Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Intracranial Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding within the SKULL induced by penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries, including hemorrhages into the tissues of CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM; as well as into the epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces of the MENINGES.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Aneurysm, Infected: Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.Aortic Aneurysm: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Hematoma, Subdural: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Iliac Aneurysm: Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any one of the iliac arteries including the common, the internal, or the external ILIAC ARTERY.Coronary Aneurysm: Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Aortic Rupture: The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the AORTA, such as thoracic or abdominal. It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA.International Normalized Ratio: System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.Endovascular Procedures: Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive: Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Vitreous Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage into the VITREOUS BODY.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Eye Hemorrhage: Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Embolectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material which has been transported from a distant vessel by the bloodstream. Removal of a clot at its original site is called THROMBECTOMY.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Hematoma, Subdural, Intracranial: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE over the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding: Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Consciousness Disorders: Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Platelet Transfusion: The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Thrombocytopenia, Neonatal Alloimmune: A condition in newborns caused by immunity of the mother to PLATELET ALLOANTIGENS on the fetal platelets. The PLATELETS, coated with maternal ANTIBODIES, are destroyed and removed by the fetal MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Affected infants may have INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Obstetrical Forceps: Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.Antigens, Human Platelet: Human alloantigens expressed only on platelets, specifically on platelet membrane glycoproteins. These platelet-specific antigens are immunogenic and can result in pathological reactions to transfusion therapy.Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage: Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic: Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Vitamin K Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations: Congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities involving ARTERIES; VEINS; or venous sinuses in the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and MENINGES.Mechanical Thrombolysis: Procedures to cause the disintegration of THROMBI by physical interventions.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Thrombectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.Antifibrinolytic Agents: Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.Coagulants: Agents that cause clotting.Arteriovenous Malformations: Abnormal formation of blood vessels that shunt arterial blood directly into veins without passing through the CAPILLARIES. They usually are crooked, dilated, and with thick vessel walls. A common type is the congenital arteriovenous fistula. The lack of blood flow and oxygen in the capillaries can lead to tissue damage in the affected areas.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials: The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Anisocoria: Unequal pupil size, which may represent a benign physiologic variant or a manifestation of disease. Pathologic anisocoria reflects an abnormality in the musculature of the iris (IRIS DISEASES) or in the parasympathetic or sympathetic pathways that innervate the pupil. Physiologic anisocoria refers to an asymmetry of pupil diameter, usually less than 2mm, that is not associated with disease.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Vacuum Extraction, Obstetrical: Removal of the fetus from the uterus or vagina at or near the end of pregnancy with a metal traction cup that is attached to the fetus' head. Negative pressure is applied and traction is made on a chain passed through the suction tube. (From Stedman, 26th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CRANIAL SINUSES, large endothelium-lined venous channels situated within the SKULL. Intracranial sinuses, also called cranial venous sinuses, include the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, petrous sinuses, and many others. Cranial sinus thrombosis can lead to severe HEADACHE; SEIZURE; and other neurological defects.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Infusions, Intra-Arterial: Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Infant, Premature, DiseasesAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Choroid Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage from the vessels of the choroid.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage: Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Endoleak: Postoperative hemorrhage from an endovascular AORTIC ANEURYSM repaired with endoluminal placement of stent grafts (BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION). It is associated with pressurization, expansion, and eventual rupture of the aneurysm.Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Putaminal Hemorrhage: Intracranial bleeding into the PUTAMEN, a BASAL GANGLIA nucleus. This is associated with HYPERTENSION and lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels in the putamen. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of hemorrhage, but include HEMIPARESIS; HEADACHE; and alterations of consciousness.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Aortitis: Inflammation of the wall of the AORTA.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Platinum: Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Sinus of Valsalva: The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Purpura, Thrombocytopenic: Any form of purpura in which the PLATELET COUNT is decreased. Many forms are thought to be caused by immunological mechanisms.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Retrobulbar Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage within the orbital cavity, posterior to the eyeball.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Delayed Diagnosis: Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Retreatment: The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Factor VIIa: Activated form of factor VII. Factor VIIa activates factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Perret, G.; Nishioka, H. (1966-10-01). "Report on the cooperative study of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. ... intracranial hemorrhage). Nevertheless, in more than half of patients with AVM, hemorrhage is the first symptom. Symptoms due ... The main risk is intracranial hemorrhage. This risk is difficult to quantify since many patients with asymptomatic AVMs will ... intraventricular hemorrhage). Cerebral hemorrhage appears to be most common. One long-term study (mean follow up greater than ...
... caused a life threatening intracranial hemorrhage and she underwent emergency brain surgery on April 30 to treat the aneurysm. ... She died on Saturday, May 21 due to another unexpected major brain hemorrhage with massive damage. She saved five lives by ... Morvarid Karimi had an acute headache which she immediately recognized and diagnosed as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Later, ... the official clinical diagnosis was also SAH secondary to rupture of a brain aneurysm confirming her original diagnosis. The ...
Intracranial aneurysms are a leading cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage, or bleeding around the brain within the subarachnoid ... There are various hereditary disorders associated with intracranial aneurysms, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, autosomal ... A germinal matrix hemorrhage is bleeding into the brain of premature infants caused by the rupture of fragile blood vessels ... An aneurysm is an abnormal bulging of small sections of arteries, which increases the risk of artery rupture. ...
... intracranial aneurysm rupture, intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, and status epilepticus. If the patient survives, ... "Use of barbiturates in the control of intracranial hypertension". Journal of Neurotrauma. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 17 (6-7): 527- ... Controversy exists over the benefits of using barbiturates to control intracranial hypertension. Some studies have shown that ... Furthermore, the reduction in intracranial hypertension may not be sustained. Some randomized trials have failed to demonstrate ...
This is known as Cushing's triad and can be seen in patients after head trauma related to intracranial hemorrhage or edema. ... Anemia Aortic dissection Atherosclerosis Arteriovenous fistula Chronic aortic regurgitation Aortic root aneurysm Aortic root ... A high pulse pressure combined with bradycardia and an irregular breathing pattern is associated with increased intracranial ... dilation Beri beri Distributive shock Endocarditis Fever Heart block Hyperkinetic heart syndrome Increased intracranial ...
... intracranial hemorrhage such as due to ruptured aneurysms increased intracranial pressure; for example, due to brain tumors ...
... intracranial hemorrhage) subarachnoid hemorrhage (acute, severe headache, stiff neck WITHOUT fever) ruptured aneurysm, ... non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, vascular malformations or arteritis are also defined as secondary headaches. This type ... intracranial neoplasm, epileptic seizure or other types of disorders or diseases that are intracranial but that are not ... obese women who have increased intracranial pressure), or other causes of increased intracranial pressure. In most cases, a CT ...
Common locations include the gastrointestinal tract, the aorta and intracranial hemorrhage. A contusion (bruise) is a form of ... These include blood vessel rupture as a result of high blood pressure, aneurysms, esophageal varices or peptic ulcers. Another ... If there is pressure, it may lead to death or a brain hemorrhage. Cases of internal bleeding are usually termed as hemorrhage, ... Internal bleeding (also called internal hemorrhage) is a loss of blood that occurs from the vascular system into a body cavity ...
... while there are more large and giant aneurysms and fewer multiple aneurysms. Intracranial hemorrhages are 1.6 times more likely ... Capillaries, specifically capillary aneurysms. Cerebral aneurysms, also known as intracranial or brain aneurysms, occur most ... Pediatric aneurysms have different incidences and features than adult aneurysms. Intracranial aneurysms are rare in childhood, ... causing Rasmussen's aneurysms Brain infections, causing infectious intracranial aneurysms A minority of aneurysms are ...
... like intraparenchymal hemorrhage, can result either from trauma or from ruptures of aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. ... Types of intracranial hemorrhage are roughly grouped into intra-axial and extra-axial. The hemorrhage is considered a focal ... Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), also known as intracranial bleed, is bleeding within the skull. Subtypes are intracerebral ... Intracranial hemorrhage is a serious medical emergency because the buildup of blood within the skull can lead to increases in ...
Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are a common cause of intracranial hemorrhage. A small, unchanging aneurysm will produce few, if any ... Basilar artery aneurysms represent only 3%-5% of all intracranial aneurysms but are the most common aneurysms in the posterior ... Intracranial aneurysm, also known as brain aneurysm, is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral ... Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage differ depending on the site and size of the aneurysm. Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm ...
... and intracranial hemorrhage. By February 2012 the book had been on the bestseller list of the New York Times for more than two ... The book describes conditions in a tuberculosis sanatorium where Stone's mother dies from a ruptured aneurysm, the underlying ...
Intracranial hemorrhage Fausto, [ed. by] Vinay Kumar; Abul K. Abbas; Nelson (2005). Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of ... Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are a common cause of cerebral hemorrhage. If a Charcot-Bouchard aneurysm ruptures, it will lead to ... Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms (also known as miliary aneurysms or microaneurysms) are aneurysms of the brain vasculature which ... Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are aneurysms in the small penetrating blood vessels of the brain. They are associated with ...
... (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain ... Acceleration-deceleration trauma, rupture of an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and bleeding within a tumor are ... Caceres, JA; Goldstein, JN (August 2012). "Intracranial hemorrhage". Emergency medicine clinics of North America. 30 (3): 771- ... Intracerebral hemorrhages are often misdiagnosed as subarachnoid hemorrhages due to the similarity in symptoms and signs. A ...
Rupture of an IIA results in subarachnoid hemorrhage, symptoms of which include headache, dizziness, seizures, altered mental ... infected intracranial aneurysm, to include the categories of intracranial bacterial aneurysm, fungal aneurysm, spirochetal ... An infectious intracranial aneurysm (IIA, also called mycotic aneurysm) is a cerebral aneurysm that is caused by infection of ... The term mycotic aneurysm, initially attributed to Osler and used to describe bacterial intracranial aneurysms, is a misnomer. ...
... cerebral arteriovenous malformation and an intracranial aneurysm, which can cause intraparenchymal or subarachnoid hemorrhage.[ ... For example, in intracranial hemorrhage, the affected area may compress other structures. Most forms of stroke are not ... but the other forms of intracranial hemorrhage, such as epidural hematoma (bleeding between the skull and the dura mater, which ... The above two main types of hemorrhagic stroke are also two different forms of intracranial hemorrhage, which is the ...
... level of consciousness Hypertension Arteriovenous malformation Aneurysm rupture Cerebral amyloid angiopathy Intracranial ... This hemorrhage rarely extends into the ventricular system. Nontraumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage most commonly results from ... The other form is intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Intraparenchymal hemorrhage accounts for approx. 8-13% of all strokes and ... Clinical manifestations of intraparenchymal hemorrhage are determined by the size and location of hemorrhage, but may include ...
... is a venous anomaly where a communication between the intracranial dural sinuses and dilated epicranial venous ... Treatment of this condition has mainly been recommended for aesthetic reasons and prevention of hemorrhage. Sinus pericranii ... internal cerebral vein aneurysm, and cavernous hemangiomas. ... and vary in size when changes in intracranial pressure occur. ... The venous collections receive blood from and drain into the intracranial venous sinuses. The varicosities are intimately ...
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (431) Intracerebral hemorrhage (432) Other and unspecified intracranial hemorrhage (432.9) Hemorrhage, ... Aneurysm and dissection of heart (414.10) Aneurysm of heart (wall) (414.11) Aneurysm of coronary vessels (414.12) Dissection of ... Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, ruptured (441.4) Abdominal aortic Aneurysm, w/o rupture (441.9) Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, ... intracranial, NOS (433) Occlusion and stenosis of precerebral arteries (433.0) Occlusion and stenosis of basilar artery (433.1 ...
... while there are more large and giant aneurysms and fewer multiple aneurysms.[9]:235 Intracranial hemorrhages are 1.6 times more ... Pediatric aneurysmsEdit. Pediatric aneurysms have different incidences and features than adult aneurysms.[35] Intracranial ... Capillaries, specifically capillary aneurysms.. Cerebral aneurysms, also known as intracranial or brain aneurysms, occur most ... The heart, including coronary artery aneurysms, ventricular aneurysms, aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, and aneurysms following ...
Cerebral hemorrhage - a type of intracranial hemorrhage, bleeding within the brain tissue itself. Intracerebral hemorrhage - ... imaging of intracerebral hemorrhages. Anaesthesia Trauma and Critical Care Aneurysm Autohemorrhaging Coagulation Exsanguination ... "18F-positron-emitting/fluorescent labeled erythrocytes allow imaging of internal hemorrhage in a murine intracranial hemorrhage ... Lungs Pulmonary hemorrhage Gynecologic Vaginal bleeding Postpartum hemorrhage Breakthrough bleeding Ovarian bleeding. This is a ...
The long-term data for unruptured aneurysms are still being gathered. Cerebral aneurysm Subarachnoid hemorrhage AJNR Am J ... Michael Forsting, Isabel Wanke, Intracranial Vascular Malformations and Aneurysms: From Diagnostic Work-Up to Endovascular ... Microsurgical clipping and endovascular coiling of intracranial aneurysms: A critical review of the literature. Neurosurgery 62 ... given that the rebleed rate of coiled aneurysms appears to be 8 times higher than that of clipping treated aneurysms in this ...
September 2007). "Racial/Ethnic differences in longitudinal risk of intracranial hemorrhage in brain arteriovenous malformation ... Arteriovenous malformation Subarachnoid hemorrhage Cerebral aneurysm William L. Young, M.D., Recipient of the 2009 Excellence ...
Intracranial hemorrhage - bleeding in the skull.. *Cerebral hemorrhage - a type of intracranial hemorrhage, bleeding within the ... Intramural changes - changes arising within the walls of blood vessels (e.g. aneurysms, dissections, AVMs, vasculitides) ... Redirected from Hemorrhage). "Hemorrhage" and "Haemorrhage" redirect here. For the song by Fuel, see Hemorrhage (In My Hands). ... "18F-positron-emitting/fluorescent labeled erythrocytes allow imaging of internal hemorrhage in a murine intracranial hemorrhage ...
His interest in aneurysms stems from his own family history. Three of Kim's four grandparents died of brain hemorrhages. Kim ... Genomewide linkage in a large Caucasian family maps a new locus for intracranial aneurysms to chromosome 13q. Stroke. 40[suppl ... Association of MMP2 and MMP9 polymorphisms with intracranial aneurysms. J Neurosurg. 105(3):418-23, 2006. Krishna V, Kim DH: ... Sequencing of TGF-beta pathway genes in familial dases of intracranial aneurysm (submitted). Stroke. 40:1604-1611, 2009. Guo DC ...
... subarachnoid hemorrhage dari malformasi aneurysm atau arteriovenous.[14] Sistem NINCDS Stroke Data Bank[sunting , sunting ... Intra-cranial stenting yang diterapkan pada gejala penyumbatan intracranial arterial stenosis, boleh dikatakan sukses ... Stroke hemorragik terbagi menjadi subtipe intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH),[8] cerebral venous ... CCI paling banyak ditemukan dalam penderita patent foramen ovale baik yang disertai maupun tidak disertai septal aneurysm.[48][ ...
This case illustrates typical appearances of a basal ganglia hemorrhage on both CT and MRI. This is most commonly encountered ... No other intracranial aneurysm or vascular abnormality is demonstrated.. Conclusion: Evolving hematoma in the left internal ... There is no intracranial aneurysm, vascular malformation or dural fistula. No large branch vascular occlusion or stenosis. ... This case illustrates typical appearances of a basal ganglia hemorrhage on both CT and MRI. This is most commonly encountered ...
... collected at 3 and 6 months after aneurysm rupture. No significant association was found between the presence of the APOE4 ... APOE genotype and functional outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Matthew J Gallek, Yvette P. Conley, Paula R ... APOE genotype and functional outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. / Gallek, Matthew J; Conley, Yvette P.; ... APOE genotype and functional outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Biological Research for Nursing. 2009 Jan;10 ...
This is because a hemorrhage, tumor or another intracranial mass can enlarge to a size where the third cranial nerve (CN III) ... Oculomotor nerve palsy: Ischemia, intracranial aneurysm, head trauma, and brain tumors are the most common causes of oculomotor ... due to a brain aneurysm, uncal herniation, or head trauma). ...
We report our experience using the Neuroform stent in the management of 41 aneurysms in 40 patients over a period of three ... Stenting as adjuvant therapy for the coiling of acutely ruptured aneurysms remains controversial due to the necessity of ... Risk of hemorrhage in combined neuroform stenting and coil embolization of acutely ruptured intracranial aneurysms Interv ... For aneurysms whose open surgical risk remains excessive with a morphology that would preclude complete embolization, the risks ...
Here, we review the non-coding RNAs expression profile and their related mechanisms in intracranial aneurysms and SAH. Moreover ... we suggest that these non-coding RNAs function as novel molecular biomarkers to predict intracranial aneurysms and SAH, and may ... which is mostly related with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Its complications include rebleeding, early brain injury, ... play an important role in intracranial aneurysms and SAH. ... In the ruptured intracranial aneurysms of SAH patients, 18 ...
... Journal ... METHODS: Patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms coiled between 1994 and 2002 with adequate (,90%) aneurysm occlusion at ... BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coiling is increasingly used as treatment for intracranial aneurysms. Despite its favorable short-term ... CONCLUSIONS: Patients with adequately occluded aneurysms by coiling at short-term follow-up are at low risk for recurrent SAH ...
Of 312 consecutive patients who were admitted to an emergency hospital because of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), data on ... Minor leak before rupture of an intracranial aneurysm and subarachnoid hemorrhage of unknown etiology Neurosurgery. 1992 Jan;30 ... Of 312 consecutive patients who were admitted to an emergency hospital because of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), data on ... a history of symptoms consistent with a previous minor leak than those with a hemorrhage of unknown etiology (4 of 30, or 13 ...
Intracranial aneurysm MeSH Terms expand_less. expand_more. Aneurysm Follow-Up Studies Humans Intracranial Aneurysm Recurrence ... The authors report a case of recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after complete occlusion of an intracranial aneurysm. It ... it may be necessary to follow up with the patient regularly after the initial operation for intracranial aneurysms, because re- ... rupture of an aneurysm can cause a fatal result, and the cumulative risk of a recurrent SAH is thought to be not low over time. ...
... ... which aneurysm-related risk factors for rupture best discriminate ruptured versus unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms ( ... from the Kuopio Intracranial Aneurysm database from 2003 to 2015. These patients had 268 ruptured and 445 unruptured sIAs. ... sIAs) in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with multiple sIAs.. Methods-. We included 264 subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with ...
aneurysm; endovascular therapy; external ventricular drain; intracranial hemorrhage; Neuroform microstent Page Count: 1122-1129 ... Alfke KStraube TDorner LMehdorn HJansen O: Treatment of intracranial broad-neck aneurysms with a new self-expanding stent and ... Intracranial hemorrhage associated with stent-assisted coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms: a cautionary report. ... Wanke IDoerfler ASchoch BStolke DForsting M: Treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms with a self-expanding stent system ...
We have previously reported that subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm (SH) is associated with changes ... Nonthyroidal illness syndrome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysm.. *. Luiz Augusto Casulari ... Evaluation of pituitary and thyroid hormones in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm.. * ... We have previously reported that subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm (SH) is associated with changes ...
Unruptured intracranial aneurysms",. author = "{the Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms and SAH CDE Project Investigators} and ... Common Data Elements for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Clinical Research: A National Institute ... Common Data Elements for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Clinical Research: A National Institute ... title = "Common Data Elements for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Clinical Research: A National ...
Role of inflammation in intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Evidence of inflammation in aneurysm formation and ... The impact of sex hormones on intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Estrogen. Estrogen is the primary female sex ... The role of inflammation and potential use of sex steroids in intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. 26-Jul-2018;9 ... The role of inflammation and potential use of sex steroids in intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. 26-Jul-2018;9 ...
Unruptured intracranial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations: Frequency of intracranial hemorrhage and relationship of ... T1 - Unruptured intracranial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. T2 - Frequency of intracranial hemorrhage and ... Unruptured intracranial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations: Frequency of intracranial hemorrhage and relationship of ... Unruptured intracranial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations : Frequency of intracranial hemorrhage and relationship of ...
Other influences are the site of the hemorrhage, the local partial pressure of oxygen in the tissues, the local pH, the ... The appearance and evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage on MRI (see the images below) primarily depend on the age of the ... To determine which aneurysm has ruptured in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple aneurysms. ... encoded search term (Intracranial Hemorrhage Evaluation with MRI) and Intracranial Hemorrhage Evaluation with MRI What to Read ...
... outcome and length of hospitalization of Endovascular Coiling and Surgical Clipping methods in the treatment of intracranial ... coiling of intracranial aneurysms after subarachnoid hemorrhage in a developing country-a prospective study. Surg Neurol72: 355 ... Saccular (berry) aneurysm (congenital aneurysm) is the most common type of intracranial aneurysm. Other rare types of aneurysms ... 200 patients of intracranial aneurysm with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were treated, 100 patents with endovascular coiling ...
A series of three images illustrate the extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage from an anterior and lateral view as well as the ... This full color stock medical exhibit depicts a patients aneurysms of the intercranial carotid artery that ultimately resulted ... A series of three images illustrate the extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage from an anterior and lateral view as well as the ... A series of three images illustrate the extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage from an anterior and lateral view as well as the ...
Exome sequencing in 38 patients with intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage Thomas Sauvigny 1 , Malik Alawi 2 , ... Exome sequencing in 38 patients with intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage Thomas Sauvigny et al. J Neurol. 2020 ... Objective: Genetic risk factors for unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are ... Common Data Elements for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Clinical Research: A National Institute ...
Among them, isolated spinal artery aneurysms are uncommon and a limited number of ca... ... of cases of intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are caused by spinal vascular pathologies. ...
A case of intracranial aneurysm and subarachnoid hemorrhage with tuberculous meningitis. Jee Hoon Roh, Do Young Kwon, Moon Ho ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of A case of intracranial aneurysm and subarachnoid hemorrhage with tuberculous ...
Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are a common cause of intracranial hemorrhage. A small, unchanging aneurysm will produce few, if any ... Basilar artery aneurysms represent only 3%-5% of all intracranial aneurysms but are the most common aneurysms in the posterior ... Intracranial aneurysm, also known as brain aneurysm, is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral ... Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage differ depending on the site and size of the aneurysm. Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm ...
Subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial dissecting aneurysm Allan H. Friedman and Charles G. Drake. ✓ Rupture of an ... intracranial dissecting aneurysm is a rare but dangerous event. The authors experience with 14 cases of these lesions on the ... vertebrobasilar circulation suggests that these aneurysms have typical angiographic silhouettes and that, at least in the ...
Hemorrhage. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Vasospasm, Intracranial. Pathologic Processes. Intracranial Hemorrhages. Cerebrovascular ... This condition is called subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to rupture of a cerebral aneurysm is ... typically starting no earlier than 3 days post-hemorrhage and clinically resolving within 12 days of the initial aneurysm ... However, blood that is on the surface of the brain from the initial aneurysm rupture is very irritating to other blood vessels ...
Hemorrhage. Aneurysm. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Intracranial Aneurysm. Pathologic Processes. Vascular Diseases. Cardiovascular ... may result in preventing the development of intracranial aneurysms and/or intracranial aneurysm ruptures in people who are at ... Intracranial aneurysms are blisters which form within the arteries at the base of the brain. A rupture of an aneurysm may ... The Familial Intracranial Aneurysm Study is a collaborative research effort of neurologists and neurosurgeons throughout the ...
... intracranial hemorrhage (1); and altered mental status (1).. § For other chronic disease, the following information was ... aneurysm (2); multiple sclerosis (2); neuropathy (2); hereditary spastic paraplegia (1); myasthenia gravis (1); ...
  • Presence of the APOE4 allele is associated with poorer response to traumatic brain injury and ischemic stroke, but the association between APOE genotype and outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. (elsevier.com)
  • Cocaine use has also been associated with the development of intracranial aneurysms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific genes have also had reported association with the development of intracranial aneurysms, including perlecan, elastin, collagen type 1 A2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelin receptor A and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientific evidence suggests that a genetic component plays an important role in the development of intracranial aneurysms, however the specific genes have not been identified. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • An abdominal aortic aneurysm can have a number of related causes, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are one of those potential causes. (medgadget.com)
  • Severe erosion of lumbar vertebral body because of a chronic ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Erosion of vertebral bodies because of abdominal aortic aneurysm is an extremely rare condition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The dilatation and localized bulging of a part of aorta in the abdominal part of patient s body owing to weakness of its walls is called abdominal aortic aneurysm. (medindia.net)
  • Arrows indicate the position of the stent within the vessel crossing the aneurysm. (thejns.org)
  • Intracranial vessel wall MRI allows visualization of the artierial wall. (medscape.com)
  • Studies in mouse models of aneurysm showed that that this tracer allows for imaging vessel wall biology with high sensitivity and specificity, and aortic tracer uptake in vivo correlates with vessel wall inflammation," in a statement said Mehran M. Sadeghi, MD, Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and West Haven VA Medical Center. (medgadget.com)
  • Vascular imaging demonstrated a nail trajectory immediately subjacent to a left M3 branch, with no aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, vessel occlusions/transections, or active extravasation (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • (C) Lateral projection of a left internal carotid angiogram demonstrating nail positioning in the vicinity of a left M3 branch (nail head highlighted by black arrow), with no aneurysms, vessel occlusions/transections, or active extravasation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Stenting as adjuvant therapy for the coiling of acutely ruptured aneurysms remains controversial due to the necessity of anticoagulation and antiplatelet medications. (nih.gov)
  • 5: Backes D, Rinkel GJ, van der Schaaf IC, Nij Bijvank JA, Verweij BH, Visser-Meily JM, Post MW, Algra A, Vergouwen MD . Recovery to pre-interventional functioning, return-to-work and life satisfaction after treatment of unruptured aneurysms. (umcutrecht.nl)
  • Symptoms depend on the location of the aneurysm, whether it breaks open, and what part of the brain it is pushing on. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After the surgical procedure the patients decreased in various language tasks and these differences in performance being directly related to the location of the aneurysm. (scielo.br)