delays
* Weakness or paralysis of the limbs
* Vision problems or blindness
The disease is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including:
* Genetic mutations that affect the formation and maintenance of blood vessels
* Environmental factors such as infections, trauma, or exposure to toxins
Moyamoya disease can be diagnosed through a variety of imaging tests, including:
* Computed tomography (CT) scans
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
* Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
* Positron emission tomography (PET) scans
There is no cure for moyamoya disease, but various treatments can be used to manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These may include:
* Medications to prevent or treat seizures, high blood pressure, or other complications
* Surgical procedures to improve blood flow to the brain, such as direct revascularization or bypass surgery
* Rehabilitation therapies to help regain lost function and mobility
Early diagnosis and treatment of moyamoya disease can help manage its symptoms and improve quality of life for affected individuals. However, because the disease is so rare and complex, it can be challenging to diagnose and treat effectively.
Symptoms of sialadenitis may include:
* Swelling and tenderness of the salivary gland
* Pain in the jaw, cheek, or neck
* Difficulty swallowing
* Redness and warmth of the affected area
The diagnosis of sialadenitis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics for bacterial infections, anti-inflammatory medications, or drainage of the abscess if present.
Sialadenitis can lead to complications such as abscess formation, cellulitis, and permanent damage to the salivary gland if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Example sentence: "The patient experienced a transient ischemic attack, which was caused by a temporary blockage in one of the blood vessels in their brain."
Synonyms: TIA, mini-stroke.
Causes of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea may include:
1. Skull fracture or depression: Trauma to the skull can cause a tear in the meninges, the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, leading to CSF leakage.
2. Spinal tap or lumbar puncture: This medical procedure can sometimes result in a small amount of CSF leaking into the nasopharynx.
3. Infection: Meningitis or encephalitis can cause CSF to leak into the nose and throat.
4. Brain tumors: Tumors in the brain can cause CSF to leak out of the sinuses or nose.
5. Cerebral aneurysm: A ruptured aneurysm in the brain can cause CSF to leak out of the nose or sinuses.
6. Vasculitic diseases: Conditions such as Wegener's granulomatosis or Takayasu arteritis can cause inflammation and damage to blood vessels, leading to CSF leakage.
7. Congenital conditions: Some individuals may have a congenital skull defect or abnormality that allows CSF to escape into the nasopharynx or sinuses.
Symptoms of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea may include:
1. Clear, colorless discharge from the nose or sinuses
2. Thick, sticky discharge or pus in the nose or sinuses
3. Headache, fever, or neck stiffness
4. Nausea, vomiting, or dizziness
5. Weakness or numbness in the face, arms, or legs
6. Seizures or convulsions
7. Change in mental status or consciousness
Diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to rule out other possible causes of nasal discharge. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or surgery to repair any defects or obstructions in the skull or sinuses.
The term ischemia refers to the reduction of blood flow, and it is often used interchangeably with the term stroke. However, not all strokes are caused by ischemia, as some can be caused by other factors such as bleeding in the brain. Ischemic stroke accounts for about 87% of all strokes.
There are different types of brain ischemia, including:
1. Cerebral ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain and responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thought, emotion, and voluntary movement.
2. Cerebellar ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinating and regulating movement, balance, and posture.
3. Brainstem ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the brainstem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
4. Territorial ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to a specific area of the brain, often caused by a blockage in a blood vessel.
5. Global ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the entire brain, which can be caused by a cardiac arrest or other systemic conditions.
The symptoms of brain ischemia can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Weakness or paralysis of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
2. Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
3. Sudden vision loss or double vision
4. Dizziness or loss of balance
5. Confusion or difficulty with memory
7. Slurred speech or inability to speak
8. Numbness or tingling sensations in the face, arm, or leg
9. Vision changes, such as blurred vision or loss of peripheral vision
10. Difficulty with coordination and balance.
It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms, as brain ischemia can cause permanent damage or death if left untreated.
Renal artery obstruction can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries): This is the most common cause of renal artery obstruction and occurs when plaque builds up in the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockages.
2. Stenosis (narrowing of the arteries): This can be caused by inflammation or scarring of the arteries, which can lead to a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys.
3. Fibromuscular dysplasia: This is a rare condition that causes abnormal growth of muscle tissue in the renal arteries, leading to narrowing or blockages.
4. Embolism (blood clot): A blood clot can break loose and travel to the kidneys, causing a blockage in the renal artery.
5. Renal vein thrombosis: This is a blockage of the veins that drain blood from the kidneys, which can lead to decreased blood flow and oxygenation of the kidneys.
Symptoms of renal artery obstruction may include:
1. High blood pressure
2. Decreased kidney function
3. Swelling in the legs or feet
4. Pain in the flank or back
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Weight loss
Diagnosis of renal artery obstruction is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
1. Ultrasound: This can help identify any blockages or narrowing in the renal arteries.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: This can provide detailed images of the renal arteries and any blockages or narrowing.
3. Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA): This is a non-invasive test that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the renal arteries.
4. Angiography: This is a minimally invasive test that involves inserting a catheter into the renal artery to visualize any blockages or narrowing.
Treatment for renal artery obstruction depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Some possible treatment options include:
1. Medications: Drugs such as blood thinners, blood pressure medication, and anticoagulants may be prescribed to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
2. Endovascular therapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the renal artery to open up any blockages or narrowing.
3. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove any blockages or repair any damage to the renal arteries.
4. Dialysis: This is a procedure in which waste products are removed from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Kidney transplantation: In severe cases of renal artery obstruction, a kidney transplant may be necessary.
It is important to note that early detection and treatment of renal artery obstruction can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients.
The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries is often caused by high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and a family history of heart disease. The plaque can also rupture, causing a blood clot to form, which can completely block the flow of blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
CAD is the most common type of heart disease and is often asymptomatic until a serious event occurs. Risk factors for CAD include:
* Age (men over 45 and women over 55)
* Gender (men are at greater risk than women, but women are more likely to die from CAD)
* Family history of heart disease
* High blood pressure
* High cholesterol
* Lack of exercise
Diagnosis of CAD typically involves a physical exam, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as:
* Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
* Stress test
* Coronary angiography
Treatment for CAD may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and quitting smoking. Medications such as beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, and statins may also be prescribed to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, surgical intervention such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may be necessary.
Prevention of CAD includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes, quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and getting regular exercise. Early detection and treatment of CAD can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life for those affected by the disease.
The severity of coronary stenosis can range from mild to severe, with blockages ranging from 15% to over 90%. In mild cases, lifestyle changes and medication may be enough to manage symptoms. However, more severe cases typically require interventional procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.
There are several types of ischemia, including:
1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.
Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.
Cerebral infarction can result in a range of symptoms, including sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, sudden vision loss, dizziness, and confusion. Depending on the location and severity of the infarction, it can lead to long-term disability or even death.
There are several types of cerebral infarction, including:
1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of cerebral infarction, accounting for around 87% of all cases. It occurs when a blood clot blocks the flow of blood to the brain, leading to cell death and tissue damage.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of cerebral infarction occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, leading to bleeding and cell death.
3. Lacunar infarction: This type of cerebral infarction affects the deep structures of the brain, particularly the basal ganglia, and is often caused by small blockages or stenosis (narrowing) in the blood vessels.
4. Territorial infarction: This type of cerebral infarction occurs when there is a complete blockage of a blood vessel that supplies a specific area of the brain, leading to cell death and tissue damage in that area.
Diagnosis of cerebral infarction typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and location of the infarction, but may include medication to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove blockages, or supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Symptoms of PVD may include:
* Cramping pain in the legs during exercise or at rest
* Weakness or numbness in the legs
* Coldness in the lower limbs
* Difficulty healing wounds on the feet or legs
* Poor circulation
* Varicose veins
Treatment for PVD depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:
* Medications to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, or lower cholesterol levels
* Lifestyle changes such as exercise, smoking cessation, and a healthy diet
* Surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow
* Compression stockings to improve circulation
Prevention of PVD includes:
* Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and not smoking
* Managing underlying conditions such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes
* Regular check-ups with your healthcare provider to monitor your risk factors and detect any early signs of PVD.
Example sentences for 'Aneurysm, False'
The patient was diagnosed with a false aneurysm after experiencing sudden severe pain in his leg following a fall.
The surgeon treated the false aneurysm by inserting a catheter into the affected blood vessel and using it to deliver a special coil that would seal off the dilated area.
1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. This can lead to heart disease, heart attack, or stroke.
2. Hypertension: High blood pressure that can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other conditions.
3. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition in which the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, cramping, and weakness in the affected limbs.
4. Raynaud's phenomenon: A condition that causes blood vessels in the hands and feet to constrict in response to cold temperatures or stress, leading to discoloration, numbness, and tissue damage.
5. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A condition in which a blood clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, often caused by immobility or injury.
6. Varicose veins: Enlarged, twisted veins that can cause pain, swelling, and cosmetic concerns.
7. Angioplasty: A medical procedure in which a balloon is used to open up narrowed blood vessels, often performed to treat peripheral artery disease or blockages in the legs.
8. Stenting: A medical procedure in which a small mesh tube is placed inside a blood vessel to keep it open and improve blood flow.
9. Carotid endarterectomy: A surgical procedure to remove plaque from the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, to reduce the risk of stroke.
10. Bypass surgery: A surgical procedure in which a healthy blood vessel is used to bypass a blocked or narrowed blood vessel, often performed to treat coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease.
Overall, vascular diseases can have a significant impact on quality of life and can increase the risk of serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, and amputation. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.
Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.
In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.
Symptoms of cerebral hemorrhage may include sudden severe headache, confusion, seizures, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, and loss of consciousness. The condition is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to determine the cause of the bleeding.
Treatment for cerebral hemorrhage depends on the location and severity of the bleeding, as well as the underlying cause. Medications may be used to control symptoms such as high blood pressure or seizures, while surgery may be necessary to repair the ruptured blood vessel or relieve pressure on the brain. In some cases, the condition may be fatal, and immediate medical attention is essential to prevent long-term damage or death.
Some of the most common complications associated with cerebral hemorrhage include:
1. Rebleeding: There is a risk of rebleeding after the initial hemorrhage, which can lead to further brain damage and increased risk of death.
2. Hydrocephalus: Excess cerebrospinal fluid can accumulate in the brain, leading to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
3. Brain edema: Swelling of the brain tissue can occur due to the bleeding, leading to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
4. Seizures: Cerebral hemorrhage can cause seizures, which can be a sign of a more severe injury.
5. Cognitive and motor deficits: Depending on the location and severity of the bleeding, cerebral hemorrhage can result in long-term cognitive and motor deficits.
6. Vision loss: Cerebral hemorrhage can cause vision loss or blindness due to damage to the visual cortex.
7. Communication difficulties: Cerebral hemorrhage can cause difficulty with speech and language processing, leading to communication difficulties.
8. Behavioral changes: Depending on the location and severity of the bleeding, cerebral hemorrhage can result in behavioral changes, such as irritability, agitation, or apathy.
9. Infection: Cerebral hemorrhage can increase the risk of infection, particularly if the hemorrhage is caused by a ruptured aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation (AVM).
10. Death: Cerebral hemorrhage can be fatal, particularly if the bleeding is severe or if there are underlying medical conditions that compromise the patient's ability to tolerate the injury.
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
Coronary disease is often caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, and a lack of physical activity. It can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.
The symptoms of coronary disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling of the legs and feet
* Pain in the arms and back
Coronary disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and cardiac imaging. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications to control symptoms, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.
Preventative measures for coronary disease include:
* Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and other underlying medical conditions
* Reducing stress through relaxation techniques or therapy.
1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain. High blood pressure, aneurysms, and blood vessel malformations can all cause hemorrhagic strokes.
3. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA is a temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a short period of time, usually less than 24 hours. TIAs are often a warning sign for a future stroke and should be taken seriously.
Stroke can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the damage to the brain. Some common symptoms include:
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Dizziness, loss of balance, or sudden falls
* Severe headache
* Confusion, disorientation, or difficulty with memory
Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and can have a significant impact on the quality of life for survivors. However, with prompt medical treatment and rehabilitation, many people are able to recover some or all of their lost functions and lead active lives.
The medical community has made significant progress in understanding stroke and developing effective treatments. Some of the most important advances include:
* Development of clot-busting drugs and mechanical thrombectomy devices to treat ischemic strokes
* Improved imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI scans, to diagnose stroke and determine its cause
* Advances in surgical techniques for hemorrhagic stroke
* Development of new medications to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of stroke
Despite these advances, stroke remains a significant public health problem. According to the American Heart Association, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term disability. In 2017, there were over 795,000 strokes in the United States alone.
There are several risk factors for stroke that can be controlled or modified. These include:
* High blood pressure
* Diabetes mellitus
* High cholesterol levels
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet
In addition to these modifiable risk factors, there are also several non-modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as age (stroke risk increases with age), family history of stroke, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
The medical community has made significant progress in understanding the causes and risk factors for stroke, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. However, more research is needed to improve outcomes for stroke survivors and reduce the overall burden of this disease.
Arteriosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the arteries of the heart, brain, and legs. It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide and is often associated with aging and other factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and smoking.
There are several types of arteriosclerosis, including:
1. Atherosclerosis: This is the most common type of arteriosclerosis and occurs when plaque builds up inside the arteries.
2. Arteriolosclerosis: This type affects the small arteries in the body and can cause decreased blood flow to organs such as the kidneys and brain.
3. Medial sclerosis: This type affects the middle layer of the artery wall and can cause stiffness and narrowing of the arteries.
4. Intimal sclerosis: This type occurs when plaque builds up inside the innermost layer of the artery wall, causing it to become thick and less flexible.
Symptoms of arteriosclerosis can include chest pain, shortness of breath, leg pain or cramping during exercise, and numbness or weakness in the limbs. Treatment for arteriosclerosis may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to open up or bypass blocked arteries.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Digital subtraction angiography
Digital variance angiography
Vertebral artery dissection
Northern Westchester Hospital
Artery of Adamkiewicz
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension
Aortoiliac occlusive disease
Claudio J. Schonholz
Hybrid operating room
Dr. Ziauddin Hospitals
City International Hospital
Carbon dioxide angiography
Prostatic artery embolization
Spectral imaging (radiography)
List of MeSH codes (H01)
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur
Terawan Agus Putranto
Pulmonary Angiography: Practice Essentials, Lung Scintigraphy, Digital Subtraction Pulmonary Angiography
Digital subtraction angiography in arteriovenous fistulas of patients on hemodialysis
Time-resolved Vessel-selective Digital Subtraction MR Angiography of the Cerebral Vasculature with Arterial Spin Labeling
Medical Science Monitor | Double C-Arm Digital Subtraction Angiography Guidance During Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic...
Faculty Collaboration Database - Faculty who have authored publications indexed to the term Angiography, Digital Subtraction
Abdominal angina other imaging findings - wikidoc
Cerebral angiography: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Computed Tomography: Algebraic Reconstruction and Motion
Renal Artery Stenosis Guidelines: Guidelines Summary
AAPM 59th Annual Meeting & Exhibition - Meeting Program - Abstract Information
Intracranial Aneurysms Guide: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options
DailyMed - VISIPAQUE- iodixanol injection, solution
Browse subject: Depression in children -- Diagnosis | The Online Books Page
NIH Guide: DEVELOPMENT OF DIGITAL MAMMOGRAPHY DISPLAYS AND WORKSTATIONS
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis : CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Assessing extracranial carotid stenosis: magnetic resonance angiography, duplex scanning, and digital angiography - PubMed
First Human Experience with Directly Image-able Iodinated Embolization Microbeads - PubMed
Table of Contents - March 01, 2002, 23 (3) | American Journal of Neuroradiology
Consensus Document Reviews Determination of Brain Death
WikiGenes - AGN-PC-00FPU4 - N,N'-bis(1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl)-5-(2...
What Nephrologists Need to Know About Gadolinium
Medical Physics | Scholars@Duke
WHO EMRO | A case of Behçet disease with pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm: long term follow-up | Volume 16, issue 3 | EMHJ...
Dorsalis Pedis Artery: Anatomy, Function, and Significance
Moyamoya disease: Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatments | Health - Hindustan Times
Matthew Alexander | UCSF Profiles
High rate of popliteal artery injuries and limb loss in 96 knee dislocations
- Radiologic modalities used for assessment include lung scintigraphy, digital subtraction pulmonary angiography (DSPA), pulmonary computed tomography angiography (PCTA), and pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography (PMRA). (medscape.com)
- To demonstrate an arterial spin-labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) angiographic technique that covers the entire cerebral vasculature and yields transparent-background, time-resolved hemodynamic, and vessel-specific information similar to that obtained with x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) without the use of exogenous contrast agents. (harvard.edu)
- This is because MRA ( magnetic resonance angiography ) and CT angiography give clearer images. (medlineplus.gov)
- Magnetic resonance angiography. (drugs.com)
- Evaluation of a suspected CCF often involves non-invasive imaging techniques, including standard tonometry, pneumotonometry, ultrasound, computed tomographic scanning and angiography, and/or magnetic resonance imaging and angiography, but the gold standard for classification and diagnosis remains digital subtraction angiography. (nih.gov)
- To the authors' knowledge, no large studies have been conducted to assess the sensitivity or specificity of CT angiography (CTA), time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or contrast-enhanced MRA (CE MRA) in the diagnosis of craniocervical FMD. (medscape.com)
- However, they suggest CT angiography and magnetic resonance angiography not be used. (medscape.com)
- Diagnosis is confirmed by imaging a s s e s s m e n t w i t h a r t e r i o g r a p h y , computed tomography, magnetic resonance and digital subtraction angiography. (who.int)
- magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to evaluate adults with known or suspected renal or aorto-ilio-femoral occlusive vascular disease. (nih.gov)
- HlthRes-DB also contains indicators on the availability of the following medical equipment: computed tomography (CT) scanners, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) units, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, gamma cameras, digital subtraction angiography units, mammographs, radiation therapy equipment and lithotriptors. (who.int)
- Cerebral angiography is a procedure that uses a special dye (contrast material) and x-rays to see how blood flows through the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cerebral angiography is done in the hospital or radiology center. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cerebral angiography is most often used to identify or confirm problems with the blood vessels in or around the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cerebral angiography (also called intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography). (drugs.com)
- Cerebral angiography can show doctors exactly where an aneurysm is and how big it is. (drugs.com)
- It is not as accurate as cerebral angiography or MRI to diagnose the presence and location of an aneurysm. (drugs.com)
- 18. Comparison of iohexol and meglumine-Na diatrizoate in cerebral angiography. (nih.gov)
- CT angiography is the standard diagnostic test for the diagnosis of abdominal angina. (wikidoc.org)
- Coronary angiography (CAG) has always been the main means for clinical examination and diagnosis of CHD, and it is also considered as the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Integration of advanced hardware, software, and psychophysics research data is needed to optimize the early diagnosis of breast cancer using digital mammography. (nih.gov)
- 1999) Renal insufficiency: usefulness of gadodiamide-enhanced renal angiography to supplement CO 2 -enhanced renal angiography for diagnosis and percutaneous treatment. (medscape.org)
- 12. Comparison of iohexol with meglumine-Na diatrizoate for intravenous digital subtraction angiography. (nih.gov)
- Angiography with a catheter is used less often now. (medlineplus.gov)
- 2000) Lower extremity arteriography with use of iodinated contrast material or gadodiamide to supplement CO 2 angiography in patients with renal insufficiency. (medscape.org)
- This project focuses on time-resolved volumetric reconstruction (i.e., 4-D imaging) of cardiac chambers from rotational angiography acquisitions. (uni-erlangen.de)
- 9. Contrast agents for cardiac angiography: effects of a nonionic agent vs. a standard ionic agent. (nih.gov)
- Dual Energy Imaging - Dual Energy Subtraction is a new tool for evaluating rib fractures, bone abnormalities, primary lung cancer, metastatic disease, pneumonia, cardiac disease and lung diseases. (rwjbh.org)
- Conventional angiography remains the criterion standard to detect FMD and its associated vascular lesions (eg, aneurysms, dissections). (medscape.com)
- Optimizing the Angiography Protocol to Reduce Radiation Dose in Uterine Artery Embolization: The Impact of Digital Subtraction Angiographies on Radiation Exposure. (bvsalud.org)
- Implications for deriving physiologic measurements from computed tomography and digital cardiovascular imaging. (nih.gov)
- One-hundred and twelve patients underwent CTA and intraarterial angiography, and 2205 vascular segments were examined to ascertain presence, visibility, and degree of arterial stenoses (n = 105) as well as anatomic variants. (nih.gov)
- Our DSA unit provides digital high-resolution vascular imaging. (rwjbh.org)
- In this study, dictionary learning and expectation maximization reconstruction (DLEM) was combined to denoise 64-slice spiral CT images, and results of coronary angiography (CAG) were used as standard to evaluate its clinical value in diagnosing coronary artery diseases. (hindawi.com)
- Softcopy display is essential for optimizing the use and display of digital mammography data, both in the research and clinical setting. (nih.gov)
- We think that the acquisition of the digital subtraction angiography in the diagnostic of this specific pathology is a great advance because the images are of excellent quality and the volume of contrast administered is low. (cun.es)
- We attempted to determine the diagnostic value of intracranial CT angiography (CTA) of normal vasculature and variants as well as of stenoocclusive disease. (nih.gov)
- The department is now digital thanks to new picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) technology that accepts digital images from diagnostic equipment, such as X-rays and MRIs, stores them in a long-term archive and immediate review. (rwjbh.org)
- Normal variations of the vasculature were identified with ASL angiography. (harvard.edu)
- The authors recommend digital subtraction angiography, radionuclide studies, and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography as ancillary tests based on blood flow in the brain. (medscape.com)
- DEVELOPMENT OF DIGITAL MAMMOGRAPHY DISPLAYS AND WORKSTATIONS Release Date: April 13, 1999 PA NUMBER: PA-99-082 P.T. National Cancer Institute PURPOSE The purpose of this Program Announcement is to alert the investigator community to the need for and NCI interest in a concerted effort to overcome the problems of display for digital mammograms. (nih.gov)
- 1999) Gadolinium dimeglumine: an alternative contrast agent for digital subtraction angiography. (medscape.org)
- 2004) Gadolinium-based contrast media compared with iodinated media for digital subtraction angiography in azotaemic patients. (medscape.org)
- This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of portal vein puncture with a new guidance system using double C-arm digital subtraction angiography (DSA) during transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement. (medscimonit.com)
- Digital subtraction pulmonary angiogram shows splaying of the arterial branches of the right upper lobe and relative oligemia, which are consistent with emphysema (same patient as in the previous image). (medscape.com)
- Further extensive effort is required for the successful development, testing and implementation of digital mammography displays and workstation design for image interpretation. (nih.gov)
- Manufacturers of digital mammography systems have generally adapted existing workstations, developed for CT or MRI, to their digital mammography units. (nih.gov)
- http://www.nih.gov/grants/funding/modular/modular.htm RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Background Digital Mammography is one of the most promising research areas for improving early detection of breast cancer. (nih.gov)
- To our knowledge, no large-scale studies comparing the accuracy of CT angiography (CTA) to intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of intracranial stenosis have been reported. (nih.gov)
- Experts in the field agree that current softcopy (i.e., video) display systems remain an impediment to full realization of the potential of digital mammography. (nih.gov)
- This PA, Development of Digital Mammography Displays And Workstations, is related to the priority area of cancer. (nih.gov)