Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Angiogenesis Inducing Agents: Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Angiogenic Proteins: Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Angiogenesis Modulating Agents: Agents that modulate the PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS process. This is accomplished by endogenous ANGIOGENIC PROTEINS and a variety of other chemicals and pharmaceutical agents.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesPhosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.PhosphoproteinsProto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.Chorioallantoic Membrane: A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Corneal Neovascularization: New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Angiopoietin-1: The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Receptor, TIE-2: A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).Thrombospondin 1: An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Angiopoietin-2: An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Mice, Inbred BALB CLigands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Microvessels: The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf: A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Endostatins: Angiostatic proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of COLLAGEN TYPE XVIII.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
... which are often found in proteins involved in signal transduction or membrane trafficking. Its expression pattern and ... BAI1 is a p53-target gene that encodes a brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor. The protein is a seven-span transmembrane ... BAIAP3 interacts with the cytoplasmic region of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1. BAIAP3 also contains two C2 domains, ... BAIAP3 has been shown to interact with Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000007516 - ...
Chinnaiyan AM, O'Rourke K, Yu GL, Lyons RH, Garg M, Duan DR, Xing L, Gentz R, Ni J, Dixit VM (Nov 1996). "Signal transduction ... an endogenous negative regulator of angiogenesis". Seminars in Ophthalmology. 21 (1): 49-58. doi:10.1080/08820530500511446. ... This receptor has been shown to signal both through the TRADD adaptor molecule to stimulate NF-kappa B activity or through the ... Following binding to TL1A, TNFRSF25 signaling increases the sensitivity of T cells to endogenous IL-2 via the IL-2 receptor and ...
Signal transduction pathways activated by Ang interactions at the cellular membrane of endothelial cells produce extracellular ... However, angiogenin is unique among the many proteins that are involved in angiogenesis in that it is also an enzyme with an ... Ang has a prominent role in the pathology of cancer due to its functions in angiogenesis and cell survival. Since Ang possesses ... The most important step in the angiogenesis process is the translocation of Ang to the cell nucleus. Once Ang has been ...
AIF1 been shown to interact with kinase p44/42 and PAK1, two previously known signal transduction molecules, in regulating ... angiogenesis, and wound healing. It is currently theorized that AIF1 works to control endothelial cell proliferation and ... migration through action in signal transduction pathways. It has features of a cytoplasmic signaling protein, including several ... signal transduction, and vasculogenesis". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 296 (2): C256-66. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00325.2008. PMC ...
Chen H, Zhang M, Tang S, London NR, Li DY, Zhang K (2010). "Slit-Robo signaling in ocular angiogenesis". Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. ... Slit-Robo signal transduction mechanisms could possibly be used in therapy and treatment of neurological disorders and certain ... Liao WX, Wing DA, Geng JG, Chen DB (September 2010). "Perspectives of SLIT/ROBO signaling in placental angiogenesis" (PDF). ... Slit/Robo signaling is important in pioneer axon guidance. Slit mutations were first discovered in the Nuesslein-Volhard/ ...
... angiogenesis), survive apoptotic signals and travel throughout the body. Certain pericytes, known as microvascular pericytes, ... it is believed to be responsible for modulating apoptotic signal transduction pathways and inhibiting activation of apoptosis ... Ramsauer, M. (2002). "Angiogenesis of the blood-brain barrier in vitro and the function of cerebral pericytes". The FASEB ... S1P signals through GTPases that promote N-cadherin trafficking to endothelial membranes. This trafficking strengthens contacts ...
Twist is activated by a variety of signal transduction pathways, including Akt, signal transducer and activator of ... Moreover, Twist plays an important role in some physiological processes involved in metastasis, like angiogenesis, invadopodia ... Moreover, several inhibitors which are antagonistic to the upstream or downstream molecules of Twist signaling pathways have ... and Akt signalling". Scientific Reports. 6: 37652. doi:10.1038/srep37652. PMC 5120297 . PMID 27876874. Wu KJ, Yang MH (Dec 2011 ...
... signaling most directly corresponds with angiogenesis, the process by which new arteries and veins form from ... Tie-1 heterodimerizes with Tie-2 to enhance and modulate signal transduction of Tie-2 for vascular development and maturation. ... Although which specific TIE receptors mediate signals downstream of angiogenesis stimulation is highly contested, it is clear ... One angiopoietin factor can signal at high levels while the other angiopoieting factor remains at baseline level signaling. ...
Signal transduction Wound healing#Overview of involved growth factors "growth factor" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Thomas ... leukemias aplastic anaemia bone marrow transplantation angiogenesis for cardiovascular diseases Angiogenesis Bone growth factor ... Some cytokines, such as Fas ligand, are used as "death" signals; they cause target cells to undergo programmed cell death or ... However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the ...
Signal transduction GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138685 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... Angiogenesis Anxiety disorders Cytokine Fibroblast growth factor Growth factor Proteases in angiogenesis Receptor (biochemistry ... It stays membrane-bound as long as there is no signal peptide. It has been hypothesized that, during both wound healing of ... Marie PJ, Debiais F, Haÿ E (2003). "Regulation of human cranial osteoblast phenotype by FGF-2, FGFR-2 and BMP-2 signaling". ...
IRS-1's main function is to act as a signal transmitter for intracellular pathways. IRS-1mainly interacts with the angiogenesis ... Sun, Xiao Jian, "Structure of the insulin receptor substrate IRS-1 defines a unique signal transduction protein." Nature 352, ... Aganirsen therefore reduces angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGF and inflammatory cytokines production upstream by specifically ... IRS-1 has been suggested as a target for the regulation of angiogenesis mediated by hypoxia, insulin and inflammation. ...
Notch signaling in Drosophila Netpath - A curated resource of signal transduction pathways in humans Notch Receptors at the US ... Notch signaling may be used to control the sprouting pattern of blood vessels during angiogenesis. When cells within a patent ... It is required for the selection of endothelial tip and stalk cells during sprouting angiogenesis. Notch signal pathway plays a ... There may be signaling effects in the ligand-expressing cell after endocytosis; this part of notch signaling is a topic of ...
Receptor activation gives rise to a signal transduction cascade that leads to gene activation and diverse biological responses ... Angiogenesis inhibitor can be endogenous or come from outside as drug or a dietary component. Angiogenesis may be a target for ... Sprouting angiogenesis was the first identified form of angiogenesis. It occurs in several well-characterized stages. First, ... Angiogenesis-based tumor therapy relies on natural and synthetic angiogenesis inhibitors like angiostatin, endostatin and ...
Alteration of FGF signal transduction by endostatin inhibits the migration of endothelial cells through disruption of cell- ... The result is possible because pathogenic-derived angiogenesis usually involves signaling through integrins, which are directly ... Overall, endostatin down regulates many signaling cascades like ephrin, TNF-α, and NFκB signaling as well as coagulation and ... Among anti-angiogenesis inhibitors, endostatin has a wide range of anti-cancer spectrum targets, increasing its significance ...
Each of these is important in the signalling required for angiogenesis. VRAP (also known as T-cell specific adaptor) and Nck ... Seetharam L, Gotoh N, Maru Y, Neufeld G, Yamaguchi S, Shibuya M (January 1995). "A unique signal transduction from FLT tyrosine ... "VEGF receptor-2 Y951 signaling and a role for the adapter molecule TSAd in tumor angiogenesis". EMBO J. 24 (13): 2342-2353. doi ... PLC- γ is vital to the proliferative effects of VEGF-A signalling. Activation of the phospholipase PLC- γ results in an ...
It is also involved in many oxidative stress diseases, cell signal transduction and cell proliferation process including ... Adapting AR inhibitors could as well prevent sepsis complications, prevent angiogenesis, ameliorate mild or asymptomatic ... The involvement in oxidative stress diseases, cell signal transduction and cell proliferation process endows AKR1B1 the ...
Shedding of a membrane anchored cytokine or growth factor by ADAM proteinases may be relevant for various signal transduction ... Shichiri, M; Hirata, Y (2001). "Anti-angiogenesis signals by endostatin". FASEB J. 15 (6): 1044-1053. doi:10.1096/fj.99-1083com ... Shedding may be required for the down regulation of signals by removing signaling ligands, or cleavage and release of receptors ... ADAMTS1 and ADAMTS8 inhibit angiogenesis in vitro in two functional angiogenesis assays. Both enzymes inhibit bFGF induced ...
... cytosolic adaptor and scaffold proteins suggest diverse biological functions in cellular communication and signal transduction ... 2002). "Interaction between krit1 and icap1alpha infers perturbation of integrin beta1-mediated angiogenesis in the ... cytosolic adaptor and scaffold proteins suggest diverse biological functions in cellular communication and signal transduction ... "Interaction between krit1 and icap1alpha infers perturbation of integrin beta1-mediated angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of ...
Cancerous cells overexpress a number of proteins, including growth factor receptors, such as EGFR, or signal transduction ... angiogenesis, and metastasis. Hsp90 plays apparently conflicting roles in the cell, as it is essential for both the creation ... Hence inhibition of Hsp90 may induce apoptosis through inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and growth factor signaling ... in signal transduction and neoplastic transformation". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (10): 8312-20. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109200200. PMID ...
Ob-Rb is the only receptor isoform that can signal intracellularly via the Jak-Stat and MAPK signal transduction pathways, and ... Exogenous leptin can promote angiogenesis by increasing vascular endothelial growth factor levels. Hyperleptinemia produced by ... Leptin signals to the hypothalamus which produces a feeling of satiety. Moreover, leptin signals may make it easier for people ... rather than a satiety signal to prevent overeating. Leptin levels signal when an animal has enough stored energy to spend it in ...
... or PI3K-Akt Pathway is a signal transduction pathway that promotes survival and growth in response to extracellular signals. ... Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is often critical for tumour cells to survive and grow in nutrient-depleted ... Nicholson KM, Anderson NG (2002). "The protein kinase B/Akt signalling pathway in human malignancy". Cellular Signalling. 14 (5 ... KEGG Pathway: PI3K-Akt signaling pathway CST: PI3K/Akt Signaling Resources. ...
Matsumoto T, Mugishima H (2006). "Signal transduction via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors and their roles ... Proteases in angiogenesis Withaferin A, a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis Senger, DR; Galli, SJ; Dvorak, AM; Perruzzi, CA; ... Machein MR, Plate KH (2004). "Role of VEGF in developmental angiogenesis and in tumor angiogenesis in the brain". Cancer Treat ... "Bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation promotes therapeutic angiogenesis via upregulation of the VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling ...
Upon ligand binding, integrins activate signal transduction pathways that mediate cellular signals such as regulation of the ... Specifically, targeting integrins associated with RTKs is an emerging approach for inhibiting angiogenesis. The following are ... Integrins have two main functions:- Attachment of the cell to the ECM Signal transduction from the ECM to the cell However, ... The structure poses many questions, especially regarding ligand binding and signal transduction. The ligand binding site is ...
Signal transductionEdit. Further information: G protein. Intracellular signaling by chemokine receptors is dependent on ... and angiogenesis.[4] This role of chemokine is strikingly similar to their normal function of localizing leukocytes to an ... structure and couples to G-protein for signal transduction within a cell, making them members of a large protein family of G ... These events promote many signaling cascades, effecting a cellular response.[7]. For example, when CXCL8 (IL-8) binds to its ...
... in signal transduction". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 902 (1): 201-5; discussion 205-7. doi:10.1111/j.1749- ... Shibuya M (2007). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1/Flt-1): a dual regulator for angiogenesis". ... Boyd AW, Lackmann M (Dec 2001). "Signals from Eph and ephrin proteins: a developmental tool kit". Science's STKE : Signal ... Petrova TV, Makinen T, Alitalo K (Nov 1999). "Signaling via vascular endothelial growth factor receptors". Experimental Cell ...
Because these regions are related to complexed signal transduction pathways mediated by cytokines, it has been proposed that ... Cell growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, and migrationEdit. The above processes are part and parcel to tissue integrity and ... a novel potent inhibitor of signal transduction and growth in vitro and in vivo in small cell lung cancer cells". Cancer ... Kovács KA, Steinmann M, Magistretti PJ, Halfon O, Cardinaux JR (Sep 2006). "C/EBPbeta couples dopamine signalling to substance ...
2000) Angiopoietin-1 regulates endothelial cell survival through the phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase/Akt signal transduction ... Indeed, we do not have direct evidence that angiogenesis, per se, actually occurs in CHF. We presume that, as there is hypoxia ... 1996) Requisite role of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, during embryonic angiogenesis. Cell 87:1171-1180. ... However, other growth factors also have a major role in angiogenesis, such as those of the angiopoietin family (e.g., Ang-1, ...
Effect of glycation on basic fibroblast growth factor induced angiogenesis and activation of associated signal transduction ... capillary formation and associated signal transduction in bovine aortic EC (BAEC). FGF-2 was exposed to 0.25 M glucose-6- ... Subsequent investigation of the signal transduction molecules associated with mitogenesis showed a reduction in FGF-2 induced ... caused a significant reduction in the ability of FGF-2 to bind to the tyrosine kinase receptor and activate signal transduction ...
Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Regulates Angiogenesis by Modulating Integrin Signal Transduction. Rebecca E. Conway, Nenad ... Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Regulates Angiogenesis by Modulating Integrin Signal Transduction. Rebecca E. Conway, Nenad ... Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Regulates Angiogenesis by Modulating Integrin Signal Transduction. Rebecca E. Conway, Nenad ... Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Regulates Angiogenesis by Modulating Integrin Signal Transduction Message Subject (Your Name ...
Home/Novel Mechanisms in the Future of Cancer Treatment: Angiogenesis & Signal Transduction ... Novel Mechanisms in the Future of Cancer Treatment: Angiogenesis & Signal Transduction. $10.00 ...
Distinct signal transduction pathways are utilized during the tube formation and survival phases of in vitro angiogenesis ... Distinct signal transduction pathways are utilized during the tube formation and survival phases of in vitro angiogenesis ... Distinct signal transduction pathways are utilized during the tube formation and survival phases of in vitro angiogenesis ... Distinct signal transduction pathways are utilized during the tube formation and survival phases of in vitro angiogenesis ...
UT Receptor angiogenesis apoptosis Launch Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) rates as one of the deadliest tumors with a ...
We hypothesized that mammalian TrpRS may have signal transduction activities specific to angiogenesis. ... In Vivo Angiogenesis Assays.. Three different assays for angiogenesis were used to examine TrpRS for activities in vivo (30-34 ... Identification of TrpRS Fragments with Signal Transduction Activity.. Mini TrpRS is a truncated version of TrpRS, missing 47 NH ... Stimulation of angiogenesis by VEGF165 and inhibition of VEGF165-stimulated angiogenesis by mini TrpRS. In the absence of VEGF ...
VEGF-Mediated Signal Transduction in Tumor Angiogenesis. By Lucia Napione, Maria Alvaro and Federico Bussolino ... www.intechopen.com/embed/physiologic-and-pathologic-angiogenesis-signaling-mechanisms-and-targeted-therapy/tumor-angiogenesis-a ... www.intechopen.com/embed/physiologic-and-pathologic-angiogenesis-signaling-mechanisms-and-targeted-therapy/tumor-angiogenesis-a ... Physiologic and Pathologic AngiogenesisSignaling Mechanisms and Targeted TherapyEdited by Dan Simionescu ...
Signal transduction inhibitors. These antibodies block signals inside the cancer cell that help the cells divide, stopping the ... Angiogenesis inhibitors. These antibodies prevent the growth of new blood vessels, cutting off the supply of oxygen and ... Another type of this therapy uses drugs made of small molecules that block signals the cancer cells need to grow. ...
Signal transduction; Anti-oncogenes and familial cancer syndromes; Apoptosis and cancer; Cell cycle control; DNA repair; ... Principles of Cancer Therapy; Immunotherapy of Cancer; Anti-angiogenesis therapy; and modern molecular diagnostic techniques. 2 ...
Angiogenesis. Apoptosis. Signal transduction. Stem cell markers in pituitary adenomas. MicroRNAs. New generic tools for ...
Proceedings of the 5th Biannual International Meeting on Angiogenesis: From the Molecular to Integrative Pharmacology, held ... Signal Transduction and Transcriptional Regulation of Angiogenesis Yasufumi Sato, Mayumi Abe, Katsuhiro Tanaka, Chika Iwasaka, ... Regulation of Angiogenesis and Transduction Mechanisms Involved. * Front Matter Pages 79-79 ... Tie-1 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Endodomain Interaction with SHP2: Potential Signalling Mechanisms and Roles in Angiogenesis ...
Signal transduction depends on a series of direct interaction between molecules, both on the cell surface and intracellularly. ... Therapeutic manipulation of angiogenesis would be desirable for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer and ... The series reviews a number of cellular processes that provide cancer drug targets, including angiogenesis, cell cycle and ... checkpoint control, growth factor signaling, and apoptosis. It also discusses target selection based on genomics and the ...
These results indicate that SMOC1 is an ALK5 antagonist produced by endothelial cells that tips TGF-β signalling towards ALK1 ... activation, thus promoting endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. ... Role of secreted modular calcium-binding protein 1 (SMOC1) in transforming growth factor β signalling and angiogenesis ... Signal Transduction * Swine * Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism* Substances * Osteonectin * Receptors, Transforming ...
Papers describe recent research in vascular biology; signal transduction and angiogenesis; inflammation, thrombosis and ...
Buy the Hardcover Book ANGIOGENESIS by William D. Figg at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on Health ... VEGF Signal Transduction in Angiogenesis.- Delta-like Ligand 4/Notch Pathway in Tumor Angiogenesis.- Immune Cells and ... Overview of Angiogenesis during Tumor Growth.- Hypoxic Regulation of Angiogenesis by HIF-1.- Regulation of Angiogenesis by von ... Angiogenesis: An Integrative Approach from Science to Medicine is a comprehensive, concise summary of tumor angiogenesis. It is ...
No prior signal transduction inhibitor therapy - No prior angiogenesis inhibitor therapy Chemotherapy ...
In sprouting angiogenesis, specialized endothelial tip cells lead the outgrowth of blood-vessel sprouts towards gradients of ... Signal Transduction* / drug effects Substances * Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins * Membrane Proteins ... Dll4 signalling through Notch1 regulates formation of tip cells during angiogenesis Nature. 2007 Feb 15;445(7129):776-80. doi: ... In sprouting angiogenesis, specialized endothelial tip cells lead the outgrowth of blood-vessel sprouts towards gradients of ...
signal transduction. *invasion. *angiogenesis. Introduction. The α6β4 integrin is a receptor for the laminin family of ... In addition to promoting angiogenesis, the α6β4 integrin also signals to inhibit apoptosis to promote tumor cell survival in ... It has been hypothesized that the α6β4 integrin becomes competent for signaling in response to signals that disrupt ... Tyrosine phosphorylation of the β4 integrin cytoplasmic domain mediates Shc signaling to extracellular signal-regulated kinase ...
angiogenesis. IEA. --. GO:0007165. signal transduction. TAS. 9853756. GO:0007264. small GTPase mediated signal transduction. ... G-protein signaling G-Protein alpha-i signaling cascades. Development Beta-adrenergic receptors regulation of ERK ... PIK3R6 is assembled in a signaling complex in which it activates the PI3K gamma complex and which is involved in angiogenesis. ... PIK3R6 is assembled in a signaling complex in which it activates the PI3K gamma complex and which is involved in angiogenesis. ...
angiogenesis. IEA. --. GO:0007165. signal transduction. IEA. --. GO:0007275. multicellular organism development. IEA. --. ... G-protein signaling_Regulation of RAC1 activity. G-protein signaling_Regulation of RAC1 activity ... Among its related pathways are G-protein signaling_Regulation of RAC1 activity and p75 NTR receptor-mediated signalling. GO ... A vascular cell-restricted RhoGAP, p73RhoGAP, is a key regulator of angiogenesis. (PMID: 15302923) Su ZJ … Gamble JR ( ...
The fact that these effects are carried out at lower concentrations than those required for other inhibitors of angiogenesis ... Inhibition of the mentioned essential steps of in vitro angiogenesis is in agreement with the observed antiangiogenic activity ... substantiated by using two in vivo angiogenesis models, the chorioallantoic membrane and the zebrafish embryo ... that are exerted partly by targeting the Akt signaling pathway in activated endothelial cells. ...
Angiogenesis and Coronary Collateral Circulation. 57. Molecular Pathophysiology of Cardiomyopathies. 58. Signal Transduction of ... ATP and Adenosine Signal Transductions. 37. Kinase Signaling in the Cardiovascular System. 38. Calcium Signaling. 39. ... Part VII Signaling Systems. 34. Adrenergic Receptors in the Cardiovascular System. 35. Cardiac Action of Angiotensin II. 36. ... Diadenosine Polyphosphate Signaling in the Heart. Part VIII Developmental Changes and Aging. 40. Cardiac Development and ...
Validation of signal transduction pathways *Learnings from angiogenesis programmes to date *What are the next generation of pro ... Insights into the role of thrombin peptides in angiogenesis signalling pathway *Phase II clinical trials for Chrysalin for the ... Optimizing the potential of anti-angiogenic signal transduction inhibitors *Studies of BAY 43-9006 in combination with standard ... The challenges with angiogenesis research and current solutions *Utilising imaging in angiogenesis and standardisation A unique ...
Angiogenesis and signal transduction inhibitors *Pro-apoptotic agents to promote programmed cell death ...

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