Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Angina Pectoris, Variant: A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, but with preserved exercise capacity.Angina, Stable: Persistent and reproducible chest discomfort usually precipitated by a physical exertion that dissipates upon cessation of such an activity. The symptoms are manifestations of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Counterpulsation: A technique for assisting the circulation by decreasing the afterload of the left ventricle and augmenting the diastolic pressure. It may be achieved by intra-aortic balloon, or by implanting a special pumping device in the chest, or externally by applying a negative pressure to the lower extremities during cardiac systole.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Microvascular Angina: ANGINA PECTORIS or angina-like chest pain with a normal coronary arteriogram and positive EXERCISE TEST. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. While its recognition is of clinical importance, its prognosis is excellent. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p1346; Jablonski Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed). It is different from METABOLIC SYNDROME X, a syndrome characterized by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA, that has increased risk for cardiovascular disease.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Coronary Vasospasm: Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.Oxyfedrine: A drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, heart failure, conduction defects, and myocardial infarction. It is a partial agonist at beta adrenergic receptors and acts as a coronary vasodilator and cardiotonic agent.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Isosorbide Dinitrate: A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.Ergonovine: An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Atherectomy, Coronary: Percutaneous transluminal procedure for removing atheromatous plaque from the coronary arteries. Both directional (for removing focal atheromas) and rotational (for removing concentric atheromatous plaque) atherectomy devices have been used.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Acetanilides: Compounds based on N-phenylacetamide, that are similar in structure to 2-PHENYLACETAMIDES. They are precursors of many other compounds. They were formerly used as ANALGESICS and ANTIPYRETICS, but often caused lethal METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cineangiography: Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.Practolol: A beta-1 adrenergic antagonist that has been used in the emergency treatment of CARDIAC ARRYTHMIAS.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Acute Coronary Syndrome: An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Angiocardiography: Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Oxprenolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and anxiety.Phonocardiography: Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Nicorandil: A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Ludwig's Angina: Severe cellulitis of the submaxillary space with secondary involvement of the sublingual and submental space. It usually results from infection in the lower molar area or from a penetrating injury to the mouth floor. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.PropiophenonesCalcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Spinal Cord Stimulation: Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Labetalol: A salicylamide derivative that is a non-cardioselective blocker of BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and ALPHA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Neopterin: A pteridine derivative present in body fluids; elevated levels result from immune system activation, malignant disease, allograft rejection, and viral infections. (From Stedman, 26th ed) Neopterin also serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of biopterin.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Pindolol: A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)Trimetazidine: A vasodilator used in angina of effort or ischemic heart disease.Diltiazem: A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.Eye Manifestations: Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Prenylamine: A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Indoramin: An alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist that is commonly used as an antihypertensive agent.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Death, Sudden: The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Colic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate: A vasodilator with general properties similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a more prolonged duration of action. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1025)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.PropylaminesDipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Vectorcardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the heart on a plane of the body surface delineated as a vector function of time.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Perhexiline: 2-(2,2-Dicyclohexylethyl)piperidine. Coronary vasodilator used especially for angina of effort. It may cause neuropathy and hepatitis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Erythrocyte Aggregation: The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.Northern IrelandDrug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.JapanBlood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Postcholecystectomy Syndrome: Abdominal symptoms after removal of the GALLBLADDER. The common postoperative symptoms are often the same as those present before the operation, such as COLIC, bloating, NAUSEA, and VOMITING. There is pain on palpation of the right upper quadrant and sometimes JAUNDICE. The term is often used, inaccurately, to describe such postoperative symptoms not due to gallbladder removal.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Investigation of the most effective provocation test for patients with coronary spastic angina: usefulness of accelerated exercise following hyperventilation. (1/135)This study sought to compare the clinical usefulness of the hyperventilation plus cold stress test or the hyperventilation combined with accelerated exercise test with other single tests in patients with coronary spastic angina. The study examined 24 patients (23 men, mean age 66 years) with angiographically confirmed coronary spastic angina and less than 50% stenosis. Moreover, none had spontaneous ST segment elevation before the study. Under no medication for at least 24 h prior, 4 procedures were performed from 09.00 h to 11.00 h: (i) a hyperventilation test for 5 min (HV(5)); (ii) HV(5) combined with a cold stress test for the last 2 min (HV(5)+CS(2)); (iii) a treadmill exercise test based on Bruce's protocol (TM(3)); and (iv) a treadmill exercise test accelerated at 1 min intervals according to Bruce's protocol immediately after HV(5) (HV(5)+TM(1)). The rate of appearance of chest pain and ischemia-induced ECG changes due to HV(5)+TM(1) were significantly higher than the other 3 tests. HV(5)+CS(2) was not superior to HV(5) alone. The incidence of provoked ST segment elevation due to HV(5)+TM(1) was higher than with the other 3 procedures. Thus, in patients with coronary spastic angina, no spontaneous ST segment elevation and near normal coronary arteries, HV(5)+CS(2) was no more useful than HV(5) alone. It is recommended that the newly designed HV(5)+TM(1) combination test be used for documenting evidence of ischemia in patients with coronary spastic angina, low disease activity and near normal coronary arteries. (+info)
Consumption of vitamin E in coronary circulation in patients with variant angina. (2/135)OBJECTIVES: The plasma status of vitamin E has been suggested to be linked to the activity of coronary artery spasm. This study was designed to determine whether vitamin E is actually consumed in the coronary circulation in patients with active variant angina having repetitive spasm-induced transient myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the aortic root, coronary sinus and right atrium in 12 patients with variant angina due to spasm of the left coronary artery, nine patients with stable effort angina and nine control subjects. Plasma vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma lipid peroxides were measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). RESULTS: At baseline, both plasma alpha- (p < 0.01) and gamma- (p < 0.05) tocopherol levels were significantly lower in the coronary sinus (5.50 +/- 0.50 and 0.55 +/- 0.07 mg/l, mean +/- SEM) than in the aortic root (6.63 +/- 0.57 and 0.63 +/- 0.08 mg/l) and also in the right atrium (6.44 +/- 0.61 and 0.63 +/- 0.09 mg/l) in the variant angina group. The TBARS level was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the coronary sinus than in the aortic in this group. In contrast, these levels were not significantly different between the samples from the coronary sinus and the aortic root or the right atrium in the control group and also in the stable effort angina group. The coronary sinus-aortic difference in plasma vitamin E levels in the variant angina group was not significantly altered after left coronary artery spasm induced by intracoronary injection of acetylcholine. Also, the plasma vitamin E levels in the aortic root, coronary sinus and right atrium all remained unchanged in the stable effort angina group after pacing-induced angina and in the control group after intracoronary administration of acetylcholine. CONCLUSIONS: Transcardiac reduction in plasma vitamin E concentrations concomitant with lipid peroxide formation was demonstrated in patients with active variant angina, suggesting actual consumption of this major endogenous antioxidant. Oxidative stress and vitamin E exhaustion may be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary artery spasm. (+info)
Racial heterogeneity in coronary artery vasomotor reactivity: differences between Japanese and Caucasian patients. (3/135)Japanese investigators have provided a substantial contribution in the understanding of coronary vasomotor reactivity. On occasions, their findings have been at variance with those undertaken on caucasian patients, raising speculation that vasomotor differences between races may exist. In a comparative review of the published literature, we evaluated the vasoreactive differences among Japanese and caucasian patients with variant angina or myocardial infarction. In variant angina, Japanese patients appear to have diffusely hyperreactive coronary arteries compared with caucasian people, manifested by their segmental rather than focal spasm, hyperreactive nonspastic vessels and multivessel spasm. These differences may reflect the increased basal tone among Japanese variant angina patients and may relate to controversial differences in endothelial nitric oxide production or autonomic nervous system activity. Provocative vasomotor studies of Japanese patients with a recent myocardial infarction report a higher incidence of inducible spasm than caucasian studies, an observation recently supported by a controlled study. Furthermore, the hyperreactivity was diffuse, occurring in both non-infarct- and infarct-related vessels. These observations support the existence of racial coronary vasomotor reactivity differences but require confirmation in further prospectively conducted studies. (+info)
Alterations of autonomic nervous activity in recurrence of variant angina. (4/135)OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether autonomic nervous activity is involved in the recurrence of spontaneous coronary spasm in variant angina. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Cardiology department of a university hospital. PATIENTS: 18 patients with variant angina were divided into single attack group (SA; nine patients) and multiple attack group (MA; nine patients) according to the frequency of ischaemic episodes with ST segment elevation during 24 hour Holter monitoring. METHODS: Heart rate variability indices were calculated using MemCalc method, which is a combination of the maximum entropy method for spectral analysis and the non-linear least squares method for fitting analysis, at 30 second intervals for 30 second periods, from 40 minutes before the attack to 30 minutes after the attack. High frequency (HF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) was defined as a marker of parasympathetic activity, and the ratio of low frequency (LF; 0.15-0.40 Hz) to high frequency (LF/HF) as an indicator of sympathetic activity. The averaged value during the 40 to 30 minute period before an attack was defined as the baseline. RESULTS: Compared with baseline, the HF component decreased in both groups at two minutes before the attack (p < 0.01), and the LF/HF ratio decreased at three minutes before the attack (p < 0.01). The baseline LF/HF was lower in the MA group than in the SA group (p < 0. 01). CONCLUSIONS: A reduction of sympathetic activity may play a key role in determining the recurrence of transient ischaemic events caused by spontaneous coronary spasm in patients with variant angina. (+info)
Vasospastic angina likely related to cisplatin-containing chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation for lung cancer. (5/135)Vasospastic angina is rarely observed during cancer treatment. The present report describes two males with lung cancer, aged 73 and 61, who developed vasospastic angina during combination treatment of cisplatin-containing chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation. As both patients have smoked and their ages are typical for patients with coronary artery disease, such events may be incidental. However, oncologists should be aware of the possible development of myocardial ischemia during or following administration of antineoplastic agents, especially in elderly patients with pre-existing coronary risk factors or a history of thoracic radiotherapy. (+info)
Prognostic significance of the pattern of multivessel spasm in patients with variant angina. (6/135)Multivessel spasm in variant angina is believed to be a major prognostic factor. Three patterns of multivessel spasm have been detected: (1) spasm at different sites on different occasions (migratory spasm); (2) spasm sequentially affecting 2 different sites (sequential spasm); and (3) simultaneous spasm at more than 1 site (simultaneous spasm). The present study investigated the prognosis based on this factor for variant angina without fixed coronary stenosis and examined the influence of multivessel spasm on cardiac events. Twenty-six patients were diagnosed as having variant angina without fixed coronary stenosis using 12-lead 24-h ECG recording system and coronary cineangiography. These patients were followed up prospectively for 57.1+/-7.6 months. Of the 26 patients 13 had single-vessel spasm, 6 had migratory multivessel spasm angina, and 7 showed sequential and/or simultaneous multivessel spasm angina. The survival free of serious cardiac events and of all cardiac events was significantly lower for patients with sequential and/or simultaneous multivessel spasm than for those with migratory multivessel spasm (p<0.05, p<0.05), whereas for patients with migratory multivessel spasm the difference comparison with single-vessel spasm did not attain statistical significance (p = ns, p = ns). The results of this study suggest that there seems to be a high-risk subgroup (i.e., sequential and/or simultaneous multivessel spasm) among patients with variant angina. (+info)
Plasma endothelin-1 elevation associated with alcohol-induced variant angina. (7/135)Vasospastic angina as a result of alcohol ingestion has been reported, but the mechanism of alcohol-induced coronary artery spasm is presently unknown. This report presents 2 cases of alcohol-induced variant angina (VA) with elevated levels of plasma endothelin-1 after alcohol ingestion. In case 1, the plasma endothelin-1 concentration was 3.15 pg/ml before drinking (normal <2.30 pg/ml) and increased to 4.09 pg/ml when measured 5 h after alcohol ingestion. After 2 months of abstinence, the plasma endothelin-1 concentration was 2.88 pg/ml and 6 months after abstinence, it decreased to 2.03 pg/ml (normal range). In case 2, the plasma endothelin-1 concentration was 2.44 pg/ml before drinking and increased to 4.36 pg/ml when measured 5 h after alcohol ingestion. After 2 months of abstinence, the plasma endothelin-1 concentration was 3.04 pg/ml and 6 months after abstinence, it decreased to 2.09 pg/ml (normal range). These 2 cases suggest that a relationship may exist between alcohol-induced VA and elevation in the plasma endothelin-1 concentration after alcohol ingestion. (+info)
Beware of the heart: the multiple picture of cardiac involvement in myositis. (8/135)A 42-yr-old woman with dermatomyositis had two myocardial infarctions, episodes of acute chest pain and an acute lung oedema. These events were initially misinterpreted as atherosclerotic ischaemic heart disease accompanying the autoimmune disease. The lack of improvement of cardiac symptoms with anti-ischaemic and immunosuppressive drugs indicated other mechanisms. Intracoronary drug provocation as well as myocardial biopsy revealed a coincidence of small-vessel disease and vasospastic angina as a cause for the severe cardiac symptoms. After initiating therapy with high doses of calcium channel blockers, marked improvement of cardiac symptoms occurred. In the pathogenesis of cardiac involvement in dermatomyositis, two different mechanisms should be considered: inflammatory processes due to dermatomyositis and vasoconstriction caused by an impaired regulation of vascular tone, such as abnormal vessel reactivity or disturbed neuropeptide release. Signs of this generalized vasopathy are Raynaud's phenomenon, Prinzmetal's angina and small-vessel disease, which can coincide. In patients with severe cardiac symptoms and autoimmune diseases, Prinzmetal's angina should be excluded by intracoronary drug provocation using acetylcholine. (+info)
We made continuous electrocardiographic recordings on magnetic tape during 15 episodes of ischemia in five patients with variant angina to determine the characteristics of the QRS changes. Orthogonal leads were used and the electrocardiograms were analyzed visually and by digital computer. Changes were quantified by subtracting baseline electrocardiograms from those obtained during ischemia. Large changes in the QRS occurred during ischemia but the waveform quickly returned to baseline when the episode subsided. In all patients there was prolongation of the QRS duration and an increase in QRS voltage during the terminal 40 msec of the waveform in the lead(s) showing the most marked ST displacement. The increase in the terminal QRS could be represented by a vector directed toward the ischemic zone. In a given patient the amplitude of ST displacement varied between episodes, presumably because of variation in the intensity of ischemia, but the QRS changes were directionally similar in each ...
A 24-year-old male student had three myocardial infarctions, one prior to and two following the angiographic documentation of normal coronary arteries. A spontaneous episode of variant angina prompted repeat coronary angiography, during which intravenous ergonovine caused spasm of the left anterior descending coronary artery, transient ST-segment elevation, and ischemic chest pain; the previously normal right coronary artery was found to be occluded proximally. This constellation of clinical and angiographic findings suggests that coronary spasm can cause acute myocardial infarction as well as variant angina. ...
Coronary artery spasm is an important pathogenetic mechanism in some forms of myocardial ischemic disease. Factors that may be important in the genesis of spasm include the autonomic nervous system, prostaglandins, endoperoxides, thromboxanes, and the calcium availability to the contractile apparatus. Spasm results in myocardial ischemia with attendant chest pain and electrocardiographic and hemodynamic changes; it is the primary pathogenetic mechanism in Prinzmetals variant angina and has been found in association with classic angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction. Diagnosis of coronary artery spasm is firmly made only by coronary angiography. Treatment includes the use of both short- and long-acting nitrates and the slow-channel blocking agents such as verapamil, nifedipine, and perhexiline. ...
Felodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker, is used alone or with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, to treat hypertension, chronic stable angina pectoris, and Prinzmetals variant angina. Felodipine is similar to other peripheral vasodilators. Felodipine inhibits the influx of extra cellular calcium across the myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cell membranes blocking the calcium channels. The decrease in intracellular calcium inhibits the contractile processes of the myocardial smooth muscle cells, causing dilation of the coronary and systemic arteries, increased oxygen delivery to the myocardial tissue, decreased total peripheral resistance, decreased systemic blood pressure, and decreased afterload ...
Novel compounds of the general formula: ##STR1## and pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts thereof, wherein the compounds are useful in therapy to protect skeletal muscles against damage resulting from trauma or to protect skeletal muscles subsequent to muscle or systemic diseases such as intermittent claudication, to treat shock conditions, to preserve donor tissue and organs used in transplants, in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases including atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, Prinzmetals (variant) angina, stable angina, and exercise induced angina, congestive heart disease, and myocardial infarction.. Granted by the US Patent Office February 22, 2001 ⇒. ...
Amlodipine, a calcium-channel blocker, is used alone or with benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, to treat hypertension, chronic stable angina pectoris, and Prinzmetals variant angina. Amlodipine is similar to the peripheral vasodilator nifedipine and other members of the dihydropyridine class ...
Learn more about Variant Angina: Heart Spasms at Redmond Regional Medical Center Whenever most people think of chest pain, they associate it with a heart...
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Vasospastic angina is presented by myocardial ischemia with spasm of coronary artery accompanying chest pain or discomfort. The precise mechanisms have not been established, but a reduction in NO (nitric oxide) production, an imbalance between endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors,or an injury of endothelium have been suggested.. Impaired FMD(flow mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation) in the brachial artery was demonstrated in vasospastic angina,and improvement of endothelial dysfunction with treatment of statin is documented in several studies.. So, we expect that statin treatment for vasospastic angina provide additional therapeutic effects via improvement of endothelial dysfunction. ...
Her finder du det sidste nye om Prinzmetal Variant Angina og det Kardiologiske Syndrom X, samt et debatforum hvor patienter har mulighed for at komme i kontakt med andre i samme situation.
Her finder du det sidste nye om Prinzmetal Variant Angina og det Kardiologiske Syndrom X, samt et debatforum hvor patienter har mulighed for at komme i kontakt med andre i samme situation.
We conclude that 1) plasma levels of FPA, BTG, and PF4 were increased in patients with variant angina as compared with those with stable exertional angina; 2) there was a significant circadian variation in the plasma levels of FPA in parallel with that of the frequency of the attacks with the peak level occurring from midnight to early morning in patients with variant angina; and 3) elevated levels of plasma FPA are the result and not the cause of coronary spasm ...
It is believed that the vasoconstriction caused by thromboxanes plays a role in Prinzmetals angina. Omega-3 fatty acids are metabolized to produce higher levels of TxA,3 which is relatively less potent than TxA2 and PGI3; therefore, there is a balance shift toward inhibition of vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation. It is believed that this shift in balance lowers the incidence of myocardial infarction (heart attack) and stroke. Vasoconstriction and, perhaps, various proinflammatory effects exerted by TxA on tissue microvasculature, is probable reason why the TxA is pathogenic in various diseases, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury., hepatic inflammatory processes, acute hepatotoxicity  etc. TxB2, a stable degradation product of TxA2, plays a role in acute hepatoxicity induced by acetaminophen. ...
It is believed that the vasoconstriction caused by thromboxanes plays a role in Prinzmetals angina. Omega-3 fatty acids are metabolized to produce higher levels of TxA,3 which is relatively less potent than TxA2 and PGI3; therefore, there is a balance shift toward inhibition of vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation. It is believed that this shift in balance lowers the incidence of myocardial infarction (heart attack) and stroke. Vasoconstriction and, perhaps, various proinflammatory effects exerted by TxA on tissue microvasculature, is probable reason why the TxA is pathogenic in various diseases, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury., hepatic inflammatory processes, acute hepatotoxicity  etc. TxB2, a stable degradation product of TxA2, plays a role in acute hepatoxicity induced by acetaminophen.. ...
Chest pain that results when blood flow through the coronary arteries is insufficient to meet the oxygen needs of the heart. Often simply called angina. It is marked by pressure, squeezing, or general discomfort in the heart, breast, and neck, and can also spread to the back, shoulders, jaw, arm, and fingers. People experiencing angina may also feel light-headed and have an abnormally fast or irregular heartbeat. See Stable angina, Unstable angina, and Variant angina.. ...
Cardiac syndrome X is angina (chest pain) with signs associated with decreased blood flow to heart tissue but with normal coronary arteries. Cardiac syndrome X is sometimes referred to as microvascular angina when there are findings of microvascular dysfunction. Some studies have found increased risk of other vasospastic disorders in cardiac syndrome X patients, such as migraine and Raynauds phenomenon. It is treated with beta-blockers, such as metoprolol, and usually carries a favorable prognosis. This is a distinct diagnosis from Prinzmetals angina. While there is no formal definition for cardiac syndrome X, the general consensus is that it entails all of the following: Angina: This usually does not cause dysfunction on echocardiogram and can last longer than that of heart disease. Abnormal cardiac stress test: ST changes are typically similar to those of coronary artery disease, and the opposite of those of Prinzmetals angina. Myocardial perfusion imaging can be abnormal in 30% of ...
Symptoms are often very similar to pain associated with a more typical heart attack (development of a blockage in a heart artery). Symptoms often occur at rest, and at night. This is different than typical chest pain associated with heart artery blockages which is more typically experience during exertion.. ...
Vasospastic angina is caused by sudden occlusive vasoconstriction of a segment of an epicardial artery, which can present with a wide spectrum of clinical scenario. We report the cases of two patients diagnosed with vasospastic angina, with one of which presenting with sudden cardiac arrest, while the other presenting with a relatively benign syncope. But both of them have J waves formation on ECG during active ischemia. The diagnosis and management of vasospastic angina, as well as the proposed clinical significance of J waves during coronary spasm are discussed. ...
Angina pectoris in pregnancy is unusual and Prinzmetals angina is much rarer. It accounts for 2% of all cases of angina. It is caused by vasospasm, but the mechanism of spasm is unknown but has been linked with hyperthyroidism in some studies. Patients with thyrotoxicosis-induced acute myocardial infarction are unusual and almost all reported cases have been associated with Graves disease. Human chorionic gonadotropin hormone-induced hyperthyroidism occurs in about 1.4% of pregnant women, mostly when hCG levels are above 70-80 000 IU/L. Gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is transient and generally resolves spontaneously in the latter half of pregnancy, and specific antithyroid treatment is not required. Treatment with calcium channel blockers or nitrates reduces spasm in most of these patients. Overall, the prognosis for hyperthyroidism-associated coronary vasospasm is good. We describe a very rare case of an acute myocardial infarction in a 27-year-old female, at 9 weeks of gestation due to ...
There have been rare reports of serious cardiac adverse reactions, including acute myocardial infarction, occurring within a few hours following administration of SUMAVEL® DosePro®. SUMAVEL® DosePro® may cause coronary artery vasospasm (Prinzmetals angina). These types of reactions have occurred in some patients without known CAD. For triptan-naïve patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors who have a negative cardiovascular evaluation, consider administrating the first SUMAVEL® DosePro® dose in a medically-supervised setting and performing an electrocardiogram (ECG) immediately following SUMAVEL® DosePro® administration. For such patients, consider periodic cardiovascular evaluation in intermittent long-term users of SUMAVEL® DosePro®. Life-threatening arrhythmias have been reported within a few hours following the administration of 5-HT1 agonists. Discontinue SUMAVEL® DosePro® if these disturbances occur. Sensations of tightness, pain, pressure, and heaviness have been ...
Do not take Coreg if you are allergic to Coreg components.. Do not take Coreg if youre pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.. Be careful with Coreg if you have a history of asthma, emphysema, thyroid disorder, pheochromocytoma, myasthenia gravis, low blood pressure, liver, kidney or heart disease diabetes, hyperthyroidism, depression, Prinzmetals angina, bronchitis.. Be careful using Coreg if you take monoamine oxidase inhibitors (tranylcypromine (such as Parnate), isocarboxazid (such as Marplan), selegiline (such as Zelapar, Eldepryl, Emsam), phenelzine (such as Nardil)); verapamil (such as Calan,Verelan, Covera-HS); paroxetine (such as Paxil); cimetidine (such as Tagamet); rifampin (such as Rifadin, Rimactane); clonidine (such as Catapres), cyclosporine (such as Sandimmune, Neoral); digoxin (such as Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps); quinidine; diltiazem (such as Tiazac, Cardizem); fluoxetine (such as Prozac); epinephrine (such as Epipen); oral diabetes medicines and insulin; ...
Exercise induced ST elevation in patients with previous myocardial infarction may simply indicate left ventricular wall asynergy. ST segment elevation without prior myocardial infarction is a rare condition and is commonly associated with critical coronary artery stenosis.1 Temporary ST segment elevation associated with chest pain is the hallmark of variant (Prinzmetal) angina, and is a consequence of severe coronary spasm. In a way that is not yet fully understood, exercise can induce coronary spasm in patients with variant angina, as demonstrated in small groups of patients subjected to supine bicycle exercise on the cardiac catheterisation table.2DSE is widely performed as a useful diagnostic tool in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Through its inotropic and chronotropic effects, dobutamine increases the myocardial oxygen demand and may induce ischaemia and segmental wall motion abnormality in the presence of significant coronary artery disease. Myocardial ischaemia ...
In 1959 Myron Prinzmetal first described variant angina. Without the aid of selective coronary angiography he attributed the syndrome to the "temporary occlusion of a large diseased artery with a narrow lumen due to a normal increase in the tonus of the vessel wall.". A 66 year old woman who had been smoking 15 cigarettes each day for 50 years and who had a long history of Raynauds syndrome presented with an episode of severe chest pain associated with pronounced ST elevation in the inferior and lateral leads (left). She was enrolled in a thrombolytic trial that involved the performance of early coronary angiography. Ninety minutes after receiving 100 mg of tissue plasminogen activator the ST segments were still elevated. Coronary angiography of the right coronary artery showed a discrete 90% stenosis that resolved following 200 μg of intracoronary nitroglycerin (top). An ECG recorded 30 minutes later demonstrated complete resolution of the ST segments (bottom). There was no subsequent enzyme ...
There are three types of angina - stable, unstable and prinzmetals. Stable angina is the most common and symptoms usually last for a few minutes before they subside, often with the help of nitroglycerine tablets.. With unstable angina the symptoms can be more severe and not so predictable. The attacks often last much longer and can occur even at times of rest. An unstable attack can be a precursor to a heart attack and thus it is taken more seriously than stable angina. Medical attention should be sought immediately at the first sign of unstable angina.. Prinzmetals, is defined as angina that occurs when the patient is at rest, rather than the result of physical exercise. Dr James Pierce Ph.D., relates that hes identified the cause of this angina. He says that it generally occurs at certain times of the day, in the early morning and late afternoon.(1) These are, as it happens, the times of day when Mg is at its lowest ebb in the body.. Dr Pierce estimates that some 50% of sudden heart attacks ...
Rev Esp Cardiol. 1997 Nov;50(11):808-11. [The placement of a Wiktor stent for the treat ment of vasospastic angina: a case report]. [Article in Spanish] Rodríguez Díez S1, Lázaro R, Ruiz Nodar JM, Enero J, Romero C, Gómez Recio M, Martínez Elbal L.
In patients with angina and nonobstructive coronary-artery disease, coexistence of epicardial coronary spasm and increased microvascular resistance (IMR) is associated with worse outcomes, according to Japanese researchers.
Angina pectoris,Types as stable,unstable and even Microvascular,Signs and Symptoms,Risk factors,Diagnosis,Life Style Modification and Prinzmetal Angina
Prinzmetal angina olarak da bilinen vazospastik angina, bir ok fakt r n tetikleyebilece i bir damar a r duyarl l olarak d n lmektedir. T bbi tedaviye yan t s kl kla iyidir, ancak her be hastadan birinde diren li semptomlar g r lmektedir. Nadiren vazospazma ba l l mc l aritmiler g r lebilmektedir ve bu hastalarda prognoz daha k t d r. Burada, kalsiyum kanal blokeri ve nitrat tedavisine ra men semptomlar devam eden diren li bir vazospastik anginal olguyu sunduk. Hasta, hemodinamik bozuklu a yol a an ve tekrarlayan kardiyoversiyonlara diren li y ksek h zl ventrik ler ta ikardi ile ba vurdu. T bbi tedavisine ek olarak, koronerlerdeki belirgin vazospastik segmentlere stent yerle tirilerek tedavi edildi. Ayr ca, vazospazm kesin bir tedavisi olmayan yayg n bir vask ler hastal k oldu undan, ventrik l aritmilerine kar ikincil korunma ama l implante edilebilir defibrilat r yerle tirildi ...
The "Baseline" and "Classical" controllers use a classic cascaded-loop architecture with three inner P-only loops to control the angular rates p,q,r, and three outer PI loops to control the angular positions phi,alpha,beta. The six proportional gains and three integral gains are all scheduled as a function of alpha and beta. The "Baseline" variant contains the baseline design featured in docid:aeroblks_ug.f4-50264. Parts 2 and 3 of this series use the "Classical" variant to walk through the tuning process. The active variant is controlled by the workspace variable CTYPE. Set its value to 2 to activate the "Classical" variant of the controller.. ...
Collins, Hugh (2011) Constructive dismissal and the West Lothian question: Aberdeen City Council v McNeill. Industrial Law Journal, 40 (4). pp. 439-450. ISSN 0305-9332 ...
1. Armstrong PW. Stable ischemic syndromes. In: Topol E. Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Raven Publishers 1998. 2. Chatterjee T, Juelke PD, Thum P et al. Successful brachytherapy of coronary vasospasm. Heart 2003; 89(9): 25. 3. Cheng TO. Clinical implication of the hyperventilation test in the diagnosis of coronary artery spasm. Am J Cardiol 1997; 80: 1647. 4. Gersh BJ, Braunwald E, Bonow BO. Chronic coronary artery disease. In: Braunwald E. Heart Disease. A textbook of cardiovascular medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders 2001. 5. Halawa B, Salomon P. Activity of transmembrane calcium transport and levels of endothelin-1 in patients with variant angina. Pol Arch Med Wewn 2000; 104(2): 447-453. 6. Hirano Y, Ozasa Y, Yamamoto T et al. Hyperventilation and cold pressor stress echocardiography for noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery spasm. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2001; 14(6): 626-633. 7. Hirano Y, Ozasa Y, Yamamoto T et al. Diagnosis of vasospastic angina by ...
Angina Pectoris Drugs Market research report provides the newest industry data and industry future trends, allowing you to identify the products and end users driving revenue growth and profitability. Angina pectoris is a clinical indication characterized by precordial heaviness or discomfort due to transient myocardial ischemia without infarction, elicited by physical exertion or psychological stress. Angina pectoris is categorized as - stable, unstable, microvascular and Prinzmetal / variant. Angina pectoris is an initial presentation of coronary heart disease (CHD) and exerts a major impact on quality of life (QOL), costs to the society and ability to work.. Chronic stable angina pectoris has a prevalence of 2.0 - 4.0% in the seven major markets (U.S., U.K., Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Japan). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics from American Heart Association estimates indicate that over nine million adults in the U.S. have chronic angina pectoris.. Get Free Sample Copy of Report ...
rate control has more long term benefit than conversion and maintenance of sinus (NEJM 347:p. 1825, 2002 and NEJM 347:p. 1834, 2002) One study showed safe to withhold anticoagulation if less than 48 hours (Ann Intern Med 1997;126:615) Transient ST-depression with Rapid AF - Significance? Transient ST-segment depression during rapid atrial fibrillation is a common finding in the ED. Frequently, patients without known CAD exhibit such ischemic ST-segment depression during an episode of rapid AF. Clinicians often consider this to be a "positive stress-test equivalent". However, a recent study indicates that in patients without a history of cardiovascular disease, there is no strong association between transient ischemic type ST-segment depression during paroxysms of AF and underlying occult CAD, i.e., they are not consistently associated with with positive stress testing or occlusions on cardiac catheterization (1). Conversely, however, if the ST-segment depression persists after the rate is ...
Introduction Oral capecitabine is an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil that has been integrated into the management of multiple cancer types because of the convenience of administration and its efficacy...
The angina is the medical condition in which the person faces pain in the chest, and that pain may extend towards the left arm of the person. Angina also named angina pectoris is an initial level pain that lasts for quite some time. The main reason for such pain is the inadequate supply of the blood to the heart. It wont be wrong to say that ischemia causes angina. The ischemia is the condition of the short supply of the blood and angina comes out as the result of it. Many of the expert physicians term angina pectoris as the mini heart attack as it is often perceived as the alarm of the serious heart issues. In a maximum of the cases angina is nothing more than pain, means it doesnt lead to the death of the person. Angina indicates the heart trouble at the initial level when the person may undergo the ischemia. The inadequacy of the blood leads to the issues like angina pectoris, which are not much serious if treated at initial level properly. Mainly there are two types of angina, one is ...
The term angina pectoris refers to a feeling of pain or discomfort in the chest. Angina pectoris occurs when the heart muscle does not get enough blood and as a result, not enough oxygen, to function normally. Angina pectoris is usually caused by the hardening of the arteries. When plaques largely block the coronary
Angina pectoris, also known as Angina, a symptoms of Ischemic heart disease, is defined as a condition of chest pain caused by poor blood flow through the blood vessels due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries resulting of lack of blood that lead to lack of oxygen supply and waste removal. Preventions A. …. ...
... , also known as Angina, a symptoms of Ischemic heart disease, is defined as a condition of chest pain caused by poor blood flow through the blood vessels due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries resulting of lack of blood that lead to lack of oxygen supply and waste removal. Types of …. ...
... - or simply angina - is chest pain or discomfort that keeps coming back. It happens when some part of your heart does not get enough blood and oxygen.
Many sufferers of chest pain have asked what is angina and the symptoms of angina attack. People want answers to the question what is angina...
Angina is the medical term for chest pain caused by the heart. Learn more about whether your chest pain is angina, as well as how to handle angina symptoms.
Study Flashcards On Medsurg: Cardiovascular: Angina Pectoris at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Study Flashcards On Angina Pectoris: Pharmacology at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Angina is not a heart attack, but it does increase your risk of having a heart attack. Know the ways using which you can cope with Angina.
I saw a cardiologist a few months ago. She said my symptoms didnt sound like angina because angina pain is usually the same each time it happens. Does anyone have any views on her comment about ang...
Angina can be a painful chronic condition but with angina medications & treatments those with angina can reduce pain. Get more info & browse our Rx discounts.
Angina Symptoms and what they mean Angina is caused by the narrowing of the Coronary arteries, these are the vessels that supply your heart with blood. The
Read about angina (chest pain) and the reasons why you should not take this symptom lightly. Angina may be a precursor to a heart attack.
Learn more about Angina at TriStar Southern Hills DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
'n Pasient met 'n siektegeskiedenis wat angina pectoris aandui, het by elektrokardiografiese ondersoek die bevinding van 'n positiewe inspanningstoets getoon.
A variant form of angina pectoris. Preliminary report. Am Heart J 1959; 27:375. Grattan-Guinness, Ivor (1997): The Rainbow of ... Prinzmetal angina: also known as variant angina, referring to angina (chest pain) caused by vasospasm of the coronary arteries ... Electrocardiographic study during a paroxysm of angina pectoris. Am Heart J 1933; 9:259. Prinzmetal, M, Kennamer, R, Merliss, R ... Electrocardiographic changes during brief attacks of angina pectoris. Lancet 1931; 1:15. Brow, GR, Holman, DV. ...
"Comparison of Plasma Concentrations of Thromboxane B-2 and Prinzmetal's Variant Angina and Classical Angina Pectoris". Clinical ... "Detection of thromboxane B2 in peripheral blood of patients with Prinzmetal's angina". Prostaglandines and Medicine. 2 (4): 243 ...
... myocardial infarction and angina pectoris). A variant of this sign which uses the entire palm instead of the clinched fist over ...
Kounis syndrome (allergic angina and allergic myocardial infarction). Angina Pectoris. Etiology, Pathogenesis and Treatment. ... Elevation of plasma histamine concentration in the coronary circulation in patients with variant angina. Am J Cardiol 1996;77: ... Tryptase levels are elevated during spontaneous ischemic episodes in unstable angina but not after ergonovine test in variant ... "Kounis syndrome (allergic angina and allergic myocardial infarction): A natural paradigm?" Kounis NG. International Journal of ...
... angina pectoris MeSH C23.888.646.215.500.150 --- angina, unstable MeSH C23.888.646.215.500.150.150 --- angina pectoris, variant ...
Hypertension Angina pectoris (with the exception of variant angina) Tachyarrhythmia Myocardial infarction Tachycardia (and ... It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks ...
... angina pectoris MeSH C14.280.6126.96.36.199 --- angina, unstable MeSH C14.280.6188.8.131.52.150 --- angina pectoris, variant ... angina pectoris MeSH C14.907.553.4184.108.40.206 --- angina pectoris, variant MeSH C14.907.553.4220.127.116.11 --- angina, ... angina pectoris, variant MeSH C14.280.647.500 --- myocardial infarction MeSH C14.280.647.500.375 --- myocardial stunning MeSH ... angina pectoris, variant MeSH C14.907.553.470.500 --- myocardial infarction MeSH C14.907.553.470.500.375 --- myocardial ...
"Angina pectoris I. A variant form of angina pectoris". The American Journal of Medicine. 27 (3): 375-88. doi:10.1016/0002-9343( ... "Prinzmetal's Angina, Variant Angina and Angina Inversa". American Heart Association. Retrieved 2015-06-20. Yoo, Sang-Yong; Kim ... also known as variant angina, vasospastic angina (VSA), angina inversa, or coronary vessel spasm) is a syndrome typically ... It was described as "A variant form of angina pectoris" in 1959 by the American cardiologist Myron Prinzmetal (1908-1987). ...
An antianginal is any drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, a symptom of ischaemic heart disease. Drugs used are ... They are contraindicated in variant angina and can precipitate heart failure. They are also contraindicated in severe ... and most effectively in the treatment of variant angina (directly preventing coronary artery vasospasm). They are not used in ... Nifedipine is more a potent vasodilator and more effective in angina. It is in the class of dihydropyridines and does not ...
He died at Lynn on 13 September 1818 of angina pectoris, and was buried alogside his wife in the General Baptist Burial Ground ... and by topographical and statistical information, with accounts of the religious houses formerly in Lynn, and of the progress ...
"Enhanced external counterpulsation for chronic angina pectoris". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD007219. doi ... additional ECP devices have been cleared by the FDA for use in treating stable or unstable angina pectoris, acute myocardial ... Some reviews did not find sufficient evidence that it was useful for either angina or heart failure. Other reviews found ... External counterpulsation therapy (ECP) is a procedure that may be performed on individuals with angina, heart failure, or ...
... the study group in this case consisted of patients who had been diagnosed with unstable angina pectoris; whether elevated CRP ... a 2008 study compared people with various genetic CRP variants. Those with a high CRP due to genetic variation had no increased ... can be used for clinical decision-making without adjustment for CRP gene variants. acute phase erythrocyte sedimentation rate C ...
During this period, treatments were also prescribed for complex ailments, including angina pectoris, diabetes, hypertension, ... Hoernle identified the scribe of the medical portions of the manuscript to be a native of India using a northern variant of the ...
Variant angina - it is effective owing to its direct effects on coronary dilation. Unstable angina (preinfarction, crescendo ... angina pectoris, and some types of arrhythmia. It relaxes the smooth muscles in the walls of arteries, which opens (dilates) ... The drug is indicated for angina: Stable angina (exercise-induced) - diltiazem increases coronary blood flow and decreases ... "Long-acting diltiazem HCL for the chronotherapeutic treatment of hypertension and chronic stable angina pectoris". Expert ...
Unstable angina (UA) (also "crescendo angina"; this is a form of acute coronary syndrome) is defined as angina pectoris that ... A variant form of angina-Prinzmetal's angina-occurs in patients with normal coronary arteries or insignificant atherosclerosis ... Worsening angina attacks, sudden-onset angina at rest, and angina lasting more than 15 minutes are symptoms of unstable angina ... Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle. ...
... is created 1st Baron Leighton in the peerage of the United Kingdom one day before his death in London of angina pectoris. ... English topographical artist, lithographer and photographer (born 1814) April 16 - Viktor Oskar Tilgner, Austrian sculptor ( ...
angina pectoris (Levine's sign). *Gallavardin phenomenon. Vascular disease. Arterial. *aortic aneurysm (Cardarelli's sign, ...
Warren's article "Remarks on Angina Pectoris" on the first volume of New England Journal of Medicine and Surgery in January ...
1966). "The prophylactic value of propranolol in angina pectoris". Am J Cardiol. 18 (3): 370-83. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(66)90056 ... 1985). Frequencies of hemoglobin variants: thalassemia, the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, G6PD variants, and ... propranalol's effectiveness in headache treatment was a chance finding in patients receiving the drug for angina (chest pain ...
Bei der chronisch stabilen Angina pectoris und der Prinzmetal-Angina (vasospastische Angina pectoris) wird es außer zur ... instabiler Angina pectoris oder auch bei einer schweren Leberfunktionsstörung. Handelsnamen[edit , edit source]. * ...
In 1882 he was diagnosed with what was called "angina pectoris" which then meant coronary thrombosis and disease of the heart. ... The last word was the only variant of "evolved" in the first five editions of the book. "Evolutionism" at that time was ... and a Malthusian Nature selecting from chance variants so that "every part of newly acquired structure is fully practical and ...
Stable angina. Main article: Angina pectoris. In "stable" angina, chest pain with typical features occurring at ... Other genome-wide studies have identified a firm risk variant on chromosome 9 (9p21.3). However, these and other loci are ... Cardiac syndrome X is chest pain (angina pectoris) and chest discomfort in people who do not show signs of blockages in the ... Angina that changes in intensity, character or frequency is termed unstable. Unstable angina may precede myocardial infarction ...
In medicine, nitroglycerin is used for angina pectoris, a painful symptom of ischemic heart disease caused by inadequate flow ... such as angina pectoris and chronic heart failure. Though it was previously known that these beneficial effects are due to ... "Nitroglycerin as a remedy for angina pectoris". The Lancet. 1: 80-81, 113-115, 151-152, 225-227.. ... the physician William Murrell experimented with the use of nitroglycerin to alleviate angina pectoris and to reduce the blood ...
He died on August 5, 1933, aged 58, of "coronary sclerosis and "angina pectoris". ...
... first aroused because of the spectacular success of organic nitrites and related compounds in the treatment of angina pectoris ... While working with Butter at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary in the 1860s, Brunton noted that the pain of angina could be ... For a time, amyl nitrite was the favored treatment for angina, but due to its volatility, it was replaced by chemically related ... As a treatment for angina, the reduction of circulating blood by venesection was inconvenient. Therefore, he decided to try the ...
Angina pectoris *Prinzmetal's angina. *Stable angina. *Acute coronary syndrome *Myocardial infarction. *Unstable angina ...
"Enhanced external counterpulsation for chronic angina pectoris". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD007219. doi ... additional ECP devices have been cleared by the FDA for use in treating stable or unstable angina pectoris, acute myocardial ... Some reviews did not find sufficient evidence that it was useful for either angina or heart failure. Other reviews found ... External counterpulsation therapy (ECP) is a procedure that may be performed on individuals with angina, heart failure, or ...
Patients with angina at rest and those with Prinzmetals variant angina were not included in the study, and those with diabetes ... 2004) Angina pectoris and normal coronary arteries: cardiac syndrome X. Heart 90:457-463. ... Recently, it has become apparent that a large proportion of patients with typical angina pectoris have normal coronary ... 1997) Both endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent function is impaired in patients with angina pectoris and normal ...
Variant Angina Pectoris MICHAEL M. LAKS, M.D., F.A.C.P.; JAMES DAHLGREN, M.D.; WILLIAM J. MANDEL, M.D., F.A.C.P. ... In a case of variant angina pectoris, transient ST-segment elevation was discovered initially by the dynamic electrogram (DECG ... Variant Angina Pectoris. Ann Intern Med. 1973;78:309-310. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-78-2-309_2 ...
The QRS complex during transient myocardial ischemia: studies in patients with variant angina pectoris and in a canine ... The QRS complex during transient myocardial ischemia: studies in patients with variant angina pectoris and in a canine ... The QRS complex during transient myocardial ischemia: studies in patients with variant angina pectoris and in a canine ... The QRS complex during transient myocardial ischemia: studies in patients with variant angina pectoris and in a canine ...
What is angina pectoris variant? Meaning of angina pectoris variant medical term. What does angina pectoris variant mean? ... Looking for online definition of angina pectoris variant in the Medical Dictionary? angina pectoris variant explanation free. ... Prinzmetal angina - a form of angina pectoris. Synonym(s): angina inversa; variant angina pectoris ... Angina pectoris variant , definition of angina pectoris variant by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Make research projects and school reports about angina pectoris easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... and pictures about angina pectoris at Encyclopedia.com. ... angina of effort and variant angina.. Angina of effort Angina ... angina of effort and variant angina.. Angina of effort. Angina of effort is a common disorder caused by the narrowing of the ... angina †quinsy XVI; short for angina pectoris XVIII. - L. angina quinsy - Gr. agkhónē strangling, with assim. to angere (see ...
Variant angina pectoris. (or Prinzmetals angina). *Is rare. *Occurs almost exclusively when a person is at rest ... Angina Pectoris. Conditions We Treat. Angina pectoris (or simply angina) is recurring chest pain or discomfort that happens ... Treatment of angina pectoris. Specific treatment for angina pectoris will be determined by the doctor based on:. * Your age, ... What are the symptoms of angina pectoris?. Angina pectoris occurs when the heart muscle (myocardium) does not receive an ...
Angina is a common presenting symptom (typically, chest pain) among patients with coronary artery disease. ... Angina pectoris is the result of myocardial ischemia caused by an imbalance between myocardial blood supply and oxygen demand. ... Angina decubitus. Angina decubitus is a variant of angina pectoris that occurs at night while the patient is recumbent. Some ... Angina Pectoris) and Angina Pectoris What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Angina Pectoris ...
Angina is a common presenting symptom (typically, chest pain) among patients with coronary artery disease. ... Angina pectoris is the result of myocardial ischemia caused by an imbalance between myocardial blood supply and oxygen demand. ... Clinical characteristics and long-term survival of patients with variant angina. Circulation. 1984 May. 69(5):880-8. [Medline] ... encoded search term (Angina%20Pectoris) and Angina Pectoris What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape Consult. ...
What is Angina or angina pectoris? Meaning of Angina or angina pectoris medical term. What does Angina or angina pectoris mean? ... Looking for online definition of Angina or angina pectoris in the Medical Dictionary? Angina or angina pectoris explanation ... Prinzmetals angina a variant of angina pectoris in which the attacks occur during rest, exercise capacity is well preserved, ... Related to Angina or angina pectoris: unstable angina, stable angina. angina. [an-ji´nah, an´jĭ-nah] spasmodic, choking, or ...
... or simply angina - is chest pain or discomfort that keeps coming back. It happens when some part of your heart does not get ... Variant angina pectoris. This is also called Prinzmetals angina. It is rare. It occurs almost only at rest, not after exercise ... Angina Pectoris. What is angina pectoris?. Angina pectoris is chest pain or discomfort that occurs when a part of your heart ... Can angina pectoris be prevented?. Keeping up a healthy lifestyle can help to delay or prevent angina pectoris. A healthy ...
... , Angina, Myocardial Ischemia, Ischemic Heart Disease, Stable Angina. ... Variant angina is rare. It happens when you are resting. Medicines can help. ... angina pectoris, Angina syndrome, Angina of effort, Angina NOS, Angina Pectoris [Disease/Finding], pectoris angina, Pain;angina ... Stable Angina Pectori, Stable Anginas, Angina Pectoris, Stable, Angina Pectori, Stable, Pectoris, Stable Angina, Angina, ...
Angina is a type of chest discomfort due to poor blood flow through the blood vessels of the heart muscle. This article ... Variant angina - discharge; Angina pectoris - discharge; Accelerating angina - discharge; New-onset angina - discharge; Angina- ... unstable - discharge; Progressive angina - discharge; Angina-stable - discharge; Angina-chronic - discharge; Angina-variant - ... Angina pectoris and stable ischemic heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. ...
Angina Pectoris. Angina Pectoris, Variant. Chest Pain. Pain. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases. Myocardial ... Cause of angina equivalent symptoms in patients with no coronary artery disease [ Time Frame: One day ]. *Prognosis of patients ... Angina in Non Coronary Artery Disease (HeartQuest). This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants. ... Schoenenberger AW, Felber S, Gujer S, Moser A, Jamshidi P, Stuck AE, Erne P. Invasive findings in patients with angina ...
Angina Pectoris. Angina Pectoris, Variant. Chest Pain. Pain. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases. Myocardial ... Efficacy Study of Atorvastatin to Treat Variant Angina (ESAVA). The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Prinzmetal's Variant Angina ... Vasospastic angina or spontaneous spasm during coronary angiography (Vasospastic angina is defined as Thrombolysis In ...
Patients complain that the angina symptom is a squeezingor burning feeling in their chest but the episode of angina is not a ... The most frequent cause of angina is Ischemic heart disease. Diagnosing angina is by Coronary angiography Treatment is by: ... This book describes the Angina Pectoris, Diagnosis and Treatment and Related Diseases. ... Variant angina pectoris, or Prinzmetals angina, is a rare form of angina induced by coronary spasm. Micro-vascular angina is a ...
A variant form of angina pectoris. Preliminary report. Am Heart J 1959; 27:375. Grattan-Guinness, Ivor (1997): The Rainbow of ... Prinzmetal angina: also known as variant angina, referring to angina (chest pain) caused by vasospasm of the coronary arteries ... Electrocardiographic study during a paroxysm of angina pectoris. Am Heart J 1933; 9:259. Prinzmetal, M, Kennamer, R, Merliss, R ... Electrocardiographic changes during brief attacks of angina pectoris. Lancet 1931; 1:15. Brow, GR, Holman, DV. ...
... , Prinzmetals Angina, Variant Angina, Variant Angina Pectoris, Coronary Artery Vasospasm. ... angina, angina pectoris; variant, variant; angina, Angina pectoris, variant, Prinzmetal-angina, Variant angina pectoris. ... variant angina, Angina, Prinzmetal, VARIANT ANGINA, Prinzmetal angina, Prinzmetals angina, Variant angina pectoris, Variant ... Angina, Prinzmetals, Prinzmetal Angina, ANGINA VARIANT ,PRINZMETAL,, Variant Angina Pectoris, Variant Angina, variant angina ...
Typically reserved for angina that is refractory to treatment with beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and nitrates ... What are the types of Angina?. Effort angina Variant angina Unstable angina ... First-line therapy to reduce frequency of angina (i.e., prophylaxis) and improve exercise tolerance ... NTG formulations that improve exercise tolerance and time to onset of angina? ...
ANGINA PECTORIS Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Concerta Reports and Side Effects. ... Variant angina is rare. It happens when you are resting. Medicines can help. ... Check out the latest treatments for ANGINA PECTORIS. ➢ ANGINA PECTORIS treatment research studies ... ANGINA PECTORIS Symptoms and Causes. Angina is chest pain or discomfort you feel when there is not enough blood flow to your ...
View Angina Pectoris Valsacor side effect risks. Male, 72 years of age, weighting 158.7 lb, was diagnosed with benign prostatic ... Is Angina Pectoris a common side effect of Valsacor? ... Variant angina is rare. It happens when you are resting. ... Valsacor Angina Pectoris Side Effect Reports. Home → Valsacor → Angina Pectoris The following Valsacor Angina Pectoris side ... Angina Pectoris, Palpitations This Angina Pectoris side effect was reported by a consumer or non-health professional from ...
Agricultural industry Engineering and manufacturing Biological sciences Acetylcholine Aldehydes Angina pectoris Care and ... 3) Prinzmetal, M., Kennamer, R., Merlis, R., Wada, T. and Bor, N. (1959) Angina pectoris. 1. A variant form of angina pectoris ... and angina pectoris caused by coronary spasm is called "coronary spastic angina" or "vasospastic angina". (12-17) We reviewed ... including effort angina, unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction (MI), and sudden death. (7-11) Thus, variant angina is ...
See how medical marijuana could help relieve your Angina Pectoris symptoms. Find patient reviews on local marijuana doctors and ... other than angina pectoris, two main forms of stable angina exist.. *Variant angina: Variant angina pectoris, also called ... What Is Angina Pectoris?. Angina pectoris is a heart condition commonly called stable angina. According to MD News, a clinical ... Mental Effects of Angina Pectoris. Angina pectoris is a symptom of a disease leading to much greater cause for concern. Chronic ...
"Angina pectoris I. A variant form of angina pectoris". The American Journal of Medicine. 27 (3): 375-88. doi:10.1016/0002-9343( ... "Prinzmetals Angina, Variant Angina and Angina Inversa". American Heart Association. Retrieved 2015-06-20. Yoo, Sang-Yong; Kim ... also known as variant angina, vasospastic angina (VSA), angina inversa, or coronary vessel spasm) is a syndrome typically ... It was described as "A variant form of angina pectoris" in 1959 by the American cardiologist Myron Prinzmetal (1908-1987). ...
Other types of angina pectoris. There are two other forms of angina pectoris, including:. Variant angina pectoris. (or ... What is angina pectoris?. Angina pectoris (or simply angina) is recurring chest pain or discomfort that happens when some part ... Angina Pectoris. Angina Vs. Heart Attack Angina may have similar symptoms to a heart attack, such as a crushing, squeezing pain ... Treatment of angina pectoris. Specific treatment for angina pectoris will be determined by the doctor based on:. *Your age, ...
UnstableAcuteMedicationsHeartStableSpasmExertionSymptoms of anginaVasospasticDiscomfortNitroglycerinForm of anginaOccurHypertensionMicrovascular AnginaType of anginaAcute myocardialAtherosclerosisCardiacTreatment of anginaNitratesTypical anginaTransientPatients with angina pectorisIschemia of the heartEpisode of anginaUnstable angina pectorisOxygenEpisodesDiagnose anginaArteriesCauses of anginaSevereAtypicalSpasmsSymptom of coronary artery
- For most patients with stable angina, physical examination findings are normal. (medscape.com)
- In patients with stable angina pectoris, even the most carefully performed history and physical examination have limitations. (medscape.com)
- Silent ischemia during daily life is an independent predictor of mortality in stable angina. (medscape.com)
- Stable angina is the most frequent form of angina. (smashwords.com)
- Stable angina is the most common type. (patientsville.com)
- Stable angina has a regular pattern. (patientsville.com)
- If your physician diagnosed you with stable angina, the more you know about the condition and its treatment, the better prepared you will be to improve your quality of life while living with it. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- Angina pectoris is a heart condition commonly called stable angina. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- While there are multiple types of angina, other than angina pectoris, two main forms of stable angina exist. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- Episode of chest pain usually does not progress from a period of chronic stable angina. (wikipedia.org)
- The discomfort may last longer and be more intense than that of stable angina. (lahey.org)
- Stable angina is characterised by predictable periods of discomfort that occur during exercise or periods of stress. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
- Special Medical Report - The American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association and the American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine have developed recommendations for the management of chronic stable angina. (searchbeat.com)
- Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Chronic Stable Angina - A report of the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. (searchbeat.com)
- Committee on Management of Patients With Chronic Stable Angina. (searchbeat.com)
- National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute - Detailed look at this disorder covering what it is and what brings it on, heart attack and angina, diagnosis, treatment, exercise, stable and unstable angina, and the types. (searchbeat.com)
- MDchoice.com - Some of the topics covered are diagnosis, treatment, exercise and stable and unstable angina. (searchbeat.com)
- Stable angina is the most common angina, and the type most people mean when they refer to angina. (emedicinehealth.com)
- People with stable angina usually have angina symptoms on a regular basis. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Stable angina symptoms usually last less than five minutes. (emedicinehealth.com)
- This may indicate a worsening of stable angina, but sometimes the first time a person has angina it is already unstable. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Increase in the demand for oxygen is usually the cause for ischemia in stable (exertional) angina. (healthhype.com)
- In addition to its use in stable angina, nitrates are also useful in other forms of angina namely vasospastic (Prinzemetal's) angina and unstable angina. (healthhype.com)
- 6. Understand mechanisms by which the various ischemic syndromes (stable and unstable angina, and acute MI) can be treated medically and with interventional therapies. (brown.edu)
- In general the stable fibrous atherosclerotic plaque will tend to cause either no symptoms or stable angina pectoris, unless other factors occur which change the supply/demand balance. (brown.edu)
- Typical presentations of stable angina is that of chest discomfort and associated symptoms precipitated by some activity (running, walking, etc) with minimal or non-existent symptoms at rest. (thefullwiki.org)
- In this way, stable angina may be thought of as being similar to claudication symptoms. (thefullwiki.org)
- What differentiates stable angina from unstable angina (other than symptoms) is the pathophysiology of the atherosclerosis. (thefullwiki.org)
- In stable angina, the developing atheroma is protected with a fibrous cap. (thefullwiki.org)
- See Stable angina, Unstable angina, and Variant angina. (hearthealthywomen.org)
- DESIGN Intracoronary infusions of normal saline, the receptor mediated nitric oxide stimulant substance P (5.6 and 27.8 pmol/min each for five minutes), and glyceryl trinitrate (250 μg bolus) were given in 24 patients with coronary artery disease and stable angina, and in nine patients with normal angiograms. (bmj.com)
- Patients with stable angina usually know the level of activity or stress that brings on an attack. (texasheart.org)
- Comparative studies of up to 3 months' duration suggest that nicorandil is equivalent in efficacy to isosorbide dinitrate, propranolol, atenolol, nifedipine or diltiazem in the treatment of stable angina. (springer.com)
- In summary, clinical experience thus far indicates that nicorandil, with its novel combination of two distinct vasodilator mechanisms, offers an effective alternative to established vasodilator therapy with conventional nitrates and calcium antagonists in the long term treatment of stable angina pectoris. (springer.com)
- She was admitted to the emergency department for a stable angina evolving for three weeks with episodes at rest. (omicsonline.org)
- An epicardial coronary artery with a atherosclerotic narrowing]] Stable angina (pectoris) is a clinical syndrome characterized by discomfort in the chest, jaw, shoulder, back, or arms, typically elicited by exertion or emotional stress and relieved by rest or nitroglycerin. (textbookofcardiology.org)
- In stable angina this imbalance mainly occurs when oxygen demand increases due to exercise, increased heart rate, contractility or wall stress. (textbookofcardiology.org)
- Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Original full length reports assessing the cumulative incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events or stent thrombosis over a follow-up period of at least a month in association with carrier status for the loss of function or gain of function CYP2C19 allele in adult patients with coronary artery disease and a clinical presentation of acute coronary syndrome or stable angina pectoris who were taking clopidogrel. (bmj.com)
- Stable angina is characterized by regular episodes of pain triggered by physical exercise or activity, smoking, eating large meals, or extreme temperatures. (study.com)
- With stable angina, episodes of pain are a regular occurrence and become predictable as triggers are identified. (study.com)
- With unstable angina, the pain is different from that experienced with stable angina and is not predictable. (study.com)
- Stable angina is the most common kind which can be triggered by physical activity or stress. (onlymyhealth.com)
- Cad happens when a sticky substance called plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart, reducing blood flow.there are three types of angina: stable, unstable and variant. (icd9data.com)
- Stable angina is the most common, and is more predictable than the other types. (avsabonline.org)
- Also, "500,000 new cases of stable angina occur each year. (avsabonline.org)
- When diagnosing stable or unstable angina, a doctor will take into consideration many factors. (avsabonline.org)
- Nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia, C 17 H 18 N 2 O 6 , MW 346.33) is a 1,4-dihydropyridine-derivative calcium channel blocker used in the management of Prinzmetal (variant) angina and chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, Raynaud phenomenon, preterm labor, and acute myocardial infarction. (uspharmacist.com)
- The relevance of coronary spasm has been demonstrated in clinical scenarios other than variant angina (i.e., stable angina) ( 13,14 ), in which involvement of the coronary microcirculation has been suggested as well ( 15 ). (onlinejacc.org)
- If the pain is predictable and can be triggered by different levels of exertion, it is considered as stable angina. (wisedir.com)
- In stable angina, shortness of breath may be triggered during activity and will subside when the person is at rest or with the use of drugs like a nitroglycerin (frequently prescribed to patients experiencing angina pectoris). (wisedir.com)
- compared to men, women who present with acute coronary syndrome/unstable angina as well as stable angina are more likely to have non-obstructive CAD on coronary angiography, and yet have a high IHD morbidity and mortality. (springer.com)
- Ong P, Athanasiadis A, Borgulya G, Mahrholdt H, Kaski JC, Sechtem U. High prevalence of a pathological response to acetylcholine testing in patients with stable angina pectoris and unobstructed coronary arteries. (springer.com)
- The ACOVA Study (Abnormal COronary VAsomotion in patients with stable angina and unobstructed coronary arteries). (springer.com)
- Stable angina" comes on with exertion and then goes away easily. (caregivershome.com)
- Stable angina also called exertional angina. (nursingpath.in)
- Stable angina occurs with activities that involve exertion or emotional stress and is relieved with rest or nitroglycerin. (nursingpath.in)
- Stable angina usually has a stable pattern of onset, duration, severity, and relieving factors. (nursingpath.in)
- More often, patients can develop stable angina, which occurs in response to physical or emotional stress and can be triggered by other conditions, accompanied by rapid heartbeat and increased blood pressure. (asenselive.com)
- However, in the same patient with a stable course of the disease, angina attacks are quite comparable with each other, in the absence of disease progression. (asenselive.com)
- Often described as a muscle spasm and choking sensation, the term angina is used primarily to describe chest (thoracic) pain caused by insufficient oxygen to the heart muscle. (encyclopedia.com)
- Research indicates that variant angina is caused by coronary artery muscle spasm that does not last long enough or is not intense enough to cause an actual heart attack. (encyclopedia.com)
- Nitric oxide activity is deficient in spasm arteries of patients with coronary spastic angina. (medscape.com)
- In the 1970s, we demonstrated spasm of an epicardial coronary artery or coronary spasm during an attack of variant angina systematically induced by methacholine or exercise in the early morning. (thefreelibrary.com)
- 6) The role of coronary spasm was subsequently extended beyond variant angina to ischemic heart disease in general, including effort angina, unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction (MI), and sudden death. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Coronary spasm, variant angina, and recurrent myocardial infarctions. (nih.gov)
- Variant angina and coronary artery spasm: the clinical spectrum, pathophysiology, and management. (nih.gov)
- Alternate coronary artery spasm with ST-segment "seesaw" phenomenon in variant angina. (nih.gov)
- Variant angina pectoris with demonstration of coronary spasm. (nih.gov)
- Despite the availability of effective therapies for coronary artery spasm, the diagnosis of variant angina is infrequently considered in patients with angina. (escardio.org)
- Exercise ECG stress testing is typically negative but during the hot phase, exercise-induced spasm may occur in half of the variant angina patients (4). (escardio.org)
- This type of angina is usually caused by a spasm of a heart vessel. (lahey.org)
- Variant angina is caused by transient coronary artery spasm. (hillsborofreepress.com)
- Angina pectoris , commonly known as angina , is severe chest pain due to ischemia (a lack of blood and hence oxygen supply) of the heart muscle , generally due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries (the heart's blood vessels). (thefullwiki.org)
- The response to nitro-glycerine is however not specific for angina pectoris, a similar response may be seen with oesophageal spasm or other gastrointestinal problems because nitro-glycerine relaxes smooth muscle tissue. (textbookofcardiology.org)
- Variant angina is caused by a spasm in a coronary artery, causing it to temporarily narrow. (study.com)
- Methods Acetylcholine induces coronary artery spasm in patients with variant angina.We tested the effects of intracoronary acetylcholine at graded doses in 117 consecutive patients with chest pain (at rest, during exertion, or both) and no flow-limiting (>50%) organic stenosis in the large epicardial coronary arteries. (ovid.com)
- The 29 patients with microvascular spasm developed angina-like chest pain, ischaemic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, or both spontaneously (two patients) or after administration of acetylcholine (27 patients) without spasm of the large epicardial coronary arteries. (ovid.com)
- Testing of paired samples of arterial and coronary sinus venous blood showed that lactate was produced during angina attack in nine of 11 patients with microvascular spasm. (ovid.com)
- Interpretation Coronary microvascular spasm and resultant myocardial ischaemia may be the cause of chest pain in a subgroup of patients with microvascular angina. (ovid.com)
- Varient angina is rare and is distinctive because of a spasm in a coronary artery. (avsabonline.org)
- 1 ) sought to determine the prevalence of coronary spasm in angina patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. (onlinejacc.org)
- Variant angina results from coronary artery spasm. (nursingpath.in)
- Most episodes of angina are brought on by physical exertion, when the heart needs more oxygen than is available from the blood nourishing the heart. (encyclopedia.com)
- The chest pain associated with angina usually begins with physical exertion. (lakelandhealth.org)
- It usually occurs spontaneously, and unlike typical angina, it nearly always occurs when a person is at rest and does not require physical exertion. (fpnotebook.com)
- Classical or effort angina is characterized by: (1) attacks induced by exertion and relieved by rest or nitroglycerin administration, and (2) attacks associated with transient ST segment depression on an electrocardiogram (ECG). (thefreelibrary.com)
- In 1772, William Heberden, a British physician, aptly described the features of classical angina of effort, remarking on its occurrence with exertion and prompt resolution with rest. (escardio.org)
- Angina refers to pain or pressure in the chest, back, arm, or jaw-usually associated with exertion-which indicates that the heart muscle isn't receiving enough oxygen. (empowher.com)
- Unstable angina is chest pain that is not caused by exertion and does not go away with rest or medication. (empowher.com)
- Thus, taking a rest from exertion or taking medication that dilates the arteries may relieve an episode of angina. (empowher.com)
- For most people, angina symptoms occur after short bursts of exertion. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Angina can come from exertion. (hillsborofreepress.com)
- Angina is typically precipitated by exertion or emotional stress. (thefullwiki.org)
- Arteries can narrow due to plaque deposits, and angina may be especially prevalent during physical exertion due to the heart's increased demand for oxygen. (study.com)
- Unstable angina occurs with an unpredictable degree of exertion or emotion and increases in occurrence, duration, and severity over time. (nursingpath.in)
- If an attack of angina occurs in response to emotional stress, when the patient is unable to control the situation, the attack may be protracted and more intense than in response to physical exertion. (asenselive.com)
- Because the symptoms of angina occur during stress, the heart's function may need to be evaluated under the physical stress of exercise. (encyclopedia.com)
- What are the symptoms of angina pectoris? (lakelandhealth.org)
- The following are the most common symptoms of angina. (lakelandhealth.org)
- The symptoms of angina pectoris may resemble other medical conditions or problems. (lakelandhealth.org)
- Gastrointestinal issues like vomiting and nausea are also regarded as atypical symptoms of angina pectoris. (wisedir.com)
- The objective of this study is to evaluate effect of statin treatment for vasospastic angina. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Impaired FMD(flow mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation) in the brachial artery was demonstrated in vasospastic angina,and improvement of endothelial dysfunction with treatment of statin is documented in several studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- So, we expect that statin treatment for vasospastic angina provide additional therapeutic effects via improvement of endothelial dysfunction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Vasospastic Angina. (fpnotebook.com)
- Calcium channel blockers are also useful in other cardiac conditions like vasospastic angina, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (healthhype.com)
- Vasospastic angina is considered rare but its prevalence is probably underestimated, especially in the case of atheromatous coronary lesions. (omicsonline.org)
- Currently the term vasospastic angina (VSA) is used more often in literature. (prolekare.cz)
- Cardiac causes include vasospastic angina, stress-induced cardiomyopathy, and coronary microvascular dysfunction. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
- Diagnostic testing for specific causes such as vasospastic angina and coronary microvascular dysfunction ( Figure 1 ) are not part of routine diagnostic cardiac catheterization and often times are done only at specialized centers. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
- This review will focus on three known causes of cardiac chest pain without epicardial stenosis: coronary vasospasm (vasospastic angina), stress-induced cardiomyopathy, and coronary microvascular dysfunction. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
- Vasospastic angina: The exact cause of enhanced vasomotor tone is unknown. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
- There are studies which used I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging among patients with vasospastic angina and found evidence of enhanced parasympathetic activity and abnormalities in cardiac sympathetic tone in patients with vasospastic angina. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
- 4 The diagnosis of vasospastic angina is especially important because this disorder is associated with significant morbidity and mortality that can be prevented with the use of calcium channel blockers. (acc.org)
- Angina is pain , discomfort, or pressure in the chest that is caused by ischemia , an insufficient supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. (encyclopedia.com)
- Angina pectoris (or simply angina) is recurring chest pain or discomfort that happens when some part of the heart does not receive enough blood and oxygen. (lakelandhealth.org)
- Most patients with angina pectoris report of retrosternal chest discomfort rather than frank pain. (medscape.com)
- A positive Levine sign (characterized by the patient's fist clenched over the sternum when describing the discomfort) is suggestive of angina pectoris. (medscape.com)
- Angina is a type of chest discomfort due to poor blood flow through the blood vessels of the heart muscle. (medlineplus.gov)
- Angina is chest pain or discomfort you feel when there is not enough blood flow to your heart muscle. (patientsville.com)
- The American Heart Association describes angina pectoris as a medical term for the chest pain or discomfort you feel as a result of coronary heart disease . (marijuanadoctors.com)
- Angina is pain or discomfort in the chest. (lahey.org)
- The discomfort of angina is temporary, meaning a few seconds or minutes, not lasting hours or all day. (emedicinehealth.com)
- A Angina pectoris?or simply angina?is the medical term for chest pain or discomfort usually caused by coronary artery disease. (hillsborofreepress.com)
- Most patients with angina complain of chest discomfort rather than actual pain: the discomfort is usually described as a pressure, heaviness, tightness, squeezing, burning, or choking sensation. (thefullwiki.org)
- Angina pectoris-or simply angina-is chest pain or discomfort that keeps coming back. (awomansview.com)
- Angina is chest pain or discomfort you get when your heart muscle does not get enough blood. (icd9data.com)
- It is a sign that you could have a heart attack soon.not all chest pain or discomfort is angina. (icd9data.com)
- Angina chest pain is usually relieved within a few minutes by resting or by taking prescribed cardiac medications, such as nitroglycerin. (lakelandhealth.org)
- Ask patients about the frequency of angina, severity of pain, and number of nitroglycerin pills used during angina episodes. (medscape.com)
- You may take a long-acting form of nitroglycerin daily to prevent angina. (ahealthyme.com)
- However, unlike the chest pain associated with a heart attack, the pain from angina usually goes away within a few minutes with rest or with the use of nitroglycerin. (nyhq.org)
- An episode of angina can be relieved by removing the stressor and/or taking sublingual (under the tongue) nitroglycerin . (emedicinehealth.com)
- Micro-vascular angina is a form of angina where patients feel chest pain but do not appear to have an obstruction in a coronary artery. (smashwords.com)
- A variant form of angina pectoris caused by coronary artery vasospasm, usually occurring spontaneously and frequently associated with ST segment elevation. (fpnotebook.com)
- 1) This form of angina has been well known for more than 200 years since its description by Heberden, and its pathogenesis has been explained by increased myocardial oxygen demand in the presence of fixed organic stenosis of the epicardial coronary arteries. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Because the attack occurred at rest and was not induced by exercise, an increase in myocardial oxygen demand could not explain the pathogenesis of this form of angina. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Once called Syndrome X, microvascular angina is a recently discovered form of angina. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- Doctors currently believe the chest pain with this form of angina is not caused by artery blockages, but by poor functioning in the blood vessels nourishing the heart, arms and legs. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- An episode of angina does not indicate that a heart attack is occurring, or that a heart attack is about to occur. (lakelandhealth.org)
- In addition to a complete medical history and medical exam, a doctor can often diagnose angina pectoris by noting the patient's symptoms and how/when they occur. (lakelandhealth.org)
- A healthcare provider can often diagnose angina from symptoms and how and when they occur. (ahealthyme.com)
- This information will help you understand how side effects, such as Angina Pectoris, can occur, and what you can do about them. (patientsville.com)
- Torrance Memorial Medical Center - Explanation of what angina pectoris is, the symptoms and what a person should do when they occur. (searchbeat.com)
- Angina symptoms are unpredictable and often occur at rest. (emedicinehealth.com)
- 3. Be able to identify several mechanisms by which unstable angina can occur. (brown.edu)
- If angina symptoms change sharply, or if they happen when you are resting or they start to occur unpredictably, call 911. (awomansview.com)
- In addition to a complete medical history and medical exam, your healthcare provider can often diagnose angina from your symptoms and how and when they occur. (awomansview.com)
- This is a specific form of unstable angina that can occur at any time. (study.com)
- Although it most commonly affects males who are middle-aged or older, angina can occur in both sexes and all age groups. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Background Microvascular angina can occur during exercise and at rest.Reduced vasodilator capacity of the coronary microvessels is implicated as a cause of angina during exercise, but the mechanism of angina at rest is not known. (ovid.com)
- Nonetheless, in unstable angina, shortness of breath can occur even the individual is at minimal activity or at rest. (wisedir.com)
- Variant angina may occur at rest. (nursingpath.in)
- Reports suggest that sympathetic re-innervation of the transplanted heart can occur (2-6) and therefore angina pectoris should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain which develops some years after heart transplantation. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It is best suited for angina patients with concomitant hypertension. (healthhype.com)
- Beta blockers are of maximum benefit in angina patients with concomitant hypertension. (healthhype.com)
- One of the drugs is a variant of metoprolol, a beta-blocker used to treat some cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and angina pectoris. (thehindu.com)
- These numbers are alarming partly because diabetes, hypertension and smoking are the main causes of angina, and it can be considered to be a national problem in the United States. (avsabonline.org)
- Microvascular angina is a type of angina where patients have chest pain but do not seem to have a blockage in a coronary artery. (texasheart.org)
- And lastly, recent data suggest that low-grade inflammation might also play a pathogenetic role in the microvascular dysfunction with the presence of increased levels of markers of inflammation such as C reactive protein among patients with known microvascular angina. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
- According to Johns Hopkins Medicine, spasms of the artery cause this type of angina, and calcium channel blockers offer tremendous help for this as they dilate the coronary arteries to prevent spasms. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- A doctor can identify which type of angina a patient may have based on information obtained from your medical history, and a range of investigations such as electrocardiograms (ECG) and exercise tolerance testing (ETT). (labtestsonline.org.uk)
- however, this type of angina may lead to a diagnosis of coronary microvascular disease and may raise the risk of heart attack. (texasheart.org)
- There is a 3rd type of angina called variant angina. (wisedir.com)
- If you suffer from angina you are at increased risk of experiencing a heart attack (acute myocardial infarction or AMI) and should see a doctor right away. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
- Recent research suggests that softer, lipid-laden plaques may be more prone to plaque rupture resulting in unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. (brown.edu)
- Angina of effort is a common disorder caused by the narrowing of the arteries (a condition called atherosclerosis ) that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. (encyclopedia.com)
- Angina is usually caused by an underlying obstruction to the coronary artery due to atherosclerosis. (encyclopedia.com)
- In rare cases, angina is caused by a coronary embolism or by a disease other than atherosclerosis that places demands on the heart. (encyclopedia.com)
- In contrast to patient with unstable angina secondary to coronary atherosclerosis, patients with variant angina are generally younger and have fewer coronary risk factors (except smoking). (wikipedia.org)
- Coronary artery disease , the main cause of angina, is due to atherosclerosis of the cardiac arteries. (thefullwiki.org)
- Angina is often a sign of atherosclerosis , a condition where fatty plaque builds up inside the blood vessels. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The diagnosis must also be considered in patients with recurrent rest angina associated with syncope or even cardiac arrest, since patients with variant angina may experience malignant arrhythmias during their ischaemic episodes. (escardio.org)
- People with unstable angina are at particularly increased risk for experiencing myocardial infarction (MI) , severe cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat), and cardiac arrest (when the heart stops beating). (labtestsonline.org.uk)
- Nicore Inc - Information about the ECP external counterpulsation unit which is a cardiac care therapy that provides relief from angina pectoris without surgery or medication. (searchbeat.com)
- Angina is a sign that someone is at increased risk of heart attack, cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death. (hillsborofreepress.com)
- It is not common to equate severity of angina with risk of fatal cardiac events. (thefullwiki.org)
- Depending on the characteristics, chest pain can be identified as typical angina, atypical angina or non-cardiac chest pain, see Table 1. (textbookofcardiology.org)
- Background The long-term prognosis of patients with variant angina presenting with aborted sudden cardiac death (ASCD) is unknown. (onlinejacc.org)
- It is important to note that angina is not a disease, but more of a cardiac episode. (avsabonline.org)
- Patients with angina-like chest pain and objective evidence of ischemia in the setting of non-flow limiting epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) are often diagnosed with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
- Preinfarction angina is a symptom of worsening cardiac ischemia. (nursingpath.in)
- Angina pectoris is a disease caused by a mismatch between the oxygen demand of the myocardium and its delivery, leading to impaired cardiac function. (asenselive.com)
- 1) O-adrenergic blocking agents, which reduce myocardial oxygen demand, have been widely used for the treatment of angina. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Health Factsheets from BUPA - Explaining the causes, symptoms and treatment of angina. (searchbeat.com)
- HeartGen Centers, Inc. - Discussion about Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) in the treatment of angina or chest pain. (searchbeat.com)
- The cardio-selective CCBs and some of the selected vaso-selective CCBs (like amlodipine, nicardipine and felodipine) are used in treatment of angina. (healthhype.com)
- Therefore, by combining these two vasodilator mechanisms, nicorandil represents a novel type of compound for use in the treatment of angina pectoris. (springer.com)
- Why choose Johns Hopkins Heart and Vascular Institute for treatment of angina? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Nitrates are the medicines most often given to treat angina. (smashwords.com)
- A high index of suspicion for this diagnosis must be considered in patients awakening with recurrent brief episodes of nocturnal angina, promptly relieved with sublingual nitrates. (escardio.org)
- Angina Pectoris Drugs - Discussion of the different types of angina and covers the pharmacological bases for use of nitrates, betablockers and calcium antagonists. (searchbeat.com)
- Nitrates are also useful in long term prophylaxis of angina. (healthhype.com)
- This also contributes to the utility of nitrates in angina. (healthhype.com)
- Nitrates for treatment of acute angina includes the short-acting nitrates like nitroglycerine and isosorbide dinitrate, both of which are given sublingually (placed below the tongue). (healthhype.com)
- The long-acting nitrates are useful in long-term prevention of angina attacks. (healthhype.com)
- Beta blockers, calcium channel blockers and nitrates can help relieve angina. (hillsborofreepress.com)
- An episode of angina is not an actual heart attack , but rather pain that results when the heart muscle temporarily receives too little blood. (encyclopedia.com)
- Emotional stress, extreme temperatures, heavy meals, cigarette smoking , and alcohol can also cause or contribute to an episode of angina. (encyclopedia.com)
- Patients complain that the angina symptom is a squeezingor burning feeling in their chest but the episode of angina is not a heart attack. (smashwords.com)
- An episode of angina means some part of the heart is not getting enough blood supply. (awomansview.com)
- Patients describe angina as a squeezing, suffocating, or burning feeling in their chest, but an episode of angina is not a heart attack. (texasheart.org)
- Anything that causes your heart muscle to need more blood or oxygen can result in angina especially if you already have a blockage or narrowing. (ahealthyme.com)
- Angina Pectoris is a term for chest pain caused by the heart not getting enough oxygen. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
- The pain of angina can be relieved either by increasing the oxygen supply to the heart or by decreasing the heart's demand for oxygen. (empowher.com)
- This reduces the oxygen demand of the heart and produces the beneficial effects in angina. (healthhype.com)
- Anything that causes your heart muscle to need more blood or oxygen supply can result in angina. (awomansview.com)
- Angina results when a diseased vessel in your heart (a coronary artery) can no longer deliver enough blood to a part of the heart muscle to meet its need for oxygen. (texasheart.org)
- Angina usually happens when your heart has an extra need for oxygen-rich blood, such as during exercise. (texasheart.org)
- Angina is caused by an imbalance between oxygen supply and demand. (nursingpath.in)
- We made continuous electrocardiographic recordings on magnetic tape during 15 episodes of ischemia in five patients with variant angina to determine the characteristics of the QRS changes. (ahajournals.org)
- In fact, episodes of angina seldom cause permanent damage to heart muscle. (encyclopedia.com)
- A person who has angina should note the patterns of his or her symptoms--what causes the chest pain, what it feels like, how long episodes usually last, and whether medication relieves the pain. (lakelandhealth.org)
- Whereas exercise does not typically precipitate an episode of variant angina, hyperventilation and exposure to the cold can provoke episodes. (escardio.org)
- Variant angina may remain quiescent for prolonged periods and then recur with multiple frequent episodes. (escardio.org)
- There are several tests that can be done to find out if the angina episodes are related to an underlying heart condition. (avsabonline.org)
- In the case of angina of effort, the coronary arteries can provide the heart muscle (myocardium) adequate blood during rest but not during periods of exercise, stress , or excitement. (encyclopedia.com)
- Studies have shown that at least one of the three major coronary arteries usually is stenosed before angina develops. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Angina pectoris also can result from stenosis of the aorta, pulmonary stenosis and ventricular hypertrophy, or connective tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and periarteritis nodosa that affect the smaller coronary arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This concept was based on the fact that the majority of patients with angina were found to have severe and extensive atherosclerotic narrowing in their coronary arteries. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Angina may be caused by a narrowing of the arteries or muscle spasms in the coronary arteries. (empowher.com)
- More recently, a role for intracellular rho-kinase, which may enhance vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle cells by facilitating calcium overload, has also been suggested in patients with angina and normal coronary arteries. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
- Humphries KH, Pu A, Gao M, Carere RG, Pilote L. Angina with "normal" coronary arteries: sex differences in outcomes. (springer.com)
- Percutaneous transmyocardial laser revascularisation for severe angina: the PACIFIC randomised trial. (medscape.com)
- Unstable angina -Is more unpredictable and/or severe. (lahey.org)
- CardioGenesis - Surgical laser therapies for treatment of severe angina, chest pain and advanced cardiovascular disease through TMR Transmyocardial Revascularization and PMR Percutaneous Myocardial Revascularization. (searchbeat.com)
- In women, elderly persons, and diabetic patients, coronary artery disease may manifest with atypical presentations other than angina pectoris, such as silent ischemia or infarction. (medscape.com)
- Such patients are often labeled as either patients with "atypical angina" or patients with "false positive results" at noninvasive evaluation. (onlinejacc.org)