Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.
A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It may play an important role in the development of branched CAPILLARIES during EMBRYOGENESIS.
Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)

Recombinant adenovirus expressing wild-type p53 is antiangiogenic: a proposed mechanism for bystander effect. (1/368)

Angiogenesis is required for the growth and progression of malignancies. Recent studies have demonstrated that genetic alterations may accompany acquisition of the angiogenic phenotype. The tumor suppressor gene p53 is most frequently mutated in human cancers and is also known to be a transcriptional regulator of a variety of genes. Here, we investigated the antiangiogenic effect of the wild-type p53 (wt-p53) gene transfer on a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line. Mutant p53-expressing H226Br non-small cell lung cancer cells were transduced with the wt-p53 gene using a recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad5CMVp53) and applied to semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCRs for the detection of altered mRNA expression of angiogenic and/or antiangiogenic factors. In vivo neovascularization assay of Ad5CMVp53-infected cells was then performed using a membrane-diffusion chamber system s.c. transplanted in nu/nu mice. We also evaluated the effect of Ad5CMVp53-infected H226Br cells on nontransduced tumor cells in vivo by s.c. inoculating mixture of cells into nu/nu mice. Ad5CMVp53 infection markedly inhibited the expression of an angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and increased the expression of a novel antiangiogenic factor, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1, resulting in reduced neovascularization in vivo. Mixing experiments showed that tumor cells transduced with the wt-p53 gene inhibited the in vivo tumor growth of adjacent nontransduced cells. Our data suggest that a recombinant adenovirus expressing the wt-p53 gene is antiangiogenic, which may explain, in part, the mechanism of the bystander effect induced by the wt-p53 gene transfer on adjacent tumor cells.  (+info)

Inhibition of angiogenesis and tumour growth by VEGF121-toxin conjugate: differential effect on proliferating endothelial cells. (2/368)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in tumour angiogenesis. VEGF binds to tyrosine kinase receptors, which are expressed almost exclusively on tumour endothelium. Therefore, VEGF can be used to target toxin molecules to tumour vessels for anti-angiogenic therapy. However, recent evidence suggests that VEGF can also bind in an isoform-specific fashion to a newly identified neuropilin-1 (NP-1) receptor. NP-1 is widely expressed in normal tissue and presents a potential target for unwanted toxicity. As a consequence, we investigated whether the VEGF121 isoform, which lacks the NP-1 binding domain, could be used to target toxin polypeptides to tumour vasculature. Treatment of endothelial cells with a VEGF121-diphtheria toxin (DT385) conjugate selectively inhibited proliferating endothelial cells, whereas confluent cultures were completely resistant to the construct. In addition, VEGF121-DT385 conjugate treatment completely prevented tumour cell induced angiogenesis in vivo. Most importantly, the conjugate inhibited tumour growth in athymic mice and induced tumour-specific vascular damage. There was also no apparent toxicity associated with the treatment. Our results suggest that proliferating endothelial cells are highly sensitive to VEGF121-toxin conjugates and that the binding to NP-1 receptors is not necessary for efficient inhibition of tumour growth.  (+info)

Significant correlation between interleukin 10 expression and vascularization through angiopoietin/TIE2 networks in non-small cell lung cancer. (3/368)

The expression of interleukin 10 (IL-10) is correlated with clinical prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC (H. Hatanaka et al., ANN: ONCOL:, 11: 815--819, 2000)]. However, the effects of IL-10 expression on vascularization in NSCLC are not apparent. We examined the gene expression of IL-10/IL-10 receptor and various angiogenic/angioinhibitory factors in 95 NSCLC samples to determine the correlation between IL-10 production and vascularization. Vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin [Ang (Ang-1 and Ang-2)], thrombospondin, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (KDR and flt-1), and Ang receptor (TIE2) gene expression were evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR. The cellular localization of these factors and vascularity in the cancer stroma were examined immunohistochemically. Seventy-eight (82.1%) and 93 (97.9%) of these 95 NSCLCs were positive for IL-10 and IL-10 receptor, respectively. Ang-1, Ang-2, and TIE2 gene expression was seen in 76 (97.4%), 73 (93.6%), and 78 (100%) of 78 IL-10-positive NSCLCs, respectively, and was significantly correlated with IL-10 gene expression (P < 0.0088, <0.0008, and 0.0305, respectively; Fisher's exact method). The localizations of Ang-1, Ang-2, and TIE2 were confirmed within tumor cells immunohistochemically. Vascular number and measurement area were significantly higher in the IL-10-positive NSCLCs (33.500 +/- 9.299/microm(2) and 4.742 +/- 1.287%) as compared with IL-10-negative NSCLCs (10.611 +/- 2.839/microm(2) and 0.718 +/- 0.331%; Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.0039). The IL-10 expression did not show any significant correlation with the expression of other factors. These results suggested that tumor-produced IL-10 promotes stromal vascularization through expression of Ang-1, Ang-2, and TIE2.  (+info)

Overexpression of the p53-inducible brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 suppresses efficiently tumour angiogenesis. (4/368)

The brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 gene has been isolated in an attempt to find fragments with p53 "functional" binding sites. As reported herein and by others, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 expression is present in some normal tissues, but is reduced or lost in tumour tissues. Such data and its particular structure prompted the hypothesis that brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 may act as a mediator in the local angiogenesis balance. We herein demonstrate that brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 over-expression suppresses tumour angiogenesis, delaying significantly the human tumour growth in immunodeficient mice. The inhibitory effect of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 was documented using our intravital microscopy system, strongly implicating brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 as a mediator in the control of tumour angiogenesis. In contrast, in vitro tumour cell proliferation was not inhibited by brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 transfection, whereas some level of cytotoxicity was assessed for endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumour samples confirmed a reduction in the microvessel density index in brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-overexpressing tumours. At messenger level, moderate changes could be detected, involving the down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and collagenase-1 expression. Furthermore, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 expression that was lost in a selection of human cancer cell lines could be restored by wild-type p53 adenoviral transfection. Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 should be considered for gene therapy and development of efficient drugs based on endogenous antiangiogenic molecules.  (+info)

Selectivity and promiscuity of the first and second PDZ domains of PSD-95 and synapse-associated protein 102. (5/368)

PDZ domains typically interact with the very carboxyl terminus of their binding partners. Type 1 PDZ domains usually require valine, leucine, or isoleucine at the very COOH-terminal (P(0)) position, and serine or threonine 2 residues upstream at P(-2). We quantitatively defined the contributions of carboxyl-terminal residues to binding selectivity of the prototypic interactions of the PDZ domains of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and its homolog synapse-associated protein 90 (SAP102) with the NR2b subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor. Our studies indicate that all of the last five residues of NR2b contribute to the binding selectivity. Prominent were a requirement for glutamate or glutamine at P(-3) and for valine at P(0) for high affinity binding and a preference for threonine over serine at P(-2), in the context of the last 11 residues of the NR2b COOH terminus. This analysis predicts a COOH-terminal (E/Q)(S/T)XV consensus sequence for the strongest binding to the first two PDZ domains of PSD-95 and SAP102. A search of the human genome sequences for proteins with a COOH-terminal (E/Q)(S/T)XV motif yielded 50 proteins, many of which have not been previously identified as PSD-95 or SAP102 binding partners. Two of these proteins, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 and protein kinase Calpha, co-immunoprecipitated with PSD-95 and SAP102 from rat brain extracts.  (+info)

Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 is differentially expressed in normal brain and glioblastoma independently of p53 expression. (6/368)

Brain angiogenesis inhibitors (BAI) are putative transmembrane proteins containing an extracellular domain with thrombospondin type-1 repeats which can exhibit anti-angiogenic activity. BAI1 mRNA is expressed mainly in the brain, while BAI2 and BAI3 mRNAs are more widely expressed. We hypothesized that the BAI family might have anti-tumoral properties and studied the expression of BAI1 protein in normal human brain and in glioblastoma multiforme. We generated an anti-BAI1 antibody and showed that BAI1 was widely expressed in normal brain but was absent in 28 glioma cell lines and in the majority of human glioblastoma investigated. BAI1 expression did not correlate with TP53 status and we did not confirm previous findings that p53 regulates BAI1 mRNA expression in glioma cells. The finding that expression of BAI proteins may be lost during tumor formation is of special interest as restoration of their function in tumors may be of therapeutic benefit.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor principally acts as the main angiogenic factor in the early stage of human osteoblastogenesis. (7/368)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis is essential for bone formation. However, the effect of VEGF on osteoblastic cells during osteoblastogenesis is still controversial. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between osteoblastic cells derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and VEGF in the early stage of osteoblastic differentiation. Continuous dexamethasone treatment with a low concentration stimulated osteoblastogenesis of MSCs and the expression of VEGF121 mRNA. The VEGF secretion from osteoblastic cells also increased along with osteoblastogenesis. Neuropilin-1, which mainly binds VEGF165, was detected at all stages during early osteoblastogenesis, but VEGF receptor-1 and -2 were not detected on RT-PCR analyses. In this study, VEGF had no direct effect on the proliferation of osteoblastic cells. However, the secreted VEGF in the conditioned medium of osteoblastic cells exhibited high angiogenic power as to endothelial cell proliferation. Our findings indicated that VEGF121 principally acts as the main angiogenic factor in the early stage of human osteoblastogenesis. The present study also demonstrated the differential expression of VEGF121 during osteoblastogenesis. The increase of VEGF in the early stage might be a useful marker of induction of bone formation due to human MSCs.  (+info)

Circulating proangiogenic cytokines and angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin in untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (8/368)

The serum concentration of two pro-angiogenic cytokines: basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), and anti-angiogenic factor endostatin in the serum of 80 never treated B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and 27 healthy volunteers was measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The serum levels of both bFGF and TGF-beta1 were found to be significantly higher in the CLL group (median 40.5 pg/ml and 38.6 ng/ml respectively) when compared to the control group (median 9.4 pg/ml and 18.9 ng/ml, respectively) (p<0.001). The levels of endostatin were not significantly different in CLL and control groups (median 12.3 ng/ml and 8.4 ng/ml, respectively) (p=0.09). In the group of CLL patients the level of bFGF was significantly higher in patients with progressive disease as compared with patients with stable disease (median 90.5 pg/ml and 40.5 pg/ml respectively) (p<0.001). Patients in Rai stage III and IV also had significantly higher levels of bFGF than patients in Rai stage 0-II (median 100.1 pg/ml and 29.3 pg/ml respectively) (p<0.001). The levels of both TGF-beta1 and endostatin were lower in patients in Rai stage III and IV (median 28.9 ng/ml and 9.1 ng/ml respectively) than in patients in Rai stage 0-II (42.8 ng/ml and 13.1 ng/ml respectively) (p<0.001 and p=0.002 respectively). The level of endostatin was also lower in the group of CLL patients with progressive disease (median 10.0 ng/ml) as compared to patients with stable disease (median 20.5 ng/ml) (p=0.008). In conclusion, the disturbance in the balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors may have an important influence on the course of CLL.  (+info)

Angiogenic proteins are a group of molecules that play a crucial role in the formation of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. These proteins can stimulate the growth, survival, and migration of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels. By promoting the development of new blood vessels, angiogenic proteins help supply oxygen and nutrients to tissues, facilitating wound healing, tissue repair, and regeneration.

However, an imbalance in angiogenic proteins can contribute to various pathological conditions. Overexpression or dysregulation of these proteins has been associated with several diseases, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and rheumatoid arthritis. In contrast, a deficiency in angiogenic proteins can lead to ischemic disorders, such as peripheral artery disease and coronary artery disease.

Some examples of angiogenic proteins are:

1. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF): One of the most potent and well-studied angiogenic factors, VEGF stimulates endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and survival. It is overexpressed in various malignancies, contributing to tumor growth and metastasis.
2. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF): A family of growth factors that includes FGF1, FGF2, and others. They promote angiogenesis by stimulating endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation.
3. Angiopoietins: A group of proteins that include Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2). Ang-1 primarily acts as a stabilizer of blood vessels by promoting endothelial cell survival and maturation, while Ang-2 can destabilize existing vessels and promote the formation of new ones.
4. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF): A protein that plays a role in recruiting pericytes, supporting cells that help maintain the stability of blood vessels. PDGF also contributes to angiogenesis by stimulating endothelial cell proliferation and migration.
5. Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF): A pleiotropic factor that promotes angiogenesis by stimulating endothelial cell motility, proliferation, and survival. It also plays a role in the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells to sites of neovascularization.
6. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β): A family of cytokines that includes TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3. They regulate various cellular processes, including angiogenesis, by modulating endothelial cell function and extracellular matrix remodeling.
7. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) receptors: Tyrosine kinase receptors that mediate the effects of VEGF on endothelial cells. They include VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3, which have distinct roles in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.
8. Tie receptors: Receptor tyrosine kinases that bind to Angiopoietins and regulate endothelial cell survival, migration, and vascular remodeling. They include Tie-1 and Tie-2, which have distinct roles in angiogenesis and vascular maturation.
9. Eph receptors: Receptor tyrosine kinases that bind to ephrins and regulate cell-cell interactions, migration, and axonal guidance. They also play a role in angiogenesis by modulating endothelial cell function and vascular patterning.
10. Notch receptors: Transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell communication and regulate various developmental processes, including angiogenesis. They include Notch-1, Notch-2, Notch-3, and Notch-4, which have distinct roles in endothelial cell differentiation, migration, and vascular morphogenesis.

These factors and their receptors form complex signaling networks that regulate angiogenesis in a context-dependent manner. Dysregulation of these pathways can lead to aberrant angiogenesis and contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms that control angiogenesis is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61), also known as CCN1, is a matricellular protein that belongs to the CCN family. This protein is composed of four distinct domains: an insulin-like growth factor binding domain, a von Willebrand type C repeat domain, a thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain, and a C-terminal cysteine knot domain.

CYR61 plays important roles in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It is involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, wound healing, tissue repair, and tumorigenesis. Dysregulation of CYR61 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as fibrosis, atherosclerosis, and cancer.

In summary, Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61) is a matricellular protein that regulates various cellular processes and is involved in the development of several diseases.

Angiogenesis inducing agents are substances or drugs that stimulate the growth of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. This process is essential for the growth and development of tissues and organs in the body, including wound healing and the formation of blood vessels in the placenta during pregnancy. However, abnormal angiogenesis can also contribute to various diseases, such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration.

Angiogenesis inducing agents are being studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in a variety of medical conditions. For example, they may be used to promote wound healing or tissue repair after injury or surgery. In cancer treatment, angiogenesis inhibitors are often used to block the growth of new blood vessels and prevent tumors from growing and spreading. However, angiogenesis inducing agents can have the opposite effect and may potentially be used to enhance the delivery of drugs to tumors or improve the effectiveness of other cancer treatments.

Examples of angiogenesis inducing agents include certain growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). These substances can be administered as drugs to stimulate angiogenesis in specific contexts. Other substances, such as hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and prostaglandins, can also induce angiogenesis under certain conditions.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) is a specific isoform of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. It is a well-characterized signaling protein that plays a crucial role in angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels. VEGFA stimulates the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels, thereby contributing to the growth and development of new vasculature. This protein is essential for physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing, but it has also been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. The regulation of VEGFA expression and activity is critical to maintaining proper vascular function and homeostasis.

Physiologic neovascularization is the natural and controlled formation of new blood vessels in the body, which occurs as a part of normal growth and development, as well as in response to tissue repair and wound healing. This process involves the activation of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels, and their migration, proliferation, and tube formation to create new capillaries. Physiologic neovascularization is tightly regulated by a balance of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, ensuring that it occurs only when and where it is needed. It plays crucial roles in various physiological processes, such as embryonic development, tissue regeneration, and wound healing.

Pathologic neovascularization is the abnormal growth of new blood vessels in previously avascular tissue or excessive growth within existing vasculature, which occurs as a result of hypoxia, inflammation, or angiogenic stimuli. These newly formed vessels are often disorganized, fragile, and lack proper vessel hierarchy, leading to impaired blood flow and increased vascular permeability. Pathologic neovascularization can be observed in various diseases such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and chronic inflammation. This process contributes to disease progression by promoting tumor growth, metastasis, and edema formation, ultimately leading to tissue damage and organ dysfunction.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), also known as Flt-1 (Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1), is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. It is primarily expressed on vascular endothelial cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and monocytes/macrophages. VEGFR-1 binds to several ligands, including Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A), VEGF-B, and Placental Growth Factor (PlGF). The binding of these ligands to VEGFR-1 triggers intracellular signaling cascades that modulate various cellular responses, such as proliferation, migration, survival, and vascular permeability. While VEGFR-1 is known to have a role in promoting angiogenesis under certain conditions, it primarily acts as a negative regulator of angiogenesis by sequestering VEGF-A, preventing its binding to the more proangiogenic VEGFR-2 receptor. Dysregulation of VEGFR-1 signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and vascular diseases.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs) are a family of signaling proteins that stimulate the growth and development of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. They play crucial roles in both physiological and pathological conditions, such as embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor growth. Specifically, VEGFs bind to specific receptors on the surface of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels, triggering a cascade of intracellular signaling events that promote cell proliferation, migration, and survival. Dysregulation of VEGF signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.

Endothelial growth factors (ECGFs or EGFs) are a group of signaling proteins that stimulate the growth, proliferation, and survival of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels. These growth factors play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), wound healing, and vascular development during embryogenesis.

One of the most well-studied EGFs is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, which consists of several members like VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, VEGFD, and placental growth factor (PlGF). These factors bind to specific receptors on the surface of endothelial cells, leading to a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in cell proliferation, migration, and survival.

Other EGFs include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). Dysregulation of endothelial growth factors has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the functions and regulation of EGFs is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders.

Endothelial cells are the type of cells that line the inner surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. They play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by controlling vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, and inflammation. Endothelial cells also regulate the transport of molecules between the blood and surrounding tissues, and contribute to the maintenance of the structural integrity of the vasculature. They are flat, elongated cells with a unique morphology that allows them to form a continuous, nonthrombogenic lining inside the vessels. Endothelial cells can be isolated from various tissues and cultured in vitro for research purposes.

Lymphokines are a type of cytokines that are produced and released by activated lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, in response to an antigenic stimulation. They play a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation. Lymphokines can mediate various biological activities such as chemotaxis, activation, proliferation, and differentiation of different immune cells including lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils. Examples of lymphokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and colony-stimulating factors (CSFs).

Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF-2), also known as basic fibroblast growth factor, is a protein involved in various biological processes such as cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. It plays a crucial role in wound healing, embryonic development, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). FGF-2 is produced and secreted by various cells, including fibroblasts, and exerts its effects by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface, leading to activation of intracellular signaling pathways. It has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, where it can contribute to tumor growth and progression.

Angiogenesis inhibitors are a class of drugs that block the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). They work by targeting specific molecules involved in the process of angiogenesis, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors. By blocking these molecules, angiogenesis inhibitors can prevent the development of new blood vessels that feed tumors, thereby slowing or stopping their growth.

Angiogenesis inhibitors are used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including colon, lung, breast, kidney, and ovarian cancer. They may be given alone or in combination with other cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Some examples of angiogenesis inhibitors include bevacizumab (Avastin), sorafenib (Nexavar), sunitinib (Sutent), and pazopanib (Votrient).

It's important to note that while angiogenesis inhibitors can be effective in treating cancer, they can also have serious side effects, such as high blood pressure, bleeding, and damage to the heart or kidneys. Therefore, it's essential that patients receive careful monitoring and management of these potential side effects while undergoing treatment with angiogenesis inhibitors.

The endothelium is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. The vascular endothelium, specifically, refers to the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, inflammation, and permeability of the vessel wall. They also contribute to the growth and repair of the vascular system and are involved in various pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is a tyrosine kinase receptor that is primarily expressed on vascular endothelial cells. It is a crucial regulator of angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels. VEGFR-2 is activated by binding to its ligand, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A), leading to receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation. This activation triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that promote endothelial cell proliferation, migration, survival, and vascular permeability, all essential steps in the angiogenic process.

VEGFR-2 plays a significant role in physiological and pathological conditions associated with angiogenesis, such as embryonic development, wound healing, tumor growth, and retinopathies. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 signaling has been an attractive target for anti-angiogenic therapies in various diseases, including cancer and age-related macular degeneration.

Angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of blood vessels. It is a member of the angiopoietin family, which includes several growth factors involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones.

ANG-1 primarily binds to the Tie2 receptor, which is predominantly expressed on vascular endothelial cells. The ANG-1/Tie2 signaling pathway promotes vascular stability, integrity, and maturation by enhancing endothelial cell survival, migration, and adhesion. It also inhibits vascular leakage and inflammation, contributing to the overall homeostasis of the vasculature.

In addition to its role in physiological conditions, ANG-1 has been implicated in various pathological processes such as tumor angiogenesis, ischemia, and fibrosis. Modulation of the ANG-1/Tie2 signaling pathway has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating several diseases associated with abnormal vascular function.

Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is a protein that is involved in the regulation of blood vessel formation and maintenance. It is a member of the angiopoietin family, which includes Ang-1, Ang-2, Ang-3, and Ang-4. These proteins bind to the Tie receptor tyrosine kinases (Tie1 and Tie2) on the surface of endothelial cells, which line the interior of blood vessels.

Ang-2 is primarily produced by endothelial cells and has context-dependent roles in angiogenesis, which is the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. In general, Ang-2 is thought to act as an antagonist of Ang-1, which promotes vessel stability and maturation.

Ang-2 can destabilize existing blood vessels by binding to Tie2 receptors and blocking the stabilizing effects of Ang-1. This can lead to increased vascular permeability and inflammation. However, in the presence of pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), Ang-2 can also promote the formation of new blood vessels by stimulating endothelial cell migration and proliferation.

Abnormal regulation of Ang-2 has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. In these conditions, increased levels of Ang-2 can contribute to the development of abnormal blood vessels, which can lead to tissue damage and loss of function.

"Pregnancy proteins" is not a standard medical term, but it may refer to specific proteins that are produced or have increased levels during pregnancy. Two common pregnancy-related proteins are:

1. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG): A hormone produced by the placenta shortly after fertilization. It is often detected in urine or blood tests to confirm pregnancy. Its primary function is to maintain the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen during early pregnancy until the placenta takes over these functions.

2. Pregnancy-Specific beta-1 Glycoprotein (SP1): A protein produced by the placental trophoblasts during pregnancy. Its function is not well understood, but it may play a role in implantation, placentation, and protection against the mother's immune system. SP1 levels increase throughout pregnancy and are used as a marker for fetal growth and well-being.

These proteins have clinical significance in monitoring pregnancy progression, detecting potential complications, and diagnosing certain pregnancy-related conditions.

... is protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFSF15 gene. VEGI is an anti-angiogenic protein. It belongs to tumor necrosis ... Involvement of activation of stress protein kinases (stress-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) ... This protein is abundantly expressed in endothelial cells, but is not expressed in either B or T cells. The expression of this ... It is the sole known ligand for death receptor 3, and it can also be recognized by decoy receptor 3. The protein encoded by ...
Circulating angiogenic proteins trisomy 12 Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jan:194(1):239-45 Sachs BP, A Woman with Fetal Loss - ... Circulating Angiogenic Factors and the Risk of Preeclampsia. NEJM 2004; 350:672-83 Levine RJ, Thadhani R, Qian C, Lam C, Lim KH ... a novel circulating anti-angiogenic factor in preeclampsia. N Engl J Med 2006;355:992-1005 Nielsen P, Goldman M, Mann S, ...
January 1996). "HIV-tat protein is a heparin-binding angiogenic growth factor". Oncogene. 12 (2): 289-297. PMID 8570206. ... Syndecan 1 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SDC1 gene. The protein is a transmembrane (type I) heparan sulfate ... The syndecan-1 protein functions as an integral membrane protein and participates in cell proliferation, cell migration and ... Indatuximab ravtansine targets this protein. It is a useful marker for plasma cells, but only if the cells tested are already ...
"HIV-tat protein is a heparin-binding angiogenic growth factor". Oncogene. 12 (2): 289-97. PMID 8570206. Soussi-Yanicostas N, ... Syndecan-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SDC2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane (type I ... The syndecan-2 protein functions as an integral membrane protein and participates in cell proliferation, cell migration and ... Chang HC, Samaniego F, Nair BC, Buonaguro L, Ensoli B (1997). "HIV-1 Tat protein exits from cells via a leaderless secretory ...
... a unique angiopoietin-related protein with anti-angiogenic properties". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 333 (2): 308-15. doi: ... This protein was found to be a secretory protein that does not act as an endothelial cell mitogen in vitro. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Angiopoietin-related protein 1 also known as angiopoietin-3 (ANG-3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL1 gene ... 1999). "Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of angiopoietin-related protein. angiopoietin-related protein ...
"HIV-tat protein is a heparin-binding angiogenic growth factor". Oncogene. 12 (2): 289-97. PMID 8570206. Kojima T, Katsumi A, ... The protein is found as a homodimer and is a member of the syndecan proteoglycan family. Syndecan-4 interacts with ... Syndecan-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SDC4 gene. Syndecan-4 is one of the four vertebrate syndecans and has ... Syndecan-4 activates protein kinase C (PKC), an enzyme involved in signal transduction. The variable domain of syndecan-4 could ...
January 2000). "The tumorigenic and angiogenic effects of MGSA/GRO proteins in melanoma". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 67 (1 ... It was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity ... this protein is encoded by the gene Cxcl1 and is located on human chromosome 4 among genes for other CXC chemokines. CXCL1 ... for immortalized melanocytes expressing melanoma growth stimulatory activity/growth-regulated cytokine beta and gamma proteins ...
1996). "HIV-tat protein is a heparin-binding angiogenic growth factor". Oncogene. 12 (2): 289-97. PMID 8570206. Chernousov MA, ... Hakansson S, Jacobs A, Caffrey M (2001). "Heparin binding by the HIV-1 tat protein transduction domain". Protein Sci. 10 (10): ... Syndecan-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SDC3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000162512 - Ensembl, May ... "Entrez Gene: SDC3 syndecan 3". Barillari G, Gendelman R, Gallo RC, Ensoli B (1993). "The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency ...
... cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61, or CCN1), CTGF (connective tissue growth factor, or CCN2), and NOV. These proteins, ... is a novel angiogenic regulator of the CCN protein family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (26): 24200-8. doi:10.1074 ... The human NOV protein contains 357 amino acids with an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally ... Perbal B, Martinerie C, Sainson R, Werner M, He B, Roizman B (Feb 1999). "The C-terminal domain of the regulatory protein NOVH ...
These gene products may include proteins such as glycolytic enzymes and angiogenic growth factors. In normoxia, HIF alpha ... 1996). "SM-20 is a novel 40-kd protein whose expression in the arterial wall is restricted to smooth muscle". Lab. Invest. 74 ( ... Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase 2 (HIF-PH2), or prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (PHD2), is an enzyme ... 2006). "Regulation of the prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (phd2/egln-1) gene: identification of a functional hypoxia- ...
The angiogenic switch downregulates angiogenesis suppressor proteins, such as thrombospondin, angiostatin, endostatin and ... GSCs are easily identified through histological staining against vasa protein (to identify germ cells) and 1B1 protein (to ... Angiogenesis induced by hypoxic conditions is called an "Angiogenic switch". HIF-1 promotes expression of several angiogenic ... The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) ligands Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Glass-bottom-boat (Gbb) ligand are directly signalled to ...
2015-01-26). "Angiopoietin-like 7 is an anti-angiogenic protein required to prevent vascularization of the cornea". PLOS ONE. ... TMEM155 protein is 130 amino acids in length. The TMEM155 protein in its full form is 14.2 kD in molecular weight with an ... Transmembrane protein 155 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM155 gene. It is located on human chromosome 4, ... This protein is known to be expressed mainly in the brain, placenta, and lymph nodes and is conserved throughout most placental ...
"Peptides derived from two separate domains of the matrix protein thrombospondin-1 have anti-angiogenic activity". The Journal ... This protein is an adhesive glycoprotein that mediates cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions. This protein can bind to ... "Differential roles of protein kinase C and pertussis toxin-sensitive G-binding proteins in modulation of melanoma cell ... the remaining anti-angiogenic domains have been shown to have decreased anti-angiogenic activity at low concentrations where ...
Eto N, Miyagishi M, Inagi R, Fujita T, Nangaku M (April 2009). "Mitogen-activated protein 3 kinase 6 mediates angiogenic and ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K6 gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 6". Retrieved 2018-07-10. Takeda K, Shimozono R, Noguchi T, Umeda T ... serine/threonine protein kinase that forms a component of protein kinase-mediated signal transduction cascades. The encoded ...
... and anti-angiogenic effects. In biomarker studies, the protein has been found to have potential prognostic and diagnostic value ... "Functional and structural properties of a novel protein and virulence factor (Protein sHIP) in Streptococcus pyogenes". The ... The HRG protein is produced in the liver, and it could also be synthesized by monocytes, macrophages, and megakaryocytes. It ... Two of the protein's effects, the inhibition of fibrinolysis and the reduced inhibition of coagulation, indicate a potential ...
... an angiogenic protein, at 2.0 A resolution". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (15): 12153-61. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... There are three isoforms of this protein: PGF-1, PGF-2, PGF-3. PGF-1 is specifically found in the colon as well as mammary ... Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PGF gene. Placental growth factor (PGF) is a ... The placental growth factor (PGF) gene is a protein-coding gene and a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ...
"Hypoxic tumor cell modulates its microenvironment to enhance angiogenic and metastatic potential by secretion of proteins and ... The protein content of a single exosome, given certain assumptions of protein size and configuration, and packing parameters, ... Exosomes contain RNA, proteins, lipids and metabolites that is reflective of the cell type of origin. As exosomes contain ... The Rab proteins especially Rab 7 attached to the MVB recognizes its effector receptor. The SNARE complex (soluble N- ...
This protection appears to be due to the elevated levels of endostatin, an anti-angiogenic protein, derived from collagen XVIII ... An experimental study suggests that pericyte death is caused by blood glucose persistently activating protein kinase C and ... mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which, through a series of intermediates, inhibits signaling through platelet-derived ...
Nam, J. O.; Jung, M. Y.; Thapa, N.; Lee, B. H.; Park, R. W.; Kim, I. S. (2008). "T-CAM, a fastatin-FIII 9-10 fusion protein, ... potently enhances anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activity αvβ3 and α5β1 integrins". Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 40 (2): ... Nam, J. -O.; Son, H. -N.; Jun, E.; Cha, K.; Lee, B. -H.; Park, R. -W.; Kim, I. -S. (2012). "FAS1 Domain Protein Inhibits ... Thapa, N.; Lee, B. H.; Kim, I. S. (2007). "TGFBIp/βig-h3 protein: A versatile matrix molecule induced by TGF-β". The ...
... pro-angiogenic protein therapy uses well-defined, precisely structured proteins, with previously defined optimal doses of the ... which angiogenic research began with, and pro-angiogenic therapies. Whereas anti-angiogenic therapies are being employed to ... Chemical stimulation of angiogenesis is performed by various angiogenic proteins e.g. integrins and prostaglandins, including ... As part of the angiogenic signaling cascade, NO is widely considered to be a major contributor to the angiogenic response ...
"Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (Jmjd6) is required for angiogenic sprouting and regulates splicing of VEGF-receptor 1". ... This gene encodes a nuclear protein with a JmjC domain. JmjC domain-containing proteins belong to the alpha-ketoglutarate- ... They are predicted to function as protein hydroxylases or histone demethylases. This protein was first identified as a putative ... "Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (Jmjd6) is required for angiogenic sprouting and regulates splicing of VEGF-receptor 1". ...
These effects are mediated by interacting and interfering with various angiogenic related proteins such as integrins and serine ... "Structure-function analysis of the ADAM family of diintegrin-like and metalloproteinase-containing proteins". J. Protein Chem. ... Native proteins which contain such domains with regulatory activity are normally inactive, most likely because they are cryptic ... Monocytes produce a variety of pro-angiogenic factors. There is also a population of CD34 positive cells that can express ...
Slevin M, Krupinski J, Kumar S, Gaffney J (August 1998). "Angiogenic oligosaccharides of hyaluronan induce protein tyrosine ... HYAL1 is implicated in several types of cancers, likely due to the angiogenic effects of HYAL1-cleaved hyaluronan fragments. In ...
... includes proteins that are angiogenic factors. The presence of the cyclic cystine knot (CCK) motif was discovered when ... Novel proteins are being added to the cystine knot motif family, also known as the C-terminal cystine knot (CTCK) proteins. ... The cystine knot motif stabilizes protein structure and is conserved in proteins across various species. There are three types ... Studies have shown that cystine knot proteins can be incubated at temperatures of 65 °C or placed in 1N HCl/1N NaOH without ...
December 2010). "CX-4945, an orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, inhibits prosurvival and angiogenic ... Silmitasertib (INN), codenamed CX-4945, is a small-molecule inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase II), a ... Protein kinase inhibitors, Carboxylic acids, Chloroarenes, All stub articles, Antineoplastic and immunomodulating drug stubs). ... the first clinical stage inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 for the treatment of cancer". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 54 (2): ...
1997). "A secreted FGF-binding protein can serve as the angiogenic switch in human cancer". Nat. Med. 3 (10): 1137-40. doi: ... 2000). "Induction of the angiogenic modulator fibroblast growth factor-binding protein by epidermal growth factor is mediated ... Fibroblast growth factor-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGFBP1 gene. FGFBP1, or HBP17, binds ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ...
Angiogenic proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PIGF) and anti-angiogenic ... sFlt-1 is an anti-angiogenic protein that antagonizes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor ( ... Proteinuria ≥ 0.3 grams (300 mg) or more of protein in a 24-hour urine sample or a SPOT urinary protein to creatinine ratio ≥ ... Implicit in this generalized endothelial dysfunction may be an imbalance of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. Both ...
... is a multifunctional secreted protein that has anti-angiogenic, anti-tumorigenic, and neurotrophic functions. Found in ... The PEDF protein is a secreted protein of roughly 50kDa size and 418 amino acids in length. The N-terminus contains a leader ... They isolated proteins unique to RPE cells and tested the individual proteins for neurotrophic function, meaning promoting a ... This discovery demonstrated that PEDF has an asymmetrical charge distribution across the whole protein. One side of the protein ...
Studies have shown that proteins found in tight junctions serve as intermediaries that moderate angiogenic signaling pathways. ... They interact in their cytoplasmic domain with scaffold proteins that contain a PDZ domain, which are common protein ... Like JAM-2, JAM-3 has been shown associate with tight junction proteins like PAR-3 and ZO-1. JAM-3 has also been shown to ... Once the tight junction is formed, many JAM-1 proteins are present, many of which are now phosphorylated at Ser285. JAM-1 also ...
2003). "The guanylate binding protein-1 GTPase controls the invasive and angiogenic capability of endothelial cells through ... Interferon-induced guanylate-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GBP1 gene. It belongs to the ... Guanylate binding protein expression is induced by interferon. Guanylate binding proteins are characterized by their ability to ... 1996). "Prenylation of an interferon-gamma-induced GTP-binding protein: the human guanylate binding protein, huGBP1". J. Leukoc ...
"Angiogenic Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Angiogenic Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Angiogenic Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Early angiogenic proteins associated with high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension in preterm ... Multilayered microcapsules for the sustained-release of angiogenic proteins from encapsulated cells. Am J Surg. 2010 Nov; 200(5 ...
CVBT Obtains Patent for Injection of Angiogenic Protein into the Heart 1...456Page 6 of 6. ...
... is protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFSF15 gene. VEGI is an anti-angiogenic protein. It belongs to tumor necrosis ... Involvement of activation of stress protein kinases (stress-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) ... This protein is abundantly expressed in endothelial cells, but is not expressed in either B or T cells. The expression of this ... It is the sole known ligand for death receptor 3, and it can also be recognized by decoy receptor 3. The protein encoded by ...
6: Neu2 overexpression reduces migration and invasion, by controlling angiogenic and metastasis related proteins.. ... Representative immunoblots showed decreased proteins level of metastasis and invasiveness related proteins (VEGF, VEGFR, and ... 0.00026 µM/h/mg protein) cells (Fig. 1j). Similar trend was found in Neu2-transfected AsPC1 (0.2579 ± 0.019 µM/h/mg protein) ... 2: Neu2 overexpression inhibits cell proliferation and modulates cell cycle-related proteins.. ...
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.644.276]. *Angiogenic Proteins [D12.644.276.100]. *Vascular Endothelial ... Role of anatomical region and hypoxia on angiogenic markers in adipose-derived stromal cells. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2015 Feb; ...
g. Pro- and anti-angiogenic and vasculogenic genes, proteins and drugs 3. Other: ...
Expression of angiogenic factors and structural proteins in central nervous system vascular malformations. Neurosurgery. 1996 ...
Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Vitreous Inflammatory and Angiogenic Peptides and Proteins in Diabetic Retinopathy PDF ... TAGS: angiogenesis, diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy, peptides, phosphorylation, proteins, tyrosine, vitreous body ...
FGFs are a family of proteins, mostly with angiogenic effects. The best known are FGF-1 and FGF-2. They are essentially ... Angiostatin is a protein produced by autoproteolytic cleavage of certain proteins, like plasminogen. Its function is to inhibit ... the HIF-1α protein is stabilized and its proteasomal degradation rate is reduced by slowing down the protein ubiquitination of ... Family of proteins involved in vascular repair. Ang-1 and Ang-2 are the best known. Its function is carried out by coupling an ...
Epsin Endocytic Adaptor Proteins in Angiogenic and Lymphangiogenic Signaling. Douglas B. Cowan, Hao Wu, and Hong Chen. ...
described several pro-angiogenic proteins, which were carried at higher levels by exosomes derived from hypoxic cells. The ... Moreover, the levels of certain vesicular proteins (e.g., small GTPases, G-protein complexes, mRNA processing proteins and ... Most of these proteins were upregulated and only 47 proteins were downregulated [64]. Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) was ... proteins. The solution may be amplification of these proteins using monoclonal antibodies, which will detect the rare exosome ...
Hypoxic tumor cell modulates its microenvironment to enhance angiogenic and metastatic potential by secretion of proteins and ... Gross JC, Chaudhary V, Bartscherer K, Boutros M. Active Wnt proteins are secreted on exosomes. Nat Cell Biol (2012) 14(10):1036 ... Although proteins associated with EMT were found in exosomes derived from the metastatic cells (30), no functional studies ... Selective accumulation of the heat shock protein hsc73. J Cell Biol (1999) 147(3):599-610. doi:10.1083/jcb.147.3.599 ...
Sen P, Choudhury T, Smith EO, Langston C. Expression of angiogenic and vasculogenic proteins in the lung in alveolar capillary ... The FOXF1 protein is important in development of the lungs and their blood vessels. The FOXF1 protein is also involved in the ... Deletion of one copy of the FOXF1 gene in each cell reduces the production of the FOXF1 protein. A shortage of FOXF1 protein ... The protein produced from the FOXF1 gene is a transcription factor, which means that it attaches (binds) to specific regions of ...
Synaptotagmin-Like Protein 2a Regulates Angiogenic Lumen Formation via Weibel-Palade Body Apical Secretion of Angiopoietin-2 ... Expression of fusogenic proteins driving cell-cell fusion was aberrantly sustained at high levels in CD13KO MGCs, which we show ... Slp2a (synaptotagmin-like protein-2a) has been implicated in apical membrane signaling; however, the role of Slp2a in vascular ... Intraflagellar transport protein 20 (IFT20) is part of the transport machinery required for ciliary assembly and function. To ...
Pro-Angiogenic and Osteogenic Effects of Adipose Tissue-Derived Pericytes Synergistically Enhanced by Nel-like Protein-1. *. ... We aimed to establish the pro-angiogenic and osteogenic efficacy of adipose tissue-derived (AD) pericytes mixed with Nel-like ... Tube formation and cell migration have been assessed to find out the pro-angiogenic efficacy. Vessel formation… ... protein-1 (NELL-1) to analyze the therapeutic results on osteonecrosis. ...
Inhibition of RAGEs by FPS-ZM1 significantly reverses the decrease in VEGFR-2 protein expression and angiogenic dysfunction in ... Incubation of proteins with lipid peroxidation products is an alternative method of generating AGEs. The polyol pathway leads ... Glycated proteins, particularly large ones, are resistant to proteolytic enzymes, and this makes it several times more ... Kuzan A, Michel O and Gamian A: Glycation of matrix proteins in the artery inhibits migration of smooth muscle cells from the ...
... of canonical Wnt signaling leads Ewing sarcoma cells to upregulate expression and secretion of pro-angiogenic ECM proteins, ... Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4) is a member of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of proteins that function ... Inversely, their inhibition improved the angiogenic potential of adult MCECs, and miR-96/miR-183 knock-out mice had increased ... Here, we demonstrate the higher angiogenic potential of neonatal compared to adult mouse cardiac endothelial cells (MCECs) in ...
26.Radke S, Battmann A, Jatzke S, Eulert J, Jakob F, Schutze N. Expression of the angiomatrix and angiogenic proteins CYR61, ... CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) inhibits B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein expression, and then ... protein kinase B, Bad: Bcl-2-associated death promoter, Bcl-2: B-cell lymphoma 2, CHOP: CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein ... PRP may increase the production of angiogenic factors via upregulation of angiogenic gene pathway, which may contribute to ...
This may lead to increased production of inflamatory factors, acute phase proteins and angiogenic factors by adipose tisue (173 ... C-reactive protein genotypes afect baseline, but not exercise training- induced changes, in C-reactive protein levels. ... signal by forming protein complexes with cytoplasmic adaptor proteins (372). TNF-! plays a key role in the mediation of the ... a protein hormone also known as adipoQ or adipocyte complement related protein, is specificaly and very highly expresed in ...
In children born small for their gestational age or preterm, an imbalance in maternal angiogenic factors in the first half of ... maternal angiogenic factors are not associated with childhood cardiac ventricular structure, and function within the normal ... Pregnancy Proteins* * Prospective Studies * Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 Substances * Angiogenesis Inducing ... Results: Maternal angiogenic factors were not associated with childhood cardiac outcomes in the total population. In children ...
been nutrigenomics for the Sustained-Release of Angiogenic Proteins From Encapsulated Cells. He is these studies with some of ... spaces The download protein: how Opinions want a that of knit and rectum of upkeep of their bullets? What allows more, this ... Building 390, Austin, TX 25th valuable download parts selection and of two angiogenic Advances plus P, LLC 428 Rue Andelays, ... protein. RkPjjVa, Herbal download parts selection and management 2004 inbox narratives, ETPAaYI, Levitra innovators, ODDfNNN, ...
Angiogenic Peptide. Angiogenic Peptides. Angiogenic Protein. Peptide, Angiogenic. Protein, Angiogenic. Tree number(s):. D12.644 ... Angiogenic Proteins - Preferred Concept UI. M0441466. Scope note. Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate ... Angiogenic Proteins Entry term(s). Angiogenic Protein Protein, Angiogenic Angiogenic Peptides - Related but not broader or ... Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ...
Expression of angiogenic factors at the gene and protein levels varied in the two media and with passage number, but cells ... LRIG1 protein in human cells and tissues2003In: Cell and Tissue Research, ISSN 0302-766X, E-ISSN 1432-0878, Vol. 312, no 1, p. ... Evaluation of growth, stemness, and angiogenic properties of dental pulp stem cells cultured in cGMP xeno-/serum-free medium. ... TGF beta also uses non-Smad signaling pathways such as the p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
Extracellular anti-angiogenic proteins augment an endosomal protein trafficking pathway to reach mitochondria and execute ... Membrane shape-mediated wave propagation of cortical protein dynamics. Z Wu, M Su, C Tong, M Wu, J Liu ...
E4orf6/7: A protein encoded by the adenovirus E4 gene. The term "E4orf6/7 protein" includes E4orf6/7 proteins produced by the ... The anti-angiogenic agent can be bevacizumab, sunitinib, an anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as sunitinib ... E4orf1: An adenovirus protein produced from the E4 gene. The term "E4orf1 protein" includes E4orf1 proteins produced by the E4 ... As used herein, the term "E1A protein" refers to the proteins expressed from the E1A gene and the term includes E1A proteins ...
... is protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFSF15 gene. VEGI is an anti-angiogenic protein. It belongs to tumor necrosis ... Magnetic beads for protein/antibody and DNA purification, immunoprecipitation, CHIP assay * The Excel table for antibody ... Magnetic beads for protein/antibody and DNA purification, immunoprecipitation, CHIP assay * The Excel table for antibody ...
NANOPARTICLES FOR HARVESTING AND TARGETING ANGIOGENIC PROTEINS Complete 2006 R21 CA114304 RFA-CA-06-003 SCHMITTGEN, THOMAS D ... MULTIPLEXED PROTEIN BIOCHIP ASSAYS--SIGNAL AMPLIFICATION Complete 2005 R43 CA112735 RFA-CA-05-006 LU, CHIUNG-MEI GENACO ... DXMS-FACILITATED MEMBRANE PROTEIN CONSTRUCT DESIGN/CANCER Complete 2006 R21 CA118600 RFA-CA-06-002 LARGAESPADA, DAVID ANDREW ... PREPARATION OF CANCER TISSUES FOR MS IMAGING OF PROTEINS Complete 2005 R21 CA112220 RFA-CA-05-004 GASTON, SANDRA MARLENE BETH ...
Suggest that RNF213 R4810K carriers have lower angiogenic capacities, indicating that they might be more susceptible to insults ... a motif present in a variety of functionally distinct proteins and known to be involved in protein-protein and protein-DNA ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF123. Names. Kip1 ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_022064.5 → NP_071347.2 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF123 ...
... these proteins also serve as growth factors to the tumor. Heparanase is a pro-angiogenic and pro-metastatic protein. Our ... Heparanase is a protein capable of degrading heparan sulfate (HS) chains. The first objective of the study was to examine the ... The heparanase protein, as a cofactor for tissue factor (TF) activity, enhances activation of the coagulation system and in ... Heparanase protein is capable of degrading heparan sulfate (HS) chains and enhancing activation of the coagulation system. We ...
... exhibits anti-angiogenic activities via Src-homology-2-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1. Application : WB ... 153384 Functional proteomic analysis reveals that fungal immunomodulatory protein reduced expressions of heat shock proteins ... 153384 Functional proteomic analysis reveals that fungal immunomodulatory protein reduced expressions of heat shock proteins ... The encoded proteins also lack a C-terminus RING finger domain. Gene expression is high during fetal development and in most ...
  • Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). (ucdenver.edu)
  • Do anti-angiogenic or angiogenic factors contribute to the protection of birth weight at high altitude afforded by Andean ancestry? (ucdenver.edu)
  • VEGI is an anti-angiogenic protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Here, we demonstrate the higher angiogenic potential of neonatal compared to adult mouse cardiac endothelial cells (MCECs) in vitro and use this difference to identify candidate microRNAs (miRs) regulating cardiac angiogenesis after MI. (jci.org)
  • In some examples, the heterologous ORF encodes a therapeutic protein. (justia.com)
  • In these methods, the heterologous ORF of the recombinant adenovirus genome or recombinant adenovirus encodes the therapeutic protein. (justia.com)
  • IAP family members usually contain multiple baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains, but this gene encodes proteins with only a single BIR domain. (genetex.com)
  • To examine whether maternal angiogenic factors in the first half of pregnancy are associated with offspring left and right cardiac development. (nih.gov)
  • Maternal angiogenic factors were not associated with childhood cardiac outcomes in the total population. (nih.gov)
  • In a low-risk population, maternal angiogenic factors are not associated with childhood cardiac ventricular structure, and function within the normal range. (nih.gov)
  • In children born small for their gestational age or preterm, an imbalance in maternal angiogenic factors in the first half of pregnancy was associated with higher childhood left ventricular mass only. (nih.gov)
  • It remains a leading endostatin as an angiogenic inhibitor in cause of maternal and neonatal mortality patients with pre-eclampsia. (who.int)
  • Angiogenic Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • Mutations in the FOXF1 gene that cause ACD/MPV result in an inactive protein that cannot regulate development, leading to abnormal formation of the pulmonary blood vessels and gastrointestinal tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The protein produced from the FOXF1 gene is a transcription factor, which means that it attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity of many other genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The expression levels of genes involved in neuronal and oligodendrocyte maturation, and angiogenic and transport functions were al-tered, reflecting enhanced brain maturation in response to IGF-1 treatment. (lu.se)
  • 135 antibodies against 65 mainly immunoregulatory proteins, we of a multitude of different genes (8, 9). (lu.se)
  • In this respect, in contrast to predictors based for each serum protein was determined by comparing the samples upon tumor characteristics at the time of surgery, serum is a par- collected at the primary operation and then 3-6 mo later. (lu.se)
  • This risk assessment was not dependent on the type of adju- decoding patterns of immunoregulatory serum proteins could re- vant therapy received by the patients. (lu.se)
  • Conse- demonstrated that this protein signature provided an added value quently, using minute amounts of nonfractionated serum (14) and compared with conventional clinical parameters. (lu.se)
  • The use of angiogenic factors in discriminating preeclampsia: are they ready for prime time? (ucdenver.edu)
  • In addition to the blood pressure criteria, proteinuria of greater than or equal to 0.3 grams in a 24-hour urine specimen, a protein (mg/dL)/creatinine (mg/dL) ratio of 0.3 or higher, or a urine dipstick protein of 1+ (if a quantitative measurement is unavailable) is required to diagnose preeclampsia. (medscape.com)
  • Studies have demonstrated the presence of podocyte protein markers in the urine of women with preeclampsia . (medscape.com)
  • An increase in endothelial angiogenic ability, as well as overall increases in secreted VEGFA, ICAM1, and VCAM1 protein expression, was noted after epithelial exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Association of single nucleotide variants in VEGFA and KDR with the risk and angiogenic features of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (cdc.gov)
  • This protein is abundantly expressed in endothelial cells, but is not expressed in either B or T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Role of anatomical region and hypoxia on angiogenic markers in adipose-derived stromal cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Angiogenic Proteins" by people in Profiles. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI), also known as TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A) and TNF superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15), is protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFSF15 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deletion of one copy of the FOXF1 gene in each cell reduces the production of the FOXF1 protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene contains a C-terminal RING finger domain, a motif present in a variety of functionally distinct proteins and known to be involved in protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, and an N-terminal SPRY domain. (nih.gov)
  • Survivin, also called baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5 or BIRC5, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BIRC5 gene.This gene is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family, which encode negative regulatory proteins that prevent apoptotic cell death. (genetex.com)
  • This protein displays E3 ubiquitin ligase activity toward the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B which is also known as p27 or KIP1. (nih.gov)
  • Their overexpression decreased the angiogenic potential of neonatal MCECs in vitro and prevented scar resolution and neovascularisation in neonatal mice after MI. (jci.org)
  • Purified proteins and a mouse model were assessed using coagulation assays, Western blot analysis and immuno-staining. (bvsalud.org)
  • VEGF as an angiogenic growth factor and 20 weeks of pregnancy. (who.int)
  • Early angiogenic proteins associated with high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension in preterm infants. (ucdenver.edu)
  • A shortage of FOXF1 protein affects the development of pulmonary blood vessels and causes the main features of ACD/MPV. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Also provided is a method of delivering a therapeutic protein to a subject by administering to the subject a recombinant adenovirus genome or a recombinant adenovirus (or composition thereof) disclosed herein. (justia.com)
  • Pigs were treated with 2.25 mg/kg/d recombinant human IGF-1/IGF binding protein-3 complex from birth until day 5 or 9 before the collection of brain samples for quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC), RNA sequencing, and quantitative PCR analyses. (lu.se)
  • Elmetwally MA, Li X, Johnson GA, Burghardt RC, Herring CM, Kramer AC, Meininger CJ, Bazer FW, Wu G. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine between days 14 and 25 of gestation enhances NO and polyamine syntheses and the?expression of angiogenic proteins in porcine placentae. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The expression of this protein is inducible by TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extra copy number of BCL2 is correlated with increased BCL-2 protein expression and poor survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with chemoimmunotherapy. (cdc.gov)
  • It has been reported that AGEs adversely affect several processes by two primary mechanisms: Directly through trapping and cross-linking of proteins, and indirectly by binding to specific receptors for AGE on the surface of various cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Adenoviruses have a stable 36 kb double-stranded DNA genome protected by a protein capsid decorated with Ad fiber protein spikes that target infection to receptors on specific cell types. (justia.com)
  • We aimed to establish the pro-angiogenic and osteogenic efficacy of adipose tissue-derived (AD) pericytes mixed with Nel-like protein-1 (NELL-1) to analyze the therapeutic results on osteonecrosis. (holliseden.com)
  • The heterologous ORF can encode, for example, a therapeutic protein. (justia.com)
  • This paper also measured angiogenic factors (sFlt1, PIGF, and Endoglin). (medscape.com)
  • For example, exosomes derived from cancer cells contain proteins that reflect the endosomal origin of exosomes as well as cellular oncogenic drivers including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), oncoproteins, phosphorylated proteins, and miRNA ( 2 , 4 - 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Multilayered microcapsules for the sustained-release of angiogenic proteins from encapsulated cells. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Demographic and that this particular family of angiogenic clinical data were collected during routine proteins plays an important role in placental obstetric visits. (who.int)
  • Tube formation and cell migration have been assessed to find out the pro-angiogenic efficacy. (holliseden.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Angiogenic Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Angiogenic Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) represent a broad heterogeneous group of compounds formed by nonenzymatic reactions between reducing sugars or oxidized lipids and the free amino groups of proteins, amino phospholipids or nucleic acids. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The encoded proteins also lack a C-terminus RING finger domain. (genetex.com)
  • The FOXF1 protein is important in development of the lungs and their blood vessels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • AGE molecules (free, peptide-bound and protein-bound) are found in the blood plasma in high concentrations, particularly in diabetic patients. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Survivin antibody detects Survivin protein at nucleus by immunohistochemical analysis (Autostainer Formulated). (genetex.com)
  • Survivin antibody detects Survivin protein by western blot analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Carrier-protein conjugated synthetic peptide encompassing a sequence within the C-terminus region of human Survivin. (genetex.com)
  • The FOXF1 protein is also involved in the development of the gastrointestinal tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In studies on AGE, two classifications for the nomenclature regarding AGEs are used, which are either focused on the structure of the AGE or instead focused on the proteins being modified. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Immunoprecipitation of Survivin protein from 293T whole cell extracts using 5 μg of Survivin antibody (GTX100052). (genetex.com)
  • Cerebellar protein synthesis was increased by 19% at day 5 and 14% at day 9 after IGF-1 treatment. (lu.se)