Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Angiostatic proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of COLLAGEN TYPE XVIII.
Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes consisting of three isoprene units, forming a 15-carbon skeleton, which can be found in various plant essential oils and are known for their diverse chemical structures and biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Circulating 38-kDa proteins that are internal peptide fragments of PLASMINOGEN. The name derives from the fact that they are potent ANGIOGENESIS INHIBITORS. Angiostatins contain four KRINGLE DOMAINS which are associated with their potent angiostatic activity.
An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Compounds that differ from COUMARINS in having the positions of the ring and ketone oxygens reversed so the keto oxygen is at the 1-position of the molecule.
A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Triple-looped protein domains linked by disulfide bonds. These common structural domains, so-named for their resemblance to Danish pastries known as kringlers, play a role in binding membranes, proteins, and phospholipids as well as in regulating proteolysis. Kringles are also present in coagulation-related and fibrinolytic proteins and other plasma proteinases.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM it binds to specific N-linked oligosaccharides found on newly-synthesized proteins and functions as a MOLECULAR CHAPERONE that may play a role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate intracellular calcium HOMEOSTASIS.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Phthalazines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused with a 1,2-diazine ring, which have been used as intermediates in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and dyes.
The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Agents that modulate the PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS process. This is accomplished by endogenous ANGIOGENIC PROTEINS and a variety of other chemicals and pharmaceutical agents.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus without a thymus and with depressed or absent T-cell function. This strain of rats may have a small amount of hair at times, but then lose it.
Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
Indazoles are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring fused with a pyrazole ring, and they are used as building blocks in the synthesis of various pharmaceutical drugs.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of 2-deoxy-D-ribose from THYMIDINE to orthophosphate, thereby liberating thymidine.
Compounds that inhibit the enzyme activity or activation of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES.
Dimeric cell surface receptor involved in angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL) and axonal guidance. Neuropilin-1 is a 140-kDa transmembrane protein that binds CLASS 3 SEMAPHORINS, and several other growth factors. Neuropilin-1 forms complexes with plexins or VEGF RECEPTORS, and binding affinity and specificity are determined by the composition of the neuropilin dimer and the identity of other receptors complexed with it. Neuropilin-1 is expressed in distinct patterns during neural development, complementary to those described for NEUROPILIN-2.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.

Recombinant adenovirus expressing wild-type p53 is antiangiogenic: a proposed mechanism for bystander effect. (1/4006)

Angiogenesis is required for the growth and progression of malignancies. Recent studies have demonstrated that genetic alterations may accompany acquisition of the angiogenic phenotype. The tumor suppressor gene p53 is most frequently mutated in human cancers and is also known to be a transcriptional regulator of a variety of genes. Here, we investigated the antiangiogenic effect of the wild-type p53 (wt-p53) gene transfer on a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line. Mutant p53-expressing H226Br non-small cell lung cancer cells were transduced with the wt-p53 gene using a recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad5CMVp53) and applied to semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCRs for the detection of altered mRNA expression of angiogenic and/or antiangiogenic factors. In vivo neovascularization assay of Ad5CMVp53-infected cells was then performed using a membrane-diffusion chamber system s.c. transplanted in nu/nu mice. We also evaluated the effect of Ad5CMVp53-infected H226Br cells on nontransduced tumor cells in vivo by s.c. inoculating mixture of cells into nu/nu mice. Ad5CMVp53 infection markedly inhibited the expression of an angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and increased the expression of a novel antiangiogenic factor, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1, resulting in reduced neovascularization in vivo. Mixing experiments showed that tumor cells transduced with the wt-p53 gene inhibited the in vivo tumor growth of adjacent nontransduced cells. Our data suggest that a recombinant adenovirus expressing the wt-p53 gene is antiangiogenic, which may explain, in part, the mechanism of the bystander effect induced by the wt-p53 gene transfer on adjacent tumor cells.  (+info)

Calreticulin and calreticulin fragments are endothelial cell inhibitors that suppress tumor growth. (2/4006)

Several angiogenesis inhibitors are fragments of larger proteins that are themselves not active as angiogenesis inhibitors. Vasostatin, the N-terminal domain of calreticulin inclusive of amino acids 1-180, is an angiogenesis inhibitor that exerts antitumor effects in vivo. In the present study, we examined whether the full-length calreticulin molecule shares the antiangiogenic and antitumor activities of vasostatin. Similar to vasostatin, calreticulin selectively inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in vitro, but not cells of other lineages, and suppressed angiogenesis in vivo. When inoculated into athymic mice, calreticulin inhibited Burkitt tumor growth comparably with vasostatin. Calreticulin lacking the N-terminal 1-120 amino acids inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and Burkitt tumor growth in vivo comparably with vasostatin. An internal calreticulin fragment encompassing amino acids 120-180 also inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo comparably with calreticulin and vasostatin. These results suggest that the antiangiogenic activities of vasostatin reside in a domain that is accessible from the full-length calreticulin molecule and localize to calreticulin N-terminal amino acids 120-180. Thus, calreticulin and calreticulin fragments are inhibitors of angiogenesis that directly target endothelial cells, inhibit angiogenesis, and suppress tumor growth. This information may be critical in designing targeted inhibitors of pathological angiogenesis that underlies cancer and other diseases.  (+info)

Inhibition of angiogenesis and intrahepatic growth of colon cancer by TAC-101. (3/4006)

We demonstrated in this study that inhibition of intra-hepatic growth of colon cancer by TAC-101 is mediated by inhibition of angiogenesis. In vitro experiments showed that TAC-101 inhibited the proliferation of murine hepatic sinusoidal endothelial (HSE) cells induced by coculture with murine colon 26-L5 (L5) cells. HSE cell proliferation was also enhanced by conditioned medium of L5 cells (CM-L5), and this enhancement of proliferation was abrogated by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody. CM-L5 also induced in vitro tube formation of HSE cells on Matri-gel, and this activity of CM-L5 was abrogated by TAC-101 in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, p.o. administration of TAC-101 inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis in vivo and decreased the weights of L5 tumors in the mouse liver. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis using in vivo tumor tissue suggested that repression of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by TAC-101 was associated with the antiangiogenic activity. TAC-101 alone and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/D,L-leucovorin (LV) significantly inhibited the intrahepatic growth of L5 tumors (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively), whereas 5-FU alone did not (P = 0.088). When TAC-101 was administered with 5-FU/LV, marked enhancement of antitumor activity was observed (95% inhibition; P<0.001). This enhanced antitumor effect was also observed in experiments using Co-3 human colon adenocarcinoma. Concurrent treatment with TAC-101 and 5-FU/LV and sequential treatment with 5-FU/LV followed by TAC-101 resulted in significant augmentation of antitumor activity against Co-3 (overall P = 0.007 and 0.015, respectively). These findings indicate that TAC-101 inhibits tumor angiogenesis and suggest that it may be effective against hepatic metastasis of colon cancer.  (+info)

A pharmacokinetically guided Phase II study of carboxyamido-triazole in androgen-independent prostate cancer. (4/4006)

We conducted a Phase II clinical trial of the antiproliferative, antimetastatic, and antiangiogenic agent carboxyamido-triazole (CAI), using pharmacokinetic assessment to guide drug dosing. Fifteen patients who had stage D2 androgen-independent prostate cancer with soft tissue metastases were enrolled. Because CAI previously had been shown to decrease prostate-specific antigen secretion in vitro, this marker was not used to assess disease status. The dose of CAI used in this study was calculated so that plasma steady-state maximum concentrations between 2.0 and 5.0 microg/ml would be maintained. Following the initial dosage adjustment, 93% (14 of 15) of patients were within the predicted range. Fourteen of 15 patients were evaluable for response. All of the 14 evaluable patients demonstrated progressive disease at approximately 2 months. Twelve patients progressed by computed tomography and or bone scan at 2 months, whereas two patients demonstrated clinical progression at 1.5 and 2 months. One patient was removed from study at 6 weeks due to grade II peripheral neuropathy lasting >1 month. Although no clinical responses were noted, a 27.7% decrease in serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration was observed. CAI does not possess clinical activity in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer and soft tissue metastases. Pharmacokinetically guided dosing, although found to be feasible using a Bayesian approach, was not found to be of practical benefit. Although plasma CAI concentrations were maintained within the designated range, grade III toxicity requiring drug discontinuation was still observed.  (+info)

Angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin is a distinct component of elastic fibers in vessel walls. (5/4006)

Theendothelial cell inhibitor endostatin (22 kDa) is part of the carboxyl-terminal globular domain of collagen XVIII and shows a widespread tissue distribution. Immunohistology of adult mouse tissues demonstrated a preferred localization in many vessel walls and some other basement membrane zones. A strong immunogold staining was observed across elastic fibers in the multiple elastic membranes of aorta and other large arteries. Staining was less strong along sparse elastic fibers of veins and almost none was observed in the walls of arterioles and capillaries. Strong evidence was also obtained for some intracellular and basement membrane associations. Immunogold double staining of elastic fibers showed a close colocalization of endostatin with fibulin-2, fibulin-1, and nidogen-2, but not with perlecan. Reasonable amounts of endostatin could be extracted from aorta and skin by EDTA, followed by detergents, with aorta being the richest source of the inhibitor identified so far. Solubilizations with collagenase and elastase were approximately fivefold less efficient. Immunoblots of aortic extracts detected major endostatin components of 22-25 kDa whereas skin extracts also contained some larger components. Solid-phase assays demonstrated distinct binding of recombinant mouse endostatin to the fibulins and nidogen-2, consistent with their tissue colocalization. Together, the data indicate several different ways for endostatin to be associated with the extracellular matrix, and its release may determine biological activation. This also defines a novel function for some elastic tissues.  (+info)

Antiangiogenic activity of prostate-specific antigen. (6/4006)

BACKGROUND: Measurement of serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely used as a screening tool for prostate cancer. However, PSA is not prostate specific, having been detected in breast, lung, and uterine cancers. In one study, patients whose breast tumors had higher levels of PSA had a better prognosis than patients whose tumors had lower PSA levels. To test the hypothesis that PSA may have antiangiogenic properties, we evaluated the effects of PSA on endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, which are key steps in angiogenesis, the process by which tumors develop a blood supply. METHODS: To assess the antiproliferative effects of PSA, we treated bovine endothelial cells and human endothelial cell lines (HUVEC and HMVEC-d) with purified human PSA (0.1-10 microM) and then stimulated them with 10 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Effects on FGF-2- or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated endothelial cell migration, invasion, and tube formation were measured by use of one cell line only (HUVEC). PSA was administered to mice at 9 microM for 11 consecutive days after intravenous inoculation of B16BL6 melanoma cells to assess its ability to inhibit the formation of lung colonies (i.e., metastatic tumors). RESULTS: PSA inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and invasion at IC(50) (i. e., the concentration at which inhibition was 50%) values ranging from 0.3-5 microM. In addition, PSA inhibited endothelial cell responses to both angiogenic stimulators tested, FGF-2 and VEGF. In a mouse model of metastatic disease, daily PSA treatment resulted in a 40% reduction in the mean number of lung tumor nodules compared with phosphate-buffered saline treatment (two-sided P =.003). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report that PSA may function in tumors as an endogenous antiangiogenic protein. This function may explain, in part, the naturally slow progression of prostate cancer. Our findings call into question various strategies to inhibit the expression of PSA in the treatment of prostate cancer.  (+info)

Antifungal activities of antineoplastic agents: Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to study drug action. (7/4006)

Recent evolutionary studies reveal that microorganisms including yeasts and fungi are more closely related to mammals than was previously appreciated. Possibly as a consequence, many natural-product toxins that have antimicrobial activity are also toxic to mammalian cells. While this makes it difficult to discover antifungal agents without toxic side effects, it also has enabled detailed studies of drug action in simple genetic model systems. We review here studies on the antifungal actions of antineoplasmic agents. Topics covered include the mechanisms of action of inhibitors of topoisomerases I and II; the immunosuppressants rapamycin, cyclosporin A, and FK506; the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin; the angiogenesis inhibitors fumagillin and ovalicin; the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin; and agents that inhibit sphingolipid metabolism. In general, these natural products inhibit target proteins conserved from microorganisms to humans. These studies highlight the potential of microorganisms as screening tools to elucidate the mechanisms of action of novel pharmacological agents with unique effects against specific mammalian cell types, including neoplastic cells. In addition, this analysis suggests that antineoplastic agents and derivatives might find novel indications in the treatment of fungal infections, for which few agents are presently available, toxicity remains a serious concern, and drug resistance is emerging.  (+info)

Tumor development under angiogenic signaling: a dynamical theory of tumor growth, treatment response, and postvascular dormancy. (8/4006)

The effects of the angiogenic inhibitors endostatin, angiostatin, and TNP-470 on tumor growth dynamics are experimentally and theoretically investigated. On the basis of the data, we pose a quantitative theory for tumor growth under angiogenic stimulator/inhibitor control that is both explanatory and clinically implementable. Our analysis offers a ranking of the relative effectiveness of these inhibitors. Additionally, it reveals the existence of an ultimate limitation to tumor size under angiogenic control, where opposing angiogenic stimuli come into dynamic balance, which can be modulated by antiangiogenic therapy. The competitive influences of angiogenically driven growth and inhibition underlying this framework may have ramifications for tissue size regulation in general.  (+info)

Angiogenesis inhibitors are a class of drugs that block the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). They work by targeting specific molecules involved in the process of angiogenesis, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors. By blocking these molecules, angiogenesis inhibitors can prevent the development of new blood vessels that feed tumors, thereby slowing or stopping their growth.

Angiogenesis inhibitors are used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including colon, lung, breast, kidney, and ovarian cancer. They may be given alone or in combination with other cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Some examples of angiogenesis inhibitors include bevacizumab (Avastin), sorafenib (Nexavar), sunitinib (Sutent), and pazopanib (Votrient).

It's important to note that while angiogenesis inhibitors can be effective in treating cancer, they can also have serious side effects, such as high blood pressure, bleeding, and damage to the heart or kidneys. Therefore, it's essential that patients receive careful monitoring and management of these potential side effects while undergoing treatment with angiogenesis inhibitors.

Cyclohexanes are organic compounds that consist of a six-carbon ring arranged in a cyclic structure, with each carbon atom joined to two other carbon atoms by single bonds. This gives the molecule a shape that resembles a hexagonal ring. The carbons in the ring can be saturated, meaning that they are bonded to hydrogen atoms, or they can contain double bonds between some of the carbon atoms.

Cyclohexanes are important intermediates in the production of many industrial and consumer products, including plastics, fibers, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. They are also used as solvents and starting materials for the synthesis of other organic compounds.

One of the most well-known properties of cyclohexane is its ability to exist in two different conformations: a "chair" conformation and a "boat" conformation. In the chair conformation, the carbon atoms are arranged in such a way that they form a puckered ring, with each carbon atom bonded to two other carbons and two hydrogens. This conformation is more stable than the boat conformation, in which the carbon atoms form a flattened, saddle-shaped ring.

Cyclohexanes are relatively nonpolar and have low water solubility, making them useful as solvents for nonpolar substances. They also have a relatively high boiling point compared to other hydrocarbons of similar molecular weight, due to the fact that they can form weak intermolecular forces called London dispersion forces.

Cyclohexane is a flammable liquid with a mild, sweet odor. It is classified as a hazardous substance and should be handled with care. Exposure to cyclohexane can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects, including neurological damage.

Pathologic neovascularization is the abnormal growth of new blood vessels in previously avascular tissue or excessive growth within existing vasculature, which occurs as a result of hypoxia, inflammation, or angiogenic stimuli. These newly formed vessels are often disorganized, fragile, and lack proper vessel hierarchy, leading to impaired blood flow and increased vascular permeability. Pathologic neovascularization can be observed in various diseases such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and chronic inflammation. This process contributes to disease progression by promoting tumor growth, metastasis, and edema formation, ultimately leading to tissue damage and organ dysfunction.

Endostatin is a naturally occurring protein that inhibits the growth of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. It is derived from collagen type XVIII, which is found in the basement membrane of blood vessels. Endostatin has been studied for its potential use in treating various diseases, including cancer, because tumors need to form new blood vessels to grow and spread. By inhibiting this process, endostatin may be able to slow or stop tumor growth. It has also been investigated for its potential role in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness, due to its ability to inhibit the growth of new blood vessels in the eye.

Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of three isoprene units, hence the name "sesqui-" meaning "one and a half" in Latin. They are composed of 15 carbon atoms and have a wide range of chemical structures and biological activities. Sesquiterpenes can be found in various plants, fungi, and insects, and they play important roles in the defense mechanisms of these organisms. Some sesquiterpenes are also used in traditional medicine and have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits.

Physiologic neovascularization is the natural and controlled formation of new blood vessels in the body, which occurs as a part of normal growth and development, as well as in response to tissue repair and wound healing. This process involves the activation of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels, and their migration, proliferation, and tube formation to create new capillaries. Physiologic neovascularization is tightly regulated by a balance of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, ensuring that it occurs only when and where it is needed. It plays crucial roles in various physiological processes, such as embryonic development, tissue regeneration, and wound healing.

Angiostatin is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis, which is the process of new blood vessel formation. It is a proteolytic fragment of plasminogen, a glycoprotein present in plasma. Angiostatin works by binding to and inhibiting the activity of endothelial cell surface receptors that are necessary for angiogenesis, such as the ATP-binding cassette transporter protein ABCB1.

Angiostatin has been shown to have anti-tumor effects in preclinical models, as tumor growth and metastasis depend on the formation of new blood vessels to supply nutrients and oxygen. Inhibition of angiogenesis by angiostatin can therefore starve tumors and prevent their growth and spread. Angiostatin has also been studied in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer, although its efficacy as a therapeutic agent remains to be established.

Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that is involved in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis. It is primarily produced by platelets, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. TSP-1 is a large molecule composed of several domains, including an N-terminal domain that binds to calcium, a region that interacts with various extracellular matrix proteins, and a C-terminal domain that mediates its interaction with cell surface receptors.

TSP-1 plays a critical role in the regulation of coagulation and thrombosis by interacting with components of the coagulation cascade and promoting platelet aggregation. It also has anti-angiogenic properties, as it can inhibit the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and induce their apoptosis. TSP-1 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, tumor growth and metastasis, and fibrosis.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) is a specific isoform of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. It is a well-characterized signaling protein that plays a crucial role in angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels. VEGFA stimulates the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels, thereby contributing to the growth and development of new vasculature. This protein is essential for physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing, but it has also been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. The regulation of VEGFA expression and activity is critical to maintaining proper vascular function and homeostasis.

Angiogenesis inducing agents are substances or drugs that stimulate the growth of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. This process is essential for the growth and development of tissues and organs in the body, including wound healing and the formation of blood vessels in the placenta during pregnancy. However, abnormal angiogenesis can also contribute to various diseases, such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration.

Angiogenesis inducing agents are being studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in a variety of medical conditions. For example, they may be used to promote wound healing or tissue repair after injury or surgery. In cancer treatment, angiogenesis inhibitors are often used to block the growth of new blood vessels and prevent tumors from growing and spreading. However, angiogenesis inducing agents can have the opposite effect and may potentially be used to enhance the delivery of drugs to tumors or improve the effectiveness of other cancer treatments.

Examples of angiogenesis inducing agents include certain growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). These substances can be administered as drugs to stimulate angiogenesis in specific contexts. Other substances, such as hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and prostaglandins, can also induce angiogenesis under certain conditions.

Collagen type XVIII is a type of collagen that is found in the basement membrane, which is a thin layer of extracellular matrix that separates and supports epithelial and endothelial cells. It is a heterotrimeric protein composed of three different chains, alpha1(XVIII), alpha2(XVIII), and alpha3(XVIII). Collagen XVIII is thought to play a role in the maintenance and organization of the basement membrane, as well as in cell adhesion and migration. It also contains a number of distinct domains that are involved in various biological processes, including angiogenesis, tissue repair, and tumor growth. Mutations in the gene that encodes collagen XVIII have been associated with eye diseases such as Knobloch syndrome and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

Angiogenic proteins are a group of molecules that play a crucial role in the formation of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. These proteins can stimulate the growth, survival, and migration of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels. By promoting the development of new blood vessels, angiogenic proteins help supply oxygen and nutrients to tissues, facilitating wound healing, tissue repair, and regeneration.

However, an imbalance in angiogenic proteins can contribute to various pathological conditions. Overexpression or dysregulation of these proteins has been associated with several diseases, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and rheumatoid arthritis. In contrast, a deficiency in angiogenic proteins can lead to ischemic disorders, such as peripheral artery disease and coronary artery disease.

Some examples of angiogenic proteins are:

1. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF): One of the most potent and well-studied angiogenic factors, VEGF stimulates endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and survival. It is overexpressed in various malignancies, contributing to tumor growth and metastasis.
2. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF): A family of growth factors that includes FGF1, FGF2, and others. They promote angiogenesis by stimulating endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation.
3. Angiopoietins: A group of proteins that include Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2). Ang-1 primarily acts as a stabilizer of blood vessels by promoting endothelial cell survival and maturation, while Ang-2 can destabilize existing vessels and promote the formation of new ones.
4. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF): A protein that plays a role in recruiting pericytes, supporting cells that help maintain the stability of blood vessels. PDGF also contributes to angiogenesis by stimulating endothelial cell proliferation and migration.
5. Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF): A pleiotropic factor that promotes angiogenesis by stimulating endothelial cell motility, proliferation, and survival. It also plays a role in the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells to sites of neovascularization.
6. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β): A family of cytokines that includes TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3. They regulate various cellular processes, including angiogenesis, by modulating endothelial cell function and extracellular matrix remodeling.
7. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) receptors: Tyrosine kinase receptors that mediate the effects of VEGF on endothelial cells. They include VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3, which have distinct roles in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.
8. Tie receptors: Receptor tyrosine kinases that bind to Angiopoietins and regulate endothelial cell survival, migration, and vascular remodeling. They include Tie-1 and Tie-2, which have distinct roles in angiogenesis and vascular maturation.
9. Eph receptors: Receptor tyrosine kinases that bind to ephrins and regulate cell-cell interactions, migration, and axonal guidance. They also play a role in angiogenesis by modulating endothelial cell function and vascular patterning.
10. Notch receptors: Transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell communication and regulate various developmental processes, including angiogenesis. They include Notch-1, Notch-2, Notch-3, and Notch-4, which have distinct roles in endothelial cell differentiation, migration, and vascular morphogenesis.

These factors and their receptors form complex signaling networks that regulate angiogenesis in a context-dependent manner. Dysregulation of these pathways can lead to aberrant angiogenesis and contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms that control angiogenesis is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Endothelial cells are the type of cells that line the inner surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. They play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by controlling vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, and inflammation. Endothelial cells also regulate the transport of molecules between the blood and surrounding tissues, and contribute to the maintenance of the structural integrity of the vasculature. They are flat, elongated cells with a unique morphology that allows them to form a continuous, nonthrombogenic lining inside the vessels. Endothelial cells can be isolated from various tissues and cultured in vitro for research purposes.

The endothelium is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. The vascular endothelium, specifically, refers to the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, inflammation, and permeability of the vessel wall. They also contribute to the growth and repair of the vascular system and are involved in various pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes.

The allantois is a fetal membranous structure in mammals, including humans, that arises from the posterior end of the embryonic hindgut during early development. It plays an essential role in the exchange of waste products and nutrients between the developing fetus and the mother's uterus.

The allantois serves as a reservoir for urinary waste produced by the fetal kidneys, which are the primitive metanephros at this stage. As the allantois grows, it extends toward the chorion, another fetal membrane lining the uterine wall. The point where these two structures meet forms the allantoic bud, which eventually develops into the umbilical cord.

In some non-mammalian vertebrates, like birds and reptiles, the allantois plays a significant role in gas exchange and calcium transport for eggshell formation. However, in humans and other mammals, its primary function is to form part of the umbilical cord, which connects the developing fetus to the placenta, allowing for nutrient and waste exchange between the mother and the fetus.

After birth, the remnants of the allantois become a small fibrous structure called the urachus or median umbilical ligament, which extends from the bladder to the umbilicus. This structure usually obliterates during infancy but may persist as a variant anatomical feature in some individuals.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is a tyrosine kinase receptor that is primarily expressed on vascular endothelial cells. It is a crucial regulator of angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels. VEGFR-2 is activated by binding to its ligand, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A), leading to receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation. This activation triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that promote endothelial cell proliferation, migration, survival, and vascular permeability, all essential steps in the angiogenic process.

VEGFR-2 plays a significant role in physiological and pathological conditions associated with angiogenesis, such as embryonic development, wound healing, tumor growth, and retinopathies. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 signaling has been an attractive target for anti-angiogenic therapies in various diseases, including cancer and age-related macular degeneration.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs) are a family of signaling proteins that stimulate the growth and development of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. They play crucial roles in both physiological and pathological conditions, such as embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor growth. Specifically, VEGFs bind to specific receptors on the surface of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels, triggering a cascade of intracellular signaling events that promote cell proliferation, migration, and survival. Dysregulation of VEGF signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.

Endothelial growth factors (ECGFs or EGFs) are a group of signaling proteins that stimulate the growth, proliferation, and survival of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels. These growth factors play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), wound healing, and vascular development during embryogenesis.

One of the most well-studied EGFs is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, which consists of several members like VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, VEGFD, and placental growth factor (PlGF). These factors bind to specific receptors on the surface of endothelial cells, leading to a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in cell proliferation, migration, and survival.

Other EGFs include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). Dysregulation of endothelial growth factors has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the functions and regulation of EGFs is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders.

"Nude mice" is a term used in the field of laboratory research to describe a strain of mice that have been genetically engineered to lack a functional immune system. Specifically, nude mice lack a thymus gland and have a mutation in the FOXN1 gene, which results in a failure to develop a mature T-cell population. This means that they are unable to mount an effective immune response against foreign substances or organisms.

The name "nude" refers to the fact that these mice also have a lack of functional hair follicles, resulting in a hairless or partially hairless phenotype. This feature is actually a secondary consequence of the same genetic mutation that causes their immune deficiency.

Nude mice are commonly used in research because their weakened immune system makes them an ideal host for transplanted tumors, tissues, and cells from other species, including humans. This allows researchers to study the behavior of these foreign substances in a living organism without the complication of an immune response. However, it's important to note that because nude mice lack a functional immune system, they must be kept in sterile conditions and are more susceptible to infection than normal mice.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that play crucial roles in the process of angiogenesis, which is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. These receptors bind to VEGF proteins, leading to a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in the proliferation, migration, and survival of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels. There are three main types of VEGF receptors: VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3. These receptors have distinct roles in angiogenesis, with VEGFR-2 being the primary mediator of this process. Dysregulation of VEGF signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, making VEGF receptors important targets for therapeutic intervention.

Lymphokines are a type of cytokines that are produced and released by activated lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, in response to an antigenic stimulation. They play a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation. Lymphokines can mediate various biological activities such as chemotaxis, activation, proliferation, and differentiation of different immune cells including lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils. Examples of lymphokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and colony-stimulating factors (CSFs).

The chorion is the outermost fetal membrane that surrounds the developing conceptus (the embryo or fetus and its supporting structures). It forms early in pregnancy as an extraembryonic structure, meaning it arises from cells that will not become part of the actual body of the developing organism. The chorion plays a crucial role in pregnancy by contributing to the formation of the placenta, which provides nutrients and oxygen to the growing embryo/fetus and removes waste products.

One of the most important functions of the chorion is to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone that signals the presence of pregnancy and maintains the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure in the ovary that produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for preparing the uterus for implantation and maintaining the pregnancy.

The chorion consists of two layers: an inner cytotrophoblast layer and an outer syncytiotrophoblast layer. The cytotrophoblast layer is made up of individual cells, while the syncytiotrophoblast layer is a multinucleated mass of fused cytotrophoblast cells. These layers interact with the maternal endometrium (the lining of the uterus) to form the placenta and facilitate exchange between the mother and the developing fetus.

In summary, the chorion is a vital extraembryonic structure in pregnancy that contributes to the formation of the placenta, produces hCG, and interacts with the maternal endometrium to support fetal development.

Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) are a type of primary cells that are isolated from the umbilical cord vein of human placenta. These cells are naturally equipped with endothelial properties and functions, making them an essential tool in biomedical research. HUVECs line the interior surface of blood vessels and play a crucial role in the regulation of vascular function, including angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), coagulation, and permeability. Due to their accessibility and high proliferation rate, HUVECs are widely used in various research areas such as vascular biology, toxicology, drug development, and gene therapy.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

Plasminogen is a glycoprotein that is present in human plasma, and it is the inactive precursor of the enzyme plasmin. Plasmin is a serine protease that plays a crucial role in the dissolution of blood clots by degrading fibrin, one of the major components of a blood clot.

Plasminogen can be activated to form plasmin through the action of various activators, such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Once activated, plasmin can break down fibrin and other proteins, helping to prevent excessive clotting and promoting the normal turnover of extracellular matrix components.

Abnormalities in plasminogen activation have been implicated in various diseases, including thrombosis, fibrosis, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of plasminogen is important for developing therapies to treat these conditions.

"Pyrroles" is not a medical term in and of itself, but "pyrrole" is an organic compound that contains one nitrogen atom and four carbon atoms in a ring structure. In the context of human health, "pyrroles" often refers to a group of compounds called pyrrol derivatives or pyrrole metabolites.

In clinical settings, "pyrroles" is sometimes used to refer to a urinary metabolite called "pyrrole-protein conjugate," which contains a pyrrole ring and is excreted in the urine. Elevated levels of this compound have been associated with certain psychiatric and behavioral disorders, such as schizophrenia and mood disorders. However, the relationship between pyrroles and these conditions is not well understood, and more research is needed to establish a clear medical definition or diagnostic criteria for "pyrrole disorder" or "pyroluria."

Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF-2), also known as basic fibroblast growth factor, is a protein involved in various biological processes such as cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. It plays a crucial role in wound healing, embryonic development, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). FGF-2 is produced and secreted by various cells, including fibroblasts, and exerts its effects by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface, leading to activation of intracellular signaling pathways. It has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, where it can contribute to tumor growth and progression.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

"Carcinoma, Lewis lung" is a term used to describe a specific type of lung cancer that was first discovered in strain C57BL/6J mice by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis in 1951. It is a spontaneously occurring undifferentiated carcinoma that originates from the lung epithelium and is highly invasive and metastatic, making it a popular model for studying cancer biology and testing potential therapies.

The Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells are typically characterized by their rapid growth rate, ability to form tumors when implanted into syngeneic mice, and high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which promotes angiogenesis and tumor growth.

It is important to note that while the LLC model has been useful for studying certain aspects of lung cancer, it may not fully recapitulate the complexity and heterogeneity of human lung cancers. Therefore, findings from LLC studies should be validated in more clinically relevant models before being translated into human therapies.

Corneal neovascularization is a medical condition that refers to the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels in the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea typically receives its nutrients from tears and oxygen in the air, so it does not have its own blood vessels. However, when the cornea is damaged or inflamed, it may trigger the growth of new blood vessels from the surrounding tissue into the cornea to promote healing.

Corneal neovascularization can occur due to various eye conditions such as infection, injury, inflammation, degenerative diseases, or contact lens wear. Excessive growth of blood vessels in the cornea can interfere with vision, cause scarring, and increase the risk of corneal transplant rejection. Treatment for corneal neovascularization depends on the underlying cause and may include topical medications, surgery, or other therapies to reduce inflammation, prevent further growth of blood vessels, and preserve vision.

Neoplasm transplantation is not a recognized or established medical procedure in the field of oncology. The term "neoplasm" refers to an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant (cancerous). "Transplantation" typically refers to the surgical transfer of living cells, tissues, or organs from one part of the body to another or between individuals.

The concept of neoplasm transplantation may imply the transfer of cancerous cells or tissues from a donor to a recipient, which is not a standard practice due to ethical considerations and the potential harm it could cause to the recipient. In some rare instances, researchers might use laboratory animals to study the transmission and growth of human cancer cells, but this is done for scientific research purposes only and under strict regulatory guidelines.

In summary, there is no medical definition for 'Neoplasm Transplantation' as it does not represent a standard or ethical medical practice.

Isocoumarins are a type of chemical compound that contains a benzene ring fused to a five-membered lactone ring, which is made up of one oxygen atom and four carbon atoms. This particular structure gives isocoumarins their unique chemical and biological properties. They can be found naturally in various plants and microorganisms, and have been shown to exhibit a range of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer effects. Some isocoumarins are also used as starting materials for the synthesis of other chemical compounds.

The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane in birds, such as chickens and quails, that forms during the development of the embryo. It is a fusion of the chorion and allantois, which have important functions in gas exchange and waste removal, respectively. The CAM provides a rich source of blood vessels and serves as a site for nutrient and waste transport between the developing embryo and the external environment.

The CAM has been widely used as a model system in various biological research areas, including angiogenesis, tumor biology, and drug development. Its accessibility, robust vascularization, and immune tolerance make it an attractive platform for studying vasculature-related processes and screening potential therapeutic compounds.

In the context of scientific research, the CAM is often manipulated by creating a window in the eggshell, allowing direct observation and experimental access to the membrane. Researchers can then perform various assays, such as grafting tumor cells or applying test compounds, to investigate angiogenesis, tumor growth, and drug responses.

Angiostatic proteins are a type of protein that inhibits the growth of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. They work by blocking the action of pro-angiogenic factors, which are molecules that stimulate the growth of blood vessels. Angiostatic proteins have been studied for their potential use in treating various diseases, including cancer, because tumors often require the growth of new blood vessels to support their rapid growth. Some examples of angiostatic proteins include endostatin, angiostatin, and thrombospondin-1.

A xenograft model antitumor assay is a type of preclinical cancer research study that involves transplanting human tumor cells or tissues into an immunodeficient mouse. This model allows researchers to study the effects of various treatments, such as drugs or immune therapies, on human tumors in a living organism.

In this assay, human tumor cells or tissues are implanted into the mouse, typically under the skin or in another organ, where they grow and form a tumor. Once the tumor has established, the mouse is treated with the experimental therapy, and the tumor's growth is monitored over time. The response of the tumor to the treatment is then assessed by measuring changes in tumor size or weight, as well as other parameters such as survival rate and metastasis.

Xenograft model antitumor assays are useful for evaluating the efficacy and safety of new cancer therapies before they are tested in human clinical trials. They provide valuable information on how the tumors respond to treatment, drug pharmacokinetics, and toxicity, which can help researchers optimize dosing regimens and identify potential side effects. However, it is important to note that xenograft models have limitations, such as differences in tumor biology between mice and humans, and may not always predict how well a therapy will work in human patients.

Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in the body, with diameters that range from 5 to 10 micrometers. They form a network of tiny tubes that connect the arterioles (small branches of arteries) and venules (small branches of veins), allowing for the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

Capillaries are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells that surround a hollow lumen through which blood flows. The walls of capillaries are extremely thin, allowing for easy diffusion of molecules between the blood and the surrounding tissue. This is essential for maintaining the health and function of all body tissues.

Capillaries can be classified into three types based on their structure and function: continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoidal. Continuous capillaries have a continuous layer of endothelial cells with tight junctions that restrict the passage of large molecules. Fenestrated capillaries have small pores or "fenestrae" in the endothelial cell walls that allow for the passage of larger molecules, such as proteins and lipids. Sinusoidal capillaries are found in organs with high metabolic activity, such as the liver and spleen, and have large, irregular spaces between the endothelial cells that allow for the exchange of even larger molecules.

Overall, capillaries play a critical role in maintaining the health and function of all body tissues by allowing for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the blood and surrounding tissues.

Antibiotics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth.

Antineoplastics, also known as chemotherapeutic agents, are a class of drugs used to treat cancer. These medications target and destroy rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, although they can also affect other quickly dividing cells in the body, such as those in the hair follicles or digestive tract, which can lead to side effects.

Antibiotics and antineoplastics are two different classes of drugs with distinct mechanisms of action and uses. It is important to use them appropriately and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

"Kringles" is not a term commonly used in medical literature. It is a term that originates from Scandinavian folklore, referring to a mythical figure who delivers gifts and sweets to children. However, in the context of biochemistry and cell biology, Kringle domains are structural motifs found in certain proteins.

Kringle domains are small, compact protein domains that contain approximately 80-100 amino acids, characterized by a distinctive pattern of disulfide bonds. These domains are named after the Danish pastry "kringle," which has a knot-like shape similar to the structure of these protein domains. Kringle domains are found in several proteins involved in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation, such as plasminogen, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). They play a role in protein-protein interactions, cell signaling, and protease activation.

CD31 (also known as PECAM-1 or Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1) is a type of protein that is found on the surface of certain cells in the body, including platelets, endothelial cells (which line the blood vessels), and some immune cells.

CD31 functions as a cell adhesion molecule, meaning it helps cells stick together and interact with each other. It plays important roles in various physiological processes, such as the regulation of leukocyte migration, angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), hemostasis (the process that stops bleeding), and thrombosis (the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel).

As an antigen, CD31 is used in immunological techniques to identify and characterize cells expressing this protein. Antigens are substances that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. In the case of CD31, antibodies specific to this protein can be used to detect its presence on the surface of cells, providing valuable information for research and diagnostic purposes.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Indole is not strictly a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that can be found in the human body and has relevance to medical and biological research. Indoles are organic compounds that contain a bicyclic structure consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered pyrrole ring.

In the context of medicine, indoles are particularly relevant due to their presence in certain hormones and other biologically active molecules. For example, the neurotransmitter serotonin contains an indole ring, as does the hormone melatonin. Indoles can also be found in various plant-based foods, such as cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, kale), and have been studied for their potential health benefits.

Some indoles, like indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane, are found in these vegetables and can have anti-cancer properties by modulating estrogen metabolism, reducing inflammation, and promoting cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells. However, it is essential to note that further research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks associated with indoles.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Thrombospondins (TSPs) are a family of multifunctional glycoproteins that are involved in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis. They were initially identified as calcium-binding proteins that are secreted by platelets during blood clotting (thrombosis), hence the name thrombospondin.

There are five members in the TSP family, designated as TSP-1 to TSP-5, and they share a common structure consisting of several domains, including an N-terminal domain, a series of type 1 repeats, a type 2 (von Willebrand factor C) repeat, a type 3 repeat, and a C-terminal domain.

TSP-1 and TSP-2 are secreted proteins that have been extensively studied for their roles in the regulation of angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation. They bind to various extracellular matrix components, growth factors, and cell surface receptors, and can either promote or inhibit angiogenesis depending on the context.

TSP-3 to TSP-5 are expressed in a variety of tissues and play roles in cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation. They have been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, fibrosis, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Overall, thrombospondins are important regulators of extracellular matrix dynamics and cell-matrix interactions, and their dysregulation has been associated with a variety of diseases.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the body. They form a network of tubes that carry blood to and from the heart, lungs, and other organs. The main types of blood vessels are arteries, veins, and capillaries. Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body, while veins return deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Capillaries connect arteries and veins and facilitate the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials between the blood and the body's tissues.

The umbilical veins are blood vessels in the umbilical cord that carry oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the developing fetus during pregnancy. There are typically two umbilical veins, one of which usually degenerates and becomes obliterated, leaving a single functional vein. This remaining vein is known as the larger umbilical vein or the venous duct. It enters the fetal abdomen through the umbilicus and passes through the liver, where it branches off to form the portal sinus. Ultimately, the blood from the umbilical vein mixes with the blood from the inferior vena cava and is pumped to the heart through the right atrium.

It's important to note that after birth, the umbilical veins are no longer needed and undergo involution, becoming the ligamentum teres in the adult.

Calreticulin is a multifunctional protein found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells. Its primary function is as a calcium-binding chaperone, helping to ensure proper folding and quality control of newly synthesized glycoproteins in the ER. Calreticulin also plays roles in ER-to-Golgi transport, regulation of ER calcium homeostasis, and acts as a sensor for ER stress. Additionally, it has been implicated in various cellular processes such as adhesion, migration, phagocytosis, and immune response. Defects in calreticulin have been linked to several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Heterologous transplantation is a type of transplantation where an organ or tissue is transferred from one species to another. This is in contrast to allogeneic transplantation, where the donor and recipient are of the same species, or autologous transplantation, where the donor and recipient are the same individual.

In heterologous transplantation, the immune systems of the donor and recipient are significantly different, which can lead to a strong immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue. This is known as a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), where the immune cells in the transplanted tissue attack the recipient's body.

Heterologous transplantation is not commonly performed in clinical medicine due to the high risk of rejection and GVHD. However, it may be used in research settings to study the biology of transplantation and to develop new therapies for transplant rejection.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), also known as Flt-1 (Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1), is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. It is primarily expressed on vascular endothelial cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and monocytes/macrophages. VEGFR-1 binds to several ligands, including Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A), VEGF-B, and Placental Growth Factor (PlGF). The binding of these ligands to VEGFR-1 triggers intracellular signaling cascades that modulate various cellular responses, such as proliferation, migration, survival, and vascular permeability. While VEGFR-1 is known to have a role in promoting angiogenesis under certain conditions, it primarily acts as a negative regulator of angiogenesis by sequestering VEGF-A, preventing its binding to the more proangiogenic VEGFR-2 receptor. Dysregulation of VEGFR-1 signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and vascular diseases.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Phthalazines are not a medical term, but a chemical one. They refer to a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a phthalazine ring in their structure. The phthalazine ring is made up of two benzene rings fused to a single six-membered saturated carbon ring containing two nitrogen atoms.

Phthalazines have no specific medical relevance, but some of their derivatives are used in the pharmaceutical industry as building blocks for various drugs. For example, certain phthalazine derivatives have been developed as potential medications for conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, and cancer. However, these compounds are still in the experimental stages and have not yet been approved for medical use.

It's worth noting that some phthalazines have been found to have toxic effects on living organisms, so their use in medical applications is carefully regulated.

Microvessels are the smallest blood vessels in the body, including capillaries, venules, and arterioles. They form a crucial part of the circulatory system, responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to tissues and organs while removing waste products. Capillaries, the tiniest microvessels, facilitate the exchange of substances between blood and tissue cells through their thin walls. Overall, microvessels play a vital role in maintaining proper organ function and overall health.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

A chick embryo refers to the developing organism that arises from a fertilized chicken egg. It is often used as a model system in biological research, particularly during the stages of development when many of its organs and systems are forming and can be easily observed and manipulated. The study of chick embryos has contributed significantly to our understanding of various aspects of developmental biology, including gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis, and pattern formation. Researchers may use various techniques to observe and manipulate the chick embryo, such as surgical alterations, cell labeling, and exposure to drugs or other agents.

Collagen Type IV is a type of collagen that forms the structural basis of basement membranes, which are thin, sheet-like structures that separate and support cells in many types of tissues. It is a major component of the basement membrane's extracellular matrix and provides strength and flexibility to this structure. Collagen Type IV is composed of three chains that form a distinctive, mesh-like structure. Mutations in the genes encoding Collagen Type IV can lead to a variety of inherited disorders affecting the kidneys, eyes, and ears.

SCID mice is an acronym for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency mice. These are genetically modified mice that lack a functional immune system due to the mutation or knockout of several key genes required for immunity. This makes them ideal for studying the human immune system, infectious diseases, and cancer, as well as testing new therapies and treatments in a controlled environment without the risk of interference from the mouse's own immune system. SCID mice are often used in xenotransplantation studies, where human cells or tissues are transplanted into the mouse to study their behavior and interactions with the human immune system.

Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that mediate communication and interaction between different cells in living organisms. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These signals can be released into the extracellular space, where they bind to specific receptors on the target cell's surface, triggering intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to a response.

Peptides are short chains of amino acids, while proteins are larger molecules made up of one or more polypeptide chains. Both can function as intercellular signaling molecules by acting as ligands for cell surface receptors or by being cleaved from larger precursor proteins and released into the extracellular space. Examples of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins include growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, hormones, neurotransmitters, and their respective receptors.

These molecules contribute to maintaining homeostasis within an organism by coordinating cellular activities across tissues and organs. Dysregulation of intercellular signaling pathways has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intercellular signaling is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

Growth factor receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to specific growth factors, which are signaling molecules that play crucial roles in regulating various cellular processes such as growth, differentiation, and survival. These receptors have an extracellular domain that can recognize and bind to the growth factor and an intracellular domain that can transduce the signal into the cell through a series of biochemical reactions.

There are several types of growth factors, including fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), epidermal growth factors (EGFs), vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Each type of growth factor has its own specific receptor or family of receptors.

Once a growth factor binds to its receptor, it triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression, protein synthesis, and other cellular responses. These responses can include the activation of enzymes, the regulation of ion channels, and the modulation of cytoskeletal dynamics.

Abnormalities in growth factor receptor signaling have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and autoimmune diseases. For example, mutations in growth factor receptors can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division, which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of growth factor receptors has important implications for the development of new therapies for these diseases.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Angiogenesis modulating agents are a class of drugs that target the process of angiogenesis, which is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. These agents can either promote or inhibit angiogenesis, depending on their specific mechanism of action.

Angiogenesis inhibitors are a type of angiogenesis modulating agent that block the growth of new blood vessels. They are used in cancer treatment to deprive tumors of the blood supply they need to grow and metastasize. Examples of angiogenesis inhibitors include bevacizumab (Avastin), sorafenib (Nexavar), and sunitinib (Sutent).

On the other hand, angiogenic factors are drugs that stimulate the growth of new blood vessels. They are used in certain medical conditions where increased blood flow is beneficial, such as in patients with critical limb ischemia or coronary artery disease. Examples of angiogenic factors include granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

It's important to note that while angiogenesis modulating agents have shown promise in the treatment of various medical conditions, they can also have serious side effects and their use should be monitored carefully by healthcare professionals.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Neoplasm metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the primary site (where the original or primary tumor formed) to other places in the body. This happens when cancer cells break away from the original (primary) tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The cancer cells can then travel to other parts of the body and form new tumors, called secondary tumors or metastases.

Metastasis is a key feature of malignant neoplasms (cancers), and it is one of the main ways that cancer can cause harm in the body. The metastatic tumors may continue to grow and may cause damage to the organs and tissues where they are located. They can also release additional cancer cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system, leading to further spread of the cancer.

The metastatic tumors are named based on the location where they are found, as well as the type of primary cancer. For example, if a patient has a primary lung cancer that has metastasized to the liver, the metastatic tumor would be called a liver metastasis from lung cancer.

It is important to note that the presence of metastases can significantly affect a person's prognosis and treatment options. In general, metastatic cancer is more difficult to treat than cancer that has not spread beyond its original site. However, there are many factors that can influence a person's prognosis and response to treatment, so it is important for each individual to discuss their specific situation with their healthcare team.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

'Rats, Nude' is not a standard medical term or condition. The term 'nude' in the context of laboratory animals like rats usually refers to a strain of rats that are hairless due to a genetic mutation. This can make them useful for studies involving skin disorders, wound healing, and other conditions where fur might interfere with observations or procedures. However, 'Rats, Nude' is not a recognized or established term in medical literature or taxonomy.

Phenylurea compounds are a class of chemical compounds that contain a phenyl group (a functional group consisting of a six-membered aromatic ring with a hydrogen atom and a single bond to a carbon atom or other group) linked to a urea moiety. Urea is an organic compound that contains a carbonyl functional group connected to two amine groups.

Phenylurea compounds are commonly used as herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides in agriculture due to their ability to inhibit certain enzymes and disrupt plant growth processes. Some examples of phenylurea compounds include chlorotoluron, diuron, linuron, and monuron.

It is important to note that some phenylurea compounds have been found to be toxic to non-target organisms, including mammals, birds, and fish, and can pose environmental risks if not used properly. Therefore, it is essential to follow the recommended guidelines for their use and disposal to minimize potential health and ecological impacts.

Genetic therapy, also known as gene therapy, is a medical intervention that involves the use of genetic material, such as DNA or RNA, to treat or prevent diseases. It works by introducing functional genes into cells to replace missing or faulty ones caused by genetic disorders or mutations. The introduced gene is incorporated into the recipient's genome, allowing for the production of a therapeutic protein that can help manage the disease symptoms or even cure the condition.

There are several approaches to genetic therapy, including:

1. Replacing a faulty gene with a healthy one
2. Inactivating or "silencing" a dysfunctional gene causing a disease
3. Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight off a disease, such as cancer

Genetic therapy holds great promise for treating various genetic disorders, including cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, and certain types of cancer. However, it is still an evolving field with many challenges, such as efficient gene delivery, potential immune responses, and ensuring the safety and long-term effectiveness of the therapy.

SERPINs are an acronym for "serine protease inhibitors." They are a group of proteins that inhibit serine proteases, which are enzymes that cut other proteins. SERPINs are found in various tissues and body fluids, including blood, and play important roles in regulating biological processes such as inflammation, blood clotting, and cell death. They do this by forming covalent complexes with their target proteases, thereby preventing them from carrying out their proteolytic activities. Mutations in SERPIN genes have been associated with several genetic disorders, including emphysema, cirrhosis, and dementia.

Indazoles are not a medical term, but a chemical classification. They refer to a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a indazole moiety, which is a benzene ring fused with a diazole ring. Indazoles have no specific medical relevance, but certain derivatives of indazoles have been developed and used as drugs in medicine, particularly in the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. For example, Tadalafil (Cialis), a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia, is a selective inhibitor of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 and has an indazole structure.

Laminin is a family of proteins that are an essential component of the basement membrane, which is a specialized type of extracellular matrix. Laminins are large trimeric molecules composed of three different chains: α, β, and γ. There are five different α chains, three different β chains, and three different γ chains that can combine to form at least 15 different laminin isoforms.

Laminins play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and integrity of basement membranes by interacting with other components of the extracellular matrix, such as collagen IV, and cell surface receptors, such as integrins. They are involved in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, and survival.

Laminin dysfunction has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, diabetic nephropathy, and muscular dystrophy.

Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) are a type of transmembrane receptors found on the cell surface that play a crucial role in signal transduction and regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, metabolism, and survival. They are called "tyrosine kinases" because they possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to tyrosine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their function.

RTKs are composed of three main domains: an extracellular domain that binds to specific ligands (growth factors, hormones, or cytokines), a transmembrane domain that spans the cell membrane, and an intracellular domain with tyrosine kinase activity. Upon ligand binding, RTKs undergo conformational changes that lead to their dimerization or oligomerization, which in turn activates their tyrosine kinase activity. Activated RTKs then phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues on downstream signaling proteins, initiating a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in the appropriate cellular response.

Dysregulation of RTK signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and developmental disorders. As such, RTKs are important targets for therapeutic intervention in these conditions.

Epoxy compounds, also known as epoxy resins, are a type of thermosetting polymer characterized by the presence of epoxide groups in their molecular structure. An epoxide group is a chemical functional group consisting of an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom, which is itself bonded to another carbon atom.

Epoxy compounds are typically produced by reacting a mixture of epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A or other similar chemicals under specific conditions. The resulting product is a two-part system consisting of a resin and a hardener, which must be mixed together before use.

Once the two parts are combined, a chemical reaction takes place that causes the mixture to cure or harden into a solid material. This curing process can be accelerated by heat, and once fully cured, epoxy compounds form a strong, durable, and chemically resistant material that is widely used in various industrial and commercial applications.

In the medical field, epoxy compounds are sometimes used as dental restorative materials or as adhesives for bonding medical devices or prosthetics. However, it's important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to certain components of epoxy compounds, so their use must be carefully evaluated and monitored in a medical context.

Niacinamide, also known as nicotinamide, is a form of vitamin B3 (niacin). It is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in energy production and DNA repair in the body. Niacinamide can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, and cereal grains.

As a medical definition, niacinamide is a nutritional supplement and medication used to prevent or treat pellagra, a disease caused by niacin deficiency. It can also be used to improve skin conditions such as acne, rosacea, and hyperpigmentation, and has been studied for its potential benefits in treating diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease.

Niacinamide works by acting as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a coenzyme involved in many cellular processes such as energy metabolism, DNA repair, and gene expression. Niacinamide has anti-inflammatory properties and can help regulate the immune system, making it useful for treating inflammatory skin conditions.

It is important to note that niacinamide should not be confused with niacin (also known as nicotinic acid), which is another form of vitamin B3 that has different effects on the body. Niacin can cause flushing and other side effects at higher doses, while niacinamide does not have these effects.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Investigational drugs, also known as experimental or trial drugs, refer to medications that are currently being tested in clinical trials to evaluate their safety and efficacy for the treatment of various medical conditions. These drugs have not yet been approved by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for general use.

Before entering clinical trials, investigational drugs must undergo extensive preclinical testing in the lab and on animals to assess their safety and potential therapeutic benefits. Clinical trials are conducted in phases, starting with small groups of healthy volunteers to assess safety, followed by larger groups of patients to evaluate efficacy and side effects.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must meet certain eligibility criteria to ensure their safety and the validity of the trial results. Investigational drugs may ultimately be approved for general use if they are found to be safe and effective in clinical trials.

Benzenesulfonates are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring substituted with a sulfonate group. In chemistry, a sulfonate group is a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom connected to three oxygen atoms (-SO3). Benzenesulfonates are often used as detergents, emulsifiers, and phase transfer catalysts in various chemical reactions. They can also be found in some pharmaceuticals and dyes.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Conditioned culture media refers to a type of growth medium that has been previously used to culture and maintain the cells of an organism. The conditioned media contains factors secreted by those cells, such as hormones, nutrients, and signaling molecules, which can affect the behavior and growth of other cells that are introduced into the media later on.

When the conditioned media is used for culturing a new set of cells, it can provide a more physiologically relevant environment than traditional culture media, as it contains factors that are specific to the original cell type. This can be particularly useful in studies that aim to understand cell-cell interactions and communication, or to mimic the natural microenvironment of cells in the body.

It's important to note that conditioned media should be handled carefully and used promptly after preparation, as the factors it contains can degrade over time and affect the quality of the results.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Proteoglycans are complex, highly negatively charged macromolecules that are composed of a core protein covalently linked to one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. They are a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, regulation of growth factor activity, and maintenance of tissue structure and function.

The GAG chains, which can vary in length and composition, are long, unbranched polysaccharides that are composed of repeating disaccharide units containing a hexuronic acid (either glucuronic or iduronic acid) and a hexosamine (either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine). These GAG chains can be sulfated to varying degrees, which contributes to the negative charge of proteoglycans.

Proteoglycans are classified into four major groups based on their core protein structure and GAG composition: heparan sulfate/heparin proteoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycans, and hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans. Each group has distinct functions and is found in specific tissues and cell types.

In summary, proteoglycans are complex macromolecules composed of a core protein and one or more GAG chains that play important roles in the ECM and various biological processes, including cell signaling, growth factor regulation, and tissue structure maintenance.

Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is a protein that is involved in the regulation of blood vessel formation and maintenance. It is a member of the angiopoietin family, which includes Ang-1, Ang-2, Ang-3, and Ang-4. These proteins bind to the Tie receptor tyrosine kinases (Tie1 and Tie2) on the surface of endothelial cells, which line the interior of blood vessels.

Ang-2 is primarily produced by endothelial cells and has context-dependent roles in angiogenesis, which is the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. In general, Ang-2 is thought to act as an antagonist of Ang-1, which promotes vessel stability and maturation.

Ang-2 can destabilize existing blood vessels by binding to Tie2 receptors and blocking the stabilizing effects of Ang-1. This can lead to increased vascular permeability and inflammation. However, in the presence of pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), Ang-2 can also promote the formation of new blood vessels by stimulating endothelial cell migration and proliferation.

Abnormal regulation of Ang-2 has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. In these conditions, increased levels of Ang-2 can contribute to the development of abnormal blood vessels, which can lead to tissue damage and loss of function.

A glioma is a type of tumor that originates from the glial cells in the brain. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for nerve cells (neurons) within the central nervous system, including providing nutrients, maintaining homeostasis, and insulating neurons.

Gliomas can be classified into several types based on the specific type of glial cell from which they originate. The most common types include:

1. Astrocytoma: Arises from astrocytes, a type of star-shaped glial cells that provide structural support to neurons.
2. Oligodendroglioma: Develops from oligodendrocytes, which produce the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers.
3. Ependymoma: Originate from ependymal cells, which line the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) in the brain and spinal cord.
4. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM): A highly aggressive and malignant type of astrocytoma that tends to spread quickly within the brain.

Gliomas can be further classified based on their grade, which indicates how aggressive and fast-growing they are. Lower-grade gliomas tend to grow more slowly and may be less aggressive, while higher-grade gliomas are more likely to be aggressive and rapidly growing.

Symptoms of gliomas depend on the location and size of the tumor but can include headaches, seizures, cognitive changes, and neurological deficits such as weakness or paralysis in certain parts of the body. Treatment options for gliomas may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of blood vessels. It is a member of the angiopoietin family, which includes several growth factors involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones.

ANG-1 primarily binds to the Tie2 receptor, which is predominantly expressed on vascular endothelial cells. The ANG-1/Tie2 signaling pathway promotes vascular stability, integrity, and maturation by enhancing endothelial cell survival, migration, and adhesion. It also inhibits vascular leakage and inflammation, contributing to the overall homeostasis of the vasculature.

In addition to its role in physiological conditions, ANG-1 has been implicated in various pathological processes such as tumor angiogenesis, ischemia, and fibrosis. Modulation of the ANG-1/Tie2 signaling pathway has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating several diseases associated with abnormal vascular function.

Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced proteins that mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens such as viruses and cancer cells. They are created by fusing a single B cell (the type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies) with a tumor cell, resulting in a hybrid cell called a hybridoma. This hybridoma can then be cloned to produce a large number of identical cells, all producing the same antibody, hence "monoclonal."

Humanized monoclonal antibodies are a type of monoclonal antibody that have been genetically engineered to include human components. This is done to reduce the risk of an adverse immune response in patients receiving the treatment. In this process, the variable region of the mouse monoclonal antibody, which contains the antigen-binding site, is grafted onto a human constant region. The resulting humanized monoclonal antibody retains the ability to bind to the target antigen while minimizing the immunogenicity associated with murine (mouse) antibodies.

In summary, "antibodies, monoclonal, humanized" refers to a type of laboratory-produced protein that mimics the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens, but with reduced immunogenicity due to the inclusion of human components in their structure.

Kidney neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the kidney tissues that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various types of kidney cells, including the renal tubules, glomeruli, and the renal pelvis.

Malignant kidney neoplasms are also known as kidney cancers, with renal cell carcinoma being the most common type. Benign kidney neoplasms include renal adenomas, oncocytomas, and angiomyolipomas. While benign neoplasms are generally not life-threatening, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to compromise kidney function or if they undergo malignant transformation.

Early detection and appropriate management of kidney neoplasms are crucial for improving patient outcomes and overall prognosis. Regular medical check-ups, imaging studies, and urinalysis can help in the early identification of these growths, allowing for timely intervention and treatment.

"Spiro compounds" are not specifically classified as medical terms, but they are a concept in organic chemistry. However, I can provide a general definition:

Spiro compounds are a type of organic compound that contains two or more rings, which share a single common atom, known as the "spiro center." The name "spiro" comes from the Greek word for "spiral" or "coiled," reflecting the three-dimensional structure of these molecules.

The unique feature of spiro compounds is that they have at least one spiro atom, typically carbon, which is bonded to four other atoms, two of which belong to each ring. This arrangement creates a specific geometry where the rings are positioned at right angles to each other, giving spiro compounds distinctive structural and chemical properties.

While not directly related to medical terminology, understanding spiro compounds can be essential in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research since these molecules often exhibit unique biological activities due to their intricate structures.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Ischemia is the medical term used to describe a lack of blood flow to a part of the body, often due to blocked or narrowed blood vessels. This can lead to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the tissues, which can cause them to become damaged or die. Ischemia can affect many different parts of the body, including the heart, brain, legs, and intestines. Symptoms of ischemia depend on the location and severity of the blockage, but they may include pain, cramping, numbness, weakness, or coldness in the affected area. In severe cases, ischemia can lead to tissue death (gangrene) or organ failure. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blocked blood flow, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Aminopeptidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the removal of amino acids from the N-terminus of polypeptides and proteins. They play important roles in various biological processes, including protein degradation, processing, and activation. Aminopeptidases are classified based on their specificity for different types of amino acids and the mechanism of their action. Some of the well-known aminopeptidases include leucine aminopeptidase, alanyl aminopeptidase, and arginine aminopeptidase. They are widely distributed in nature and found in various tissues and organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals. In humans, aminopeptidases are involved in several physiological functions, such as digestion, immune response, and blood pressure regulation.

Sulfonamides are a group of synthetic antibacterial drugs that contain the sulfonamide group (SO2NH2) in their chemical structure. They are bacteriostatic agents, meaning they inhibit bacterial growth rather than killing them outright. Sulfonamides work by preventing the bacteria from synthesizing folic acid, which is essential for their survival.

The first sulfonamide drug was introduced in the 1930s and since then, many different sulfonamides have been developed with varying chemical structures and pharmacological properties. They are used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and ear infections.

Some common sulfonamide drugs include sulfisoxazole, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (a combination of a sulfonamide and another antibiotic called trimethoprim). While sulfonamides are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can cause side effects such as rash, nausea, and allergic reactions. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

TEC (Tyrosine kinase with Immunoglobulin-like and EGF homology domains-2) or TIE-2 is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and vascular maintenance. It is primarily expressed on the surface of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels.

The TIE-2 receptor binds to its ligand, angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), promoting vessel stability and quiescence by reducing endothelial cell permeability and enhancing their survival. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) can also bind to the TIE-2 receptor but with lower affinity than Ang1, acting as a context-dependent agonist or antagonist. In the presence of VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor), Ang2 functions as an antagonist, inducing vascular instability and increasing endothelial cell permeability, which contributes to angiogenesis during development and in pathological conditions like tumor growth, inflammation, and ischemia.

Abnormal TIE-2 signaling has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetic retinopathy. Targeting the TIE-2 signaling pathway presents an attractive therapeutic strategy for treating these conditions.

Carcinoma, renal cell (also known as renal cell carcinoma or RCC) is a type of cancer that originates in the lining of the tubules of the kidney. These tubules are small structures within the kidney that help filter waste and fluids from the blood to form urine.

Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, accounting for about 80-85% of all cases. It can affect people of any age, but it is more commonly diagnosed in those over the age of 50.

There are several subtypes of renal cell carcinoma, including clear cell, papillary, chromophobe, and collecting duct carcinomas, among others. Each subtype has a different appearance under the microscope and may have a different prognosis and response to treatment.

Symptoms of renal cell carcinoma can vary but may include blood in the urine, flank pain, a lump or mass in the abdomen, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and fever. Treatment options for renal cell carcinoma depend on the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

Fibrosarcoma is a type of soft tissue cancer that develops in the fibrous (or connective) tissue found throughout the body, including tendons, ligaments, and muscles. It is characterized by the malignant proliferation of fibroblasts, which are the cells responsible for producing collagen, a structural protein found in connective tissue.

The tumor typically presents as a painless, firm mass that grows slowly over time. Fibrosarcomas can occur at any age but are more common in adults between 30 and 60 years old. The exact cause of fibrosarcoma is not well understood, but it has been linked to radiation exposure, certain chemicals, and genetic factors.

There are several subtypes of fibrosarcoma, including adult-type fibrosarcoma, infantile fibrosarcoma, and dedifferentiated fibrosarcoma. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, often followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to reduce the risk of recurrence. The prognosis for patients with fibrosarcoma depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence or absence of metastasis (spread of cancer to other parts of the body).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pyridines" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of organic compounds with the chemical structure of a six-membered ring containing one nitrogen atom and five carbon atoms (heterocyclic aromatic compound).

In a biological or medical context, pyridine derivatives can be found in various natural and synthetic substances. For example, some medications contain pyridine rings as part of their chemical structure. However, "Pyridines" itself is not a medical term or condition.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

A hindlimb, also known as a posterior limb, is one of the pair of extremities that are located distally to the trunk in tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) and include mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In humans and other primates, hindlimbs are equivalent to the lower limbs, which consist of the thigh, leg, foot, and toes.

The primary function of hindlimbs is locomotion, allowing animals to move from one place to another. However, they also play a role in other activities such as balance, support, and communication. In humans, the hindlimbs are responsible for weight-bearing, standing, walking, running, and jumping.

In medical terminology, the term "hindlimb" is not commonly used to describe human anatomy. Instead, healthcare professionals use terms like lower limbs or lower extremities to refer to the same region of the body. However, in comparative anatomy and veterinary medicine, the term hindlimb is still widely used to describe the corresponding structures in non-human animals.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Pyrimidines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. They are one of the two types of nucleobases found in nucleic acids, the other being purines. The pyrimidine bases include cytosine (C) and thymine (T) in DNA, and uracil (U) in RNA, which pair with guanine (G) and adenine (A), respectively, through hydrogen bonding to form the double helix structure of nucleic acids. Pyrimidines are also found in many other biomolecules and have various roles in cellular metabolism and genetic regulation.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the body's response to low oxygen levels, also known as hypoxia. HIF-1 is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: an alpha subunit (HIF-1α) and a beta subunit (HIF-1β).

The alpha subunit, HIF-1α, is the regulatory subunit that is subject to oxygen-dependent degradation. Under normal oxygen conditions (normoxia), HIF-1α is constantly produced in the cell but is rapidly degraded by proteasomes due to hydroxylation of specific proline residues by prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing proteins (PHDs). This hydroxylation reaction requires oxygen as a substrate, and under hypoxic conditions, the activity of PHDs is inhibited, leading to the stabilization and accumulation of HIF-1α.

Once stabilized, HIF-1α translocates to the nucleus, where it heterodimerizes with HIF-1β and binds to hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs) in the promoter regions of target genes. This binding results in the activation of gene transcription programs that promote cellular adaptation to low oxygen levels. These adaptive responses include increased erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, glucose metabolism, and pH regulation, among others.

Therefore, HIF-1α is a critical regulator of the body's response to hypoxia, and its dysregulation has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Glioblastoma, also known as Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is a highly aggressive and malignant type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the brain. These tumors are characterized by their rapid growth, invasion into surrounding brain tissue, and resistance to treatment.

Glioblastomas are composed of various cell types, including astrocytes and other glial cells, which make them highly heterogeneous and difficult to treat. They typically have a poor prognosis, with a median survival rate of 14-15 months from the time of diagnosis, even with aggressive treatment.

Symptoms of glioblastoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor but may include headaches, seizures, nausea, vomiting, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in personality or behavior, and weakness or paralysis on one side of the body.

Standard treatment for glioblastoma typically involves surgical resection of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide. However, despite these treatments, glioblastomas often recur, leading to a poor overall prognosis.

Prostatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The term "neoplasm" simply means new or abnormal tissue growth. When it comes to the prostate, neoplasms are often referred to as tumors.

Benign prostatic neoplasms, such as prostate adenomas, are non-cancerous overgrowths of prostate tissue. They usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. While they can cause uncomfortable symptoms like difficulty urinating, they are generally not life-threatening.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells in the prostate. Prostate cancer often grows slowly and may not cause any symptoms for many years. However, some types of prostate cancer can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body, such as the bones or lymph nodes.

It's important to note that while prostate neoplasms can be concerning, early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many men. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are key to monitoring prostate health and catching any potential issues early on.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Microcirculation is the circulation of blood in the smallest blood vessels, including arterioles, venules, and capillaries. It's responsible for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and the removal of waste products. The microcirculation plays a crucial role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and is regulated by various physiological mechanisms such as autonomic nervous system activity, local metabolic factors, and hormones.

Impairment of microcirculation can lead to tissue hypoxia, inflammation, and organ dysfunction, which are common features in several diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, sepsis, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of the microcirculation is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Cell adhesion refers to the binding of cells to extracellular matrices or to other cells, a process that is fundamental to the development, function, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion is mediated by various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs), which interact with specific ligands in the extracellular environment. These interactions lead to the formation of specialized junctions, such as tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, that help to maintain tissue architecture and regulate various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Disruptions in cell adhesion can contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and degenerative disorders.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Integrin αVβ3 is a type of integrin, which is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor that mediates cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Integrins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Integrin αVβ3 is composed of two subunits, αV and β3, which are non-covalently associated to form a functional receptor. This integrin can bind to various ECM proteins containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif, such as vitronectin, fibronectin, fibrinogen, and osteopontin.

Integrin αVβ3 is widely expressed in different cell types, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and various tumor cells. It has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, such as angiogenesis, wound healing, bone remodeling, and tumor metastasis.

In the context of cancer, integrin αVβ3 has been shown to promote tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis by enhancing cell migration, survival, and resistance to apoptosis. Therefore, targeting integrin αVβ3 with therapeutic agents has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer treatment.

Dacarbazine is a medical term that refers to a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various types of cancer. It is an alkylating agent, which means it works by modifying the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Dacarbazine is often used to treat malignant melanoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and soft tissue sarcomas.

The drug is typically administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, and the dosage and schedule may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health and response to treatment. Common side effects of dacarbazine include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weakness or fatigue. More serious side effects, such as low white blood cell counts, anemia, and liver damage, may also occur.

It is important for patients receiving dacarbazine to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly. Regular monitoring of blood counts and other laboratory tests may be necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Retinal neovascularization is a medical condition characterized by the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels on the surface of the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue located at the back of the eye. This condition typically occurs in response to an insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients to the retina, often due to damage or disease, such as diabetic retinopathy or retinal vein occlusion.

The new blood vessels that form during neovascularization are fragile and prone to leakage, which can cause fluid and protein to accumulate in the retina, leading to distorted vision, hemorrhages, and potentially blindness if left untreated. Retinal neovascularization is a serious eye condition that requires prompt medical attention and management to prevent further vision loss.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Drug synergism is a pharmacological concept that refers to the interaction between two or more drugs, where the combined effect of the drugs is greater than the sum of their individual effects. This means that when these drugs are administered together, they produce an enhanced therapeutic response compared to when they are given separately.

Drug synergism can occur through various mechanisms, such as:

1. Pharmacodynamic synergism - When two or more drugs interact with the same target site in the body and enhance each other's effects.
2. Pharmacokinetic synergism - When one drug affects the metabolism, absorption, distribution, or excretion of another drug, leading to an increased concentration of the second drug in the body and enhanced therapeutic effect.
3. Physiochemical synergism - When two drugs interact physically, such as when one drug enhances the solubility or permeability of another drug, leading to improved absorption and bioavailability.

It is important to note that while drug synergism can result in enhanced therapeutic effects, it can also increase the risk of adverse reactions and toxicity. Therefore, healthcare providers must carefully consider the potential benefits and risks when prescribing combinations of drugs with known or potential synergistic effects.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

Antineoplastic agents, alkylating, are a class of chemotherapeutic drugs that work by alkylating (adding alkyl groups) to DNA, which can lead to the death or dysfunction of cancer cells. These agents can form cross-links between strands of DNA, preventing DNA replication and transcription, ultimately leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Examples of alkylating agents include cyclophosphamide, melphalan, and cisplatin. While these drugs are designed to target rapidly dividing cancer cells, they can also affect normal cells that divide quickly, such as those in the bone marrow and digestive tract, leading to side effects like anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and nausea/vomiting.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) are a class of drugs that work by interfering with the function of protein kinases. Protein kinases are enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding a phosphate group to specific proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules. This process of adding a phosphate group is known as phosphorylation and is a key mechanism for regulating various cellular functions, including signal transduction, metabolism, and cell division.

In some diseases, such as cancer, protein kinases can become overactive or mutated, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Protein kinase inhibitors are designed to block the activity of these dysregulated kinases, thereby preventing or slowing down the progression of the disease. These drugs can be highly specific, targeting individual protein kinases or families of kinases, making them valuable tools for targeted therapy in cancer and other diseases.

Protein kinase inhibitors can work in various ways to block the activity of protein kinases. Some bind directly to the active site of the enzyme, preventing it from interacting with its substrates. Others bind to allosteric sites, changing the conformation of the enzyme and making it inactive. Still, others target upstream regulators of protein kinases or interfere with their ability to form functional complexes.

Examples of protein kinase inhibitors include imatinib (Gleevec), which targets the BCR-ABL kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia, and gefitinib (Iressa), which inhibits the EGFR kinase in non-small cell lung cancer. These drugs have shown significant clinical benefits in treating these diseases and have become important components of modern cancer therapy.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Neuroblastoma is defined as a type of cancer that develops from immature nerve cells found in the fetal or early postnatal period, called neuroblasts. It typically occurs in infants and young children, with around 90% of cases diagnosed before age five. The tumors often originate in the adrenal glands but can also arise in the neck, chest, abdomen, or spine. Neuroblastoma is characterized by its ability to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, including bones, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and skin. The severity and prognosis of neuroblastoma can vary widely, depending on factors such as the patient's age at diagnosis, stage of the disease, and specific genetic features of the tumor.

Pericytes are specialized cells that surround the endothelial cells which line the blood capillaries. They play an important role in the regulation of capillary diameter, blood flow, and the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Pericytes also contribute to the maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, immune surveillance, and the clearance of waste products from the brain. They are often referred to as "mural cells" or "rouleaux cells" and can be found in various tissues throughout the body.

Drug resistance in neoplasms (also known as cancer drug resistance) refers to the ability of cancer cells to withstand the effects of chemotherapeutic agents or medications designed to kill or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This can occur due to various mechanisms, including changes in the cancer cell's genetic makeup, alterations in drug targets, increased activity of drug efflux pumps, and activation of survival pathways.

Drug resistance can be intrinsic (present at the beginning of treatment) or acquired (developed during the course of treatment). It is a significant challenge in cancer therapy as it often leads to reduced treatment effectiveness, disease progression, and poor patient outcomes. Strategies to overcome drug resistance include the use of combination therapies, development of new drugs that target different mechanisms, and personalized medicine approaches that consider individual patient and tumor characteristics.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Cell hypoxia, also known as cellular hypoxia or tissue hypoxia, refers to a condition in which the cells or tissues in the body do not receive an adequate supply of oxygen. Oxygen is essential for the production of energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. When the cells are deprived of oxygen, they switch to anaerobic metabolism, which produces lactic acid as a byproduct and can lead to acidosis.

Cell hypoxia can result from various conditions, including:

1. Low oxygen levels in the blood (hypoxemia) due to lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, or high altitude.
2. Reduced blood flow to tissues due to cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, peripheral artery disease, or shock.
3. Anemia, which reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
4. Carbon monoxide poisoning, which binds to hemoglobin and prevents it from carrying oxygen.
5. Inadequate ventilation due to trauma, drug overdose, or other causes that can lead to respiratory failure.

Cell hypoxia can cause cell damage, tissue injury, and organ dysfunction, leading to various clinical manifestations depending on the severity and duration of hypoxia. Treatment aims to correct the underlying cause and improve oxygen delivery to the tissues.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung (NSCLC) is a type of lung cancer that includes several subtypes of malignant tumors arising from the epithelial cells of the lung. These subtypes are classified based on the appearance of the cancer cells under a microscope and include adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. NSCLC accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers and tends to grow and spread more slowly than small-cell lung cancer (SCLC).

NSCLC is often asymptomatic in its early stages, but as the tumor grows, symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, and weight loss may develop. Treatment options for NSCLC depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and lung function. Common treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Retinal vessels refer to the blood vessels that are located in the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue that lines the inner surface of the eye. The retina contains two types of blood vessels: arteries and veins.

The central retinal artery supplies oxygenated blood to the inner layers of the retina, while the central retinal vein drains deoxygenated blood from the retina. These vessels can be visualized during a routine eye examination using an ophthalmoscope, which allows healthcare professionals to assess their health and any potential abnormalities.

Retinal vessels are essential for maintaining the health and function of the retina, and any damage or changes to these vessels can affect vision and lead to various eye conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and hypertensive retinopathy.

Lymphangiogenesis is the formation of new lymphatic vessels from pre-existing ones. It is a complex biological process that involves the growth, differentiation, and remodeling of lymphatic endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of lymphatic vessels. Lymphangiogenesis plays crucial roles in various physiological processes, including tissue drainage, immune surveillance, and lipid absorption. However, it can also contribute to pathological conditions such as cancer metastasis, inflammation, and fibrosis when it is dysregulated.

The process of lymphangiogenesis is regulated by a variety of growth factors, receptors, and signaling molecules, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D, and their receptor VEGFR-3, as well as other factors such as angiopoietins, integrins, and matrix metalloproteinases. Understanding the mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis has important implications for developing novel therapies for a range of diseases associated with abnormal lymphatic vessel growth and function.

Angiopoietins are a family of growth factors that play crucial roles in the development and maintenance of blood vessels. They bind to the Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is primarily expressed on vascular endothelial cells. The interaction between angiopoietins and Tie2 regulates various aspects of vascular biology, including vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and vascular stability.

There are four main members in the angiopoietin family: Ang1, Ang2, Ang3 (also known as Ang4 in humans), and Ang4 (also known as Ang5 in mice). Among these, Ang1 and Ang2 have been studied most extensively.

Ang1 is produced by perivascular cells, such as smooth muscle cells and pericytes, and it acts as a stabilizing factor for blood vessels. It promotes vascular maturation and quiescence by enhancing endothelial cell survival, reducing vascular permeability, and increasing the association between endothelial cells and mural cells (pericytes or smooth muscle cells).

Ang2, on the other hand, is produced mainly by endothelial cells and has context-dependent functions. During embryonic development, Ang2 acts as a pro-angiogenic factor in conjunction with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to promote the formation of new blood vessels. However, in adult tissues, Ang2 is upregulated during pathological conditions like inflammation and tumor growth, where it destabilizes existing vasculature by antagonizing Ang1's effects on Tie2 signaling. This leads to increased vascular permeability, inflammation, and the initiation of angiogenesis.

In summary, angiopoietins are essential regulators of blood vessel development and homeostasis, with distinct functions for different family members in promoting or inhibiting various aspects of vascular biology.

Up-regulation is a term used in molecular biology and medicine to describe an increase in the expression or activity of a gene, protein, or receptor in response to a stimulus. This can occur through various mechanisms such as increased transcription, translation, or reduced degradation of the molecule. Up-regulation can have important functional consequences, for example, enhancing the sensitivity or response of a cell to a hormone, neurotransmitter, or drug. It is a normal physiological process that can also be induced by disease or pharmacological interventions.

Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), also known as gelatinase A, is an enzyme that belongs to the matrix metalloproteinase family. MMPs are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix components, and MMP-2 is responsible for degrading type IV collagen, a major component of the basement membrane. This enzyme plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including tissue remodeling, wound healing, and angiogenesis. However, its dysregulation has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as cancer, arthritis, and cardiovascular diseases. MMP-2 is synthesized as an inactive proenzyme and requires activation by other proteases or chemical modifications before it can exert its proteolytic activity.

Neoplasm invasiveness is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the aggressive behavior of cancer cells as they invade surrounding tissues and organs. This process involves the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, increased motility and migration, and the ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Invasive neoplasms are cancers that have spread beyond the original site where they first developed and have infiltrated adjacent tissues or structures. This is in contrast to non-invasive or in situ neoplasms, which are confined to the epithelial layer where they originated and have not yet invaded the underlying basement membrane.

The invasiveness of a neoplasm is an important prognostic factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it can indicate the likelihood of metastasis and the potential effectiveness of various therapies. In general, more invasive cancers are associated with worse outcomes and require more aggressive treatment approaches.

Medical Definition:

Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), also known as gelatinase B or 92 kDa type IV collagenase, is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family. These enzymes are involved in degrading and remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) components, playing crucial roles in various physiological and pathological processes such as wound healing, tissue repair, and tumor metastasis.

MMP-9 is secreted as an inactive zymogen and activated upon removal of its propeptide domain. It can degrade several ECM proteins, including type IV collagen, elastin, fibronectin, and gelatin. MMP-9 has been implicated in numerous diseases, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Its expression is regulated at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels, and its activity can be controlled by endogenous inhibitors called tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs).

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

Protein-kinase B, also known as AKT, is a group of intracellular proteins that play a crucial role in various cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription, and cell migration. The AKT family includes three isoforms: AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3, which are encoded by the genes PKBalpha, PKBbeta, and PKBgamma, respectively.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-AKT refer to the normal, non-mutated forms of these proteins that are involved in the regulation of cell growth and survival under physiological conditions. However, when these genes are mutated or overexpressed, they can become oncogenes, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and cancer development.

Activation of c-AKT occurs through a signaling cascade that begins with the binding of extracellular ligands such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) to their respective receptors on the cell surface. This triggers a series of phosphorylation events that ultimately lead to the activation of c-AKT, which then phosphorylates downstream targets involved in various cellular processes.

In summary, proto-oncogene proteins c-AKT are normal intracellular proteins that play essential roles in regulating cell growth and survival under physiological conditions. However, their dysregulation can contribute to cancer development and progression.

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a type of short, double-stranded RNA molecule that plays a role in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The RNAi pathway is a natural cellular process that regulates gene expression by targeting and destroying specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, thereby preventing the translation of those mRNAs into proteins.

SiRNAs are typically 20-25 base pairs in length and are generated from longer double-stranded RNA precursors called hairpin RNAs or dsRNAs by an enzyme called Dicer. Once generated, siRNAs associate with a protein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which uses one strand of the siRNA (the guide strand) to recognize and bind to complementary sequences in the target mRNA. The RISC then cleaves the target mRNA, leading to its degradation and the inhibition of protein synthesis.

SiRNAs have emerged as a powerful tool for studying gene function and have shown promise as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including viral infections, cancer, and genetic disorders. However, their use as therapeutics is still in the early stages of development, and there are challenges associated with delivering siRNAs to specific cells and tissues in the body.

Anoxia is a medical condition that refers to the absence or complete lack of oxygen supply in the body or a specific organ, tissue, or cell. This can lead to serious health consequences, including damage or death of cells and tissues, due to the vital role that oxygen plays in supporting cellular metabolism and energy production.

Anoxia can occur due to various reasons, such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, severe blood loss, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. Prolonged anoxia can result in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, a serious condition that can cause brain damage and long-term neurological impairments.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tests, such as blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and electroencephalography (EEG), to assess oxygen levels in the body and diagnose anoxia. Treatment for anoxia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, providing supplemental oxygen, and supporting vital functions, such as breathing and circulation, to prevent further damage.

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the cellular response to low oxygen levels, also known as hypoxia. It is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: HIF-1α and HIF-1β.

Under normoxic conditions (adequate oxygen supply), HIF-1α is constantly produced but rapidly degraded by proteasomes due to the action of prolyl hydroxylases, which mark it for destruction in the presence of oxygen. However, under hypoxic conditions, the activity of prolyl hydroxylases is inhibited, leading to the stabilization and accumulation of HIF-1α.

Once stabilized, HIF-1α translocates to the nucleus and forms a complex with HIF-1β. This complex then binds to hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs) in the promoter regions of various genes involved in angiogenesis, glucose metabolism, erythropoiesis, cell survival, and other processes that help cells adapt to low oxygen levels.

By activating these target genes, HIF-1 plays a critical role in regulating the body's response to hypoxia, including promoting the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis), enhancing anaerobic metabolism, and inhibiting cell proliferation and apoptosis under low oxygen conditions. Dysregulation of HIF-1 has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and ischemic disorders.

Capillary permeability refers to the ability of substances to pass through the walls of capillaries, which are the smallest blood vessels in the body. These tiny vessels connect the arterioles and venules, allowing for the exchange of nutrients, waste products, and gases between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

The capillary wall is composed of a single layer of endothelial cells that are held together by tight junctions. The permeability of these walls varies depending on the size and charge of the molecules attempting to pass through. Small, uncharged molecules such as water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide can easily diffuse through the capillary wall, while larger or charged molecules such as proteins and large ions have more difficulty passing through.

Increased capillary permeability can occur in response to inflammation, infection, or injury, allowing larger molecules and immune cells to enter the surrounding tissues. This can lead to swelling (edema) and tissue damage if not controlled. Decreased capillary permeability, on the other hand, can lead to impaired nutrient exchange and tissue hypoxia.

Overall, the permeability of capillaries is a critical factor in maintaining the health and function of tissues throughout the body.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

I cannot provide a specific medical definition for "Melanoma, Experimental," as it is not a standardized medical term. However, I can give you information about melanoma and experimental treatments related to this disease.

Melanoma is a type of cancer that develops from pigment-producing cells known as melanocytes. It usually occurs in the skin but can rarely occur in other parts of the body, such as the eyes or internal organs. Melanoma is characterized by the uncontrolled growth and multiplication of melanocytes, forming malignant tumors.

Experimental treatments for melanoma refer to novel therapeutic strategies that are currently being researched and tested in clinical trials. These experimental treatments may include:

1. Targeted therapies: Drugs that target specific genetic mutations or molecular pathways involved in melanoma growth and progression. Examples include BRAF and MEK inhibitors, such as vemurafenib, dabrafenib, and trametinib.
2. Immunotherapies: Treatments designed to enhance the immune system's ability to recognize and destroy cancer cells. These may include checkpoint inhibitors (e.g., ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab), adoptive cell therapies (e.g., CAR T-cell therapy), and therapeutic vaccines.
3. Oncolytic viruses: Genetically modified viruses that can selectively infect and kill cancer cells while leaving healthy cells unharmed. Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is an example of an oncolytic virus approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma.
4. Combination therapies: The use of multiple experimental treatments in combination to improve efficacy and reduce the risk of resistance. For instance, combining targeted therapies with immunotherapies or different types of immunotherapies.
5. Personalized medicine approaches: Using genetic testing and biomarker analysis to identify the most effective treatment for an individual patient based on their specific tumor characteristics.

It is essential to consult with healthcare professionals and refer to clinical trial databases, such as, for up-to-date information on experimental treatments for melanoma.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of nucleosides, specifically thymidine. The medical definition of thymidine phosphorylase is:

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of thymidine to thymine and deoxyribose-1-phosphate. Thymidine phosphorylase has been identified as a key enzyme in the angiogenic (formation of new blood vessels) pathway, where it facilitates the release of pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

In addition to its role in nucleoside metabolism and angiogenesis, thymidine phosphorylase has been implicated in cancer biology. Increased levels of thymidine phosphorylase have been found in various human cancers, including colorectal, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. These high levels of thymidine phosphorylase are associated with poor prognosis and increased angiogenesis, contributing to tumor growth and metastasis.

Thus, thymidine phosphorylase is a crucial enzyme in nucleoside metabolism, angiogenesis, and cancer biology, making it an important target for the development of novel anti-cancer therapies.

Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that work by inhibiting the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are a family of enzymes involved in the breakdown and remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. MMPs play important roles in various physiological processes, including tissue repair, wound healing, and angiogenesis, but they can also contribute to the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as cancer, arthritis, and cardiovascular disease.

MMPIs are designed to block the activity of MMPs by binding to their active site or zinc-binding domain, thereby preventing them from degrading ECM proteins. These inhibitors can be broad-spectrum, targeting multiple MMPs, or selective, targeting specific MMP isoforms.

MMPIs have been studied as potential therapeutic agents for various diseases, including cancer, where they have shown promise in reducing tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis by inhibiting the activity of MMPs that promote these processes. However, clinical trials with MMPIs have yielded mixed results, and some studies have suggested that broad-spectrum MMPIs may have off-target effects that can lead to adverse side effects. Therefore, there is ongoing research into developing more selective MMPIs that target specific MMP isoforms involved in disease pathogenesis while minimizing off-target effects.

Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein receptor that has been identified as having roles in both nervous system development and cancer biology. It was initially described as a receptor for semaphorins, which are guidance cues involved in axon pathfinding during neuronal development. However, it is now known to also function as a co-receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), playing critical roles in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.

NRP-1 contains several distinct domains that allow it to interact with various ligands and coreceptors, including a extracellular domain containing two complement-binding protein-like domains, a membrane-proximal MAM (meprin A5, reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein, and KAZAL) domain, and an intracellular domain.

In cancer biology, NRP-1 has been found to be overexpressed in many tumor types, where it contributes to tumor growth, progression, and metastasis by promoting angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and tumor cell survival, migration, and invasion. Therefore, NRP-1 is considered a promising therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

Cell growth processes refer to the series of events that occur within a cell leading to an increase in its size, mass, and number of organelles. These processes are essential for the development, maintenance, and reproduction of all living organisms. The main cell growth processes include:

1. Cell Cycle: It is the sequence of events that a eukaryotic cell goes through from one cell division (mitosis) to the next. The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase (growth and preparation for DNA replication), S phase (DNA synthesis), G2 phase (preparation for mitosis), and M phase (mitosis or meiosis).

2. DNA Replication: It is the process by which a cell makes an identical copy of its DNA molecule before cell division. This ensures that each daughter cell receives an exact replica of the parent cell's genetic material.

3. Protein Synthesis: Cells grow by increasing their protein content, which is achieved through the process of protein synthesis. This involves transcribing DNA into mRNA (transcription) and then translating that mRNA into a specific protein sequence (translation).

4. Cellular Metabolism: It refers to the sum total of all chemical reactions that occur within a cell to maintain life. These reactions include catabolic processes, which break down nutrients to release energy, and anabolic processes, which use energy to build complex molecules like proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.

5. Cell Signaling: Cells communicate with each other through intricate signaling pathways that help coordinate growth, differentiation, and survival. These signals can come from within the cell (intracellular) or from outside the cell (extracellular).

6. Cell Division: Also known as mitosis, it is the process by which a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells. This ensures that each new cell contains an exact copy of the parent cell's genetic material and allows for growth and repair of tissues.

7. Apoptosis: It is a programmed cell death process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged or unnecessary cells. Dysregulation of apoptosis can lead to diseases such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Granulation tissue is the pinkish, bumpy material that forms on the surface of a healing wound. It's composed of tiny blood vessels (capillaries), white blood cells, and fibroblasts - cells that produce collagen, which is a protein that helps to strengthen and support the tissue.

Granulation tissue plays a crucial role in the wound healing process by filling in the wound space, contracting the wound, and providing a foundation for the growth of new skin cells (epithelialization). It's typically formed within 3-5 days after an injury and continues to develop until the wound is fully healed.

It's important to note that while granulation tissue is a normal part of the healing process, excessive or overgrowth of granulation tissue can lead to complications such as delayed healing, infection, or the formation of hypertrophic scars or keloids. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to manage the excess tissue and promote proper healing.

Down-regulation is a process that occurs in response to various stimuli, where the number or sensitivity of cell surface receptors or the expression of specific genes is decreased. This process helps maintain homeostasis within cells and tissues by reducing the ability of cells to respond to certain signals or molecules.

In the context of cell surface receptors, down-regulation can occur through several mechanisms:

1. Receptor internalization: After binding to their ligands, receptors can be internalized into the cell through endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these receptors may be degraded or recycled back to the cell surface in smaller numbers.
2. Reduced receptor synthesis: Down-regulation can also occur at the transcriptional level, where the expression of genes encoding for specific receptors is decreased, leading to fewer receptors being produced.
3. Receptor desensitization: Prolonged exposure to a ligand can lead to a decrease in receptor sensitivity or affinity, making it more difficult for the cell to respond to the signal.

In the context of gene expression, down-regulation refers to the decreased transcription and/or stability of specific mRNAs, leading to reduced protein levels. This process can be induced by various factors, including microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation, histone modification, or DNA methylation.

Down-regulation is an essential mechanism in many physiological processes and can also contribute to the development of several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Paracrine communication is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell releases a signaling molecule, known as a paracrine factor, that acts on nearby cells within the local microenvironment. This type of communication allows for the coordination and regulation of various cellular processes, including growth, differentiation, and survival.

Paracrine factors can be released from a cell through various mechanisms, such as exocytosis or diffusion through the extracellular matrix. Once released, these factors bind to specific receptors on the surface of nearby cells, triggering intracellular signaling pathways that lead to changes in gene expression and cell behavior.

Paracrine communication is an important mechanism for maintaining tissue homeostasis and coordinating responses to injury or disease. For example, during wound healing, paracrine signals released by immune cells can recruit other cells to the site of injury and stimulate their proliferation and differentiation to promote tissue repair.

It's worth noting that paracrine communication should be distinguished from autocrine signaling, where a cell releases a signaling molecule that binds back to its own receptors, and endocrine signaling, where a hormone is released into the bloodstream and travels to distant target cells.

See [1] and [2] Angiogenesis Inhibitors for Cancer - from The Angiogenesis Foundation, 23 June 2009 Angiogenesis Inhibitors for ... An angiogenesis inhibitor is a substance that inhibits the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Some angiogenesis ... Thus angiogenesis inhibitors have been closely studied for possible cancer treatment. Angiogenesis inhibitors were once thought ... 23 June 2009 Angiogenesis Inhibitors in the Treatment of Cancer - from the National Cancer Institute Angiogenesis+Inhibitors at ...
A cartilage-derived angiogenesis inhibitor is an angiogenesis inhibitor produced from cartilage. Examples include the peptide ... v t e (Angiogenesis inhibitors, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ... a cartilage-derived angiogenesis inhibitor: in vitro and in vivo effects on human endothelial cells and on pancreatic cancer". ... March 2004). "Suppression of T cell responses by chondromodulin I, a cartilage-derived angiogenesis inhibitory factor: ...
... 1 Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 3 ... Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitors are G-protein coupled receptors belonging to the class B secretin subfamily. Members ... novel genes homologous to brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1)". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 79 (1-2): 103-8. doi:10.1159/ ... Angiogenesis, G protein-coupled receptors, All stub articles, Transmembrane receptor stubs). ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAI2 gene. It is a member of the adhesion ... BAI1, a p53-target gene, encodes brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor, a seven-span transmembrane protein and is thought to be ... 2002). "Expression of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2) in normal and ischemic brain: involvement of BAI2 in the ... "Entrez Gene: BAI2 brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2". Stacey, edited by Simon Yona, Martin (2010). Adhesion-GPCRs : ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAI3 gene. BAI1, a p53-target gene, ... "Entrez Gene: BAI3 brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 3". Lanoue, V; Usardi, A; Sigoillot, S M; Talleur, M; Iyer, K; Mariani ... encodes brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor, a seven-span transmembrane protein and is thought to be a member of the secretin ... novel genes homologous to brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1)". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 79 (1-2): 103-108. ...
... an inhibitor of angiogenesis and a growth suppressor of glioblastomas. Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 has been shown ... Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAI1 gene. It is a member of the adhesion ... "Overexpression of the p53-inducible brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 suppresses efficiently tumour angiogenesis". ... Angiogenesis is controlled by a local balance between stimulators and inhibitors of new vessel growth and is suppressed under ...
Angiogenesis inhibitors interfere with blood vessel formation by interfering with the angiogenesis signalling cascade. They are ... "Angiogenesis Inhibitors". National Cancer Institute. May 2018. Retrieved 2018-02-19. Rosella D, Papi P, Giardino R, Cicalini E ... Another suggested factor is inhibition of angiogenesis due to bisphosphonates; this effect remains uncertain. Several studies ... March 2005). "Zoledronic acid-related angiogenesis modifications and survival in advanced breast cancer patients". Journal of ...
Angiogenesis Angiogenesis inhibitor Apoptosis Endostatin Sudhakar A, Sugimoto H, Yang C, Lively J, Zeisberg M, Kalluri R (April ... Tumstatin is a cell-specific inhibitor for protein synthesis and therefore affects angiogenesis, which occurs at the protein ... Nyberg P, Xie L, Kalluri R (May 2005). "Endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis". Cancer Res. 65 (10): 3967-79. doi:10.1158/0008- ... July 2004). "Tumstatin peptide, an inhibitor of angiogenesis, prevents glomerular hypertrophy in the early stage of diabetic ...
This research has been used in anti-tumor therapeutic research, including an observation that angiogenesis inhibitors enhanced ... "Clinical translation of angiogenesis inhibitors". Nature Reviews Cancer. 2 (10): 727-739. doi:10.1038/nrc905. PMID 12360276. ... characterizing the effects of angiogenesis inhibitors on the effectiveness of anti-tumor therapies, has been cited over 900 ... Chen, Yun; Gorski, David H. (1 February 2008). "Regulation of angiogenesis through a microRNA (miR-130a) that down-regulates ...
Inhibition of TNF-α is not the mechanism of thalidomide's inhibition of angiogenesis since numerous other TNF-α inhibitors do ... D'Amato RJ, Loughnan MS, Flynn E, Folkman J (April 1994). "Thalidomide is an inhibitor of angiogenesis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Additionally, these analogs are more potent inhibitors of angiogenesis than thalidomide. As well, the amino-thalidomide and ... "Angiogenesis inhibitors derived from thalidomide". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 15 (24): 5509-5513. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Lee, A; Langer, R (16 September 1983). "Shark cartilage contains inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis". Science. 221 (4616): 1185-7 ...
There are also cartilage-derived angiogenesis inhibitors. Exogenous matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors were developed as ... A matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (MMPI, INN stem -mastat) inhibits matrix metalloproteinases. Because they inhibit cell ... Drug discovery and development of MMP inhibitors "The Use of Stems in the Selection of International Nonproprietary Names (INN ... Noel Vinay Thomas; Se Kwon Kim (2010). "Metalloproteinase Inhibitors Stts and Scope from Marine Organisms". Biochemistry ...
Various angiogenesis inhibitors have been developed to interfere with different steps in the process. Bevacizumab (Avastin) is ... Sorafenib and sutinib are additional angiogenesis inhibitors that bind and block receptors on endothelial cells that have ... Cook, Kristina M.; Figg, William D. (2010-07-01). "Angiogenesis inhibitors: current strategies and future prospects". CA: A ... Shih, Ted; Lindley, Celeste (2006-11-01). "Bevacizumab: an angiogenesis inhibitor for the treatment of solid malignancies". ...
2017, "Risk factors". Ryeom S, Folkman J (March 2009). "Role of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors in Down syndrome". The ...
Among anti-angiogenesis inhibitors, endostatin has a wide range of anti-cancer spectrum targets, increasing its significance ... Endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis are present in both normal tissue and cancerous tissue. Overall, endostatin down ... Endostatin is a broad-spectrum angiogenesis inhibitor and may interfere with the pro-angiogenic action of growth factors such ... Hohenester, E.; Sasaki, T.; Olsen, B.R.; Timpl, R. (1998). "Crystal structure of the angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin at 1.5 A ...
"Borrelidin is an angiogenesis inhibitor; disruption of angiogenic capillary vessels in a rat aorta matrix culture model". The ... "Biosynthesis of the angiogenesis inhibitor borrelidin by Streptomyces parvulus Tü4055: cluster analysis and assignment of ... "Biosynthesis of the angiogenesis inhibitor borrelidin by Streptomyces parvulus Tü4055: insights into nitrile formation". ... First discovered in 1949 from Streptomyces rochei, Borrelidin shows antibacterial activity by acting as an inhibitor of ...
Sorbera LA, Bayes M (2005). "ABT-510: oncolytic angiogenesis inhibitor". Drugs of the Future. Prous Science. 30 (11): 1081-6. ... April 2005). "Thrombospondin-1 mimetic peptide inhibitors of angiogenesis and tumor growth: design, synthesis, and optimization ... Since tumors overexpressing TSP-1 typically grow slower, exhibit less angiogenesis, and have fewer metastases, TSP1 is an ... functions for TSP-1 have been found in multiple biological processes including angiogenesis, apoptosis, activation of TGF-beta ...
It belongs to the families of drugs called VEGF receptor and angiogenesis inhibitors. Preliminary tests have demonstrated that ... Weng, D. E.; Usman, N. (March 2001). "Angiozyme: a novel angiogenesis inhibitor". Current Oncology Reports. 3 (2): 141-146. doi ... It may prevent the growth of blood vessels from surrounding tissue to the tumor, i.e., angiogenesis. ... Angiogenesis has no significant side effects. It is also known as RPI.4610. "Ribozyme Pharmaceuticals Going Into Clinical ...
Effects of angiogenesis inhibitors on multistage carcinogenesis in mice. Science 284, 808-812. Bergers, G., Javaherian, K., Lo ... This is supported by the fact that MMP inhibitors have more recently been shown in animal models to be more effective in ... It acted as a broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor. Marimastat performed poorly in clinical trials, and ... "Results of single and repeat dose studies of the oral matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor marimastat in healthy male volunteers ...
This suggests options for therapeutic intervention with angiogenesis inhibitors. Symptoms include vaginal bleeding that occurs ... Harmsen MJ, Wong CF, Mijatovic V, Griffioen AW, Groenman F, Hehenkamp WJ, Huirne JA (September 2019). "Role of angiogenesis in ... Middelkoop MA, Don EE, Hehenkamp WJ, Polman NJ, Griffioen AW, Huirne JA (February 2023). "Angiogenesis in abnormal uterine ... Recent research suggests that abnormal angiogenesis is associated to conditions of adenomyosis leading to abnormal uterine ...
... who was looking for angiogenesis inhibitors, discovered in 1994 that thalidomide inhibited angiogenesis and was effective in ... D'Amato RJ, Loughnan MS, Flynn E, Folkman J (April 1994). "Thalidomide is an inhibitor of angiogenesis". Proceedings of the ... Ribatti D (2008). "Judah Folkman, a pioneer in the study of angiogenesis". Angiogenesis. 11 (1): 3-10. doi:10.1007/s10456-008- ... As of 2015[update], the main theories were inhibition of the process of angiogenesis, its inhibition of cereblon, a ubiquitin ...
... was looking for angiogenesis inhibitors, and discovered that thalidomide inhibited angiogenesis in 1994. Around that time, the ... In 2004, the first angiogenesis inhibitor, bevacizumab (Avastin), was approved by the FDA, as a treatment for colon cancer. It ... D'Amato RJ, Loughnan MS, Flynn E, Folkman J (1994). "Thalidomide is an inhibitor of angiogenesis". Proceedings of the National ... Ribatti D (2008). "Judah Folkman, a pioneer in the study of angiogenesis". Angiogenesis. 11 (1): 3-10. doi:10.1007/s10456-008- ...
D'Amato RJ, Loughnan MS, Flynn E, Folkman J (April 1994). "Thalidomide is an inhibitor of angiogenesis". Proceedings of the ... since potent TNF inhibitors including rolipram and pentoxifylline do not inhibit myeloma cell growth or angiogenesis. ... Pomalidomide directly inhibits angiogenesis and myeloma cell growth. This dual effect is central to its activity in myeloma, ... April 2002). "S-3-Amino-phthalimido-glutarimide inhibits angiogenesis and growth of B-cell neoplasias in mice". Cancer Research ...
... angiogenesis inhibitors like bevacizumab, known to sometimes cause bone pain; and surgery, which may produce post-operative ... Aromatase inhibitors can cause diffuse muscle and joint pain and stiffness, and may increase the likelihood of osteoporosis and ... the proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib, and the platinum-based drugs cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin. Whether CIPN ...
... endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, fumagillin analogues, statins, cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, phytochemical compounds, ... Angiogenesis inhibitors lack clinical evidence of efficacy in endometriosis therapy. Under experimental in vitro and in vivo ... Examples of aromatase inhibitors include anastrozole and letrozole. Evidence for aromatase inhibitors is confirmed by numerous ... Aromatase inhibitors are medications that block the formation of estrogen and have become of interest for researchers who are ...
... angiogenesis inhibitors like bevacizumab, known to sometimes cause bone pain; surgery, which may produce post-operative pain, ... non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or COX-2 inhibitors. Then, if complete pain relief is not achieved or disease progression ...
Stetler-Stevenson WG, Seo DW (2005). "TIMP-2: an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis". Trends in Molecular Medicine. 11 (3): ... Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2) is a gene and a corresponding protein. The gene is a member of the TIMP gene ... Zucker S, Drews M, Conner C, Foda HD, DeClerck YA, Langley KE, Bahou WF, Docherty AJ, Cao J (January 1998). "Tissue inhibitor ... Bigg HF, Shi YE, Liu YE, Steffensen B, Overall CM (June 1997). "Specific, high affinity binding of tissue inhibitor of ...
Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor InterPro: IPR008077 BAI1; BAI2; BAI3 CD97 antigen InterPro: IPR003056 CD97 EMR hormone ... calcium-independent receptors for latrotoxin and brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor receptors amongst others. They are ...
Cao participated in the discovery of angiostatin, an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, in Judah Folkman ́s Laboratory. He ... Cao's laboratory discovered catechins in green tea as oral angiogenesis inhibitors. They also discovered several ... is an angiogenesis inhibitor that suppresses the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice". The Journal of Experimental Medicine ... a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma". Cell. 79 (2): 315-328. ...
A variety of inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis are being actively studied. These include both recombinant proteins derived from ... which appear to play a role in the control of endothelial cell responses to angiogenesis inhibitors. They are also using ... The process of new vessel development within the tumor is termed angiogenesis and is required for tumors to grow larger than a ... Libutti's work on the study of tumor angiogenesis and the tumor microenvironment has led to novel approaches for the treatment ...
See [1] and [2] Angiogenesis Inhibitors for Cancer - from The Angiogenesis Foundation, 23 June 2009 Angiogenesis Inhibitors for ... An angiogenesis inhibitor is a substance that inhibits the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Some angiogenesis ... Thus angiogenesis inhibitors have been closely studied for possible cancer treatment. Angiogenesis inhibitors were once thought ... 23 June 2009 Angiogenesis Inhibitors in the Treatment of Cancer - from the National Cancer Institute Angiogenesis+Inhibitors at ...
RCTs comparing angiogenesis inhibitors with standard chemotherapy, other types of anti-cancer treatment, other angiogenesis ... Angiogenesis inhibitors for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , 2023 (4) , ... Angiogenesis inhibitors for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.pdf - Published Version Access restricted to UCL open ... Objectives: To compare the effectiveness and toxicities of angiogenesis inhibitors for treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer ( ...
As a result, inhibitors of 2-AG hydrolysis could serve seeing that healing agencies for the treating prostate tumor potentially ... P-12-LO promotes prostate tumor angiogenesis and metastasis.23-26,30-32 L-12-LO continues to be investigated in the vascular ... confluency and lysed in the current presence of an entire Mini tablet of protease inhibitors as referred to earlier. Protein ...
Use this popup to embed a mailing list sign up form. Alternatively use it as a simple call to action with a link to a product or a page. ...
Yeast cells help show how GSAO (glutathionarsenoxide) angiogenesis inhibitor drug works The humble yeast has revealed the ... Does a combination of radiation therapy and the inhibition of integrins (key molecules in angiogenesis) improve the chance of ...
Angiogenesis Inhibitors / adverse effects * Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use* * Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse ...
Angiogenesis inhibitors. *Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy. *Biochemotherapy. *Cancer vaccines. *Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR ... For example, drugs called immune checkpoint inhibitors can target certain receptors on the surface of the cancer cells. There ...
Angiogenesis Inhibitors (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish * Cancer Alternative Therapies: MedlinePlus Health Topic ( ...
Pharmacological Actions : Angiogenesis Inhibitors, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) inhibitor, ... Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors, Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) inhibitor, STAT3 Inhibitor, Survivin Down-Regulation, Vascular ... Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) inhibitor, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitors. Additional Keywords : Natural ... Crocetin suppresses angiogenesis and metastasis through inhibiting sonic hedgehog signaling pathway in gastric cancer.Oct 21, ...
Publications] Y.Asami: Azaspirene : a novel angiogenesis inhibitor containing a 1-oxa-7-azaspiro [4.4]non-2-ene-4,6-dione ... Journal Article] ICM0301s, new angiogenesis inhibitors from Aspergillus sp. F-1491. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and ... Journal Article] ICM0301s, new angiogenesis inhibitors from Aspergillus sp. F-1491. II. Physico-chemical properities and ... Journal Article] PP2A inhibitors, harzianic acid and related compounds produced by fungus strain F-1531.2004. *. Author(s). ...
Pigment epithelium-derived factor: a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Science. 1999 Jul 9. 285(5425):245-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link ...
The 2001 Gordon Research Conference on Angiogenesis and Microcirculation will be held in Newport, Rhode Island. Apply today to ... "Angiogenesis inhibitors in multistate tumorigenesis shows stage specific efficacy differences suggestive of underlying ... Vasculogenesis / Angiogenesis. Chair: Napolean Ferrara, Genentech, Inc.. "New insights on the regulation of angiogenesis by ... "Angiogenesis: how to orchestrate a well-tempered blood vessel". Jan Kitajewski, Columbia University. "Notch function in ...
ANGIOGENESIS (1) * Angiogenesis inhibitors & stimulators (1) * CANCER PREVENTION (1) * Animal models of prevention (1) ...
Metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in tumor angiogenesis. International Journal of Cancer 2005;115(6): 849-60.. ... the dual role of MMPs in angiogenesis highlights the need to develop selective MMP inhibitors [20]. ... Yoon S-O, Park S-J, Yun C-H, Chung A-S. Roles of matrix metalloproteinases in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. Journal of ... Kawai K, Uetsuka K, Doi K, Nakayama H. The Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Tissue Inhibitors of ...
... that we recently identified is an endogenous selective inhibitor of lymphangiogenesis. To evaluate the antimetastatic potential ... Cancer metastasis contributes significantly to cancer mortality and is facilitated by lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis. A new ... Folkman J: Endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors. Apmis. 2004, 112: 496-507. 10.1111/j.1600-0463.2004.apm11207-0809.x. ... an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Cell. 1997, 88: 277-285. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81848-6. ...
G-CSF with cyclophosphamide or the combination of G-CSF with a CXCR4 inhibitor may be considered ...
... is an investigational angiogenesis inhibitor. For approximately 15 months, participants in the control arm will receive ... CTX-009 targets angiogenesis, which tumors require to grow and spread. All participants will receive intravenous (IV) infusions ... SGLT2 Inhibitors in Type 2 Diabetes Linked to Lower Risk of Developing GI Cancers ... Domvanalimab (from Gilead Sciences) is an experimental immune checkpoint inhibitor, and zimberelimab (from Arcus Biosciences) ...
If there is something about combining a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with an angiogenesis inhibitor-as suggested with Tarceva ( ... However, there is an ongoing study combining the angiogenesis inhibitor Avastin (bevacizumab) with Alecensa. ... With ALK inhibitors, people might think about using them at random; but, in fact, we know a lot about how these drugs work - ... It is really important to think about ALK inhibitors as having uses in different settings. Specifically, we often in the world ...
NVP-AUY922: a novel heat shock protein 90 inhibitor active against xenograft tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Cancer ...
NOTE: The following are exceptions: Proton pump Inhibitors (PPIs), NSAIDS including COX-2 inhibitors, acetaminophen. ...
Ro5-3335 RUNX1-Core Binding Factor β Inhibitor Blocks EC Tube Formation In Vitro and Aberrant Angiogenesis In Vivo. To ... Identification of RUNX1 as a Mediator of Aberrant Retinal Angiogenesis Jonathan D. Lam; Jonathan D. Lam ... 4A). In vivo testing of the effects on aberrant angiogenesis of RUNX1 inhibition was conducted by injecting Ro5-3335 ... A 5′ untranslated region containing the IRES element in the Runx1 gene is required for angiogenesis, hematopoiesis and ...
Papadopoulos also addressed UPARANT, a urokinase receptor-derived peptide inhibitor of VEGF-induced angiogenesis. It is ... considered a promising approach for the treatment of retinal angiogenesis.. The paper, "Aflibercept: A review of its effect on ...
In addition, it is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. The function is likely associated with binding to cell surface receptors ... In addition, it is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. The function is likely associated with binding to cell surface receptors ... In addition, it is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. The function is likely associated with binding to cell surface receptors ... In addition, it is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. The function is likely associated with binding to cell surface receptors ...
... and/or other angiogenesis inhibitors, e.g., bevacizumab, TKI, mTOR inhibitors. Caution should therefore be exercised when ... Lenvatinib is a multikinase inhibitor which has shown mainly antiangiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo, and direct ... Consequently, in vivo, inducers and inhibitors of CYP 3A4 had a minimal effect on lenvatinib exposure (see section 4.5). ... The use of VEGF pathway inhibitors in patients with or without hypertension may promote the formation of aneurysms and/or ...
An angiogenesis assay was conducted employing HUVE cells seeded on the basement membrane reconstituent Matrigel™ supplemented ... To affect continued tumour growth, tumours induce angiogenesis for the constant delivery of nutrients and oxygen. This study ... Treatment of established tubular structures with 100 μg/ml anti-LRP/LR specific antibody completely blocked angiogenesis. Our ... formation and recommends anti-LRP/LR specific antibodies as potential therapeutic tools for treatment of tumour angiogenesis. ...
Management techniques include audiology, brain imaging before adolescence, surgery, and bevacizumab, an angiogenesis inhibitor. ...
... with emphasis on viral vectors have been explored in preclinical model with direct and indirect angiogenesis inhibitors. Recent ... Anti-angiogenesis drugs - Anti-angiogenesis therapy for multiple sclerosis - Update on the link between angiogenesis and portal ... Anti-Angiogenesis Drug Discovery and Development. × The inhibition of angiogenesis is an effective mechanism of slowing down ... Anti-Angiogenesis Drug Discovery and Development. × The inhibition of angiogenesis is an effective mechanism of slowing down ...
... treatment of IBD using natural angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin also showed a beneficial effect in experimental IBD (16). Our ... Angiogenesis plays a significant role in numerous diseases. Recently, dysbalanced angiogenesis was found to be a component of ... Angiogenesis has emerged as an additional vascular mechanism contributing to chronic inflammation in IBD (3). However, the ... The main focus of the present study was the application of bacterial gene therapy in the modulation of angiogenesis in IBD. As ...
However, BBRs anti-angiogenesis property and its clinical potential as an inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis in breast cancer ...
4-diarylmaleimides as angiogenesis inhibitors. J Med Chem 49 (4), 1271-81 (2006). [Pubmed , DOI] ... N-myristoyltransferase inhibitors as new leads to treat sleeping sickness. Nature 464 (7289), 728-32 (2010). [Pubmed , DOI , ... Identification of novel inhibitors of UDP-Glc 4-epimerase, a validated drug target for african sleeping sickness. Bioorg Med ... Identification of Inhibitors of the Leishmania cdc-Related Protein Kinase CRK3. ChemMedChem , (2011). [Pubmed , DOI] ...
  • During tumor growth, the action of angiogenesis stimulators surpasses the control of angiogenesis inhibitors, allowing for unregulated or less regulated blood vessel growth and formation. (
  • In animal studies, high doses of inhibitors were required to prevent tumor growth and the use of endogenous inhibitors would likely be long-term. (
  • 2008. NVP-AUY922: a novel heat shock protein 90 inhibitor active against xenograft tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis . (
  • COX-2 inhibitors, which block the formation of prostaglandins, suppress tumor growth, whereas sEH inhibitors, which increase endogenous EETs, stimulate primary tumor growth and metastasis. (
  • Using pharmacological inhibitors as probes, we show here that dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH synergistically inhibits primary tumor growth and metastasis by suppressing tumor angiogenesis. (
  • COX-2/sEH dual pharmacological inhibitors also potently suppress primary tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis via selective inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. (
  • citation needed] Some common components of human diets also act as mild angiogenesis inhibitors and have therefore been proposed for angioprevention, the prevention of metastasis through the inhibition of angiogenesis. (
  • P-12-LO promotes prostate tumor angiogenesis and metastasis.23-26,30-32 L-12-LO continues to be investigated in the vascular systems.23,33,34 The expression and function of Tpo L-12-LO have already been characterized in individual breast cancer tissue and cells35 and rat W256 cells36 however, not in prostate cancer. (
  • Cancer metastasis contributes significantly to cancer mortality and is facilitated by lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis. (
  • Strikingly however, even the lowest dose of AZ67 demonstrated significant inhibition of angiogenesis in vivo. (
  • A recent method for the delivery of anti-angiogenesis factors to tumor regions in cancer patients uses genetically modified bacteria that are able to colonize solid tumors in vivo, such as Clostridium, Bifidobacteria and Salmonella by adding genes for anti-angiogenic factors such as endostatin or IP10 chemokine and removing any harmful virulence genes. (
  • Currently, angiogenesis inhibitors are recognized for their improvement of cancer immunotherapy by overcoming endothelial cell anergy. (
  • Endogenous inhibitors are often derived from the extracellular matrix or basement membrane proteins and function by interfering with endothelial cell formation and migration, endothelial tube morphogenesis, and down-regulation of genes expressed in endothelial cells. (
  • Strategies to inhibit the VEGF pathway include antibodies directed against VEGF or VEGFR, soluble VEGFR/VEGFR hybrids, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (
  • Some angiogenesis inhibitors are endogenous and a normal part of the body's control and others are obtained exogenously through pharmaceutical drugs or diet. (
  • Angiogenesis is regulated by the activity of endogenous stimulators and inhibitors. (
  • Endogenous inhibitors, found in the body naturally, are involved in the day-to-day process of regulating blood vessel formation. (
  • Endogenous inhibitors are attractive targets for cancer therapy because they are less toxic and less likely to lead to drug resistance than some exogenous inhibitors. (
  • However, the therapeutic use of endogenous inhibitors has disadvantages. (
  • A new splicing variant, endogenous soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (esVEGFR-2) that we recently identified is an endogenous selective inhibitor of lymphangiogenesis. (
  • Inhibition of the VEGF pathway has become the focus of angiogenesis research, as approximately 60% of malignant tumors express high concentrations of VEGF. (
  • The most widely used VEGF pathway inhibitor on the market today is Bevacizumab. (
  • The growth of blood vessels (angiogenesis) is primarily initiated by activation of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 by VEGF-A, whereas lymphangiogenesis is predominantly driven by VEGF-C, which activates VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells. (
  • Prostaglandins derived from the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) from the cytochrome P450/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway are important eicosanoids that regulate angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. (
  • RESULTS: The therapeutic treatment with cream-gel at 15 and 25% is beneficial in the inflammatory phase of healing processes since it increased the angiogenesis and proliferation of mononuclear infiltrations in wounds. (
  • Angiogenesis inhibitors are also used to effectively treat macular degeneration in the eye, and other diseases that involve a proliferation of blood vessels. (
  • PGE 2 induces angiogenesis and tumor cell survival, proliferation and migration. (
  • PGE2 induces angiogenesis and tumor cell survival, proliferation and migration. (
  • For example, drugs called immune checkpoint inhibitors can target certain receptors on the surface of the cancer cells. (
  • Domvanalimab (from Gilead Sciences) is an experimental immune checkpoint inhibitor, and zimberelimab (from Arcus Biosciences) is an investigational angiogenesis inhibitor. (
  • Drugs that inhibit angiogenesis (development of new blood vessels), essential for tumour growth, control cancer growth by denying blood supply to tumour nodules. (
  • Does a combination of radiation therapy and the inhibition of integrins (key molecules in angiogenesis) improve the chance of cure in cancer? (
  • Selection criteria: RCTs comparing angiogenesis inhibitors with standard chemotherapy, other types of anti-cancer treatment, other angiogenesis inhibitors with or without other treatments, or placebo/no treatment in a maintenance setting, in women with EOC. (
  • Recently, Alecensa showed impressive results in the phase III ALUR trial, in which the ALK inhibitor significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) versus chemotherapy in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC who had progressed following treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy and Xalkori. (
  • While angiogenesis is a critical part of wound healing and other favorable processes, certain types of angiogenesis are associated with the growth of malignant tumors. (
  • Inhibiting angiogenesis requires treatment with anti-angiogenic factors, or drugs which reduce the production of pro-angiogenic factors, prevent them binding to their receptors or block their actions. (
  • To discover new effective and safer anticancer agents, a new series of piperazinylquinoxaline-based derivatives was designed and synthesized on the basis of the pharmacophoric features of VEGFR-2 inhibitor drugs. (
  • P-selectin, soluble endothelial protein C receptor, soluble thrombomodulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, ADAMTS-13, von Willebrand factor, tissue factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 were more elevated in LF patients than in controls. (
  • Endothelial protein C receptor, thrombomodulin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, D-dimer, and hepatocyte growth factor were higher in fatal than nonfatal LF cases. (
  • We observed a significant up-regulation of 15-PGDH after treatment with LTC 4 , a CysLT 2 ligand, in colon cancer cells at both the mRNA and protein levels, which could be reduced by a CysLT 2 antagonist or a JNK inhibitor. (
  • It remains a leading endostatin as an angiogenic inhibitor in cause of maternal and neonatal mortality patients with pre-eclampsia. (
  • An angiogenesis inhibitor is a substance that inhibits the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). (
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the process of angiogenesis can be disrupted by targeting PFKFB3 independently of glycolysis inhibition. (
  • Bottom line: This research confirmed the dependence of epidermis carcinogenesis on angiogenesis. (
  • Thus angiogenesis inhibitors have been closely studied for possible cancer treatment. (
  • Angiogenesis inhibitors were once thought to have potential as a "silver bullet" treatment applicable to many types of cancer, but the limitations of anti-angiogenic therapy have been shown in practice. (
  • Objectives: To compare the effectiveness and toxicities of angiogenesis inhibitors for treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). (
  • A variety of inhibitors of this important target have been studied, and a plethora of biological effects related to the process of angiogenesis have been reported. (
  • This work suggests that compound 11 is a very significant anticancer candidate, and piperazinylquinoxaline is an important scaffold in the development of new potential effective and safer VEGFR-2 inhibitor agents. (
  • It is really important to think about ALK inhibitors as having uses in different settings. (
  • What other recent advances have we seen with these ALK inhibitors? (
  • In our study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of PFKFB3 inhibition in angiogenesis by using the small molecule AZ67. (
  • In addition, tissue-specific loss of esVEGFR-2 in mice induces, at birth, spontaneous lymphatic invasion of the normally alymphatic cornea and hyperplasia of skin lymphatics without affecting angiogenesis. (
  • VEGFR-2 inhibitor anticancer agents are of great significance. (