Anger: A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.Hostility: Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.Expressed Emotion: Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Frustration: The motivational and/or affective state resulting from being blocked, thwarted, disappointed or defeated.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Acting Out: Expressing unconscious emotional conflicts or feelings, often of hostility or love, through overt behavior.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Rage: Fury; violent, intense anger.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Type A Personality: Established behavior pattern characterized by excessive drive and ambition, impatience, competitiveness, sense of time urgency, and poorly contained aggression.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Defense Mechanisms: Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.Attentional Blink: Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Cardiac Complexes, Premature: A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Hyperparathyroidism, Primary: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.War Crimes: Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.Balkan Peninsula: A peninsula in Southeast EUROPE between the Adriatic and Ionian seas on the West and Aegean and Black Seas on the East. (from www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/balkan%20peninsula)Medication Reconciliation: The formal process of obtaining a complete and accurate list of each patient's current home medications including name, dosage, frequency, and route of administration, and comparing admission, transfer, and/or discharge medication orders to that list. The reconciliation is done to avoid medication errors.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.Strikes, Employee: Work-related situations in which the employees as a group refuse to work until certain conditions of employment are granted by the employer.Accidents, AviationFrance: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Boxing: A two-person sport in which the fists are skillfully used to attack and defend.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: Longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States during the 1994-95 school year. The Add Health cohort has been followed into young adulthood. (from http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth accessed 08/2012)Receptors, Opioid: Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Schools: Educational institutions.Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.School Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with health and nursing care given to primary and secondary school students by a registered nurse.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.

Anger expression and incident stroke: prospective evidence from the Kuopio ischemic heart disease study. (1/476)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High levels of anger are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and hypertension, but little is known about the role of anger in stroke risk. METHODS: Anger expression style and risk of incident stroke were examined in 2074 men (mean age, 53.0+/-5.2 years) from a population-based, longitudinal study of risk factors for ischemic heart disease and related outcomes in eastern Finland. Self-reported style of anger expression was assessed by questionnaire at baseline. Linkage to the FINMONICA stroke and national hospital discharge registers identified 64 first strokes (50 ischemic) through 1996. Average follow-up time was 8.3+/-0.9 (mean+/-SD) years. RESULTS: Men who reported the highest level of expressed anger were at twice the risk of stroke (relative hazard, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.05 to 3.94) of men who reported the lowest level of anger, after adjustments for age, resting blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fibrinogen, socioeconomic status, history of diabetes, and use of antihypertensive medications. Additional analysis showed that these associations were evident only in men with a history of ischemic heart disease (n=481), among whom high levels of outwardly expressed anger (high anger-out) predicted >6-fold increased risk of stroke after risk factor adjustment (relative hazard, 6.87; 95% CI, 1.50 to 31.4). Suppressed anger (anger-in) and controlled anger (anger-control) were not consistently related to stroke risk. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population-based study to show a significant relationship between high levels of expressed anger and incident stroke. Additional research is necessary to explore the mechanisms that underlie this association.  (+info)

Preliminary assessment of patients' opinions of queuing for coronary bypass graft surgery at one Canadian centre. (2/476)

OBJECTIVES: To explore psychological and socioeconomic concerns of patients who queued for coronary artery bypass surgery and the effectiveness of support existing in one Canadian cardiovascular surgical center. DESIGN: Standardised questionnaire and structured interview. SETTING: Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, Nova Scotia. SUBJECTS: 100 consecutive patients awaiting non-emergency bypass surgery. RESULTS: Most patients (96%) found the explanation of findings at cardiac catheterisation and the justification given for surgery satisfactory. However, 84 patients complained that waiting for surgery was stressful and 64 registered at least moderate anxiety. Anger over delays was expressed by 16%, but only 4% thought that queuing according to medical need was unfair. Economic hardship, attributed to delayed surgery, was declared by 15 patients. This primarily affected those still working--namely, blue collar workers and younger age groups. Only 41% of patients were satisfied with existing institutional supports. Problems related mainly to poor communication. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable anxiety seems to be experienced by most patients awaiting bypass surgery. Better communication and education might alleviate some of this anxiety. Economic hardship affects certain patient subgroups more than others and may need to be weighed in the selection process. A more definitive examination of these issues is warranted.  (+info)

Dissociable neural responses to facial expressions of sadness and anger. (3/476)

Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have investigated the neural substrates which mediate responses to fearful, disgusted and happy expressions. No previous studies have investigated the neural substrates which mediate responses to sad and angry expressions. Using functional neuroimaging, we tested two hypotheses. First, we tested whether the amygdala has a neural response to sad and/or angry facial expressions. Secondly, we tested whether the orbitofrontal cortex has a specific neural response to angry facial expressions. Volunteer subjects were scanned, using PET, while they performed a sex discrimination task involving static grey-scale images of faces expressing varying degrees of sadness and anger. We found that increasing intensity of sad facial expression was associated with enhanced activity in the left amygdala and right temporal pole. In addition, we found that increasing intensity of angry facial expression was associated with enhanced activity in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. We found no support for the suggestion that angry expressions generate a signal in the amygdala. The results provide evidence for dissociable, but interlocking, systems for the processing of distinct categories of negative facial expression.  (+info)

Psychological states and lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness. (4/476)

There is a complex interplay between psychological states and biochemical factors. beta-Adrenergic receptor responsiveness is altered in some patients with depression and anxiety disorders, but the relation between various psychological states and receptor function in a normal population is unknown. We measured lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptor density (Bmax), sensitivity (cAMP ratio), the Profile of Mood States (POMS), and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in 39 hypertensives and 81 normotensives. We examined correlations between log normalized receptor variables and psychological states. Log Bmax showed negative correlations with age and with POMS tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and anger-hostility. Log cAMP ratio did not show significant correlations with POMS and STAI ratings. In step-wise multiple regression analyses, 36% of the variance in Bmax was accounted for by POMS tension-anxiety, and age. Our study suggests that increased POMS tension-anxiety was highly associated with down-regulation of beta-adrenergic receptors, even in subjects who do not have psychiatric illness. Numerous psychological states could be associated with changes of beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness in a normal population.  (+info)

Psychosocial predictors of survival in metastatic melanoma. (5/476)

PURPOSE: Research interest in psychosocial predictors of the onset and course of cancer has been active since the 1950s. However, results have been contradictory and the literature is noted for methodologic weaknesses. In this prospective study, we aimed to systematically obtain data on psychosocial factors associated with human response to illness. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty-five patients with metastatic melanoma completed questionnaires measuring cognitive appraisal of threat, coping, psychologic adjustment, perceived aim of treatment, social support, and quality of life (QOL). Questionnaires were completed, where possible, every 3 months for 2 years after diagnosis. Survival was measured from date of study entry to date of death or was censored at the date of last follow-up for surviving patients. RESULTS: In a multivariate Cox regression analysis of baseline data, which controlled for demographic and disease predictors, the psychologic variables of perceived aim of treatment (P <.001), minimization (P <. 05), and anger (P <.05) were independently predictive of survival. Patients who were married (P <.01) and who reported a better QOL (P <.05) also survived longer. CONCLUSION: The prognostic significance of psychologic and QOL scores remained after allowance for conventional prognostic factors. If these associations reflect an early perception by the patient or doctor of disease progression, then measures are at least valuable early indicators of such progression. If psychologic processes have a more direct influence on the course of the underlying illness, then it may be possible to manipulate them for therapeutic effect. We are now conducting a randomized controlled trial of a psychologic intervention to further elucidate these issues.  (+info)

Tryptophan enhancement/depletion and reactions to failure on a cooperative computer game. (6/476)

Twenty-eight high trait hostility male volunteers played a "cooperative" computer game 4.5 hours after an amino acid drink enhanced with, or depleted of, tryptophan. Each trial involved steering a tank through minefields following directions from an unknown "partner." Failure was experienced when the tank hit a mine or when time ran out. Subjects' moods, verbal aggression, attributions of blame, vocal acoustics, and blood pressure were assessed. Differences between tryptophan groups were not significant for primary measures of anger and verbal aggression. However, depleted subjects reported greater increases in feelings of restlessness and incompetence, were less successful in avoiding mines and showed greater increases in blood pressure during the game. Subjects in both groups sent more negative ratings when they lost the game by virtue of hitting a mine rather than losing by running out of time. However, ratings of the depleted group were less influenced by the reason for losing the game. Also, vocal acoustics showed a group X reason-for-losing interaction in the high-frequency band. Tryptophan-depleted subjects with high scores on Behavioral-Activation-System-Drive were most likely to send negative ratings and those scoring high on Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory Assault and Guilt to report increased anger after the game.  (+info)

Validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the selected anger expression scale and age, sex, occupation and regional differences in anger expression among Japanese. (7/476)

To examine the reliability and construct validity of the Japanese version of the Anger Expression Scale among four Japanese communities, and to examine distributions of anger expression scores according to sex, age, occupation, and community, we performed a cross-sectional study among 1,802 men and 3,229 women aged 20-70 in four geographic populations in 1995-97. We handed a self-administered questionnaire, which was selected from the Spielberger Anger Expression Scale, to the participants in the risk factor surveys and measured anger-in and anger-out as the anger expression scale. These scales had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.97-0.98 for anger-out and 0.77-0.86 for anger-in) and were of almost the same structure as the original. The Pearson correlation coefficients for the anger expression scale examined in 1995 and 1996 were 0.69 for anger-out and 0.57 for anger-in (both p < 0.001). The mean scores of both anger-out and anger-in were inversely associated with age. The mean anger-out score was higher for men than for women (p < 0.001), whereas the mean anger-in score did not vary significantly between the sexes. Furthermore, the mean scores of anger-out and anger-in varied among populations and occupational groups. The present study suggests that the Japanese version of the selected Anger Expression Scale is an acceptable scale for evaluating anger expression among Japanese.  (+info)

Anger proneness predicts coronary heart disease risk: prospective analysis from the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. (8/476)

BACKGROUND: Increased research attention is being paid to the negative impact of anger on coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS: This study examined prospectively the association between trait anger and the risk of combined CHD (acute myocardial infarction [MI]/fatal CHD, silent MI, or cardiac revascularization procedures) and of "hard" events (acute MI/fatal CHD). Participants were 12 986 black and white men and women enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities study. In the entire cohort, individuals with high trait anger, compared with their low anger counterparts, were at increased risk of CHD in both event categories. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) was 1.54 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.16) for combined CHD and 1.75 (95% CI 1.17 to 2.64) for "hard" events. Heterogeneity of effect was observed by hypertensive status. Among normotensive individuals, the risk of combined CHD and of "hard" events increased monotonically with increasing levels of trait anger. The multivariate-adjusted HR of CHD for high versus low anger was 2.20 (95% CI 1.36 to 3.55) and for moderate versus low anger was 1.32 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.84). For "hard" events, the multivariate-adjusted HRs were 2.69 (95% CI 1.48 to 4.90) and 1.35 (95% CI 0.87 to 2.10), respectively. No statistically significant association between trait anger and incident CHD risk was observed among hypertensive individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Proneness to anger places normotensive middle-aged men and women at significant risk for CHD morbidity and death independent of the established biological risk factors.  (+info)

  • Anger is an active emotion that calls the person feeling it to respond. (wikipedia.org)
  • People usually think of anger as a negative emotion. (healthcanal.com)
  • He and his colleagues wanted to examine whether this also applies to the link between anger as a negative emotion and the desire to get your hands on something. (healthcanal.com)
  • You see, anger is a normal emotion but it is the valence (intensity) as well as the coupling choice of what one does with this that is the problem. (theravive.com)
  • Anger is a normal, often healthy emotion. (theravive.com)
  • Anger itself isn't a bad thing: it's a normal emotion and can be a terrific motivator for personal betterment or social justice. (rawstory.com)
  • HowStuffWorks.com describes how the parts of your brain that control both emotion and reason are activated when anger is triggered and that, while these areas tend to balance out quickly, people who are chronically ticked off, who may not have the neurological mechanisms to quiet these effects, may suffer from an overexerted nervous system leading to heart, liver, kidney damage and high cholesterol. (rawstory.com)
  • Anger is a normal emotion that all people experience from time to time. (symptomfind.com)
  • In fact, anger is a normal emotion that can facilitate better communication and positive change when expressed appropriately. (klassentherapy.com)
  • Anger, in and of itself, is simply an emotion. (authenticfreedomacademy.com)
  • When we find ourselves feeling the emotion of anger and choose to repress that anger or suppress, we are turning that anger in on ourselves which can eventually manifest as depression, paralysis and a feeling of being small and insignificant. (authenticfreedomacademy.com)
  • How do we respond when the emotion of anger arises within us? (authenticfreedomacademy.com)
  • Anger is both an expression of a strong emotion and the expression of a weakness. (rewiringthesoul.com)
  • Success in treating anxiety with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions developed by Meichebaum inspired Novaco to modify the stress inoculation training to be suitable for anger management. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of these medications could possibly cause anger, anxiety, self injury, feeling out of control and more. (msworld.org)
  • People who keep their anger to themselves, Sacco says, risk having it boil over or even suffering from depression and generalized anxiety disorder. (rawstory.com)
  • Over time, normal anger can grow into bitterness, resentment and destructive rage. (promises.com)
  • According to my results my three biggest problem areas were were jealousy, road rage and petrified anger, which means, essentially, that you just can't Let It Go (no matter how many times you hear the song). (rawstory.com)
  • We all know what anger is and we've all experienced it, whether as a fleeting annoyance or as full-fledged rage. (metalabsinc.com)
  • He misses saying he hates things because with some people who are averse to any expressions of anger or negativity while others - from ridiculous reality shows to the talking heads that have become screaming heads - could easily make you think everyone in America is one missed green light from turning the Tasmanian Devil. (rawstory.com)
  • Professionals who deal with those who have trouble managing anger include occupational therapists, mental health counselors, drug and alcohol counselors, social workers, psychologists and psychiatrists. (wikipedia.org)
  • While you're receiving mental health and substance abuse treatment, you'll learn how to control your anger. (promises.com)
  • A mental health professional can help you learn to control your anger. (promises.com)
  • It is, therefore, important to consolidate what is known about how anger manifests in mental health nursing practice. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • We aimed to systematically identify, evaluate, and synthesise results from studies about mental health nurses and anger, where anger was measured objectively. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • For a copy of the article "The Art of Anger: Reward Context Turns Avoidance Responses to Anger-Related Objects Into Approach" and access to other Psychological Science research findings, please contact Keri Chiodo at 202-293-9300 or [email protected] . (healthcanal.com)
  • There are psychological tests that measure the intensity of angry feelings, if you are prone to anger, and how well you handle anger. (metalabsinc.com)
  • Background: Trait anger consists of affective, behavioral, and cognitive (ABC) dimensions and may increase vulnerability for interpersonal conflict, diminished social support, and greater psychological distress. (elsevier.com)
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine plausible psychosocial avenues (e.g., coping, social support, psychological distress), whereby trait anger may indirectly influence HIV disease status. (elsevier.com)
  • For example, if you weren't taught how to express anger appropriately, your frustrations might simmer and make you miserable, or build up until you explode in an angry outburst. (mayoclinic.org)
  • By helping you understanding the underlying causes of your anger, you can significantly reduce it, learn more effective ways to manage it, and avoid circumstances that trigger it. (theravive.com)
  • Note the incident, trigger, and the intensity of your anger from 0-10. (klassentherapy.com)
  • The negative effects of anger have been observed throughout history. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, using a pulse oximeter we will explore the effects of anger on your body and learn how to de-flood your system while learning self soothing techniques. (theravive.com)
  • Staying away from drugs and alcohol may be the first step in learning to control your anger. (promises.com)
  • When you feel yourself getting ready to boil over with anger, get out and get some exercise. (symptomfind.com)
  • If you're trying to figure out how to manage your child's anger , you might want to take a closer look at the basic relationship patterns that exist between the two of you currently. (mommykatandkids.com)
  • There is ample evidence that nurses experience anger specifically during their work, for example when experiencing patient aggression. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Suppressing anger appears to make chronic pain worse, while expressing anger reduces pain. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Interestingly, the participants in this study had no idea that their desire for the objects had to do with anger, Aarts says. (healthcanal.com)
  • These factors are typically associated with a heightened chance of anger, but there are other, less-known factors that can lead to people acting in a negative way. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with a history of anger take part in individual and group therapy. (promises.com)
  • Different people will experience different levels of anger, and for most, those levels will remain in the normal range. (symptomfind.com)
  • There is universal warning sign, anger affects people differently. (symptomfind.com)
  • The best anger management technique for me, is to acknowledge the things that make my kettle whistle, let people know up front, then practice what I preach. (joanmccullough.com)
  • This issue affects all people involved in the sporting environment, yet few sport professionals, coaches, or administrators fully understand anger in sport and how to work with athletes to overcome the problem. (humankinetics.com)
  • But for some people, managing their own anger is challenging. (klassentherapy.com)
  • Usually these people are the last to know they even have what others may describe as "toxic" or "out-of-control" anger. (klassentherapy.com)
  • Many medical experts will tell you that epinephrine is every bit as addictive as alcohol and cocaine, so it's no wonder so many people are addicted to their own anger. (klassentherapy.com)
  • By considering the various stakeholders involved and the preventive measures that can be taken, researchers and professionals will step closer to discovering best practices and strategies for anger management in today's sport society. (humankinetics.com)