Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Angiogenesis Inducing Agents: Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Angiogenic Proteins: Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Angiogenesis Modulating Agents: Agents that modulate the PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS process. This is accomplished by endogenous ANGIOGENIC PROTEINS and a variety of other chemicals and pharmaceutical agents.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chorioallantoic Membrane: A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.Corneal Neovascularization: New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.Angiopoietin-2: An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.Angiopoietin-1: The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Thrombospondin 1: An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Receptor, TIE-2: A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Microvessels: The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.Mice, Inbred C57BLHypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Endostatins: Angiostatic proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of COLLAGEN TYPE XVIII.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cyclohexanes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.Angiostatins: Circulating 38-kDa proteins that are internal peptide fragments of PLASMINOGEN. The name derives from the fact that they are potent ANGIOGENESIS INHIBITORS. Angiostatins contain four KRINGLE DOMAINS which are associated with their potent angiostatic activity.Pericytes: Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphangiogenesis: The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Angiopoietins: A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Angiostatic Proteins: Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Thrombospondins: A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.Collagen Type XVIII: A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.SesquiterpenesPhosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Thymidine Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of 2-deoxy-D-ribose from THYMIDINE to orthophosphate, thereby liberating thymidine.Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the enzyme activity or activation of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES.Neuropilin-1: Dimeric cell surface receptor involved in angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL) and axonal guidance. Neuropilin-1 is a 140-kDa transmembrane protein that binds CLASS 3 SEMAPHORINS, and several other growth factors. Neuropilin-1 forms complexes with plexins or VEGF RECEPTORS, and binding affinity and specificity are determined by the composition of the neuropilin dimer and the identity of other receptors complexed with it. Neuropilin-1 is expressed in distinct patterns during neural development, complementary to those described for NEUROPILIN-2.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Granulation Tissue: A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor B: A vascular endothelial growth factor expressed in a variety of tissues. It binds with high specificity to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-1 and NEUROPILIN-1.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C: A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR D in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Surgical Sponges: Gauze material used to absorb body fluids during surgery. Referred to as GOSSYPIBOMA if accidentally retained in the body following surgery.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Ribonuclease, Pancreatic: An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pancreatic ribonucleic acids to 3'-phosphomono- and oligonucleotides ending in cytidylic or uridylic acids with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate intermediates. EC 184.108.40.206.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Semaphorins: A family of proteins that mediate axonal guidance. Semaphorins act as repulsive cues for neuronal GROWTH CONES and bind to receptors on their filopodia. At least 20 different molecules have been described and divided into eight classes based on domain organization and species of origin. Classes 1 and 2 are invertebrate, classes 3-7 are vertebrate, and class V are viral. Semaphorins may be secreted (classes 2, 3, and V), transmembrane (classes 1, 4, 5, and 6), or membrane-anchored (class 7). All semaphorins possess a common 500-amino acid extracellular domain which is critical for receptor binding and specificity, and is also found in plexins and scatter factor receptors. Their C termini are class-specific and may contain additional sequence motifs.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Ephrin-B2: A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that binds with high affinity to EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB3 RECEPTOR; and EPHB4 RECEPTOR. Expression of ephrin-B2 occurs in a variety of adult tissues. During embryogenesis, high levels of ephrin-B2 is seen in the PROSENCEPHALON; RHOMBENCEPHALON; developing SOMITES; LIMB BUD; and bronchial arches.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.PhthalazinesTumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Integrin alphaV: An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3: A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Plasminogen: Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Neuropilins: Neuropilins are 140-kDa vertebrate cell surface receptors that bind neuronal guidance molecules during neural development and axonal outgrowth, and modulate VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. NEUROPILIN-1 and NEUROPILIN-2 differ in their binding specificities, and are distributed complementarily in regions of the developing nervous system. Neuropilins are receptors for secreted CLASS 3 SEMAPHORINS as well as for vascular endothelial growth factors, and may form hetero- or homodimers. They may also interact synergistically with plexins and with VEGF RECEPTORS to form receptor complexes with distinct affinities and specificities. Neuropilin binding specificity is determined by CUB and coagulation-factor-like domains in the extracellular portion of the molecule, while a MAM domain is essential for SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Receptor, EphB4: An eph family receptor found in a variety of adult and embryonic tissues. Unlike the majority of proteins in this class there is little or no expression of EphB4 receptor in the BRAIN. It has been found at high levels in developing mammary glands and in invasive mammary tumors.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Receptors, TIE: A family of structurally-related tyrosine kinase receptors that are expressed predominantly in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and are essential for development of BLOOD VESSELS (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC). The name derives from the fact that they are tyrosine kinases that contain Ig and EGF domains.Rats, Nude: A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus without a thymus and with depressed or absent T-cell function. This strain of rats may have a small amount of hair at times, but then lose it.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
COMP-Ang1: a designed angiopoietin-1 variant with nonleaky angiogenic activity. (1/26)Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) has potential therapeutic applications in inducing angiogenesis, enhancing endothelial cell survival, and preventing vascular leakage. However, production of Ang1 is hindered by aggregation and insolubility resulting from disulfide-linked higher-order structures. Here, by replacing the N-terminal portion of Ang1 with the short coiled-coil domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), we have generated a soluble, stable, and potent Ang1 variant, COMP-Ang1. This variant is more potent than native Ang1 in phosphorylating the tyrosine kinase with Ig and epidermal growth factor homology domain 2 (Tie2) receptor and Akt in primary cultured endothelial cells, enhancing angiogenesis in vitro and increasing adult angiogenesis in vivo. Thus, COMP-Ang1 is an effective alternative to native Ang1 for therapeutic angiogenesis in vivo. (+info)
Current methods for assaying angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. (2/26)Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature, is essential in normal developmental processes and in numerous pathologies, including diabetic retinopathy, psoriasis and tumour growth and metastases. One of the problems faced by angiogenesis researchers has been the difficulty of finding suitable methods for assessing the effects of regulators of the angiogenic response. The ideal assay would be reliable, technically straightforward, easily quantifiable and, most importantly, physiologically relevant. Here, we review the advantages and limitations of the principal assays in use, including those for the proliferation, migration and differentiation of endothelial cells in vitro, vessel outgrowth from organ cultures and in vivo assays such as sponge implantation, corneal, chamber, zebrafish, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and tumour angiogenesis models. (+info)
Acclimatization to 4100 m does not change capillary density or mRNA expression of potential angiogenesis regulatory factors in human skeletal muscle. (3/26)Increased skeletal muscle capillary density would be a logical adaptive mechanism to chronic hypoxic exposure. However, animal studies have yielded conflicting results, and human studies are sparse. Neoformation of capillaries is dependent on endothelial growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a known target gene for hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). We hypothesised that prolonged exposure to high altitude increases muscle capillary density and that this can be explained by an enhanced HIF-1alpha expression inducing an increase in VEGF expression. We measured mRNA levels and capillary density in muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis obtained in sea level residents (SLR; N=8) before and after 2 and 8 weeks of exposure to 4100 m altitude and in Bolivian Aymara high-altitude natives exposed to approximately 4100 m altitude (HAN; N=7). The expression of HIF-1alpha or VEGF mRNA was not changed with prolonged hypoxic exposure in SLR, and both genes were similarly expressed in SLR and HAN. In SLR, whole body mass, mean muscle fibre area and capillary to muscle fibre ratio remained unchanged during acclimatization. The capillary to fibre ratio was lower in HAN than in SLR (2.4+/-0.1 vs 3.6+/-0.2; P<0.05). In conclusion, human muscle VEGF mRNA expression and capillary density are not significantly increased by 8 weeks of exposure to high altitude and are not increased in Aymara high-altitude natives compared with sea level residents. (+info)
Bartonella adhesin a mediates a proangiogenic host cell response. (4/26)Bartonella henselae causes vasculoproliferative disorders in humans. We identified a nonfimbrial adhesin of B. henselae designated as Bartonella adhesin A (BadA). BadA is a 340-kD outer membrane protein encoded by the 9.3-kb badA gene. It has a modular structure and contains domains homologous to the Yersinia enterocolitica nonfimbrial adhesin (Yersinia adhesin A). Expression of BadA was restored in a BadA-deficient transposon mutant by complementation in trans. BadA mediates the binding of B. henselae to extracellular matrix proteins and to endothelial cells, possibly via beta1 integrins, but prevents phagocytosis. Expression of BadA is crucial for activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in host cells by B. henselae and secretion of proangiogenic cytokines (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor). BadA is immunodominant in B. henselae-infected patients and rodents, indicating that it is expressed during Bartonella infections. Our results suggest that BadA, the largest characterized bacterial protein thus far, is a major pathogenicity factor of B. henselae with a potential role in the induction of vasculoproliferative disorders. (+info)
Vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis. (5/26)Angiogenesis is a hallmark of wound healing, the menstrual cycle, cancer, and various ischemic and inflammatory diseases. A rich variety of pro- and antiangiogenic molecules have already been discovered. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an interesting inducer of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, because it is a highly specific mitogen for endothelial cells. Signal transduction involves binding to tyrosine kinase receptors and results in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and new vessel formation. In this article, the role of VEGF in physiological and pathological processes is reviewed. We also discuss how modulation of VEGF expression creates new therapeutic possibilities and describe recent developments in this field. (+info)
The soluble extracellular domain of EphB4 (sEphB4) antagonizes EphB4-EphrinB2 interaction, modulates angiogenesis, and inhibits tumor growth. (6/26)The receptor tyrosine kinase EphB4 and its ligand EphrinB2 play a crucial role in vascular development during embryogenesis. The soluble monomeric derivative of the extracellular domain of EphB4 (sEphB4) was designed as an antagonist of EphB4/EphrinB2 signaling. sEphB4 blocks activation of EphB4 and EphrinB2; suppresses endothelial cell migration, adhesion, and tube formation in vitro; and inhibits the angiogenic effects of various growth factors (VEGF and bFGF) in vivo. sEphB4 also inhibits tumor growth in murine tumor xenograft models. sEphB4 is thus a therapeutic candidate for vascular proliferative diseases and cancer. (+info)
New insights into the biology of preeclampsia. (7/26)Despite recent research progress, the biology of preeclampsia is still poorly understood and neither effective prediction nor causal therapy have yet emerged. Nevertheless, recent studies have documented new and exciting pathophysiological mechanisms for the origin and development of preeclampsia. These studies provide a more differentiated view on alterations of particular peptide systems with strong impact on angiogenesis and cardiovascular regulation in this pregnancy disorder. With the identification of the antiangiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and the agonistic autoantibody to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, two factors have been described with a clear linkage to the development of the disease. This review focuses on the most recent and relevant insights into the biology of preeclampsia and develops hypotheses regarding possible links between the reported aspects of preeclampsia. (+info)
A cell-based model exhibiting branching and anastomosis during tumor-induced angiogenesis. (8/26)This work describes the first cell-based model of tumor-induced angiogenesis. At the extracellular level, the model describes diffusion, uptake, and decay of tumor-secreted pro-angiogenic factor. At the cellular level, the model uses the cellular Potts model based on system-energy reduction to describe endothelial cell migration, growth, division, cellular adhesion, and the evolving structure of the stroma. Numerical simulations show: 1), different tumor-secreted pro-angiogenic factor gradient profiles dramatically affect capillary sprout morphology; 2), average sprout extension speeds depend on the proximity of the proliferating region to the sprout tip, and the coordination of cellular functions; and 3), inhomogeneities in the extravascular tissue lead to sprout branching and anastomosis, phenomena that emerge without any prescribed rules. This model provides a quantitative framework to test hypotheses on the biochemical and biomechanical mechanisms that control tumor-induced angiogenesis. (+info)
The aim: To find out typical pathomorphological differences in placenta of women with early and late preeclampsia. Materials and methods: Investigation includes 40 placentas from deliveries in women with preeclampsia (main group) and 40 placentas from physiological delivery in somatically healthy women, who had no complications during pregnancy (control group). Placentas in the main group were devided into two sub-groups (20 in each) - with early and late preeclampsia. Specialties of the blood vessels in normal pregnancy were investigated, and their structural transformation with the developement of preeclampsia, according to the appearence of perinatal pathology. Morphometrical data of the blood stream was investigated with the help of eyepiece and program Image Tools 3,6. Results: Significant decrease of weight (p,0,05), square and volume of placenta was common to early preeclampsia, comparing to the same characteristics in late Preeclampsia (PE). Specific gravity of villi without vessels, ...
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... angiogenesis modulating agents MeSH D27.505.696.377.077.077 --- angiogenesis inducing agents MeSH D27.505.696.377.077.099 --- ... fibrin modulating agents MeSH D27.505.519.421.500 --- antifibrinolytic agents MeSH D27.505.519.421.750 --- fibrinolytic agents ... lipotropic agents MeSH D27.505.954.248 --- antineoplastic agents MeSH D27.505.954.248.025 --- angiogenesis inhibitors MeSH ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ...
Targeted agents are designed to be selective in their effects by modulating the activity of proteins necessary and essential ... for oncogenesis and maintenance of cancer, particularly enzymes driving the uncontrolled growth, angiogenesis, invasiveness, ... Targeted lung cancer agents in current use. While a very large number of agents targeting various molecular pathways are ... some small case series suggest that some agents currently in use may be beneficial in c-SCLC. Many targeted agents appear more ...
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... thereby reducing tumor agents and increasing efficiency of electron transfer by modulating the activity of glucose oxidase. ... The process of angiogenesis involves the use of both promoters and inhibitors, balancing the process by only forming new blood ... As AuNPs reduce angiogenesis, rheumatoid arthritis is reduced as a result. Chamberland et al studied the use of anti-TNF ... The issue of angiogenesis describes the formation of new blood vessels, which not only increased spread of cancerous cells, but ...
For example, the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin has been used as an anti-tumor agent. The drug was originally thought to function ... Together with its co-chaperones, Hsp90 modulates tumour cell apoptosis "mediated through effects on AKT, tumor necrosis factor ... angiogenesis, and metastasis. Hsp90 plays apparently conflicting roles in the cell, as it is essential for both the creation ... Both are important for de novo angiogenesis that is required for tumour growth beyond the limit of diffusion distance of oxygen ...
The most common way to target this pathway is modulate SMO. Antagonist and agonist of SMO have already shown to affect the ... Hedgehog signaling also appears to be a crucial regulator of angiogenesis and thus metastasis. Activation of the Hedgehog ... The most clinically advanced SMO targeting agents are cyclopamine-competitive. Itraconazole (Sporanox) has also been shown to ... Velcheti, V (2007). "Hedgehog signaling is a potent regulator of angiogenesis in small cell lung cancer". Medical Hypotheses. ...
TNC is an adhesion-modulating extracellular matrix glycoprotein. It is highly expressed in tumor stroma and stimulates tumor- ... Mammalian heparanase: involvement in cancer metastasis, angiogenesis and normal development. Cancer Biology, Vol. 12, 2002: pp ... potent bone resorptive agents) and stimulating bone resorption. After the breast-cancer cells have left the primary tumor, they ... MMP-2 is unlike other MMP's as its activity is modulated by metalloproteases called tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (TIMP ...
In addition, S1P modulates the proliferation of skin cells. This in particular applies to keratinocytes while fibroblasts are ... Administration of S1P has been shown to protect oocytes from chemotherapeutic agents in vitro, as well as in vivo from ... In the vascular system, S1P regulates angiogenesis, vascular stability, and permeability. In the immune system, it is now ... angiogenesis Given its role in creating new blood vessels, scientists recognize S1P as vital to human health - and a player in ...
These effects are modulated by the P2RY1 and the P2Y12 receptors. The P2RY1 receptor is responsible for shape change in ... Like most immunomodulating agents, ATP can act either as an immunosuppressive or an immunostimulatory factor, depending on the ... Adenosine receptors affect bronchial reactivity, endothelial permeability, fibrosis, angiogenesis and mucus production. ... Extracellular purines modulate fibroblast proliferation by binding onto adenosine receptors and P2 receptors to influence ...
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On the basis of the available data, it was proposed that GHK-Cu functions by modulating copper intake into cells. In the late ... 2005:549-563 Uno H, Kurata S "Chemical agents and peptides affect hair growth. J Invest Dermatol. 1993; 101(1 Suppl):143S-147S ... angiogenesis, and wound closure in both wound chambers and full thickness wounds. Biotinylated GHK-Cu was incorporated into a ... Thus, GHK-Cu's ability to bind copper and to modulate its tissue level is a key factor determining its biological activity. " ...
... also helps promote angiogenesis. The roles of galectins and galectin-3, in particular, in cancer have been heavily ... Galectin-3 associates with the primary cilium and modulates renal cyst growth in congenital polycystic kidney disease. A ... targeting the actions of galectin-3 poses a promising therapeutic strategy for the development of effective therapeutic agents ... angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis. Galectin-3 is encoded by a single gene, LGALS3, located on chromosome 14, locus q21-q22. ...
Cao, Yihai (2007-09-01). "Angiogenesis modulates adipogenesis and obesity". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 117 (9): ... "Anti-VEGF agents confer survival advantages to tumor-bearing mice by improving cancer-associated systemic syndrome". ... "Angiogenesis in Obesity & Diabetes , School of Medicine". medicine.dundee.ac.uk. Retrieved 2017-02-22. "Axel Hirsch Prize for ... Cao, Y.; Chen, C.; Weatherbee, J. A.; Tsang, M.; Folkman, J. (1995-12-01). "gro-beta, a -C-X-C- chemokine, is an angiogenesis ...
DG-041, a highly selective EP3 antagonist, has been proposed to warrant further study as anti-thrombosis agent. GR 63799X, MB- ... Takeuchi K, Kato S, Amagase K (2010). "Prostaglandin EP receptors involved in modulating gastrointestinal mucosal integrity". ... and a tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Many drugs that act on EP3 and, often, other prostaglandin receptors ...
Where classes of agents are listed, there may be exceptions within the class. Inhibitors of CYP2C9 can be classified by their ... "Dietary omega-3 fatty acids modulate the eicosanoid profile in man primarily via the CYP-epoxygenase pathway". J. Lipid Res. 55 ... Zhang G, Kodani S, Hammock BD (Jan 2014). "Stabilized epoxygenated fatty acids regulate inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 47 (11): 3464-9. doi:10.1128/AAC.47.11.3464-3469.2003. PMC 253795 . PMID 14576103. ...
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Gα12 and Gα13 modulate cytoskeletal remodeling and cell-shape changes and Gαq modulates several cellular effector functions. ... It was also shown in vivo that S1P synergizes with angiogenic factors such as FGF-2 and VEGF in inducing angiogenesis and ... Fingolimod, a drug which internalizes the receptor, is approved as a disease modifying agent in MS. There are other Sphingosine ... Depending on the G protein coupled with the S1PR1, diverse cellular effects are achieved: Gαi and Gαo modulate cellular ...
Norrby K (1995). "Evidence of a dual role of endogenous histamine in angiogenesis". Int J Exp Pathol. 76 (2): 87-92. PMC ... Consequently, unlike the H1-antihistamines which are sedating, H3-antihistamines have stimulant and cognition-modulating ... Examples include: Cimetidine Famotidine Lafutidine Nizatidine Ranitidine Roxatidine Tiotidine These are experimental agents and ... Histamine also promotes angiogenesis. Antihistamines suppress the histamine-induced wheal response (swelling) and flare ...
4-OHT binds to ER, the ER/tamoxifen complex recruits other proteins known as co-repressors and then binds to DNA to modulate ... Clinical trials on angiogenesis inhibitors have been underway since 1992 using myriad different drugs. The Harvard researchers ... Cole MP, Jones CT, Todd ID (Jun 1971). "A new anti-oestrogenic agent in late breast cancer. An early clinical appraisal of ... It is a nonsteroidal agent with potent antiestrogenic properties which compete with estrogen for binding sites in breast and ...
... modulating agents and structure-function relationships". Expert Rev Proteomics. 9 (3): 181-199. doi:10.1586/epr.12.12. PMID ... ANGPTL4-deficient mice exhibit delayed wound reepithelialization with impaired keratinocyte migration, angiogenesis and altered ... ANGPTL4 plays an important role in numerous cancers and is implicated in the metastatic process by modulating vascular ... "ANGPTL4 modulates vascular junction integrity by integrin signaling and disruption of intercellular VE-cadherin and claudin-5 ...
It has been observed that it not only induces apoptosis but can also inhibit the cell cycle, and has marked anti-angiogenesis ... Arsenic is a fairly ancient human therapeutic agent, however it has only recently returned to the forefront of cancer treatment ... "Phosphorylation of the leukemic oncoprotein EVI1 on serine 196 modulates DNA binding, transcriptional repression and ... HSCs secrete angiopoietin, and its receptor molecule Tie2 has been implicated in angiogenesis of tumors in both humans and mice ...
... saliva also contains enzymes that aid in sugar feeding, and antimicrobial agents to control bacterial growth in ... It is now well recognized that feeding ticks, sandflies, and, more recently, mosquitoes, have an ability to modulate the immune ... Mosquito saliva acts to reduce vascular constriction, blood clotting, platelet aggregation, angiogenesis and immunity, and ... Canyon DV, Hii JL (October 1997). "The gecko: an environmentally friendly biological agent for mosquito control". Medical and ...
"Activin receptor-like kinase 1 modulates transforming growth factor-beta 1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis". Proc. ... "Transforming growth factor-beta is a potent immunosuppressive agent that inhibits IL-1-dependent lymphocyte proliferation". J. ... "Transforming growth factor-beta inhibits human antigen-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation without modulating the cytokine ...
Combining ABT-737 with second agents that inactivate Mcl-1 may reduce this effect. ABT-737 has demonstrated single-agent ... mTOR inhibitors lead to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and also inhibits tumor angiogenesis by reducing synthesis of VEGF. A ... The mechanism of action of Rituximab against DLBCL is not fully understood, but studies suggest that rituximab modulates ... Reduced susceptibility to apoptosis increases the resistance of cancer cells to radiation and cytotoxic agents. B-cell lymphoma ...
"A Novel MMP-2 Inhibitor 3-azidowithaferin A (3-azidoWA) Abrogates Cancer Cell Invasion and Angiogenesis by Modulating ... Therefore, withaferin A can be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cervical cancer without major side effects. ... 2004). "Withaferin A is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis". Angiogenesis. 7 (2): 115-122. doi:10.1007/s10456-004-1026-3. PMID ... It is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activity of withaferin A is due to the inhibition of ...
The role of angiogenesis in the support of myleoma was first discovered by Vacca in 1994. They discovered increased bone marrow ... The molecule had been reported to be an even more potent teratogenic agent than thalidomide in rats, rabbits and monkeys. ... Thalidomide and its immune-modulating analogs alter the production of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-12 and ... Angiogenesis or the growth of new blood vessels has been reported to correspond with MM progression where vascular endothelial ...
... and modulate VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. NEUROPILIN-1 and NEUROPILIN-2 differ in their binding specificities, and are ... and modulate VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. NEUROPILIN-1 and NEUROPILIN-2 differ in their binding specificities, and are ... Bio-Agent Context: Research Results. *Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Membrane Proteins: 5300*Cell Surface ... in breast cancer development and angiogenesis. ". 01/01/2013 - "To quantify heterogeneity in angiogenesis-related gene ...
Angiogenesis Modulating Agents. Growth Substances. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Growth Inhibitors. Antineoplastic Agents. ... Changes in tumour uptake of the fluciclatide imaging agent [ Time Frame: Prior to starting anti-angiogenic treatment, repeat ... Number of participants with adverse events attributed to the 18F-RDG-PET imaging agent (CTCAE Criteria) ... Participants will receive one injection of the imaging agent at this dose on 3 occasions ...
Angiogenesis Modulating Agents. Growth Substances. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Growth Inhibitors. Antineoplastic Agents. ... Measures of tumor angiogenesis are intratumoral microvessel density (MVD), vessel diameter, and vascular pericyte coverage ... Amount of 89Zr-bevacizumab uptake in IBC tumor and measures of tumor angiogenesis in research biopsy specimens. [ Time Frame: 2 ... Pilot Study of Zirconium-89 Bevacizumab Positron Emission Tomography for Imaging Angiogenesis in Patients With Inflammatory ...
Immunosuppressive Agents. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Angiogenesis Inhibitors. Angiogenesis Modulating ... Antineoplastic Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Enzyme Inhibitors. ... More than 2 weeks since prior and no concurrent thrombolytic agents. * Anticoagulation therapy with warfarin or low molecular ...
Angiogenesis Inhibitors. Angiogenesis Modulating Agents. Growth Substances. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Growth Inhibitors. ... Antineoplastic Agents. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic. ...
Antineoplastic Agents. Angiogenesis Inhibitors. Angiogenesis Modulating Agents. Growth Substances. Physiological Effects of ... Ling et al, 2007) A Chinese phase III clinical trial in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, endostar--a new angiogenesis ... Ling et al, 2007) A Chinese phase III clinical trial in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, endostar--a new angiogenesis ... It is hypothesized that other anti-angiogenic agents such as endostar, may augment the effect of chemotherapy regimens in CRC. ...
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological. Antineoplastic Agents. Angiogenesis Inhibitors. Angiogenesis Modulating Agents. Growth ... More than 2 weeks since prior and no concurrent thrombolytic agents. * Anticoagulation therapy with warfarin or low molecular ...
Here we show that EM011 (9-bromonoscapine), a microtubule-modulating agent, inhibits a spectrum of angiogenic events by ... Here we show that EM011 (9-bromonoscapine), a microtubule-modulating agent, inhibits a spectrum... ... the master regulator of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, microtubule-disrupting agents that perturb the HIF-1α axis and ... the master regulator of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, microtubule-disrupting agents that perturb the HIF-1α axis and ...
... and/or antirestenotic agents are delivered to the wall of a blood vessel and antithrombotic agents, antiplatelet agents, and/or ... different quantities of therapeutic agents, or different release profiles of the same or different therapeutic agents in ... In particular, the invention relates to the delivery of different therapeutic agents, ... or antiangiogenic agents and/or vasodilators to a blood vessel. In one embodiment, antiproliferative, antineoplastic, ...
Angiogenesis Modulating Agents (29). Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers (21) • Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE ... Anti-Angiogenesis Effect (0) see Angiogenesis Inhibitors. Anti-Anxiety Agents (86) • Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, ... Angiogenesis Inducing Agents (2). Angiogenesis Inhibitors (29) • Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit ... Anti-Mycobacterial Agents (0) see Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Obesity Agents (24) • Agents that increase energy expenditure and ...
Angiogenesis Inhibitors. Phase 2. 8. Angiogenesis Modulating Agents. Phase 2. 9. Antibodies. Phase 2. ...
Angiogenesis Inhibitors. Phase 2. 46. Dihematoporphyrin Ether. Phase 2. 47. Angiogenesis Modulating Agents. Phase 2. ... Biomarkers of Angiogenesis and Disease in Patients With Unresectable Malignant Mesothelioma Treated on Clinical Trial CALGB- ...
Find technical definitions and synonyms by letter for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to ... This agent also inhibits tumor growth by modulating angiogenesis-associated growth factors and their receptors and exhibits ... In vitro, these agents have been shown to increase the rate of apoptosis, and inhibit cell proliferation and angiogenesis. ... Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus) fluorescent cRGDY PEG-Cy5.5 C dots An imaging agent composed ...
A number of molecularly targeted agents were reported to modulate angiogenesis, growth factor receptors, cell cycle, and ... and biologic agents . Xanthohumol was reported to modulate activity of estrogen synthase and decrease estrogen synthesis in ... Xanthohumol is a prenylated chalcone naturally found in hop plants, previously reported to be an effective anticancer agent in ... However, at present, the use of these agents results in medical complications and different grades of toxicities, such as ...
"Angiogenesis Modulating Agents.". http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1433997986#Topic/angiogenesis_modulating_ ... Angiogenesis Modulating Agents.. This is a placeholder reference for a Topic entity, related to a WorldCat Entity. Over time, ... Angiogenesis Inducing Agents.. This is a placeholder reference for a Topic entity, related to a WorldCat Entity. Over time, ... http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1433997986#Topic/angiogenesis_modulating_agents ...
... has been directed toward the development of pharmacological agents that modulate specific pathways associated with angiogenesis ... Flt-1 and KDR ribozymes significantly decreased angiogenesis when tested in a corneal pocket model of VEGF-induced angiogenesis ... Folkman J. Angiogenesis in cancer, vascular, rheumatoid and other disease. Nat. Med., 1: 27-31, 1995. ... Thomas K. A. Vascular endothelial growth factor, a potent and selective angiogenic agent. J. Biol. Chem., 271: 603-606, 1996. ...
Cinnamon extract suppresses tumor progression by modulating angiogenesis and the effecter function of CD8þ T cells. Cancer Lett ... Novel angiogenesis inhibitory activity in cinnamon extract blocks VEGFR2 kinase and downstream signaling. Carcinogenesis. 2010; ... Bhatt N. (2018) Cinnamon as a Cancer Therapeutic Agent. In: Waly M., Rahman M. (eds) Bioactive Components, Diet and Medical ... Rasayana drugs from the Ayurvedic system of medicine as possible radioprotective agents in cancer treatment. Integr Cancer Ther ...
The journal also welcomes preclinical and clinical trials of drugs that can modulate PPAR activity, with a view to treating ... ANGPTL4 belongs to a superfamily of secreted proteins structurally related to factors modulating angiogenesis known as ... modulating agents and structure-function relationships," Expert Review of Proteomics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 181-199, 2012. View at ... ANGPTL4-modulating agents, such as PPARs, fatty acids, and specific drugs, could be useful for treatment of associated diseases ...
A number of molecularly targeted agents had been reported to modulate angiogenesis development element receptors cell routine ... Nevertheless at present the usage of these real estate agents leads to medical complications and various marks of toxicities ... Amongst they are the chemotherapeutic real estate agents currently utilized as advanced and metastatic cervical tumor treatment ... Furthermore xanthohumol modulated the alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes which were indicated in malignant cells  and could ...
... endothelial cells are seeded on a thick gel of Basement Membrane Extract in the presence of angiogenesis modulating agents. If ... Cultrex® In Vitro Angiogenesis Assay Tube Formation Kit. $264.00. The Cultrex® In Vitro Angiogenesis Assay Tube Formation Kit ... Cultrex® In Vitro Angiogenesis Assay Kit provides a cost-effective method for investigation of prospective angiogenesis ... Cultrex® In Vitro Angiogenesis Assay Endothelial Cell Invasion Kit. View Details. $374.00 Add to cart ...
... angiogenesis modulating agents MeSH D27.505.696.377.077.077 --- angiogenesis inducing agents MeSH D27.505.696.377.077.099 --- ... fibrin modulating agents MeSH D27.505.519.421.500 --- antifibrinolytic agents MeSH D27.505.519.421.750 --- fibrinolytic agents ... lipotropic agents MeSH D27.505.954.248 --- antineoplastic agents MeSH D27.505.954.248.025 --- angiogenesis inhibitors MeSH ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ...
... therapeutic efforts focused on modulating angiogenesis are increasing (32, 33, 34) . The initial agent investigated in this ... Is VEGF the best target if we wish to modulate angiogenesis in patients with MM? Although both preclinical and clinical data ... Patients receiving drugs and agents that inhibit or induce this enzyme, including some antifungal agents (45) and macrolide ... angiogenesis-modulating properties (34 , 61) . Thalidomide is a potent suppressor of VEGF in a number of in vitro models (62) ...
Angiogenesis Modulating Agents, Growth and Development, Lymphangiogenesis, Angiogenesis, Mouse Neonatal Retina, ... Moreover, the assay is highly suited to studies of the combined effects on angiogenesis of agents that are administered ... as the angiogenesis-modulating test drugs are administered systemically and the responses observed reflect the net effect of ... angiogenesis-suppressive, neutral or angiogenesis-stimulating activities5); (ii) natural iron-unsaturated human lactoferrin, ...
Compared with other broad-spectrum agents that modulate angiogenesis through control of inflammation such as corticosteroid, ... Most of these agents modulate angiogenic pathways by blocking growth factors or specific signal mediators. Vascular endothelial ... Angiogenesis in wound healing. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc . 2000; 5: 40-46. [CrossRef] [PubMed] ... Tumor angiogenesis. N Engl J Med . 2008; 358: 2039-2049. [CrossRef] [PubMed] ...
KEY WORDS: Endothelium; Exercise; Physiologic Neovascularization; Angiogenesis Modulating Agents.. How to cite this article. ... In this review, the main mechanisms involved in the physiological regulation of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are addressed. ... angiogenesis). The angiogenic factor that induces morphological and functional changes in the endothelial cells is the VEGFA, ...
Vascular endothInhibitsNeovascularizationXanthohumol modulated the alkaline phosphatase isoenzymesExpression of angiogenesis-related genesInducesMetastasisAnti-angiogenesisInflammationInhibitionEndothelial cellPathologicalTumourEndogenousMicroenvironmentRole in angiogenesisProliferation and angiogenesisVasculogenesis and angiogenesisChemotherapyInducing AgentsGrowthProgressionDiabeticTherapeutic angiogenesisTumorsTissuesMaturationDiseasesProteinsVasculatureTumoursInductionChemotherapeutic agentsMethodsNormal physiologicalAntiangiogenic TherapyStimulateTranscriptionalAssayAnticancerMetabolismHypoxiaBlood vesselClinicalVitroWoundMolecules
- In particular, we have investigated ribozymes that target the mRNA of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors because VEGF signaling is an important mediator of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Increased bone marrow angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels are of adverse prognostic significance in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). VEGF, a soluble circulating angiogenic molecule, acts via receptor tyrosine kinases, including VEGF receptor 2. (aacrjournals.org)
- Evidence suggests that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a 40 kDa dimeric glycoprotein, promotes angiogenesis in each of these conditions, making it a highly significant therapeutic target. (elsevier.com)
- In addition, this agent appears to modulate the expression of angiogenesis-related genes, such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1a) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thus impairing endothelial cell chemotaxis and invasion. (medkoo.com)
- Many of these new agents primarily target the vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway, inducing rapid vasoconstriction by decreasing the relaxation of pericytes and smooth muscle cells followed by slower responses, including the inhibition of new blood vessel formation and pruning of immature vessels ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Here we show that EM011 (9-bromonoscapine), a microtubule-modulating agent, inhibits a spectrum. (oup.com)
- Here we show that EM011 (9-bromonoscapine), a microtubule-modulating agent, inhibits a spectrum of angiogenic events by interfering with endothelial cell invasion, migration and proliferation. (oup.com)
- One such agent, silibinin, inhibits the growth of various cancer cell lines and primary tumors in several chemically induced rodent models, including mouse lung ( 3 - 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- In addition, this agent inhibits both the extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation cascades, preventing blood clot formation. (newyorkoncology.com)
- all of this research led to the discov ery that thiabendazole (antifungal drug that has been used for fourty years) strongly inhibits angiogenesis in the anima l models and human cells. (techylib.com)
- Impeding macrophage entry into hypoxic tumor areas by Sema3A/Nrp1 signaling blockade inhibits angiogenesis and restores antitumor immunity. (springer.com)
- Thus, microtubule-disrupting agents that perturb the HIF-1α axis and neovascularization cascade are attractive anticancer drug candidates. (oup.com)
- A novel EC-specific tubulogenesis assay highlights strikingly different angiogenic properties of different EPCs: late OECs directly participate in tubulogenesis, whereas early EPCs augment angiogenesis in a paracrine fashion, with implications for optimizing cell therapies for neovascularization. (nih.gov)
- Thus, we hypothesize that curcumin could promote neovascularization at sites of hindlimb ischemia in diabetes and might take effect via modulating the function of EPCs. (biomedcentral.com)
- Neovascularization, including angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, plays a crucial role in the delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and other mediators at the injury and ischemic sites. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition, xanthohumol modulated the alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes that were expressed in malignant tissues [ 8 ] and was able to inhibit production of inflammatory factors, DNA synthesis and angiogenesis in MCF-7 cells, and breast cancer xenografts in mice [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Furthermore xanthohumol modulated the alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes which were indicated in malignant cells and could inhibit creation of inflammatory elements DNA synthesis and angiogenesis in MCF-7 cells and breasts tumor xenografts in mice . (exposed-skin-care.net)
- Although it is known that exercise induces angiogenesis, a clear mechanism has remained elusive due to various experimental limitations. (bioportfolio.com)
- Herein, we describe a targeted nanoparticle approach encapsulating either a PPARgamma activator or a prostaglandin E2 analog, each of which induces adipose tissue transformation and angiogenesis, facilitating the transformation of WAT into BAT. (pnas.org)
- In the early 1970s (1) , Folkman hypothesized that solid tumor growth and metastasis are critically dependent on angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. (aacrjournals.org)
- Discusses the role of chemokines in mediating leukocyte trafficking, angiogenesis, tumor cell metastasis, host defense, trauma-induced lung injury, and the progression of AIDS in the lung. (infibeam.com)
- Targeted agents are designed to be selective in their effects by modulating the activity of proteins necessary and essential for oncogenesis and maintenance of cancer, particularly enzymes driving the uncontrolled growth, angiogenesis, invasiveness, and metastasis characteristic of malignant tumors. (wikipedia.org)
- This book is a major update of novel targets in angiogenesis modulation, including pro- and anti-angiogenesis. (worldcat.org)
- The impact of nanotechnology in advancing the applications of pro-and anti-angiogenesis strategies is also highlighted, along with stem cell and biotechnologies in research and development of angiogenesis modulating targets. (worldcat.org)
- Our model reproduces corneal angiogenesis experiments and several anti-angiogenesis therapy results. (aimsciences.org)
- Blocking one of these steps using an anti-angiogenesis agent may have limited results due to the tumor's ability to continue the angiogenesis process through use of angiogenesis factor redundancy. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Whilst requiring consistency and care, this murine model does not involve complicated surgical techniques and allows for the robust testing of promising agents that may, for example, promote angiogenesis or inhibit inflammation. (jove.com)
- Angiogenesis might be modulated by inflammation. (bioportfolio.com)
- In view of the current knowledge the author will show that these S100-proteins are reliable clinical parameters as well as attractive targets to modulate inflammation. (eurekaselect.com)
- AnxA1 2-26 ) on heterologous skin scaffolds transplantation in BALB/c mice, focusing on inflammation and angiogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
- Angiogenesis plays a fundamental role in embryonic development, tissue and wound repair, resolution of inflammation, and onset of neoplasia. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Dysregulated expression of S100 protein family members is associated with cancer proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and inflammation. (aacrjournals.org)
- S100A9 is involved in many biological processes including inflammation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The effect of angiogenesis inhibition test agents to cell differentiation can be evaluated using the matrigel differentiation assay, an environment simulating in vitro the natural angiogenic process under study. (inria.fr)
- The workflow is successfully showcased on the basis of a series of matrigel images generated for the evaluation of angiogenesis inhibition compounds, and results are cross-validated with a manual expert scoring. (inria.fr)
- The concept of angioprevention, which is chemoprevention directed at inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, is now an important component in this overall preventive approach ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Decreased production of angiogenesis factors may occur as a result of EGFR inhibition. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Isoflavonoid genistein was observed to get energetic in pancreatic cells by modulating cell cycle and inhibition of angiogenesis. (forumotion.com)
- N-Acetylcysteine Suppresses LPS-Induced Pathological Angiogenesis. (bioportfolio.com)
- Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS. (bioportfolio.com)
- These diseases are all characterized by the reduction of physiological angiogenesis and the following induction of pathological angiogenesis. (cdc.gov)
- The role of myeloid cells in the promotion of tumour angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
- In this Review the evidence for each of these cell types driving tumour angiogenesis is outlined, along with the mechanisms regulating their recruitment and activation by the tumour microenvironment. (nih.gov)
- The attractiveness of the antiangiogenic approach has always been the wide therapeutic window, since all tumours (including liquid such as leukaemias) are angiogenesis dependent, that angiogenesis is highly restricted in the adult, that endothelium of the vessels are accessible and that any treatment would be amplified through subsequent tumour infarction. (biomedcentral.com)
- Indeed, the central tenet that tumours are angiogenesis dependent (in that for a tumour to grow, this must be preceded by a wave of angiogenesis to deliver nutrients and meet the metabolic requirements of the growing tumour) has been challenged. (biomedcentral.com)
- specifically, individual patients given antiangiogenic agents have yet to be selected based on the characteristics of their tumour. (biomedcentral.com)
- The administration of agents based on the biology of the individual tumour (so-called personalized medicine) will become increasingly important not only to generate maximum therapeutic benefit to the patient but also to realize the optimal economic advantage from the finite resources available. (biomedcentral.com)
- PDGFR-α and -β are important new targets in tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- By splinting the wound, the repair process is then dependent on epithelialization, cellular proliferation and angiogenesis, which closely mirror the biological processes of human wound healing. (jove.com)
- It is hypothesized that other anti-angiogenic agents such as endostar, may augment the effect of chemotherapy regimens in CRC. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The chemotherapy drug resistance and non-selectivity toward targets have turned the current cancer research on to the highly emerging selective targets for the development of potential anticancer agents. (intechopen.com)
- We also discuss the therapeutic implications of recent findings that specific myeloid cell populations modulate the responses of tumours to agents such as chemotherapy and some anti-angiogenic therapies. (nih.gov)
- These findings highlight the multiple effects that may characterize antiangiogenic agent/metronomic chemotherapy combinations and suggest that careful optimization of drug scheduling and dosages will be required to maximize antitumor responses. (aacrjournals.org)
- The most extensively studied metronomic chemotherapy uses the oxazaphosphorine alkylating agent cyclophosphamide, which can be administrated on an every 6-day schedule or continuously ( 11 , 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Insufficiency of standard cancer therapeutic agents and a high degree of toxicity associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy have created a dearth of therapeutic options for metastatic cancers. (cancerjournal.net)
- Apart from the crucial functions of the vessels, excessive vascular growth with angiogenesis can lead to undesirable conditions such as allograft rejection after organ transplantation and growth of tumors beyond the limits of oxygen diffusion from the existing vasculature. (arvojournals.org)
- Angiogenesis is a physiological process implicated in growth, invasion and metastization of tumors. (frontiersin.org)
- Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC). (bioportfolio.com)
- L. Arakelyan, V. Vainstein and Z. Agur, A computer algorithm describing the process of vessel formation and maturation, and its use for predicting the effects of anti-angiogenic and anti-maturation therapy on vascular tumor growth ,, Angiogenesis , 5 (2002), 203. (aimsciences.org)
- Angiogenesis, with a prominent role in tumor growth, is a physiological process through which new blood vessels are generated from pre-existing vasculature. (inria.fr)
- Given that adipose tissue expansion and transformation require active growth of new blood vasculature, angiogenesis offers a potential target for the treatment of obesity-associated disorders. (pnas.org)
- At present there are no data available as to its possible influence on tumor angiogenesis, which is a major biological mechanism responsible for tumor growth and dissemination. (ovid.com)
- tumor angiogenesis the induction of the growth of blood vessels from surrounding tissue into a tumor by a diffusible protein factor released by the tumor cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Angiogenesis plays an important role in the growth and spread of cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A major protein involved in regulating the differentiation and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells thus promoting the growth of new blood vessels ( angiogenesis ). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Axitinib significantly inhibited angiogenesis in rat 9L tumors grown s.c. in scid mice but only moderately delayed tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
- The PDRN ameliorated wound healing by enhancing cell growth, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. (bvsalud.org)
- Cinnamon extract suppresses tumor progression by modulating angiogenesis and the effecter function of CD8þ T cells. (springer.com)
- Angiogenesis is a critical step in the progression of almost all human malignancies and some other life-threatening diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
- But , they have d iscovered that during the progression of evolution , a collection of proteins whose function in yeast is to pre serve cell walls , has found another use in vertebrates regulation angiogenesis. (techylib.com)
- The aim of this study was to investigate whether PDRN could improve peripheral tissue oxygenation and angiogenesis in diabetic foot ulcers. (bvsalud.org)
- In addition, angiogenesis, migration, proliferation abilities, and senescence were determined in EPCs isolated from diabetic and nondiabetic mice. (biomedcentral.com)
- BACKGROUND: Wound healing mechanisms is believed to have effects similar to wound healing disorders in diabetic patients, including abnormal inflammatory cells, angiogenesis disorders, and reduced collagen synthesis. (bvsalud.org)
- Therapeutic angiogenesis refers to strategies of inducing angiogenesis to treat diseases involving ischemic conditions. (cdc.gov)
- In this review, we propose the clinical application of therapeutic angiogenesis for the treatment of pediatric ischemic retinopathy, including retinopathy of prematurity, familial exudative retinopathy, and NDP -related retinopathy. (cdc.gov)
- Therapeutic angiogenesis, which supplements insufficient physiological angiogenesis, may be a therapeutic approach for ischemic conditions. (cdc.gov)
- Various molecules and modalities can be utilized to apply therapeutic angiogenesis for the treatment of ischemic retinopathy, as in coronary and peripheral artery diseases. (cdc.gov)
- Radiolableled amino acid-based agents are useful in PET brain tumor imaging because F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG), commonly used in PET tumor imaging, is relatively insensitive for detecting tumors in the brain due the high levels of glycolytic metabolism in the normal cortex and to a lesser extent in white matter. (cancer.gov)
- The role of angiogenesis has been less clear in lymphoma than in solid tumors, in part related to the heterogeneity of disease and technical issues. (bioportfolio.com)
- Folkman, J., "What is the Evidence that Tumors are Angiogenesis Dependent? (patentgenius.com)
- Uptake of this agent depends upon the ER status of target tissues. (cancer.gov)
- Hypoxia-independent angiogenesis in adipose tissues during cold acclimation. (refine.bio)
- Angiogenesis also occurs in the healthy body for healing of wounds and restoring blood flow to tissues after injury. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The invention relates to a use of an aurantiamide dipepetide derivative in the treatment or prevention of angiogenesis-related diseases. (patents.com)
- Studies cytokines as natural agents for modulating diseases t. (infibeam.com)
- These findings suggest that angiogenesis-targeting moieties with angiogenic stimulator-loaded NPs could be incorporated into effective therapeutic regimens for clinical treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases. (pnas.org)
- Reflecting the increased amino acid transport capacity of tumor cells, F-18 fluroethyltyrosine (F-18 FET) is actively taken up in tumor cells via amino acid transport system L, but is neither incorporated into proteins nor readily degraded, resulting in high intracellular concentrations of this imaging agent. (cancer.gov)
- The angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein belongs to a superfamily of secreted proteins structurally related to factors modulating angiogenesis known as angiopoietins. (hindawi.com)
- Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). (bioportfolio.com)
- This outstanding repurposing of the proteins during evolution led them to hypothesize that, regardless of the different functions of the proteins in humans compared to yeast, drugs that moderated the y east pathway might also moderate angiogenesis in humans and in the animal models. (techylib.com)
- The purpose of this study is to characterize the induction of pathologic angiogenesis in this mouse model. (jove.com)
- Injection of tat -HIF polypeptides in a murine sponge angiogenesis assay causes a markedly accelerated local angiogenic response and induction of glucose transporter-1 gene expression. (pnas.org)
- Induction of angiogenesis during the transition from hyperplasia to neoplasia", Nature, vol. 339, pp. 58-61 (1989). (patentgenius.com)
- In addition, F16-IL2 may potentiate the cytotoxicity of other chemotherapeutic agents. (cancer.gov)
- In addition, this agent is able to sensitize FACT-positive tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of other chemotherapeutic agents. (cancer.gov)
- Amongst these are the chemotherapeutic agents currently used as advanced and metastatic cervical cancer treatment options, such as cisplatin, paclitaxel, topotecan, cetuximab, and bevacizumab. (hindawi.com)
- Factors such as hypoxia, irradiation or chemotherapeutic agents can cause irreversible DNA damage and activate the apoptotic process, thus diminishing the risk of a possibly harmful mutation and malignant transformation (Kumar et al. (springeropen.com)
- The treatment of cancer with chemotherapeutic agents and radiation has two major problems: tumor resistance to therapy and toxicity toward normal cells. (essense-of-life.com)
- Breast cancer is a major global health problem, and most of the chemotherapeutic agents are highly toxic with long-term side effects. (biomedcentral.com)
- The Cultrex® In Vitro Angiogenesis Assay Tube Formation Kit is designed to interrogate endothelial assembly in response to compounds and soluble factors. (trevigen.com)
- During the course of the assay, endothelial cells are seeded on a thick gel of Basement Membrane Extract in the presence of angiogenesis modulating agents. (trevigen.com)
- Strikingly different angiogenic properties of endothelial progenitor cell subpopulations: insights from a novel human angiogenesis assay. (nih.gov)
- and (c) detecting a test agent-biased activity of the assay system, wherein a difference between the test agent-biased activity and the reference activity identifies the test agent as a candidate branching morphogenesis modulating agent. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 2. The method of claim 1 wherein the assay system includes a screening assay comprising a MBM polypeptide, and the candidate test agent is a small molecule modulator. (freepatentsonline.com)
- This is the first report to describe a previously unrecognized, antiangiogenic property of a noscapinoid, EM011, and provides evidence for novel anticancer strategies recruited by microtubule-modulating drugs. (oup.com)
- Xanthohumol is a prenylated chalcone naturally found in hop plants, previously reported to be an effective anticancer agent in various cancer cell lines. (hindawi.com)
- Therefore, it would lead to providing a path for the development of novel target-specific and highly effective benzimidazole-based anticancer agents. (intechopen.com)
- The critical contribution of this angiogenic factor in controlling many of the processes involved in angiogenesis and its importance as a paradigm for the rational design of an anticancer agent have been among the successes of antiangiogenic treatment, which was first suggested by Judah Folkman more than 35 years ago. (biomedcentral.com)
- The activity of curcumin as anticancer agent could be elevated by combination with compounds having result as G2 checkpoint abrogator. (forumotion.com)
- Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (cancer.gov)
- While there have been no randomized clinical trials of targeted agents in combined small-cell lung carcinoma (c-SCLC), [ citation needed ] some small case series suggest that some may be useful in c-SCLC. (wikipedia.org)
- This review reports about some important and promising molecules from natural resources, which modulate the ER expression and ultimately cause modulations in breast cancer and related clinical problems. (eurekaselect.com)
- We hypothesized that (a) acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM), and (b) that these reductions are modulated by stress hormone release. (jove.com)
- There is, therefore, an increasing impetus to develop novel agents that promote wound repair. (jove.com)
- Angiogenesis in the normal human adult is highly restricted, largely to wound healing and reproduction. (biomedcentral.com)
- Therefore, reestablishment of structural and promoted angiogenesis could be beneficial to promote wound healing process. (bvsalud.org)
- RESULTS: Time course observations revealed that mice treated with PDRN showed accelerated wound closure and epidermal and dermal regeneration, enhanced angiogenesis. (bvsalud.org)
- CONCLUSION: This study suggests that our PDRN has a wound healing effect in transgenic animal models with cells and diabetes through angiogenesis. (bvsalud.org)
- These chemopreventive molecules that target the nuclear factor-κB pathway are a large, structurally diverse group, but this common target suggests that it is a critical pathway modulated in endothelial cells during tumor angiogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Mahmud T. Hassan Khan and Arjumand Ather, " Molecules from Nature: Modulating the Expression of Estrogen Receptor Genes in Breast Cancer Cells", Current Bioactive Compounds (2006) 2: 143. (eurekaselect.com)
- Modulating agents may additionally comprise one or more cell adhesion recognition sequences recognized by other adhesion molecules. (justia.com)