Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.
A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.
Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any one of the iliac arteries including the common, the internal, or the external ILIAC ARTERY.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the AORTA, such as thoracic or abdominal. It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA.
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Postoperative hemorrhage from an endovascular AORTIC ANEURYSM repaired with endoluminal placement of stent grafts (BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION). It is associated with pressurization, expansion, and eventual rupture of the aneurysm.
Inflammation of the wall of the AORTA.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.
The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.
The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
An abnormal passage between two or more BLOOD VESSELS, between ARTERIES; VEINS; or between an artery and a vein.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
Procedures to cause the disintegration of THROMBI by physical interventions.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
The artery supplying nearly all the left half of the transverse colon, the whole of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the greater part of the rectum. It is smaller than the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) and arises from the aorta above its bifurcation into the common iliac arteries.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.
Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
'Elastin' is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue that allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting, such as the skin, lungs, and blood vessels.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.
Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
An autosomal dominant aneurysm with multisystem abnormalities caused by increased TGF-BETA signaling due to mutations in type I or II of TGF-BETA RECEPTOR. Additional craniofacial features include CLEFT PALATE; CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS; HYPERTELORISM; or bifid uvula. Phenotypes closely resemble MARFAN SYNDROME; Marfanoid craniosynostosis syndrome (Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome); and EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
Rare chronic inflammatory disease involving the small blood vessels. It is of unknown etiology and characterized by mucocutaneous ulceration in the mouth and genital region and uveitis with hypopyon. The neuro-ocular form may cause blindness and death. SYNOVITIS; THROMBOPHLEBITIS; gastrointestinal ulcerations; RETINAL VASCULITIS; and OPTIC ATROPHY may occur as well.
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Abnormal passage communicating with the ESOPHAGUS. The most common type is TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA between the esophagus and the TRACHEA.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The act of constricting.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
A tissue adhesive that is applied as a monomer to moist tissue and polymerizes to form a bond. It is slowly biodegradable and used in all kinds of surgery, including dental.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
INFLAMMATION of any ARTERIES.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).
A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.
Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.
Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Surgery performed on the heart or blood vessels.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
Abnormal communication between two ARTERIES that may result from injury or occur as a congenital abnormality.
An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.
A chronic inflammatory process that affects the AORTA and its primary branches, such as the brachiocephalic artery (BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK) and CAROTID ARTERIES. It results in progressive arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm formation. The pulse in the arm is hard to detect. Patients with aortitis syndrome often exhibit retinopathy.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infection of MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculosis involvement may include the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with acute onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Expectoration or spitting of blood originating from any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT, usually from hemorrhage in the lung parenchyma (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and the BRONCHIAL ARTERIES.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A slowly progressive condition of unknown etiology, characterized by deposition of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneal space compressing the ureters, great vessels, bile duct, and other structures. When associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm, it may be called chronic periaortitis or inflammatory perianeurysmal fibrosis.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
Surgery performed on the heart.
A pathological condition caused by impaired blood flow in the basal regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA), such as INFARCTION; HEMORRHAGE; or ISCHEMIA in vessels of this brain region including the lateral lenticulostriate arteries. Primary clinical manifestations include involuntary movements (DYSKINESIAS) and muscle weakness (HEMIPARESIS).
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.
Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).

Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (1/956)

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA.  (+info)

Transcatheter arterial embolization for impending rupture of an isolated internal iliac artery aneurysm complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. (2/956)

A 90-year-old male, with impending rupture of an isolated internal iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA) complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was successfully treated with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). After TAE, enlargement of the aneurysm was arrested and coagulation-fibrinolytic abnormalities induced by DIC improved without severe complications. Although IIAA is relatively rare, the post-operative mortality of patients with ruptures is reportedly high. We assessed the usefulness of this procedure for impending rupture of IIAA, especially for patients in high risk groups.  (+info)

Combination therapy of fasudil hydrochloride and ozagrel sodium for cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. (3/956)

Fasudil hydrochloride is a new type of intracellular calcium antagonist, different from the calcium entry blockers that are commonly employed for clinical use. Since September 1995, the combination of fasudil hydrochloride and ozagrel sodium, an inhibitor of thromboxane A2 synthesis, has been used to treat 60 patients at risk of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The effectiveness of this combination therapy was investigated by comparison with the outcome of 57 patients previously treated with only ozagrel sodium. The combination therapy was significantly more effective (p < 0.01) in reducing the incidence of low density areas on computed tomography scans, and reduced, but not significantly, the occurrence of symptomatic vasospasm. The combination therapy of fasudil hydrochloride and ozagrel sodium has superior effectiveness over only ozagrel sodium in treating patients at risk of vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  (+info)

Significance of acute cerebral swelling in patients with sylvian hematoma due to ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm, and its management. (4/956)

A retrospective study of 75 patients treated surgically for ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm within 48 hours evaluated clinical grade at admission, secondary development and management of cerebral swelling associated with space-occupying hematoma, cerebral infarction caused by vasospasm, development of hydrocephalus, and clinical outcome. Clinical grade at admission was significantly better in patients without than in those with hematoma (p < 0.01). Twenty-seven patients with sylvian hematoma caused by ruptured MCA aneurysm often developed ipsilateral cerebral swelling in the early period after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Seventeen of these patients developed serious cerebral swelling and received barbiturate therapy. Nine of these 17 patients had good outcome, but six patients died of cerebral swelling. The incidence of hydrocephalus was significantly higher in patients with than in those without hematoma (p < 0.01). The incidence of infarction was more pronounced in patients with sylvian hematoma. Clinical outcome was significantly better in patients without than in those with sylvian hematoma (p < 0.01). Development of cerebral swelling in patients with sylvian hematoma due to ruptured MCA aneurysm has a significant effect on outcome, and improvements in management are required.  (+info)

Rupture mechanism of a thrombosed slow-growing giant aneurysm of the vertebral artery--case report. (5/956)

A 76-year-old male developed left hemiparesis in July 1991. The diagnosis was thrombosed giant vertebral artery aneurysm. He showed progressive symptoms and signs of brainstem compression, but refused surgery and was followed up without treatment. He died of rupture of the aneurysm and underwent autopsy in March 1995. Histological examination of the aneurysm revealed fresh clot in the aneurysmal lumen, old thrombus surrounding the aneurysmal lumen, and more recent hemorrhage between the old thrombus and the inner aneurysmal wall. The most important histological feature was the many clefts containing fresh blood clots in the old thrombus near the wall of the distal neck. These clefts were not lined with endothelial cells, and seemed to connect the lumen of the parent artery with the most peripheral fresh hemorrhage. However, the diameter of each of these clefts is apparently not large enough to transmit the blood pressure of the parent artery. Simple dissection of the aneurysmal wall by blood flow in the lumen through many clefts in the old thrombus of the distal neck may be involved in the growth and rupture of thrombosed giant aneurysms of the vertebral artery.  (+info)

Management of true aneurysms of the pancreaticoduodenal arteries. (6/956)

OBJECTIVE: To review the authors' recent experience and that of the literature since 1973 and to provide management guidelines for true aneurysms of the pancreaticoduodenal arteries (PDA). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: True aneurysms of the PDA are rare, with a total of only 52 cases reported since 1973. METHODS: Six patients were admitted to the authors' institution between 1985 and 1995 for rupture of a true aneurysm of the PDA. They were analyzed with regard to the mode of presentation, preoperative workup, management, and outcome. RESULTS: All patients had severe epigastric pain from retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Computed tomography scanning and angiography were performed in all cases. Aneurysms ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 cm (median 0.9 cm). The celiac axis was stenotic or occluded in five cases. Three patients underwent emergency pancreatoduodenectomy. Two of them survived. In one case, section of the median arcuate ligament was associated with the procedure, and the patient died from an aortic dissection. Embolization was performed in the last three patients. The procedure was definitive in two cases. In one, hemorrhage recurred 8 days later and required surgical ligation of the bleeding artery. CONCLUSIONS: The authors recommend rapid treatment of all true aneurysms of the PDA. Because most of these aneurysms result from a stenosis of the celiac axis, selective embolization may help to preserve patency of the PDA and should, therefore, be the primary therapeutic choice in ruptured aneurysms. Close follow-up is mandatory because of possible recurrent bleeding. Appropriate and expeditious management of true PDA aneurysms should help reduce the mortality rate.  (+info)

Surgical treatment of internal carotid artery anterior wall aneurysm with extravasation during angiography--case report. (7/956)

A 54-year-old female presented subarachnoid hemorrhage from an aneurysm arising from the anterior (dorsal) wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA). During four-vessel angiography, an extravasated saccular pooling of contrast medium emerged in the suprasellar area unrelated to any arterial branch. The saccular pooling was visualized in the arterial phase and cleared in the venophase during every contrast medium injection. We suspected that the extravasated pooling was surrounded by hard clot but communicated with the artery. Direct surgery was performed but major premature bleeding occurred during the microsurgical procedure. After temporary clipping, an opening of the anterior (dorsal) wall of the ICA was found without apparent aneurysm wall. The vessel wall was sutured with nylon thread. The total occlusion time of the ICA was about 50 minutes. Follow-up angiography demonstrated good patency of the ICA. About 2 years after the operation, the patient was able to walk with a stick and to communicate freely through speech, although left hemiparesis and left homonymous hemianopsia persisted. The outcome suggests our treatment strategy was not optimal, but suture of the ICA wall is one of the therapeutic choices when premature rupture occurs in the operation.  (+info)

Evaluation of cerebral aneurysms with high-resolution MR angiography using a section-interpolation technique: correlation with digital subtraction angiography. (8/956)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective was to evaluate the results of high-resolution, fast-speed, section-interpolation MR angiography and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), thereby examining the potential use of a primary noninvasive screening test for intracranial aneurysms. METHODS: The images were obtained in 39 cerebral aneurysmal lesions from 30 patients with a time-of-flight MR angiographic technique using a 1.5-T superconducting MR system. The total image volume was divided into four slabs, with 48 partitions each. To save time, only 24 phase-encoded steps were measured and interpolated to 48. The parameters used included 30/6.4 (TR/TE), a flip angle of 25 degrees , a 160x512 matrix, a field of view of 150x200, 7 minutes 42 seconds of scan time, an effective thickness of 0.7 mm, and an entire thickness of 102.2 mm. Maximum intensity projection was used for the image analysis, and a multiplanar reconstruction technique was used for patients with intracranial aneurysms. RESULTS: Among 39 intracranial aneurysmal lesions in 30 patients, 21 were ruptured and 18 were unruptured. Twelve lesions were less than 2 mm in size, 12 were 3 to 5 mm, 12 were 6 to 9 mm, and three were larger than 10 mm. At initial examinations, 38 of 39 aneurysmal lesions were detected by both MR angiography and DSA, with 97% sensitivity. In confirming aneurysms in neck and parent vessels, multiplanar reconstruction was successful in detecting all 39 aneurysms, whereas MR angiography was successful in detecting 27 (69%) and DSA was successful in detecting 32 (82%) of the lesions. CONCLUSION: High-resolution MR angiography with a section-interpolation technique showed equal results to those of DSA for the detection of intracranial aneurysms and may be used as a primary noninvasive screening test. In the evaluation of aneurysms in neck and parent vessels, the concurrent use of MR angiography and multiplanar reconstruction was far superior to the use of either MR angiography or DSA alone.  (+info)

An intracranial aneurysm is a localized, blood-filled dilation or bulging in the wall of a cerebral artery within the skull (intracranial). These aneurysms typically occur at weak points in the arterial walls, often at branching points where the vessel divides into smaller branches. Over time, the repeated pressure from blood flow can cause the vessel wall to weaken and balloon out, forming a sac-like structure. Intracranial aneurysms can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.

There are three main types of intracranial aneurysms:

1. Saccular (berry) aneurysm: This is the most common type, characterized by a round or oval shape with a narrow neck and a bulging sac. They usually develop at branching points in the arteries due to congenital weaknesses in the vessel wall.
2. Fusiform aneurysm: These aneurysms have a dilated segment along the length of the artery, forming a cigar-shaped or spindle-like structure. They are often caused by atherosclerosis and can affect any part of the cerebral arteries.
3. Dissecting aneurysm: This type occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining (intima) of the artery, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the vessel wall. It can lead to narrowing or complete blockage of the affected artery and may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage if it ruptures.

Intracranial aneurysms can be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during imaging studies for other conditions. However, when they grow larger or rupture, they can lead to severe complications such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, or even death. Treatment options include surgical clipping, endovascular coiling, or flow diversion techniques to prevent further growth and potential rupture of the aneurysm.

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. It occurs when the pressure inside the vessel causes a weakened area to swell and become enlarged. Aneurysms can develop in any blood vessel, but they are most common in arteries at the base of the brain (cerebral aneurysm) and the main artery carrying blood from the heart to the rest of the body (aortic aneurysm).

Aneurysms can be classified as saccular or fusiform, depending on their shape. A saccular aneurysm is a round or oval bulge that projects from the side of a blood vessel, while a fusiform aneurysm is a dilated segment of a blood vessel that is uniform in width and involves all three layers of the arterial wall.

The size and location of an aneurysm can affect its risk of rupture. Generally, larger aneurysms are more likely to rupture than smaller ones. Aneurysms located in areas with high blood pressure or where the vessel branches are also at higher risk of rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms can cause life-threatening bleeding and require immediate medical attention. Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden severe headache, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, or loss of consciousness. Unruptured aneurysms may not cause any symptoms and are often discovered during routine imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for aneurysms depend on their size, location, and risk of rupture. Small, unruptured aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests to check for growth or changes. Larger or symptomatic aneurysms may require surgical intervention, such as clipping or coiling, to prevent rupture and reduce the risk of complications.

An infected aneurysm, also known as a mycotic aneurysm, is a localized dilation or bulging of the wall of a blood vessel that has been invaded and damaged by infectious organisms. This type of aneurysm can occur in any blood vessel, but they are most commonly found in the aorta and cerebral arteries.

Infected aneurysms are usually caused by bacterial or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream from another part of the body, such as endocarditis (infection of the heart valves), pneumonia, or skin infections. The infection weakens the vessel wall, causing it to bulge and potentially rupture, which can lead to serious complications such as hemorrhage, stroke, or even death.

Symptoms of infected aneurysm may include fever, chills, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, and localized pain or tenderness in the area of the aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as CT angiography, MRI, or ultrasound, along with blood cultures to identify the causative organism. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics to eliminate the infection and surgical intervention to repair or remove the aneurysm.

An aortic aneurysm is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal widening or bulging of the wall of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. When the aortic wall weakens, it can stretch and balloon out, forming an aneurysm.

Aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere along the aorta but are most commonly found in the abdominal section (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the chest area (thoracic aortic aneurysm). The size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health, determine the risk of rupture and associated complications.

Aneurysms often do not cause symptoms until they become large or rupture. Symptoms may include:

* Pain in the chest, back, or abdomen
* Pulsating sensation in the abdomen
* Difficulty breathing
* Hoarseness
* Coughing or vomiting

Risk factors for aortic aneurysms include age, smoking, high blood pressure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the aneurysm and may include monitoring, medication, or surgical repair.

A heart aneurysm, also known as a ventricular aneurysm, is a localized bulging or ballooning of the heart muscle in the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart. This condition typically occurs following a myocardial infarction (heart attack), where blood flow to a portion of the heart muscle is blocked, leading to tissue death and weakness in the heart wall. As a result, the weakened area may stretch and form a sac-like bulge or aneurysm.

Heart aneurysms can vary in size and may cause complications such as blood clots, arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats), or heart failure. In some cases, they may be asymptomatic and discovered during routine imaging tests. The diagnosis of a heart aneurysm is typically made through echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or cardiac CT scans. Treatment options depend on the size, location, and symptoms of the aneurysm and may include medications, surgical repair, or implantation of a device to support heart function.

A thoracic aortic aneurysm is a localized dilatation or bulging of the thoracic aorta, which is the part of the aorta that runs through the chest cavity. The aorta is the largest artery in the body, and it carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

Thoracic aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere along the thoracic aorta, but they are most commonly found in the aortic arch or the descending thoracic aorta. These aneurysms can vary in size, and they are considered significant when they are 50% larger than the expected normal diameter of the aorta.

The exact cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms is not fully understood, but several factors can contribute to their development, including:

* Atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries)
* High blood pressure
* Genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
* Infections or inflammation of the aorta
* Trauma to the chest

Thoracic aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging studies, or they may present with symptoms such as chest pain, cough, difficulty swallowing, or hoarseness. If left untreated, thoracic aortic aneurysms can lead to serious complications, including aortic dissection (tearing of the inner layer of the aorta) or rupture, which can be life-threatening.

Treatment options for thoracic aortic aneurysms include medical management with blood pressure control and cholesterol-lowering medications, as well as surgical repair or endovascular stenting, depending on the size, location, and growth rate of the aneurysm. Regular follow-up imaging is necessary to monitor the size and progression of the aneurysm over time.

A dissecting aneurysm is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a tear in the inner layer of the artery wall, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the artery wall. This can cause the artery to bulge or balloon out, leading to a dissection aneurysm.

Dissecting aneurysms can occur in any artery, but they are most commonly found in the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. When a dissecting aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it is often referred to as a "dissecting aortic aneurysm."

Dissecting aneurysms can be caused by various factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries), genetic disorders that affect the connective tissue, trauma, or illegal drug use (such as cocaine).

Symptoms of a dissecting aneurysm may include sudden severe chest or back pain, which can feel like ripping or tearing, shortness of breath, sweating, lightheadedness, or loss of consciousness. If left untreated, a dissecting aneurysm can lead to serious complications, such as rupture of the artery, stroke, or even death.

Treatment for a dissecting aneurysm typically involves surgery or endovascular repair to prevent further damage and reduce the risk of rupture. The specific treatment approach will depend on various factors, including the location and size of the aneurysm, the patient's overall health, and their medical history.

An iliac aneurysm is a localized dilation or bulging of the iliac artery, which are the main blood vessels that supply blood to the lower extremities. The iliac arteries branch off from the abdominal aorta and divide into the internal and external iliac arteries. An aneurysm occurs when the wall of the artery becomes weakened and balloons out, leading to an increased risk of rupture and serious complications such as bleeding and organ damage. Iliac aneurysms are often asymptomatic but can cause symptoms such as abdominal or back pain, leg pain, or a pulsating mass in the abdomen or groin. They are typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI and may require surgical intervention to prevent rupture and other complications.

Therapeutic embolization is a medical procedure that involves intentionally blocking or obstructing blood vessels to stop excessive bleeding or block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal tissue. This is typically accomplished by injecting small particles, such as microspheres or coils, into the targeted blood vessel through a catheter, which is inserted into a larger blood vessel and guided to the desired location using imaging techniques like X-ray or CT scanning. The goal of therapeutic embolization is to reduce the size of a tumor, control bleeding, or block off abnormal blood vessels that are causing problems.

A coronary aneurysm is a localized dilation or bulging of a portion of the wall of a coronary artery, which supplies blood to the muscle tissue of the heart. It's similar to a bubble or balloon-like structure that forms within the artery wall due to weakness in the arterial wall, leading to abnormal enlargement or widening.

Coronary aneurysms can vary in size and may be classified as true or false aneurysms based on their structure. True aneurysms involve all three layers of the artery wall, while false aneurysms (also known as pseudoaneurysms) only have one or two layers involved, with the remaining layer disrupted.

These aneurysms can lead to complications such as blood clots forming inside the aneurysm sac, which can then dislodge and cause blockages in smaller coronary arteries (embolism). Additionally, coronary aneurysms may rupture, leading to severe internal bleeding and potentially life-threatening situations.

Coronary aneurysms are often asymptomatic but can present with symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or palpitations, especially if the aneurysm causes a significant narrowing (stenosis) in the affected artery. They can be diagnosed through imaging techniques like coronary angiography, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options include medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications, as well as surgical interventions such as stenting or bypass grafting to repair or reroute the affected artery.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which an artificial blood vessel, also known as a vascular graft or prosthetic graft, is inserted into the body to replace a damaged or diseased native blood vessel. The prosthetic graft can be made from various materials such as Dacron (polyester), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or bovine/human tissue.

The implantation of a blood vessel prosthesis is typically performed to treat conditions that cause narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, or traumatic injuries. The procedure may be used to bypass blocked arteries in the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart (coronary artery bypass surgery), or neck (carotid endarterectomy). It can also be used to replace damaged veins for hemodialysis access in patients with kidney failure.

The success of blood vessel prosthesis implantation depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the vascular disease, and the type of graft material used. Possible complications include infection, bleeding, graft thrombosis (clotting), and graft failure, which may require further surgical intervention or endovascular treatments.

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

Aortic rupture is a medical emergency that refers to the tearing or splitting of the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. An aortic rupture can lead to life-threatening internal bleeding and requires immediate medical attention.

There are two types of aortic ruptures:

1. Aortic dissection: This occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining of the aorta, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall. This can cause the aorta to bulge or split, leading to a rupture.
2. Thoracic aortic aneurysm rupture: An aneurysm is a weakened and bulging area in the aortic wall. When an aneurysm in the thoracic aorta (the part of the aorta that runs through the chest) ruptures, it can cause severe bleeding and other complications.

Risk factors for aortic rupture include high blood pressure, smoking, aging, family history of aortic disease, and certain genetic conditions such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Symptoms of an aortic rupture may include sudden severe chest or back pain, difficulty breathing, weakness, sweating, and loss of consciousness. Treatment typically involves emergency surgery to repair the aorta and control bleeding.

A false aneurysm, also known as a pseudoaneurysm, is a type of aneurysm that occurs when there is a leakage or rupture of blood from a blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, creating a pulsating hematoma or collection of blood. Unlike true aneurysms, which involve a localized dilation or bulging of the blood vessel wall, false aneurysms do not have a complete covering of all three layers of the arterial wall (intima, media, and adventitia). Instead, they are typically covered by only one or two layers, such as the intima and adventitia, or by surrounding tissues like connective tissue or fascia.

False aneurysms can result from various factors, including trauma, infection, iatrogenic causes (such as medical procedures), or degenerative changes in the blood vessel wall. They are more common in arteries than veins and can occur in any part of the body. If left untreated, false aneurysms can lead to serious complications such as rupture, thrombosis, distal embolization, or infection. Treatment options for false aneurysms include surgical repair, endovascular procedures, or observation with regular follow-up imaging.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

The abdominal aorta is the portion of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body, that runs through the abdomen. It originates from the thoracic aorta at the level of the diaphragm and descends through the abdomen, where it branches off into several smaller arteries that supply blood to the pelvis, legs, and various abdominal organs. The abdominal aorta is typically divided into four segments: the suprarenal, infrarenal, visceral, and parietal portions. Disorders of the abdominal aorta can include aneurysms, atherosclerosis, and dissections, which can have serious consequences if left untreated.

A subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke that results from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain, specifically within the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This space is located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater, two of the three layers that make up the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.

The bleeding typically originates from a ruptured aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of a cerebral artery, or less commonly from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or head trauma. The sudden influx of blood into the CSF-filled space can cause increased intracranial pressure, irritation to the brain, and vasospasms, leading to further ischemia and potential additional neurological damage.

Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache (often described as "the worst headache of my life"), neck stiffness, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and focal neurological deficits. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further complications and improve the chances of recovery.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Endovascular procedures are minimally invasive medical treatments that involve accessing and repairing blood vessels or other interior parts of the body through small incisions or punctures. These procedures typically use specialized catheters, wires, and other tools that are inserted into the body through an artery or vein, usually in the leg or arm.

Endovascular procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including aneurysms, atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, and other vascular disorders. Some common endovascular procedures include angioplasty, stenting, embolization, and thrombectomy.

The benefits of endovascular procedures over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, reduced trauma to surrounding tissues, faster recovery times, and lower risks of complications such as infection and bleeding. However, endovascular procedures may not be appropriate for all patients or conditions, and careful evaluation and consideration are necessary to determine the best treatment approach.

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels and blood flow within the body. It combines the use of X-ray technology with digital image processing to produce detailed images of the vascular system.

In DSA, a contrast agent is injected into the patient's bloodstream through a catheter, which is typically inserted into an artery in the leg and guided to the area of interest using fluoroscopy. As the contrast agent flows through the blood vessels, X-ray images are taken at multiple time points.

The digital subtraction process involves taking a baseline image without contrast and then subtracting it from subsequent images taken with contrast. This allows for the removal of background structures and noise, resulting in clearer images of the blood vessels. DSA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various vascular conditions, such as aneurysms, stenosis, and tumors, and can also guide interventional procedures such as angioplasty and stenting.

Aortography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the aorta, which is the largest blood vessel in the body. The procedure is usually performed to diagnose or assess various conditions related to the aorta, such as aneurysms, dissections, or blockages.

To perform an aortography, a contrast dye is injected into the aorta through a catheter that is inserted into an artery, typically in the leg or arm. The contrast dye makes the aorta visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to see its structure and any abnormalities that may be present.

The procedure is usually performed in a hospital or outpatient setting and may require sedation or anesthesia. While aortography can provide valuable diagnostic information, it also carries some risks, such as allergic reactions to the contrast dye, damage to blood vessels, or infection. Therefore, it is typically reserved for situations where other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive or where more invasive treatment may be required.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Surgical instruments are specialized tools or devices that are used by medical professionals during surgical procedures to assist in various tasks such as cutting, dissecting, grasping, holding, retracting, clamping, and suturing body tissues. These instruments are designed to be safe, precise, and effective, with a variety of shapes, sizes, and materials used depending on the specific surgical application. Some common examples of surgical instruments include scalpels, forceps, scissors, hemostats, retractors, and needle holders. Proper sterilization and maintenance of these instruments are crucial to ensure patient safety and prevent infection.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

The Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA) is a paired set of arteries that originate from the internal carotid artery or its branch, the posterior communicating artery. They supply oxygenated blood to the frontal lobes and parts of the parietal lobes of the brain.

The ACA runs along the medial side of each hemisphere, anterior to the corpus callosum, which is the largest bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. It gives off branches that supply the motor and sensory areas of the lower extremities, as well as the areas responsible for higher cognitive functions such as language, memory, and emotion.

The ACA is divided into several segments: A1, A2, A3, and A4. The A1 segment runs from its origin at the internal carotid artery to the anterior communicating artery, which connects the two ACAs. The A2 segment extends from the anterior communicating artery to the bifurcation of the ACA into its terminal branches. The A3 and A4 segments are the distal branches that supply the frontal and parietal lobes.

Interruptions or blockages in the flow of blood through the ACA can lead to various neurological deficits, including weakness or paralysis of the lower extremities, language impairment, and changes in cognitive function.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

The internal carotid artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery and passes through the neck, entering the skull via the carotid canal in the temporal bone. Once inside the skull, it branches into several smaller vessels that supply different parts of the brain with blood.

The internal carotid artery is divided into several segments: cervical, petrous, cavernous, clinoid, and supraclinoid. Each segment has distinct clinical significance in terms of potential injury or disease. The most common conditions affecting the internal carotid artery include atherosclerosis, which can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), and dissection, which can cause severe headache, neck pain, and neurological symptoms.

It's important to note that any blockage or damage to the internal carotid artery can have serious consequences, as it can significantly reduce blood flow to the brain and lead to permanent neurological damage or even death. Therefore, regular check-ups and screening tests are recommended for individuals at high risk of developing vascular diseases.

The iliac arteries are major branches of the abdominal aorta, the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The iliac arteries divide into two branches, the common iliac arteries, which further bifurcate into the internal and external iliac arteries.

The internal iliac artery supplies blood to the lower abdomen, pelvis, and the reproductive organs, while the external iliac artery provides blood to the lower extremities, including the legs and feet. Together, the iliac arteries play a crucial role in circulating blood throughout the body, ensuring that all tissues and organs receive the oxygen and nutrients they need to function properly.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

An endoleak is a complication that can occur following minimally invasive endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysms. It refers to the persistence or recurrence of blood flow outside the lumen of the endograft but within the aneurysm sac. Endoleaks are classified into different types based on their source and can be categorized as follows:

1. Type I endoleak: This type of endoleak occurs due to inadequate sealing at the attachment sites between the endograft and the aortic wall. It can further be divided into two subtypes - Type Ia (proximal) and Type Ib (distal).
2. Type II endoleak: This type of endoleak results from retrograde flow from branch vessels that enter the aneurysm sac, such as lumbar arteries or inferior mesenteric artery. Type II endoleaks are often asymptomatic and may not require immediate treatment.
3. Type III endoleak: This type of endoleak occurs due to a defect in the structural integrity of the endograft itself, leading to communication between different components of the graft or between the graft and another vessel.
4. Type IV endoleak: This type of endoleak is caused by porosity in the graft material, allowing for leakage through the graft wall itself. It typically resolves on its own within 30 days post-procedure.
5. Type V endoleak (also known as endotension): This type of endoleak is characterized by an increase in sac size without a demonstrable endoleak on imaging. The exact cause remains unclear, but it may be related to continued pressurization of the aneurysm sac due to transmission of systemic pressure through the graft fabric.

Endoleaks can lead to persistent enlargement of the aneurysm sac and potential rupture if not addressed promptly. Therefore, regular follow-up imaging is essential after EVAR to monitor for endoleak development and address any issues that arise.

Aortitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The inflammation can cause damage to the aortic wall, leading to weakening, bulging (aneurysm), or tearing (dissection) of the aorta. Aortitis can be caused by various conditions, including infections, autoimmune diseases, and certain medications. It is essential to diagnose and treat aortitis promptly to prevent serious complications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Platinum" is not a medical term. Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal.

However, in the field of oncology, platinum-based compounds are used as chemotherapeutic drugs. These include:

1. Cisplatin: This is a platinum-containing drug that is used to treat various types of cancers such as testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, bladder cancer, and others. It works by forming crosslinks with the DNA of cancer cells, which disrupts their function and leads to cell death.

2. Carboplatin: This is another platinum-based chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancers such as ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and others. It is less toxic than cisplatin but has similar mechanisms of action.

3. Oxaliplatin: This is a third platinum-based chemotherapy drug that is used to treat colon cancer and rectal cancer. Like the other two drugs, it forms crosslinks with DNA and disrupts cell function leading to cell death.

These drugs are not made of pure platinum but contain platinum compounds that have been synthesized for medical use.

Carotid artery diseases refer to conditions that affect the carotid arteries, which are the major blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the head and neck. The most common type of carotid artery disease is atherosclerosis, which occurs when fatty deposits called plaques build up in the inner lining of the arteries.

These plaques can cause the arteries to narrow or become blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Other carotid artery diseases include carotid artery dissection, which occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining of the artery, and fibromuscular dysplasia, which is a condition that affects the muscle and tissue in the walls of the artery.

Symptoms of carotid artery disease may include neck pain or pulsations, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or "mini-strokes," and strokes. Treatment options for carotid artery disease depend on the severity and type of the condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, endarterectomy (a surgical procedure to remove plaque from the artery), or angioplasty and stenting (procedures to open blocked arteries using a balloon and stent).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyethylene Terephthalates" is not a medical term. It is a type of polymer used in the manufacturing of various products, such as plastic bottles and textile fibers. Medically, you might encounter the abbreviation "PET" or "PET scan," which stands for "Positron Emission Tomography." A PET scan is a type of medical imaging that provides detailed pictures of the body's interior. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

The splenic artery is the largest branch of the celiac trunk, which arises from the abdominal aorta. It supplies blood to the spleen and several other organs in the upper left part of the abdomen. The splenic artery divides into several branches that ultimately form a network of capillaries within the spleen. These capillaries converge to form the main venous outflow, the splenic vein, which drains into the hepatic portal vein.

The splenic artery is a vital structure in the human body, and any damage or blockage can lead to serious complications, including splenic infarction (reduced blood flow to the spleen) or splenic rupture (a surgical emergency that can be life-threatening).

Angioplasty is a medical procedure used to open narrowed or blocked blood vessels, often referred to as coronary angioplasty when it involves the heart's blood vessels (coronary arteries). The term "angio" refers to an angiogram, which is a type of X-ray image that reveals the inside of blood vessels.

The procedure typically involves the following steps:

1. A thin, flexible catheter (tube) is inserted into a blood vessel, usually through a small incision in the groin or arm.
2. The catheter is guided to the narrowed or blocked area using real-time X-ray imaging.
3. Once in place, a tiny balloon attached to the tip of the catheter is inflated to widen the blood vessel and compress any plaque buildup against the artery walls.
4. A stent (a small mesh tube) may be inserted to help keep the blood vessel open and prevent it from narrowing again.
5. The balloon is deflated, and the catheter is removed.

Angioplasty helps improve blood flow, reduce symptoms such as chest pain or shortness of breath, and lower the risk of heart attack in patients with blocked arteries. It's important to note that angioplasty is not a permanent solution for coronary artery disease, and lifestyle changes, medications, and follow-up care are necessary to maintain long-term cardiovascular health.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Balloon occlusion is a medical procedure that involves the use of a small, deflated balloon at the end of a catheter, which can be inserted into a blood vessel or other tubular structure in the body. Once the balloon is in position, it is inflated with a fluid or gas to create a blockage or obstruction in the vessel. This can be used for various medical purposes, such as:

1. Controlling bleeding: By inflating the balloon in a blood vessel, doctors can temporarily stop the flow of blood to a specific area, allowing them to treat injuries or abnormalities that are causing excessive bleeding.
2. Vessel narrowing or blockage assessment: Balloon occlusion can be used to assess the severity of narrowing or blockages in blood vessels. By inflating the balloon and measuring the pressure differences upstream and downstream, doctors can determine the extent of the obstruction and plan appropriate treatment.
3. Embolization therapy: In some cases, balloon occlusion is used to deliver embolic agents (such as coils, particles, or glue) that block off blood flow to specific areas. This can be useful in treating conditions like tumors, arteriovenous malformations, or aneurysms.
4. Temporary vessel occlusion during surgery: During certain surgical procedures, it may be necessary to temporarily stop the flow of blood to a specific area. Balloon occlusion can be used to achieve this quickly and safely.
5. Assisting in the placement of stents or other devices: Balloon occlusion can help position and deploy stents or other medical devices by providing temporary support or blocking off blood flow during the procedure.

It is important to note that balloon occlusion procedures carry potential risks, such as vessel injury, infection, or embolism (the blockage of a blood vessel by a clot or foreign material). These risks should be carefully weighed against the benefits when considering this type of treatment.

The renal artery is a pair of blood vessels that originate from the abdominal aorta and supply oxygenated blood to each kidney. These arteries branch into several smaller vessels that provide blood to the various parts of the kidneys, including the renal cortex and medulla. The renal arteries also carry nutrients and other essential components needed for the normal functioning of the kidneys. Any damage or blockage to the renal artery can lead to serious consequences, such as reduced kidney function or even kidney failure.

The Sinus of Valsalva are three pouch-like dilations or outpouchings located at the upper part (root) of the aorta, just above the aortic valve. They are named after Antonio Maria Valsalva, an Italian anatomist and physician. These sinuses are divided into three parts:

1. Right Sinus of Valsalva: It is located to the right of the ascending aorta and usually gives rise to the right coronary artery.
2. Left Sinus of Valsalva: It is situated to the left of the ascending aorta and typically gives rise to the left coronary artery.
3. Non-coronary Sinus of Valsalva: This sinus is located in between the right and left coronary sinuses, and it does not give rise to any coronary arteries.

These sinuses play a crucial role during the cardiac cycle, particularly during ventricular contraction (systole). The pressure difference between the aorta and the ventricles causes the aortic valve cusps to be pushed into these sinuses, preventing the backflow of blood from the aorta into the ventricles.

Anatomical variations in the size and shape of the Sinuses of Valsalva can occur, and certain conditions like congenital heart diseases (e.g., aortic valve stenosis or bicuspid aortic valve) may affect their structure and function. Additionally, aneurysms or ruptures of the sinuses can lead to severe complications, such as cardiac tamponade, endocarditis, or stroke.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The vertebral artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain and upper spinal cord. It arises from the subclavian artery, then ascends through the transverse processes of several cervical vertebrae before entering the skull through the foramen magnum. Inside the skull, it joins with the opposite vertebral artery to form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. The vertebral artery also gives off several important branches that supply blood to various regions of the brainstem and upper spinal cord.

Pancreatic elastase is a type of elastase that is specifically produced by the pancreas. It is an enzyme that helps in digesting proteins found in the food we eat. Pancreatic elastase breaks down elastin, a protein that provides elasticity to tissues and organs in the body.

In clinical practice, pancreatic elastase is often measured in stool samples as a diagnostic tool to assess exocrine pancreatic function. Low levels of pancreatic elastase in stool may indicate malabsorption or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, which can be caused by various conditions such as chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, or pancreatic cancer.

Cerebral arteries refer to the blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the brain. These arteries branch off from the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries, which combine to form the basilar artery. The major cerebral arteries include:

1. Anterior cerebral artery (ACA): This artery supplies blood to the frontal lobes of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortices responsible for movement and sensation in the lower limbs.
2. Middle cerebral artery (MCA): The MCA is the largest of the cerebral arteries and supplies blood to the lateral surface of the brain, including the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. It is responsible for providing blood to areas involved in motor function, sensory perception, speech, memory, and vision.
3. Posterior cerebral artery (PCA): The PCA supplies blood to the occipital lobe, which is responsible for visual processing, as well as parts of the temporal and parietal lobes.
4. Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and posterior communicating arteries (PComAs): These are small arteries that connect the major cerebral arteries, forming an important circulatory network called the Circle of Willis. The ACoA connects the two ACAs, while the PComAs connect the ICA with the PCA and the basilar artery.

These cerebral arteries play a crucial role in maintaining proper brain function by delivering oxygenated blood to various regions of the brain. Any damage or obstruction to these arteries can lead to serious neurological conditions, such as strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).

Pathologic dilatation refers to an abnormal and excessive widening or enlargement of a body cavity or organ, which can result from various medical conditions. This abnormal dilation can occur in different parts of the body, including the blood vessels, digestive tract, airways, or heart chambers.

In the context of the cardiovascular system, pathologic dilatation may indicate a weakening or thinning of the heart muscle, leading to an enlarged chamber that can no longer pump blood efficiently. This condition is often associated with various heart diseases, such as cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, or long-standing high blood pressure.

In the gastrointestinal tract, pathologic dilatation may occur due to mechanical obstruction, neuromuscular disorders, or inflammatory conditions that affect the normal motility of the intestines. Examples include megacolon in Hirschsprung's disease, toxic megacolon in ulcerative colitis, or volvulus (twisting) of the bowel.

Pathologic dilatation can lead to various complications, such as reduced organ function, impaired circulation, and increased risk of infection or perforation. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the root problem and prevent further enlargement.

In medical terms, "retreatment" refers to the process of providing additional treatment or courses of therapy to an individual who has previously undergone a medical intervention but has not achieved the desired outcomes or has experienced a recurrence of symptoms. This may apply to various medical conditions and treatments, including dental procedures, cancer therapies, mental health treatments, and more.

In the context of dentistry, specifically endodontics (root canal treatment), retreatment is the process of repeating the root canal procedure on a tooth that has already been treated before. This may be necessary if the initial treatment was not successful in eliminating infection or if reinfection has occurred. The goal of retreatment is to preserve the natural tooth and alleviate any persistent pain or discomfort.

The Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA) is one of the major arteries that supplies blood to the brain. It is a branch of the basilar artery, which is formed by the union of the two vertebral arteries. The PCA supplies oxygenated blood to the occipital lobe (responsible for visual processing), the temporal lobe (involved in auditory and memory functions), and the thalamus and midbrain (relay station for sensory and motor signals).

The PCA has two segments: the precommunicating segment (P1) and the postcommunicating segment (P2). The P1 segment runs posteriorly along the cerebral peduncle, while the P2 segment courses around the midbrain to reach the occipital lobe.

Atherosclerosis, embolism, or other vascular conditions can affect the PCA and lead to a variety of neurological symptoms, including visual loss, memory impairment, and difficulty with language processing.

The celiac artery, also known as the anterior abdominal aortic trunk, is a major artery that originates from the abdominal aorta and supplies oxygenated blood to the foregut, which includes the stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas, and upper part of the duodenum. It branches into three main branches: the left gastric artery, the splenic artery, and the common hepatic artery. The celiac artery plays a crucial role in providing blood to these vital organs, and any disruption or damage to it can lead to serious health consequences.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

The basilar artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. It is formed by the union of two vertebral arteries at the lower part of the brainstem, near the junction of the medulla oblongata and pons.

The basilar artery runs upward through the center of the brainstem and divides into two posterior cerebral arteries at the upper part of the brainstem, near the midbrain. The basilar artery gives off several branches that supply blood to various parts of the brainstem, including the pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain, as well as to the cerebellum.

The basilar artery is an important part of the circle of Willis, a network of arteries at the base of the brain that ensures continuous blood flow to the brain even if one of the arteries becomes blocked or narrowed.

The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a major artery that supplies oxygenated blood to the intestines, specifically the lower part of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, and the first and second parts of the transverse colon. It originates from the abdominal aorta, located just inferior to the pancreas, and passes behind the neck of the pancreas before dividing into several branches to supply the intestines. The SMA is an essential vessel in the digestive system, providing blood flow for nutrient absorption and overall gut function.

Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue. Connective tissue helps to strengthen and support various structures in the body, including the skin, ligaments, blood vessels, and heart. In Marfan syndrome, the body produces an abnormal amount of a protein called fibrillin-1, which is a key component of connective tissue. This leads to problems with the formation and function of connective tissue throughout the body.

The most serious complications of Marfan syndrome typically involve the heart and blood vessels. The aorta, which is the large artery that carries blood away from the heart, can become weakened and stretched, leading to an increased risk of aortic dissection or rupture. Other common features of Marfan syndrome include long, thin fingers and toes; tall stature; a curved spine; and eye problems such as nearsightedness and lens dislocation.

Marfan syndrome is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the gene mutation from a parent who has the condition. However, about 25% of cases are the result of a new mutation and occur in people with no family history of the disorder. There is no cure for Marfan syndrome, but treatment can help to manage the symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.

Prosthesis failure is a term used to describe a situation where a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint or limb, has stopped functioning or failed to meet its intended purpose. This can be due to various reasons, including mechanical failure, infection, loosening of the device, or a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis.

Mechanical failure can occur due to wear and tear, manufacturing defects, or improper use of the prosthetic device. Infection can also lead to prosthesis failure, particularly in cases where the prosthesis is implanted inside the body. The immune system may react to the presence of the foreign material, leading to inflammation and infection.

Loosening of the prosthesis can also cause it to fail over time, as the device becomes less stable and eventually stops working properly. Additionally, some people may have a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis, leading to tissue damage or other complications that can result in prosthesis failure.

In general, prosthesis failure can lead to decreased mobility, pain, and the need for additional surgeries or treatments to correct the problem. It is important for individuals with prosthetic devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of prosthesis failure and ensure that the device continues to function properly over time.

Foreign-body migration is a medical condition that occurs when a foreign object, such as a surgical implant, tissue graft, or trauma-induced fragment, moves from its original position within the body to a different location. This displacement can cause various complications and symptoms depending on the type of foreign body, the location it migrated to, and the individual's specific physiological response.

Foreign-body migration may result from insufficient fixation or anchoring of the object during implantation, inadequate wound healing, infection, or an inflammatory reaction. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, redness, or infection at the new location, as well as potential damage to surrounding tissues and organs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques like X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs to locate the foreign body, followed by a surgical procedure to remove it and address any resulting complications.

The Circle of Willis is a circulatory arrangement in the brain where the major arteries that supply blood to the brain converge to form an almost circular structure. It is named after Thomas Willis, an English physician who first described it in 1664.

This circle is formed by the joining of the two internal carotid arteries, which divide into the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries, with the basilar artery, which arises from the vertebral arteries. These vessels anastomose, or connect, to form a polygon-like structure at the base of the brain.

The Circle of Willis plays a crucial role in maintaining adequate blood flow to the brain, as it allows for collateral circulation. If one of the arteries that make up the circle becomes blocked or narrowed, blood can still reach the affected area through the other vessels in the circle. This helps to minimize the risk of stroke and other neurological disorders.

A craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. This procedure is typically performed to treat various neurological conditions, such as brain tumors, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or traumatic brain injuries. After the underlying brain condition is addressed, the bone flap is usually replaced and secured back in place with plates and screws. The purpose of a craniotomy is to provide access to the brain for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions while minimizing potential damage to surrounding tissues.

Microsurgery is a surgical technique that requires the use of an operating microscope and fine instruments to perform precise surgical manipulations. It is commonly used in various fields such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and plastic and reconstructive surgery. The magnification provided by the microscope allows surgeons to work on small structures like nerves, blood vessels, and tiny bones. Some of the most common procedures that fall under microsurgery include nerve repair, replantation of amputated parts, and various types of reconstructions such as free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction or coverage of large wounds.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

The subclavian artery is a major blood vessel that supplies the upper limb and important structures in the neck and head. It arises from the brachiocephalic trunk (in the case of the right subclavian artery) or directly from the aortic arch (in the case of the left subclavian artery).

The subclavian artery has several branches, including:

1. The vertebral artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum.
2. The internal thoracic artery (also known as the mammary artery), which supplies blood to the chest wall, breast, and anterior mediastinum.
3. The thyrocervical trunk, which gives rise to several branches that supply the neck, including the inferior thyroid artery, the suprascapular artery, and the transverse cervical artery.
4. The costocervical trunk, which supplies blood to the neck and upper back, including the posterior chest wall and the lower neck muscles.

The subclavian artery is a critical vessel in maintaining adequate blood flow to the upper limb, and any blockage or damage to this vessel can lead to significant morbidity, including arm pain, numbness, weakness, or even loss of function.

Cerebral revascularization is a surgical procedure aimed at restoring blood flow to the brain. This is often performed in cases where there is narrowing or blockage of the cerebral arteries, a condition known as cerebrovascular disease. The most common type of cerebral revascularization is called carotid endarterectomy, which involves removing plaque buildup from the carotid artery in the neck to improve blood flow to the brain. Another type is extracranial-intracranial bypass, where a new connection is created between an external carotid artery and an intracranial artery to bypass a blockage.

The thoracic aorta is the segment of the largest artery in the human body (the aorta) that runs through the chest region (thorax). The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic arch, where it branches off from the ascending aorta, and extends down to the diaphragm, where it becomes the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta is divided into three parts: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta rises from the left ventricle of the heart and is about 2 inches (5 centimeters) long. The aortic arch curves backward and to the left, giving rise to the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. The descending thoracic aorta runs downward through the chest, passing through the diaphragm to become the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta supplies oxygenated blood to the upper body, including the head, neck, arms, and chest. It plays a critical role in maintaining blood flow and pressure throughout the body.

Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome is also known as Kawasaki Disease. It is a type of vasculitis that primarily affects young children, usually those under the age of 5. The disease is named after Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki, who first described it in Japan in 1967.

The condition is characterized by inflammation of the mucous membranes (mucosa), skin (cutaneous), and lymph nodes. The symptoms typically include fever, rash, red eyes, swollen lips and tongue, strawberry tongue, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. In addition, children with Kawasaki disease may also experience joint pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

In severe cases, Kawasaki disease can lead to complications such as coronary artery aneurysms, which can increase the risk of heart attacks and other cardiovascular problems. The exact cause of Kawasaki disease is unknown, but it is thought to be triggered by an infection or other environmental factor in genetically susceptible children. Treatment typically involves administering high doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and aspirin to reduce inflammation and prevent complications.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

The popliteal artery is the continuation of the femoral artery that passes through the popliteal fossa, which is the area behind the knee. It is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg and foot. The popliteal artery divides into the anterior tibial artery and the tibioperoneal trunk at the lower border of the popliteus muscle. Any damage or blockage to this artery can result in serious health complications, including reduced blood flow to the leg and foot, which may lead to pain, cramping, numbness, or even tissue death (gangrene) if left untreated.

A vascular fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the artery and vein, which usually results from a surgical procedure to create access for hemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease. This communication allows blood to flow directly from the artery into the vein, bypassing the capillary network and causing high-flow conditions in the affected area. Over time, the increased pressure and flow can lead to various complications such as venous hypertension, stenosis, aneurysm formation, or even heart failure if left untreated. Vascular fistulas may also occur spontaneously due to certain medical conditions like vasculitis, trauma, or infection, although this is less common.

Interventional radiography is a subspecialty of radiology that uses imaging guidance (such as X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT, or MRI) to perform minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures typically involve the insertion of needles, catheters, or other small instruments through the skin or a natural body opening, allowing for targeted treatment with reduced risk, trauma, and recovery time compared to traditional open surgeries.

Examples of interventional radiography procedures include:

1. Angiography: Imaging of blood vessels to diagnose and treat conditions like blockages, narrowing, or aneurysms.
2. Biopsy: The removal of tissue samples for diagnostic purposes.
3. Drainage: The removal of fluid accumulations (e.g., abscesses, cysts) or the placement of catheters to drain fluids continuously.
4. Embolization: The blocking of blood vessels to control bleeding, tumor growth, or reduce the size of an aneurysm.
5. Stenting and angioplasty: The widening of narrowed or blocked vessels using stents (small mesh tubes) or balloon catheters.
6. Radiofrequency ablation: The use of heat to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.
7. Cryoablation: The use of extreme cold to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.

Interventional radiologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in both diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures, allowing them to provide comprehensive care for patients requiring image-guided treatments.

Cardiovascular models are simplified representations or simulations of the human cardiovascular system used in medical research, education, and training. These models can be physical, computational, or mathematical and are designed to replicate various aspects of the heart, blood vessels, and blood flow. They can help researchers study the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, test new treatments and interventions, and train healthcare professionals in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques.

Physical cardiovascular models may include artificial hearts, blood vessels, or circulation systems made from materials such as plastic, rubber, or silicone. These models can be used to study the mechanics of heart valves, the effects of different surgical procedures, or the impact of various medical devices on blood flow.

Computational and mathematical cardiovascular models use algorithms and equations to simulate the behavior of the cardiovascular system. These models may range from simple representations of a single heart chamber to complex simulations of the entire circulatory system. They can be used to study the electrical activity of the heart, the biomechanics of blood flow, or the distribution of drugs in the body.

Overall, cardiovascular models play an essential role in advancing our understanding of the human body and improving patient care.

Vertebral artery dissection is a medical condition that involves a tear in the inner lining (the tunica intima) of the vertebral artery, one of the major blood vessels supplying oxygenated blood to the brain. This tear allows blood to enter the vessel wall, creating a false lumen and leading to narrowing or blockage of the true lumen. The dissection can occur spontaneously or following trauma to the neck, and it can result in decreased blood flow to the brainstem and cerebellum, potentially causing symptoms such as headache, neck pain, dizziness, vertigo, double vision, difficulty swallowing, slurred speech, and weakness or numbness on one side of the body. Vertebral artery dissection is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention and management to prevent potential complications such as stroke.

A carotid artery, internal, dissection is a medical condition that affects the internal carotid artery, which is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. In this condition, there is a separation (dissection) of the layers of the artery wall, causing blood to accumulate in the space between the layers. This can lead to narrowing or blockage of the artery, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Internal carotid artery dissection can be caused by trauma, high blood pressure, connective tissue disorders, or spontaneously. Symptoms may include neck pain, headache, facial pain, visual disturbances, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and dizziness or loss of balance.

Mechanical thrombolysis is a procedure used to remove blood clots (thrombi) from the blood vessels by mechanical means, as opposed to pharmacological thrombolysis which uses drugs to dissolve the clots. In mechanical thrombolysis, specialized medical devices are used to physically disrupt, extract or break down the clot, thereby restoring blood flow and preventing further complications such as tissue damage or organ dysfunction.

The procedure is often performed under imaging guidance, such as fluoroscopy or ultrasound, to ensure accurate placement of the device and effective removal of the thrombus. Mechanical thrombolysis may be used in various clinical settings, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and arterial thromboembolism, such as stroke or peripheral artery disease.

Some of the commonly used mechanical thrombectomy devices include:

1. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT): A catheter is inserted into the affected blood vessel and a clot-dissolving drug is administered directly to the thrombus.
2. AngioJet Rheolytic Thrombectomy System: This device uses high-pressure saline jets to break up and remove the clot.
3. Rotational or ultrasonic thrombectomy devices: These use rotating or vibrating components to macerate and extract the clot.
4. Aspiration thrombectomy: A catheter with a large lumen is used to aspirate (suction) the clot out of the blood vessel.
5. Stent retriever thrombectomy: A stent-like device is deployed in the affected vessel and then retrieved, taking the clot with it.

The choice of mechanical thrombolysis technique depends on various factors, including the location, size, and composition of the thrombus, as well as the patient's overall clinical condition.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Incidental findings are diagnoses or conditions that are discovered unintentionally while evaluating a patient for a different condition or symptom. These findings are not related to the primary reason for the medical examination, investigation, or procedure. They can occur in various contexts such as radiology studies, laboratory tests, or physical examinations.

Incidental findings can sometimes lead to further evaluation and management, depending on their nature and potential clinical significance. However, they also pose challenges related to communication, informed consent, and potential patient anxiety or harm. Therefore, it is essential to have clear guidelines for managing incidental findings in clinical practice.

An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein. This connection causes blood to flow directly from the artery into the vein, bypassing the capillary network that would normally distribute the oxygen-rich blood to the surrounding tissues.

Arteriovenous fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, disease, or as a planned surgical procedure for patients who require hemodialysis, a treatment for advanced kidney failure. In hemodialysis, the arteriovenous fistula serves as a site for repeated access to the bloodstream, allowing for efficient removal of waste products and excess fluids.

The medical definition of an arteriovenous fistula is:

"An abnormal communication between an artery and a vein, usually created by surgical means for hemodialysis access or occurring as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or disease processes such as vasculitis or neoplasm."

The Inferior Mesenteric Artery (IMA) is a major artery that supplies blood to the distal portion of the large intestine, including the descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. It originates from the abdominal aorta, typically at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3), and descends anteriorly to the left psoas major muscle before crossing the iliac crest and entering the pelvis.

Once in the pelvis, the IMA divides into several branches, including the left colic artery, which supplies the descending colon; the sigmoidal branches, which supply the sigmoid colon; and the superior rectal artery, which supplies the upper part of the rectum. The inferior mesenteric artery plays a crucial role in maintaining blood flow to the distal gut and is often evaluated during surgical procedures involving the abdomen or pelvis.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

Aortic diseases refer to conditions that affect the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Aortic diseases can weaken or damage the aorta, leading to various complications. Here are some common aortic diseases with their medical definitions:

1. Aortic aneurysm: A localized dilation or bulging of the aortic wall, which can occur in any part of the aorta but is most commonly found in the abdominal aorta (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the thoracic aorta (thoracic aortic aneurysm). Aneurysms can increase the risk of rupture, leading to life-threatening bleeding.
2. Aortic dissection: A separation of the layers of the aortic wall due to a tear in the inner lining, allowing blood to flow between the layers and potentially cause the aorta to rupture. This is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
3. Aortic stenosis: A narrowing of the aortic valve opening, which restricts blood flow from the heart to the aorta. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms. Severe aortic stenosis may require surgical or transcatheter intervention to replace or repair the aortic valve.
4. Aortic regurgitation: Also known as aortic insufficiency, this condition occurs when the aortic valve does not close properly, allowing blood to leak back into the heart. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and palpitations. Treatment may include medication or surgical repair or replacement of the aortic valve.
5. Aortitis: Inflammation of the aorta, which can be caused by various conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, or vasculitides. Aortitis can lead to aneurysms, dissections, or stenosis and may require medical treatment with immunosuppressive drugs or surgical intervention.
6. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue, including the aorta. People with Marfan syndrome are at risk of developing aortic aneurysms and dissections, and may require close monitoring and prophylactic surgery to prevent complications.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) is a widely used clinical measurement for assessing the outcome and recovery of patients who have suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or other neurological disorders. It was first introduced in 1975 by Graham Jennett and colleagues at the University of Glasgow.

The GOS classifies the overall functional ability and independence of a patient into one of the following five hierarchical categories:

1. **Death:** The patient has died due to the injury or its complications.
2. **Vegetative State (VS):** The patient is unaware of their surroundings, shows no meaningful response to stimuli, and has minimal or absent brainstem reflexes. They may have sleep-wake cycles but lack higher cognitive functions.
3. **Severe Disability (SD):** The patient demonstrates considerable disability in their daily life, requiring assistance with personal care and activities. They might have cognitive impairments, communication difficulties, or physical disabilities that limit their independence.
4. **Moderate Disability (MD):** The patient has some disability but can live independently, manage their own affairs, and return to work in a sheltered environment. They may exhibit minor neurological or psychological deficits.
5. **Good Recovery (GR):** The patient has resumed normal life with minimal or no residual neurological or psychological deficits. They might have some minor problems with memory, concentration, or organizational skills but can perform their daily activities without assistance.

The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) is an updated and more detailed version of the GOS, which further breaks down the original five categories into eight subcategories for a more nuanced assessment of patient outcomes.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Biocompatible coated materials refer to surfaces or substances that are treated or engineered with a layer or film designed to interact safely and effectively with living tissues or biological systems, without causing harm or adverse reactions. The coating material is typically composed of biomaterials that can withstand the conditions of the specific application while promoting a positive response from the body.

The purpose of these coatings may vary depending on the medical device or application. For example, they might be used to enhance the lubricity and wear resistance of implantable devices, reduce the risk of infection, promote integration with surrounding tissues, control drug release, or prevent the formation of biofilms.

Biocompatible coated materials must undergo rigorous testing and evaluation to ensure their safety and efficacy in various clinical settings. This includes assessing potential cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, sensitization, hemocompatibility, carcinogenicity, and other factors that could impact the body's response to the material.

Examples of biocompatible coating materials include:

1. Hydrogels: Cross-linked networks of hydrophilic polymers that can be used for drug delivery, tissue engineering, or as lubricious coatings on medical devices.
2. Self-assembling monolayers (SAMs): Organosilane or thiol-based molecules that form a stable, well-ordered film on surfaces, which can be further functionalized to promote specific biological interactions.
3. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG): A biocompatible polymer often used as a coating material due to its ability to reduce protein adsorption and cell attachment, making it useful for preventing biofouling or thrombosis on medical devices.
4. Bioactive glass: A type of biomaterial composed of silica-based glasses that can stimulate bone growth and healing when used as a coating material in orthopedic or dental applications.
5. Drug-eluting coatings: Biocompatible polymers impregnated with therapeutic agents, designed to release the drug over time to promote healing, prevent infection, or inhibit restenosis in various medical devices.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is not inherently a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with significant uses in the medical field. Medically, PTFE is often referred to by its brand name, Teflon. It is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in various medical applications due to its unique properties such as high resistance to heat, electrical and chemical interaction, and exceptional non-reactivity with body tissues.

PTFE can be found in medical devices like catheters, where it reduces friction, making insertion easier and minimizing trauma. It is also used in orthopedic and dental implants, drug delivery systems, and sutures due to its biocompatibility and non-adhesive nature.

Intracranial thrombosis refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within the intracranial vessels, which supply blood to the brain. This condition can occur in any of the cerebral arteries or veins and can lead to serious complications such as ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or venous sinus thrombosis.

The formation of an intracranial thrombus can be caused by various factors, including atherosclerosis, cardiac embolism, vasculitis, sickle cell disease, hypercoagulable states, and head trauma. Symptoms may vary depending on the location and extent of the thrombosis but often include sudden onset of headache, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision changes, and loss of balance or coordination.

Diagnosis of intracranial thrombosis typically involves imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) angiography, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Treatment options may include anticoagulation therapy, thrombolysis, endovascular intervention, or surgical intervention, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

Spiral Computed Tomography (CT), also known as Helical CT, is a type of computed tomography scan in which the X-ray tube and detector rotate around the patient in a spiral path, capturing data as the table moves the patient through the scanner. This continuous spiral motion allows for faster and more detailed volumetric imaging of internal organs and structures, reducing the need for multiple slices and providing improved image reconstruction. It is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and trauma injuries.

Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal, tangled connections between the arteries and veins in the brain. These connections bypass the capillary system, which can lead to high-flow shunting and potential complications such as hemorrhage, stroke, or neurological deficits. AVMs are congenital conditions, meaning they are present at birth, although symptoms may not appear until later in life. They are relatively rare, affecting approximately 0.1% of the population. Treatment options for AVMs include surgery, radiation therapy, and endovascular embolization, depending on the size, location, and specific characteristics of the malformation.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Elastin is a protein that provides elasticity to tissues and organs, allowing them to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix in many tissues, including the skin, lungs, blood vessels, and ligaments. Elastin fibers can stretch up to 1.5 times their original length and then return to their original shape due to the unique properties of this protein. The elastin molecule is made up of cross-linked chains of the protein tropoelastin, which are produced by cells called fibroblasts and then assembled into larger elastin fibers by enzymes called lysyl oxidases. Elastin has a very long half-life, with some estimates suggesting that it can remain in the body for up to 70 years or more.

A cerebral hemorrhage, also known as an intracranial hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage, is a type of stroke that results from bleeding within the brain tissue. It occurs when a weakened blood vessel bursts and causes localized bleeding in the brain. This bleeding can increase pressure in the skull, damage nearby brain cells, and release toxic substances that further harm brain tissues.

Cerebral hemorrhages are often caused by chronic conditions like hypertension (high blood pressure) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which weakens the walls of blood vessels over time. Other potential causes include trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, illicit drug use, and brain tumors. Symptoms may include sudden headache, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, loss of balance, and altered level of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and manage cerebral hemorrhage through imaging techniques, supportive care, and possible surgical interventions.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

Paraplegia is a medical condition characterized by partial or complete loss of motor function and sensation in the lower extremities, typically affecting both legs. This results from damage to the spinal cord, often due to trauma such as accidents, falls, or gunshot wounds, or from diseases like spina bifida, polio, or tumors. The specific area and extent of the injury on the spinal cord determine the severity and location of paralysis. Individuals with paraplegia may require assistive devices for mobility, such as wheelchairs, and may face various health challenges, including pressure sores, urinary tract infections, and chronic pain.

The buttocks are the rounded part of the lower back, above the hips. They are formed by the masses of muscle tissue (gluteal muscles) and fat that cover the coccyx and sacrum, which are the terminal parts of the vertebral column. The primary function of the gluteal muscles is to provide stability and strength for walking, running, and jumping movements.

In anatomical terms, the buttocks are also known as the natis or nates. Medical professionals may use these terms when discussing conditions or treatments related to this area of the body.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

The common carotid artery is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the head and neck. It originates from the brachiocephalic trunk or the aortic arch and divides into the internal and external carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage. The common carotid artery is an important structure in the circulatory system, and any damage or blockage to it can have serious consequences, including stroke.

Loeys-Dietz Syndrome (LDS) is a genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue in the body. It is characterized by widespread arterial abnormalities, including aneurysms and dissections, which can occur at a young age and in smaller arteries than is typically seen in other genetic disorders. LDS also features distinctive facial features, skeletal abnormalities, and skin manifestations.

The syndrome is caused by mutations in genes that provide instructions for making proteins involved in the development and maintenance of the connective tissue, which provides structure, strength, and flexibility to various parts of the body. The most commonly affected genes are TGFBR1 and TGFBR2, which encode transforming growth factor beta receptors 1 and 2, respectively.

LDS is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent. However, de novo (spontaneous) mutations can also occur, resulting in individuals with LDS who do not have a family history of the condition.

Due to the significant risk of arterial complications and other potentially life-threatening manifestations, individuals with LDS require close medical monitoring and management by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Spinal cord ischemia refers to a reduction or interruption of blood flow to the spinal cord, leading to insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply. This condition can cause damage to the spinal cord tissue, potentially resulting in neurological deficits, such as muscle weakness, sensory loss, or autonomic dysfunction. Spinal cord ischemia may be caused by various factors, including atherosclerosis, embolism, spinal artery stenosis, or complications during surgery. The severity and extent of the neurological impairment depend on the duration and location of the ischemic event in the spinal cord.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

Arterial occlusive diseases are medical conditions characterized by the blockage or narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to a reduction in blood flow to various parts of the body. This reduction in blood flow can cause tissue damage and may result in serious complications such as tissue death (gangrene), organ dysfunction, or even death.

The most common cause of arterial occlusive diseases is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this plaque can harden and narrow the arteries, restricting blood flow. Other causes of arterial occlusive diseases include blood clots, emboli (tiny particles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), inflammation, trauma, and certain inherited conditions.

Symptoms of arterial occlusive diseases depend on the location and severity of the blockage. Common symptoms include:

* Pain, cramping, or fatigue in the affected limb, often triggered by exercise and relieved by rest (claudication)
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb
* Coldness or discoloration of the skin in the affected area
* Slow-healing sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs
* Erectile dysfunction in men

Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. Medications to lower cholesterol, control blood pressure, prevent blood clots, or manage pain may also be prescribed. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow.

Vascular grafting is a surgical procedure where a vascular graft, which can be either a natural or synthetic tube, is used to replace or bypass a damaged or diseased portion of a blood vessel. The goal of this procedure is to restore normal blood flow to the affected area, thereby preventing tissue damage or necrosis due to insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply.

The vascular graft can be sourced from various locations in the body, such as the saphenous vein in the leg, or it can be made of synthetic materials like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. The choice of graft depends on several factors, including the size and location of the damaged vessel, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's preference.

Vascular grafting is commonly performed to treat conditions such as atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease, aneurysms, and vasculitis. This procedure carries risks such as bleeding, infection, graft failure, and potential complications related to anesthesia. However, with proper postoperative care and follow-up, vascular grafting can significantly improve the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis.

Viscera is a medical term that refers to the internal organs of the body, specifically those contained within the chest and abdominal cavities. These include the heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and intestines. In some contexts, it may also refer to the reproductive organs. The term viscera is often used in anatomical or surgical descriptions, and is derived from the Latin word "viscus," meaning "an internal organ."

The ophthalmic artery is the first branch of the internal carotid artery, which supplies blood to the eye and its adnexa. It divides into several branches that provide oxygenated blood to various structures within the eye, including the retina, optic nerve, choroid, iris, ciliary body, and cornea. Any blockage or damage to the ophthalmic artery can lead to serious vision problems or even blindness.

Behçet syndrome is a rare inflammatory disease that can cause symptoms in various parts of the body. It's characterized by recurrent mouth sores (aphthous ulcers), genital sores, and inflammation of the eyes (uveitis). The condition may also cause skin lesions, joint pain and swelling, and inflammation of the digestive tract, brain, or spinal cord.

The exact cause of Behçet syndrome is not known, but it's thought to be an autoimmune disorder, in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own healthy cells and tissues. The condition tends to affect men more often than women and typically develops during a person's 20s or 30s.

There is no cure for Behçet syndrome, but treatments can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options may include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and biologics to reduce inflammation, as well as pain relievers and other supportive therapies.

Elastic tissue is a type of connective tissue found in the body that is capable of returning to its original shape after being stretched or deformed. It is composed mainly of elastin fibers, which are protein molecules with a unique structure that allows them to stretch and recoil. Elastic tissue is found in many areas of the body, including the lungs, blood vessels, and skin, where it provides flexibility and resilience.

The elastin fibers in elastic tissue are intertwined with other types of connective tissue fibers, such as collagen, which provide strength and support. The combination of these fibers allows elastic tissue to stretch and recoil efficiently, enabling organs and tissues to function properly. For example, the elasticity of lung tissue allows the lungs to expand and contract during breathing, while the elasticity of blood vessels helps maintain blood flow and pressure.

Elastic tissue can become less flexible and resilient with age or due to certain medical conditions, such as emphysema or Marfan syndrome. This can lead to a variety of health problems, including respiratory difficulties, cardiovascular disease, and skin sagging.

The brachiocephalic trunk, also known as the brachiocephalic artery or innominate artery, is a large vessel that branches off the aorta and divides into the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery. It supplies blood to the head, neck, and arms on the right side of the body.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

An esophageal fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the esophagus (the tube that carries food and liquids from the throat to the stomach) and another organ, such as the trachea (windpipe) or the skin. This condition can result from complications of certain medical conditions, including cancer, prolonged infection, or injury to the esophagus.

Esophageal fistulas can cause a variety of symptoms, including difficulty swallowing, coughing, chest pain, and fever. They can also lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia or sepsis, if left untreated. Treatment for an esophageal fistula typically involves surgical repair of the abnormal connection, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Cranial nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the cranial nerves, which are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and control various functions in the head and neck. These functions include vision, hearing, taste, smell, movement of the eyes and face, and sensation in the face.

Diseases of the cranial nerves can result from a variety of causes, including injury, infection, inflammation, tumors, or degenerative conditions. The specific symptoms that a person experiences will depend on which cranial nerve is affected and how severely it is damaged.

For example, damage to the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) can cause vision loss or visual disturbances, while damage to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) can result in weakness or paralysis of the face. Other common symptoms of cranial nerve diseases include pain, numbness, tingling, and hearing loss.

Treatment for cranial nerve diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause and relieve symptoms. Physical therapy or rehabilitation may also be recommended to help individuals regain function and improve their quality of life.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

The axillary artery is a major blood vessel in the upper limb. It is the continuation of the subclavian artery and begins at the lateral border of the first rib, where it becomes the brachial artery. The axillary artery supplies oxygenated blood to the upper extremity, chest wall, and breast.

The axillary artery is divided into three parts based on the surrounding structures:

1. First part: From its origin at the lateral border of the first rib to the medial border of the pectoralis minor muscle. It lies deep to the clavicle and is covered by the scalene muscles, the anterior and middle scalene being the most important. The branches arising from this portion are the superior thoracic artery and the thyrocervical trunk.
2. Second part: Behind the pectoralis minor muscle. The branches arising from this portion are the lateral thoracic artery and the subscapular artery.
3. Third part: After leaving the lower border of the pectoralis minor muscle, it becomes the brachial artery. The branches arising from this portion are the anterior circumflex humeral artery and the posterior circumflex humeral artery.

The axillary artery is a common site for surgical interventions such as angioplasty and stenting to treat peripheral arterial disease, as well as for bypass grafting in cases of severe atherosclerosis or occlusion.

The oculomotor nerve, also known as the third cranial nerve (CN III), is responsible for controlling several important eye movements and functions. Oculomotor nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can lead to various symptoms related to eye movement and function. Here's a medical definition of oculomotor nerve diseases:

Oculomotor nerve diseases are a group of medical disorders characterized by the dysfunction or damage to the oculomotor nerve (CN III), resulting in impaired eye movements, abnormalities in pupillary response, and potential effects on eyelid position. These conditions can be congenital, acquired, or traumatic in nature and may lead to partial or complete paralysis of the nerve. Common oculomotor nerve diseases include oculomotor nerve palsy, third nerve ganglionopathies, and compressive oculomotor neuropathies caused by various pathologies such as aneurysms, tumors, or infections.

Suture techniques refer to the various methods used by surgeons to sew or stitch together tissues in the body after an injury, trauma, or surgical incision. The main goal of suturing is to approximate and hold the edges of the wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing scar formation.

There are several types of suture techniques, including:

1. Simple Interrupted Suture: This is one of the most basic suture techniques where the needle is passed through the tissue at a right angle, creating a loop that is then tightened to approximate the wound edges. Multiple stitches are placed along the length of the incision or wound.
2. Continuous Locking Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed continuously through the tissue in a zigzag pattern, with each stitch locking into the previous one. This creates a continuous line of sutures that provides strong tension and support to the wound edges.
3. Running Suture: Similar to the continuous locking suture, this technique involves passing the needle continuously through the tissue in a straight line. However, instead of locking each stitch, the needle is simply passed through the previous loop before being tightened. This creates a smooth and uninterrupted line of sutures that can be easily removed after healing.
4. Horizontal Mattress Suture: In this technique, two parallel stitches are placed horizontally across the wound edges, creating a "mattress" effect that provides additional support and tension to the wound. This is particularly useful in deep or irregularly shaped wounds.
5. Vertical Mattress Suture: Similar to the horizontal mattress suture, this technique involves placing two parallel stitches vertically across the wound edges. This creates a more pronounced "mattress" effect that can help reduce tension and minimize scarring.
6. Subcuticular Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed just below the surface of the skin, creating a smooth and barely visible line of sutures. This is particularly useful in cosmetic surgery or areas where minimizing scarring is important.

The choice of suture technique depends on various factors such as the location and size of the wound, the type of tissue involved, and the patient's individual needs and preferences. Proper suture placement and tension are crucial for optimal healing and aesthetic outcomes.

A fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two organs, vessels, or body parts that usually do not connect. It can form as a result of injury, infection, surgery, or disease. A fistula can occur anywhere in the body but commonly forms in the digestive system, genital area, or urinary system. The symptoms and treatment options for a fistula depend on its location and underlying cause.

A hematoma is defined as a localized accumulation of blood in a tissue, organ, or body space caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel. This can result from various causes such as trauma, surgery, or certain medical conditions that affect coagulation. The severity and size of a hematoma may vary depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Symptoms can include swelling, pain, bruising, and decreased mobility in the affected area. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the hematoma but may include observation, compression, ice, elevation, or in some cases, surgical intervention.

Aortic coarctation is a narrowing of the aorta, the largest blood vessel in the body that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. This condition usually occurs in the part of the aorta that is just beyond where it arises from the left ventricle and before it divides into the iliac arteries.

In aortic coarctation, the narrowing can vary from mild to severe, and it can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the severity of the narrowing and the age of the individual. In newborns and infants with severe coarctation, symptoms may include difficulty breathing, poor feeding, and weak or absent femoral pulses (located in the groin area). Older children and adults with mild to moderate coarctation may not experience any symptoms until later in life, when high blood pressure, headaches, nosebleeds, leg cramps, or heart failure develop.

Aortic coarctation is typically diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests such as echocardiography, CT angiography, or MRI, and sometimes cardiac catheterization. Treatment options include surgical repair or balloon dilation (also known as balloon angioplasty) to open the narrowed section of the aorta. If left untreated, aortic coarctation can lead to serious complications such as high blood pressure, heart failure, stroke, and rupture or dissection of the aorta.

Medical Definition:

Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), also known as gelatinase B or 92 kDa type IV collagenase, is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family. These enzymes are involved in degrading and remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) components, playing crucial roles in various physiological and pathological processes such as wound healing, tissue repair, and tumor metastasis.

MMP-9 is secreted as an inactive zymogen and activated upon removal of its propeptide domain. It can degrade several ECM proteins, including type IV collagen, elastin, fibronectin, and gelatin. MMP-9 has been implicated in numerous diseases, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Its expression is regulated at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels, and its activity can be controlled by endogenous inhibitors called tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs).

Hospital mortality is a term used to describe the number or rate of deaths that occur in a hospital setting during a specific period. It is often used as a measure of the quality of healthcare provided by a hospital, as a higher hospital mortality rate may indicate poorer care or more complex cases being treated. However, it's important to note that hospital mortality rates can be influenced by many factors, including the severity of illness of the patients being treated, patient demographics, and the availability of resources and specialized care. Therefore, hospital mortality rates should be interpreted with caution and in the context of other quality metrics.

A pressure transducer is a device that converts a mechanical force or pressure exerted upon it into an electrical signal which can be measured and standardized. In medical terms, pressure transducers are often used to measure various bodily pressures such as blood pressure, intracranial pressure, or intraocular pressure. These transducers typically consist of a diaphragm that is deflected by the pressure being measured, which then generates an electrical signal proportional to the amount of deflection. This signal can be processed and displayed in various ways, such as on a monitor or within an electronic medical record system.

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They have thick, muscular walls that can withstand the high pressure of blood being pumped out of the heart. Arteries branch off into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further divide into a vast network of tiny capillaries where the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste occurs between the blood and the body's cells. After passing through the capillary network, deoxygenated blood collects in venules, then merges into veins, which return the blood back to the heart.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, and Duplex are diagnostic medical techniques that use sound waves to create images of internal body structures and assess their function. Here are the definitions for each:

1. Ultrasonography: Also known as ultrasound, this is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of internal organs and tissues. A small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the skin surface, which emits and receives sound waves. The returning echoes are then processed to create real-time visual images of the internal structures.
2. Doppler: This is a type of ultrasound that measures the velocity and direction of blood flow in the body by analyzing the frequency shift of the reflected sound waves. It can be used to assess blood flow in various parts of the body, such as the heart, arteries, and veins.
3. Duplex: Duplex ultrasonography is a combination of both gray-scale ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound. It provides detailed images of internal structures, as well as information about blood flow velocity and direction. This technique is often used to evaluate conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, and peripheral arterial disease.

In summary, ultrasonography is a diagnostic imaging technique that uses sound waves to create images of internal structures, Doppler is a type of ultrasound that measures blood flow velocity and direction, and duplex is a combination of both techniques that provides detailed images and information about blood flow.

Replantation is a surgical procedure in which a body part that has been completely detached or amputated is reattached to the body. This procedure involves careful reattachment of bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, and blood vessels to restore function and sensation to the greatest extent possible. The success of replantation depends on various factors such as the level of injury, the condition of the amputated part, and the patient's overall health.

The hepatic artery is a branch of the celiac trunk or abdominal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver. It typically divides into two main branches, the right and left hepatic arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply different regions of the liver. The hepatic artery also gives off branches to supply other organs such as the gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum.

It's worth noting that there is significant variability in the anatomy of the hepatic artery, with some individuals having additional branches or variations in the origin of the vessel. This variability can have implications for surgical procedures involving the liver and surrounding organs.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Equipment safety in a medical context refers to the measures taken to ensure that medical equipment is free from potential harm or risks to patients, healthcare providers, and others who may come into contact with the equipment. This includes:

1. Designing and manufacturing the equipment to meet safety standards and regulations.
2. Properly maintaining and inspecting the equipment to ensure it remains safe over time.
3. Providing proper training for healthcare providers on how to use the equipment safely.
4. Implementing safeguards, such as alarms and warnings, to alert users of potential hazards.
5. Conducting regular risk assessments to identify and address any potential safety concerns.
6. Reporting and investigating any incidents or accidents involving the equipment to determine their cause and prevent future occurrences.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Temporal arteries are the paired set of arteries that run along the temples on either side of the head. They are branches of the external carotid artery and play a crucial role in supplying oxygenated blood to the scalp and surrounding muscles. One of the most common conditions associated with temporal arteries is Temporal Arteritis (also known as Giant Cell Arteritis), which is an inflammation of these arteries that can lead to serious complications like vision loss if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

Intracranial vasospasm is a medical condition characterized by the narrowing or constriction of the intracranial arteries, which are the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. This narrowing is usually caused by the contraction or spasming of the smooth muscle in the walls of the arteries, leading to reduced blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain tissue.

Intracranial vasospasm is often associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a type of stroke caused by bleeding in the space surrounding the brain. SAH can cause the release of blood components, such as hemoglobin and iron, which can irritate and damage the walls of the arteries. This irritation can trigger an inflammatory response that leads to the contraction of the smooth muscle in the artery walls, causing vasospasm.

Vasospasm can cause further ischemia (reduced blood flow) or infarction (tissue death) in the brain, leading to serious neurological deficits or even death. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment of intracranial vasospasm are crucial for improving patient outcomes. Treatment options may include medications to dilate the blood vessels, angioplasty (balloon dilation) or stenting procedures to mechanically open up the arteries, or surgical intervention to relieve pressure on the brain.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

In medical terms, constriction refers to the narrowing or tightening of a body part or passageway. This can occur due to various reasons such as spasms of muscles, inflammation, or abnormal growths. It can lead to symptoms like difficulty in breathing, swallowing, or blood flow, depending on where it occurs. For example, constriction of the airways in asthma, constriction of blood vessels in hypertension, or constriction of the esophagus in certain digestive disorders.

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a type of echocardiogram, which is a medical test that uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart. In TEE, a special probe containing a transducer is passed down the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) to obtain views of the heart from behind. This allows for more detailed images of the heart structures and function compared to a standard echocardiogram, which uses a probe placed on the chest. TEE is often used in patients with poor image quality from a standard echocardiogram or when more detailed images are needed to diagnose or monitor certain heart conditions. It is typically performed by a trained cardiologist or sonographer under the direction of a cardiologist.

The saphenous vein is a term used in anatomical description to refer to the great or small saphenous veins, which are superficial veins located in the lower extremities of the human body.

The great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body and originates from the medial aspect of the foot, ascending along the medial side of the leg and thigh, and drains into the femoral vein at the saphenofemoral junction, located in the upper third of the thigh.

The small saphenous vein (SSV) is a shorter vein that originates from the lateral aspect of the foot, ascends along the posterior calf, and drains into the popliteal vein at the saphenopopliteal junction, located in the popliteal fossa.

These veins are often used as conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery due to their consistent anatomy and length.

Computer-assisted radiographic image interpretation is the use of computer algorithms and software to assist and enhance the interpretation and analysis of medical images produced by radiography, such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans. The computer-assisted system can help identify and highlight certain features or anomalies in the image, such as tumors, fractures, or other abnormalities, which may be difficult for the human eye to detect. This technology can improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis, and may also reduce the risk of human error. It's important to note that the final interpretation and diagnosis is always made by a qualified healthcare professional, such as a radiologist, who takes into account the computer-assisted analysis in conjunction with their clinical expertise and knowledge.

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Enbucrilate" is not a medical term or a medication that I am aware of. It's possible that there might be some misunderstanding or misspelling in the term. If you have more context or information about where this term came from, I may be able to provide a more accurate and helpful response.

However, if you are referring to "bucrilate" which is a type of polymer used in some medical applications such as wound dressings, then it is a substance that can absorb large amounts of water and create a gel-like barrier between the wound and the outside environment, helping to keep the wound moist and promote healing.

If you have any further questions or concerns, please don't hesitate to ask.

Anatomic models are three-dimensional representations of body structures used for educational, training, or demonstration purposes. They can be made from various materials such as plastic, wax, or rubber and may depict the entire body or specific regions, organs, or systems. These models can be used to provide a visual aid for understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology, and can be particularly useful in situations where actual human specimens are not available or practical to use. They may also be used for surgical planning and rehearsal, as well as in medical research and product development.

Arteritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the arteries. It is also known as vasculitis of the arteries. The inflammation can cause the walls of the arteries to thicken and narrow, reducing blood flow to affected organs or tissues. There are several types of arteritis, including:

1. Giant cell arteritis (GCA): Also known as temporal arteritis, it is a condition that mainly affects the large and medium-sized arteries in the head and neck. The inflammation can cause headaches, jaw pain, scalp tenderness, and vision problems.
2. Takayasu's arteritis: This type of arteritis affects the aorta and its major branches, mainly affecting young women. Symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, and decreased pulse in the arms or legs.
3. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN): PAN is a rare systemic vasculitis that can affect medium-sized arteries throughout the body. It can cause a wide range of symptoms, including fever, rash, abdominal pain, and muscle weakness.
4. Kawasaki disease: This is a type of arteritis that mainly affects children under the age of 5. It causes inflammation in the blood vessels throughout the body, leading to fever, rash, swollen lymph nodes, and red eyes.

The exact cause of arteritis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissues. Treatment for arteritis typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system.

An intestinal fistula is an abnormal communication or connection between the intestines (or a portion of the intestine) and another organ or the skin surface. This connection forms a tract or passage, allowing the contents of the intestines, such as digestive enzymes, bacteria, and waste materials, to leak into other body areas or outside the body. Intestinal fistulas can develop due to various reasons, including inflammatory bowel diseases (like Crohn's disease), infections, complications from surgery, radiation therapy, or trauma. They can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, skin irritation, and infection. Treatment of intestinal fistulas often involves a combination of medical management, nutritional support, and surgical intervention.

Cyanoacrylates are a type of fast-acting adhesive that polymerize in the presence of moisture. They are commonly used in medical settings as tissue adhesives or surgical glues to close wounds and promote healing. The most well-known cyanoacrylate is probably "super glue," which is not intended for medical use.

In a medical context, cyanoacrylates are often used as an alternative to sutures or staples to close minor cuts and wounds. They can also be used in certain surgical procedures to help stop bleeding and hold tissue together while it heals. The adhesive forms a strong bond that helps to keep the wound closed and reduce the risk of infection.

It's important to note that cyanoacrylates should only be used under the direction of a healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to skin irritation or other complications. Additionally, cyanoacrylates are not suitable for all types of wounds, so it's important to follow your doctor's instructions carefully when using these products.

The Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is one of the main blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It arises from the internal carotid artery and divides into several branches, which supply the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere, including the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes.

The MCA is responsible for providing blood flow to critical areas of the brain, such as the primary motor and sensory cortices, Broca's area (associated with speech production), Wernicke's area (associated with language comprehension), and the visual association cortex.

Damage to the MCA or its branches can result in a variety of neurological deficits, depending on the specific location and extent of the injury. These may include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, sensory loss, language impairment, and visual field cuts.

Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), also known as gelatinase A, is an enzyme that belongs to the matrix metalloproteinase family. MMPs are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix components, and MMP-2 is responsible for degrading type IV collagen, a major component of the basement membrane. This enzyme plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including tissue remodeling, wound healing, and angiogenesis. However, its dysregulation has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as cancer, arthritis, and cardiovascular diseases. MMP-2 is synthesized as an inactive proenzyme and requires activation by other proteases or chemical modifications before it can exert its proteolytic activity.

Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) is a medical condition characterized by inadequate blood flow to the vertebral and basilar arteries, which supply oxygenated blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. These arteries arise from the subclavian arteries and merge to form the basilar artery, which supplies critical structures in the posterior circulation of the brain.

VBI is often caused by atherosclerosis, or the buildup of plaque in the arterial walls, leading to narrowing (stenosis) or occlusion of these vessels. Other causes include embolism, arterial dissection, and vasculitis. The decreased blood flow can result in various neurological symptoms, such as dizziness, vertigo, imbalance, difficulty swallowing, slurred speech, visual disturbances, and even transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or strokes.

Diagnosis of VBI typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies like MRA or CTA, and sometimes cerebral angiography to assess the extent and location of vascular narrowing or occlusion. Treatment options may include lifestyle modifications, medications to manage risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, or high cholesterol), antiplatelet therapy, or surgical interventions like endarterectomy or stenting in severe cases.

Ischemia is the medical term used to describe a lack of blood flow to a part of the body, often due to blocked or narrowed blood vessels. This can lead to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the tissues, which can cause them to become damaged or die. Ischemia can affect many different parts of the body, including the heart, brain, legs, and intestines. Symptoms of ischemia depend on the location and severity of the blockage, but they may include pain, cramping, numbness, weakness, or coldness in the affected area. In severe cases, ischemia can lead to tissue death (gangrene) or organ failure. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blocked blood flow, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain tissue, and remove waste products. It includes the internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, circle of Willis, and the intracranial arteries that branch off from them.

The internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries merge to form the circle of Willis, a polygonal network of vessels located at the base of the brain. The anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and communicating arteries are the major vessels that branch off from the circle of Willis and supply blood to different regions of the brain.

Interruptions or abnormalities in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to various neurological conditions such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and vascular dementia.

A neurological examination is a series of tests used to evaluate the functioning of the nervous system, including both the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body). It is typically performed by a healthcare professional such as a neurologist or a primary care physician with specialized training in neurology.

During a neurological examination, the healthcare provider will assess various aspects of neurological function, including:

1. Mental status: This involves evaluating a person's level of consciousness, orientation, memory, and cognitive abilities.
2. Cranial nerves: There are 12 cranial nerves that control functions such as vision, hearing, smell, taste, and movement of the face and neck. The healthcare provider will test each of these nerves to ensure they are functioning properly.
3. Motor function: This involves assessing muscle strength, tone, coordination, and reflexes. The healthcare provider may ask the person to perform certain movements or tasks to evaluate these functions.
4. Sensory function: The healthcare provider will test a person's ability to feel different types of sensations, such as touch, pain, temperature, vibration, and proprioception (the sense of where your body is in space).
5. Coordination and balance: The healthcare provider may assess a person's ability to perform coordinated movements, such as touching their finger to their nose or walking heel-to-toe.
6. Reflexes: The healthcare provider will test various reflexes throughout the body using a reflex hammer.

The results of a neurological examination can help healthcare providers diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or peripheral neuropathy.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

Pulsatile flow is a type of fluid flow that occurs in a rhythmic, wave-like pattern, typically seen in the cardiovascular system. It refers to the periodic variation in the volume or velocity of a fluid (such as blood) that is caused by the regular beating of the heart. In pulsatile flow, there are periods of high flow followed by periods of low or no flow, which creates a distinct pattern on a graph or tracing. This type of flow is important for maintaining proper function and health in organs and tissues throughout the body.

A database, in the context of medical informatics, is a structured set of data organized in a way that allows for efficient storage, retrieval, and analysis. Databases are used extensively in healthcare to store and manage various types of information, including patient records, clinical trials data, research findings, and genetic data.

As a topic, "Databases" in medicine can refer to the design, implementation, management, and use of these databases. It may also encompass issues related to data security, privacy, and interoperability between different healthcare systems and databases. Additionally, it can involve the development and application of database technologies for specific medical purposes, such as clinical decision support, outcomes research, and personalized medicine.

Overall, databases play a critical role in modern healthcare by enabling evidence-based practice, improving patient care, advancing medical research, and informing health policy decisions.

1. Intracranial Embolism: This is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other particle (embolus) formed elsewhere in the body, travels through the bloodstream and lodges itself in the intracranial blood vessels, blocking the flow of blood to a part of the brain. This can lead to various neurological symptoms such as weakness, numbness, speech difficulties, or even loss of consciousness, depending on the severity and location of the blockage.

2. Intracranial Thrombosis: This is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms within the intracranial blood vessels. The clot can partially or completely obstruct the flow of blood, leading to various symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, or neurological deficits, depending on the severity and location of the thrombosis. Intracranial thrombosis can occur due to various factors including atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and other medical conditions that increase the risk of blood clot formation.

Tissue adhesives, also known as surgical glues or tissue sealants, are medical devices used to approximate and hold together tissues or wounds in place of traditional sutures or staples. They work by creating a bond between the tissue surfaces, helping to promote healing and reduce the risk of infection. Tissue adhesives can be synthetic or biologically derived and are often used in various surgical procedures, including ophthalmic, dermatological, and pediatric surgeries. Some common types of tissue adhesives include cyanoacrylate-based glues, fibrin sealants, and collagen-based sealants.

Paraparesis is a medical term that refers to a mild to moderate form of paralysis affecting the lower limbs, specifically the legs. It is characterized by partial loss of strength and mobility, which may result in difficulty walking or maintaining balance. Paraparesis can be caused by various conditions such as spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, spina bifida, or other neurological disorders affecting the spinal cord.

The term "para" means "two," and "paresis" comes from the Greek word "paresis," which means "loosening" or "relaxation." Therefore, paraparesis implies weakness or partial paralysis in two lower extremities. It is important to note that while paraparesis can impact a person's ability to walk and perform daily activities, it does not necessarily lead to complete loss of movement or sensation in the affected limbs.

Proper diagnosis and management of the underlying cause are crucial for improving symptoms and preventing further progression of paraparesis. Treatment options may include physical therapy, medications, assistive devices, or surgical interventions depending on the specific condition causing the paraparesis.

An emergency is a sudden, unexpected situation that requires immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm, permanent disability, or death. Emergencies can include severe injuries, trauma, cardiac arrest, stroke, difficulty breathing, severe allergic reactions, and other life-threatening conditions. In such situations, prompt medical intervention is necessary to stabilize the patient's condition, diagnose the underlying problem, and provide appropriate treatment.

Emergency medical services (EMS) are responsible for providing emergency care to patients outside of a hospital setting, such as in the home, workplace, or public place. EMS personnel include emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and other first responders who are trained to assess a patient's condition, provide basic life support, and transport the patient to a hospital for further treatment.

In a hospital setting, an emergency department (ED) is a specialized unit that provides immediate care to patients with acute illnesses or injuries. ED staff includes physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who are trained to handle a wide range of medical emergencies. The ED is equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide prompt diagnosis and treatment for critically ill or injured patients.

Overall, the goal of emergency medical care is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide timely and effective treatment to improve outcomes and save lives.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

Cardiovascular surgical procedures refer to a range of surgeries performed on the heart and blood vessels to treat or manage various cardiovascular conditions. These surgeries can be open or minimally invasive, and they aim to correct structural abnormalities, improve blood flow, or replace damaged or diseased parts of the cardiovascular system.

Some common types of cardiovascular surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This surgery involves taking a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body and using it to create a detour around a blocked or narrowed coronary artery, improving blood flow to the heart muscle.
2. Heart valve repair or replacement: When one or more heart valves become damaged or diseased, they may not open or close properly, leading to reduced blood flow or leakage of blood backward through the valve. In these cases, surgeons may repair or replace the affected valve with a mechanical or biological prosthetic valve.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge and potentially rupture, causing severe bleeding. Surgeons can repair an aneurysm by reinforcing the weakened area with a graft or by replacing the affected section of the blood vessel.
4. Heart transplant: In cases where heart failure is irreversible and all other treatment options have been exhausted, a heart transplant may be necessary. This procedure involves removing the damaged heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Ventricular assist devices (VADs): These are mechanical pumps that can be implanted to help support heart function in patients with advanced heart failure who are not candidates for heart transplants. VADs can help improve blood flow, reduce symptoms, and increase the patient's quality of life.
6. Minimally invasive procedures: Advances in technology have led to the development of several minimally invasive cardiovascular surgical procedures, such as robotic-assisted heart surgery, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). These techniques typically involve smaller incisions, reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and faster recovery times compared to traditional open-heart surgeries.

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

An arterio-arterial fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Under normal circumstances, arteries do not directly communicate with each other; instead, they supply blood to capillaries, which then deliver the blood to veins.

An arterio-arterial fistula can result from various causes, including congenital defects, trauma, or as a complication of medical procedures such as arterial catheterization or surgical interventions. The presence of an arterio-arterial fistula may lead to several hemodynamic consequences, depending on the size, location, and chronicity of the communication. These can include altered blood flow patterns, increased pressure in the affected arteries, and potential cardiac complications due to volume overload.

Symptoms of an arterio-arterial fistula may vary widely, from being asymptomatic to experiencing palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, or even congestive heart failure in severe cases. The diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT angiography, or MRI angiography to visualize the abnormal communication and assess its hemodynamic impact. Treatment options may include observation, endovascular interventions, or surgical repair, depending on the individual case.

The retroperitoneal space refers to the area within the abdominal cavity that is located behind (retro) the peritoneum, which is the smooth serous membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers the abdominal organs. This space is divided into several compartments and contains vital structures such as the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, duodenum, aorta, and vena cava.

The retroperitoneal space can be further categorized into two regions:

1. The posterior pararenal space, which is lateral to the psoas muscle and contains fat tissue.
2. The perirenal space, which surrounds the kidneys and adrenal glands and is filled with fatty connective tissue.

Disorders or conditions affecting the retroperitoneal space may include infections, tumors, hematomas, or inflammation, which can lead to various symptoms depending on the specific structures involved. Imaging techniques such as CT scans or MRI are commonly used to diagnose and assess retroperitoneal pathologies.

The carotid arteries are a pair of vital blood vessels in the human body that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Each person has two common carotid arteries, one on each side of the neck, which branch off from the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

The right common carotid artery originates from the brachiocephalic trunk, while the left common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch. As they ascend through the neck, they split into two main branches: the internal and external carotid arteries.

The internal carotid artery supplies oxygenated blood to the brain, eyes, and other structures within the skull, while the external carotid artery provides blood to the face, scalp, and various regions of the neck.

Maintaining healthy carotid arteries is crucial for overall cardiovascular health and preventing serious conditions like stroke, which can occur when the arteries become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque or fatty deposits (atherosclerosis). Regular check-ups with healthcare professionals may include monitoring carotid artery health through ultrasound or other imaging techniques.

A laparotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision in the abdominal wall to gain access to the abdominal cavity. This procedure is typically performed to diagnose and treat various conditions such as abdominal trauma, tumors, infections, or inflammatory diseases. The size of the incision can vary depending on the reason for the surgery and the extent of the condition being treated. Once the procedure is complete, the incision is closed with sutures or staples.

The term "laparotomy" comes from the Greek words "lapara," which means "flank" or "side," and "tome," which means "to cut." Together, they describe the surgical procedure that involves cutting into the abdomen to examine its contents.

Takayasu arteritis is a rare inflammatory disease that affects the large blood vessels in the body, most commonly the aorta and its main branches. It's also known as pulseless disease or aortic arch syndrome. The condition primarily affects young to middle-aged women, although it can occur in anyone at any age.

The inflammation caused by Takayasu arteritis can lead to narrowing, thickening, and weakening of the affected blood vessels' walls, which can result in reduced blood flow to various organs and tissues. This can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the severity and location of the vessel involvement.

Common symptoms include:

* Weak or absent pulses in the arms and/or legs
* High blood pressure (hypertension)
* Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting spells due to reduced blood flow to the brain
* Headaches
* Visual disturbances
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Fever

Diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment usually includes corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medications to control inflammation and maintain remission. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is essential to monitor disease activity and adjust treatment as necessary.

Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which is a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. It belongs to the tetracycline class of antibiotics. Doxycycline works by inhibiting the production of proteins that bacteria need to survive and multiply.

Doxycycline is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and severe acne. It is also used to prevent malaria in travelers who are visiting areas where malaria is common.

Like all antibiotics, doxycycline should be taken exactly as directed by a healthcare professional. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections harder to treat in the future.

It's important to note that doxycycline can cause photosensitivity, so it is recommended to avoid prolonged sun exposure and use sun protection while taking this medication. Additionally, doxycycline should not be taken during pregnancy or by children under the age of 8 due to potential dental and bone development issues.

The cerebellum is a part of the brain that lies behind the brainstem and is involved in the regulation of motor movements, balance, and coordination. It contains two hemispheres and a central portion called the vermis. The cerebellum receives input from sensory systems and other areas of the brain and spinal cord and sends output to motor areas of the brain. Damage to the cerebellum can result in problems with movement, balance, and coordination.

"Cardiovascular Tuberculosis" refers to a form of tuberculosis (TB) where the bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) infects the heart or the blood vessels. This is a less common manifestation of TB, but it can have serious consequences if left untreated.

In cardiovascular TB, the bacteria can cause inflammation and damage to the heart muscle (myocarditis), the sac surrounding the heart (pericarditis), or the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This can lead to symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and fever. In severe cases, it can cause heart failure or life-threatening arrhythmias.

Cardiovascular TB is usually treated with a combination of antibiotics that are effective against the TB bacteria. The treatment may last for several months to ensure that all the bacteria have been eliminated. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart valves or vessels. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve outcomes in patients with cardiovascular TB.

Thromboembolism is a medical condition that refers to the obstruction of a blood vessel by a thrombus (blood clot) that has formed elsewhere in the body and then been transported by the bloodstream to a narrower vessel, where it becomes lodged. This process can occur in various parts of the body, leading to different types of thromboembolisms:

1. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A thrombus forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs or pelvis, and then breaks off and travels to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
2. Pulmonary Embolism (PE): A thrombus formed elsewhere, often in the deep veins of the legs, dislodges and travels to the lungs, blocking one or more pulmonary arteries. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and potentially life-threatening complications if not treated promptly.
3. Cerebral Embolism: A thrombus formed in another part of the body, such as the heart or carotid artery, dislodges and travels to the brain, causing a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
4. Arterial Thromboembolism: A thrombus forms in an artery and breaks off, traveling to another part of the body and blocking blood flow to an organ or tissue, leading to potential damage or loss of function. Examples include mesenteric ischemia (intestinal damage due to blocked blood flow) and retinal artery occlusion (vision loss due to blocked blood flow in the eye).

Prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing thromboembolism and reducing the risk of severe complications.

Graft occlusion in the context of vascular surgery refers to the complete or partial blockage of a blood vessel that has been surgically replaced or repaired with a graft. The graft can be made from either synthetic materials or autologous tissue (taken from another part of the patient's body).

Graft occlusion can occur due to various reasons, including:

1. Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot within the graft, which can obstruct blood flow.
2. Intimal hyperplasia: Overgrowth of the inner lining (intima) of the graft or the adjacent native vessel, causing narrowing of the lumen and reducing blood flow.
3. Atherosclerosis: Deposition of cholesterol and other substances in the walls of the graft, leading to hardening and narrowing of the vessel.
4. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infection of the graft can cause inflammation, weakening, and ultimately occlusion of the graft.
5. Mechanical factors: Kinking, twisting, or compression of the graft can lead to obstruction of blood flow.

Graft occlusion is a significant complication following vascular surgery, as it can result in reduced perfusion to downstream tissues and organs, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen supply) and potential tissue damage or loss.

A subdural hematoma is a type of brain injury in which blood accumulates between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges, the protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord) and the brain. In the case of an acute subdural hematoma, the bleeding occurs suddenly and rapidly as a result of trauma, such as a severe head injury from a fall, motor vehicle accident, or assault. The accumulation of blood puts pressure on the brain, which can lead to serious complications, including brain damage or death, if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Acute subdural hematomas are considered medical emergencies and require immediate neurosurgical intervention.

Hemoptysis is the medical term for coughing up blood that originates from the lungs or lower respiratory tract. It can range in severity from streaks of blood mixed with mucus to large amounts of pure blood. Hemoptysis may be a sign of various underlying conditions, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, cancer, or blood disorders. Immediate medical attention is required when hemoptysis occurs, especially if it's in significant quantities, to determine the cause and provide appropriate treatment.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

The popliteal vein is the continuation of the tibial and fibular (or anterior and posterior tibial) veins, forming in the lower leg's back portion or popliteal fossa. It carries blood from the leg towards the heart. The popliteal vein is located deep within the body and is accompanied by the popliteal artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg. This venous structure is a crucial part of the venous system in the lower extremities and is often assessed during physical examinations for signs of venous insufficiency or deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

'Equipment and Supplies' is a term used in the medical field to refer to the physical items and materials needed for medical care, treatment, and procedures. These can include a wide range of items, such as:

* Medical equipment: This includes devices and machines used for diagnostic, monitoring, or therapeutic purposes, such as stethoscopes, blood pressure monitors, EKG machines, ventilators, and infusion pumps.
* Medical supplies: These are consumable items that are used once and then discarded, such as syringes, needles, bandages, gowns, gloves, and face masks.
* Furniture and fixtures: This includes items such as hospital beds, examination tables, chairs, and cabinets that are used to create a functional medical space.

Having the right equipment and supplies is essential for providing safe and effective medical care. The specific items needed will depend on the type of medical practice or facility, as well as the needs of individual patients.

Peripheral catheterization is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube (catheter) into a peripheral vein, which is a blood vessel located outside of the chest and abdomen. This type of catheterization is typically performed to administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support, or to monitor various physiological parameters such as central venous pressure.

Peripheral catheters are usually inserted into veins in the hands or arms, although they can also be placed in other peripheral veins. The procedure is typically performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection. Once the catheter is in place, it may be secured with a dressing or suture to prevent movement and dislodgement.

Peripheral catheterization is a relatively safe and common procedure that is routinely performed in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare settings. However, like any medical procedure, it carries a small risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or damage to the vein or surrounding tissues.

Emergency treatment refers to the urgent medical interventions and care provided to individuals who are experiencing a severe injury, illness, or life-threatening condition. The primary aim of emergency treatment is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide immediate medical attention to save the patient's life or limb.

Emergency treatment may include various medical procedures, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), airway management, administering medications, controlling bleeding, treating burns, immobilizing fractures, and providing pain relief. The specific emergency treatment provided will depend on the nature and severity of the patient's condition.

Emergency treatment is typically delivered in an emergency department (ED) or a similar setting, such as an urgent care center, ambulance, or helicopter transport. Healthcare professionals who provide emergency treatment include emergency physicians, nurses, paramedics, and other specialists trained in emergency medicine.

It's important to note that emergency treatment is different from routine medical care, which is usually provided on a scheduled basis and focuses on preventing, diagnosing, and managing chronic or ongoing health conditions. Emergency treatment, on the other hand, is provided in response to an acute event or crisis that requires immediate attention and action.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare and progressive condition characterized by the abnormal growth of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneal space, which is the area behind the peritoneum (the lining that covers the abdominal cavity). This fibrous tissue can encase and compress vital structures such as the ureters, blood vessels, and nerves, leading to various symptoms.

RPF can be idiopathic (without a known cause) or secondary to other conditions like infections, malignancies, autoimmune diseases, or medications. The exact pathogenesis of RPF is not fully understood, but it's believed that an abnormal immune response and inflammation play significant roles in its development.

Symptoms of RPF may include:

1. Flank pain or back pain
2. Renal insufficiency or kidney failure due to ureteral compression
3. Hydronephrosis (dilatation of the renal pelvis and calyces)
4. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) due to vascular compression
5. Neurological symptoms due to nerve compression
6. Weight loss, fatigue, and fever (in some cases)

Diagnosis of RPF typically involves imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with laboratory tests and sometimes biopsy for confirmation. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but generally involve immunosuppressive medications, corticosteroids, and surgical intervention in severe cases.

Coronary angiography is a medical procedure that uses X-ray imaging to visualize the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. During the procedure, a thin, flexible catheter is inserted into an artery in the arm or groin and threaded through the blood vessels to the heart. A contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken as the dye flows through the coronary arteries. These images can help doctors diagnose and treat various heart conditions, such as blockages or narrowing of the arteries, that can lead to chest pain or heart attacks. It is also known as coronary arteriography or cardiac catheterization.

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a rare condition that affects the arterial walls, primarily in the medium and large-sized arteries. According to the American Heart Association, FMD is characterized by uneven growth or damage to the cells in the artery wall, leading to the formation of fibrous tissue and areas with narrowing (stenosis) or ballooning (aneurysm) of the artery.

FMD most commonly affects the renal (kidney) and carotid (neck) arteries but can also occur in other arteries, such as those in the abdomen, arms, and legs. The exact cause of FMD is unknown, but genetic factors and hormonal influences are believed to play a role.

Symptoms of FMD depend on which arteries are affected and may include high blood pressure, headaches, neck pain, dizziness, visual disturbances, or kidney problems. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests like ultrasound, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Treatment options for FMD include medications to manage symptoms and control high blood pressure, as well as various interventions such as angioplasty or stenting to open narrowed arteries.

Intraoperative care refers to the medical care and interventions provided to a patient during a surgical procedure. This care is typically administered by a team of healthcare professionals, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and other specialists as needed. The goal of intraoperative care is to maintain the patient's physiological stability throughout the surgery, minimize complications, and ensure the best possible outcome.

Intraoperative care may include:

1. Anesthesia management: Administering and monitoring anesthetic drugs to keep the patient unconscious and free from pain during the surgery.
2. Monitoring vital signs: Continuously tracking the patient's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and other key physiological parameters to ensure they remain within normal ranges.
3. Fluid and blood product administration: Maintaining adequate intravascular volume and oxygen-carrying capacity through the infusion of fluids and blood products as needed.
4. Intraoperative imaging: Utilizing real-time imaging techniques, such as X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans, to guide the surgical procedure and ensure accurate placement of implants or other devices.
5. Neuromonitoring: Using electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of nerves and neural structures during surgery, particularly in procedures involving the brain, spine, or peripheral nerves.
6. Intraoperative medication management: Administering various medications as needed for pain control, infection prophylaxis, or the treatment of medical conditions that may arise during the surgery.
7. Temperature management: Regulating the patient's body temperature to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia, which can have adverse effects on surgical outcomes and overall patient health.
8. Communication and coordination: Ensuring effective communication among the members of the surgical team to optimize patient care and safety.

Shear strength is a property of a material that describes its ability to withstand forces that cause internal friction and sliding of one portion of the material relative to another. In the context of human tissues, shear strength is an important factor in understanding how tissues respond to various stresses and strains, such as those experienced during physical activities or injuries.

For example, in the case of bones, shear strength is a critical factor in determining their ability to resist fractures under different types of loading conditions. Similarly, in soft tissues like ligaments and tendons, shear strength plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of these structures during movement and preventing excessive deformation or injury.

It's worth noting that measuring the shear strength of human tissues can be challenging due to their complex structure and anisotropic properties. As such, researchers often use specialized techniques and equipment to quantify these properties under controlled conditions in the lab.

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease refers to a type of stroke or brain injury that affects the basal ganglia, which are clusters of nerve cells located deep within the brain. These structures play a crucial role in controlling movement and coordination.

Cerebrovascular disease occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted due to blockage or rupture of blood vessels. In the case of basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease, this disruption specifically affects the blood supply to the basal ganglia. This can result in damage to the nerve cells in this region and lead to various symptoms, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Symptoms of basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease may include:

* Hemiplegia or weakness on one side of the body
* Rigidity or stiffness of muscles
* Tremors or involuntary movements
* Difficulty with coordination and balance
* Speech and language difficulties
* Changes in cognitive function, such as memory loss or difficulty with problem-solving

Treatment for basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the disrupted blood flow, such as through medication to control blood pressure or cholesterol levels, surgery to remove blockages or repair ruptured blood vessels, or rehabilitation therapy to help manage symptoms and improve function.

Observer variation, also known as inter-observer variability or measurement agreement, refers to the difference in observations or measurements made by different observers or raters when evaluating the same subject or phenomenon. It is a common issue in various fields such as medicine, research, and quality control, where subjective assessments are involved.

In medical terms, observer variation can occur in various contexts, including:

1. Diagnostic tests: Different radiologists may interpret the same X-ray or MRI scan differently, leading to variations in diagnosis.
2. Clinical trials: Different researchers may have different interpretations of clinical outcomes or adverse events, affecting the consistency and reliability of trial results.
3. Medical records: Different healthcare providers may document medical histories, physical examinations, or treatment plans differently, leading to inconsistencies in patient care.
4. Pathology: Different pathologists may have varying interpretations of tissue samples or laboratory tests, affecting diagnostic accuracy.

Observer variation can be minimized through various methods, such as standardized assessment tools, training and calibration of observers, and statistical analysis of inter-rater reliability.

A rupture, in medical terms, refers to the breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, injury, increased pressure, or degeneration. A ruptured organ or structure can lead to serious complications, including internal bleeding, infection, and even death, if not treated promptly and appropriately. Examples of ruptures include a ruptured appendix, ruptured eardrum, or a ruptured disc in the spine.

An embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a substance, such as a blood clot or an air bubble, blocks a blood vessel. This can happen in any part of the body, but it is particularly dangerous when it affects the brain (causing a stroke) or the lungs (causing a pulmonary embolism). Embolisms can cause serious harm by preventing oxygen and nutrients from reaching the tissues and organs that need them. They are often the result of underlying medical conditions, such as heart disease or deep vein thrombosis, and may require immediate medical attention to prevent further complications.

Neurosurgery, also known as neurological surgery, is a medical specialty that involves the diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders of the nervous system. This includes the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. Neurosurgeons use both traditional open and minimally invasive techniques to treat various conditions such as tumors, trauma, vascular disorders, infections, stroke, epilepsy, pain, and congenital anomalies. They work closely with other healthcare professionals including neurologists, radiologists, oncologists, and critical care specialists to provide comprehensive patient care.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Duodenal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. Here are some examples of duodenal diseases:

1. Duodenitis: This is inflammation of the duodenum, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating. Duodenitis can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, excessive use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or chronic inflammation due to conditions like Crohn's disease.
2. Peptic ulcers: These are sores that develop in the lining of the duodenum, usually as a result of infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria or long-term use of NSAIDs. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, bloating, and heartburn.
3. Duodenal cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the duodenum. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, weight loss, and blood in the stool.
4. Celiac disease: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the lining of the small intestine in response to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. This can lead to inflammation and damage to the duodenum.
5. Duodenal diverticulosis: This is a condition in which small pouches form in the lining of the duodenum. While many people with duodenal diverticulosis do not experience symptoms, some may develop complications such as inflammation or infection.
6. Duodenal atresia: This is a congenital condition in which the duodenum does not form properly, leading to blockage of the intestine. This can cause symptoms such as vomiting and difficulty feeding in newborns.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

"Device Removal" in a medical context generally refers to the surgical or nonsurgical removal of a medical device that has been previously implanted in a patient's body. The purpose of removing the device may vary, depending on the individual case. Some common reasons for device removal include infection, malfunction, rejection, or when the device is no longer needed.

Examples of medical devices that may require removal include pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), artificial joints, orthopedic hardware, breast implants, cochlear implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The procedure for device removal will depend on the type of device, its location in the body, and the reason for its removal.

It is important to note that device removal carries certain risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding tissues, or complications related to anesthesia. Therefore, the decision to remove a medical device should be made carefully, considering both the potential benefits and risks of the procedure.

A Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula (CCSF) is an abnormal connection between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, a venous structure in the skull. This connection can be either direct or indirect. Direct CCSFs are caused by trauma or rupture of an aneurysm, while indirect CCSFs are usually spontaneous and associated with conditions such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, or connective tissue disorders.

Symptoms of a CCSF may include headache, eye redness, protrusion of the eyeball, double vision, hearing disturbances, and pulsatile tinnitus (a rhythmic sound in the ear). The severity of symptoms can vary depending on the size of the fistula and the pressure within the cavernous sinus.

Treatment options for CCSF include endovascular repair with stenting or coiling, surgical closure, or observation, depending on the type and size of the fistula and the presence of symptoms.

Angiocardiography is a medical procedure used to examine the heart and blood vessels, particularly the chambers of the heart and the valves between them. It involves injecting a contrast agent into the bloodstream and taking X-ray images as the agent flows through the heart. This allows doctors to visualize any abnormalities such as blockages, narrowing, or leakage in the heart valves or blood vessels.

There are different types of angiocardiography, including:

* Left heart catheterization (LHC): A thin tube called a catheter is inserted into a vein in the arm or groin and threaded through to the left side of the heart to measure pressure and oxygen levels.
* Right heart catheterization (RHC): Similar to LHC, but the catheter is threaded through to the right side of the heart to measure pressure and oxygen levels there.
* Selective angiocardiography: A catheter is used to inject the contrast agent into specific blood vessels or chambers of the heart to get a more detailed view.

Angiocardiography can help diagnose and evaluate various heart conditions, including congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and valvular heart disease. It is an invasive procedure that carries some risks, such as bleeding, infection, and damage to blood vessels or heart tissue. However, it can provide valuable information for diagnosing and treating heart conditions.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

The Ulnar Artery is a major blood vessel that supplies the forearm, hand, and fingers with oxygenated blood. It originates from the brachial artery in the upper arm and travels down the medial (towards the body's midline) side of the forearm, passing through the Guyon's canal at the wrist before branching out to supply the hand and fingers.

The ulnar artery provides blood to the palmar aspect of the hand and the ulnar side of the little finger and half of the ring finger. It also contributes to the formation of the deep palmar arch, which supplies blood to the deep structures of the hand. The ulnar artery is an important structure in the circulatory system, providing critical blood flow to the upper limb.

Cerebral veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the brain to the dural venous sinuses, which are located between the layers of tissue covering the brain. The largest cerebral vein is the superior sagittal sinus, which runs along the top of the brain. Other major cerebral veins include the straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. These veins receive blood from smaller veins called venules that drain the surface and deep structures of the brain. The cerebral veins play an important role in maintaining normal circulation and pressure within the brain.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Hydrocephalus is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure and potentially causing damage to the brain tissues. This excessive buildup of CSF can result from either overproduction or impaired absorption of the fluid, which typically causes the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) inside the brain to expand and put pressure on surrounding brain structures.

The condition can be congenital, present at birth due to genetic factors or abnormalities during fetal development, or acquired later in life as a result of injuries, infections, tumors, or other disorders affecting the brain's ability to regulate CSF flow and absorption. Symptoms may vary depending on age, severity, and duration but often include headaches, vomiting, balance problems, vision issues, cognitive impairment, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for hydrocephalus typically involves surgically implanting a shunt system that diverts the excess CSF from the brain to another part of the body where it can be absorbed, such as the abdominal cavity. In some cases, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) might be an alternative treatment option, creating a new pathway for CSF flow within the brain. Regular follow-ups with neurosurgeons and other healthcare professionals are essential to monitor the condition and make any necessary adjustments to the treatment plan.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

The heart ventricles are the two lower chambers of the heart that receive blood from the atria and pump it to the lungs or the rest of the body. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs, while the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Both ventricles have thick, muscular walls to generate the pressure necessary to pump blood through the circulatory system.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Finite Element Analysis" (FEA) is not a medical term. It is a computational technique used in engineering and physical sciences. FEA is a computerized method for predicting how a product reacts to real-world forces, vibration, heat, fluid flow, and other physical effects. It's a way that engineers can simulate the performance of a product or system before it is built, which can help reduce costs, improve quality, and shorten the development time.

However, in a medical context, FEA might be used in the field of biomechanical engineering to analyze the mechanical behavior of biological systems, such as bones, joints, or soft tissues, under various loads and conditions. This can help researchers and clinicians better understand the mechanisms of injury, disease, or the effects of treatment, and develop more effective prevention, diagnostic, or therapeutic strategies.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, is responsible for controlling the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which enables the eye to move outward. Abducens nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can result in various symptoms, primarily affecting eye movement.

Here are some medical definitions related to abducens nerve diseases:

1. Abducens Nerve Palsy: A condition characterized by weakness or paralysis of the abducens nerve, causing difficulty in moving the affected eye outward. This results in double vision (diplopia), especially when gazing towards the side of the weakened nerve. Abducens nerve palsy can be congenital, acquired, or caused by various factors such as trauma, tumors, aneurysms, infections, or diseases like diabetes and multiple sclerosis.
2. Sixth Nerve Palsy: Another term for abducens nerve palsy, referring to the weakness or paralysis of the sixth cranial nerve.
3. Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (INO): A neurological condition affecting eye movement, often caused by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the abducens nucleus with the oculomotor nucleus. INO results in impaired adduction (inward movement) of the eye on the side of the lesion and nystagmus (involuntary eye movements) of the abducting eye on the opposite side when attempting to look towards the side of the lesion.
4. One-and-a-Half Syndrome: A rare neurological condition characterized by a combination of INO and internuclear ophthalmoplegia with horizontal gaze palsy on the same side, caused by damage to both the abducens nerve and the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). This results in limited or no ability to move the eyes towards the side of the lesion and impaired adduction of the eye on the opposite side.
5. Brainstem Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brainstem, which can affect the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves, leading to various neurological symptoms such as diplopia (double vision), ataxia (loss of balance and coordination), and facial weakness. Brainstem encephalitis can be caused by infectious agents, autoimmune disorders, or paraneoplastic syndromes.
6. Multiple Sclerosis (MS): An autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system, including the brainstem and optic nerves. MS can cause various neurological symptoms, such as diplopia, nystagmus, and INO, due to damage to the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves.
7. Wernicke's Encephalopathy: A neurological disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, often seen in alcoholics or individuals with malnutrition. Wernicke's encephalopathy can affect the brainstem and cause various symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, confusion, and oculomotor abnormalities.
8. Pontine Glioma: A rare type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the pons (a part of the brainstem). Pontine gliomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, facial weakness, and difficulty swallowing due to their location in the brainstem.
9. Brainstem Cavernous Malformation: A benign vascular lesion that arises from the small blood vessels in the brainstem. Brainstem cavernous malformations can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, and facial weakness due to their location in the brainstem.
10. Pituitary Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises from the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain. Large pituitary adenomas can compress the optic nerves and cause various visual symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, and decreased vision.
11. Craniopharyngioma: A benign tumor that arises from the remnants of the Rathke's pouch, a structure that gives rise to the anterior pituitary gland. Craniopharyngiomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the optic nerves and pituitary gland.
12. Meningioma: A benign tumor that arises from the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, and seizures depending on their location in the brain or spinal cord.
13. Chordoma: A rare type of malignant tumor that arises from the remnants of the notochord, a structure that gives rise to the spine during embryonic development. Chordomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the brainstem and spinal cord.
14. Metastatic Brain Tumors: Malignant tumors that spread from other parts of the body to the brain. Metastatic brain tumors can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment depending on their location in the brain.
15. Other Rare Brain Tumors: There are many other rare types of brain tumors that can cause diplopia or other neurological symptoms, including gliomas, ependymomas, pineal region tumors, and others. These tumors require specialized diagnosis and treatment by neuro-oncologists and neurosurgeons with expertise in these rare conditions.

In summary, diplopia can be caused by various brain tumors, including pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, chordomas, metastatic brain tumors, and other rare types of tumors. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience diplopia or other neurological symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

The aortic valve is the valve located between the left ventricle (the lower left chamber of the heart) and the aorta (the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body). It is made up of three thin flaps or leaflets that open and close to regulate blood flow. During a heartbeat, the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta, and then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricle when it relaxes. Any abnormality or damage to this valve can lead to various cardiovascular conditions such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, or infective endocarditis.

Ophthalmoplegia is a medical term that refers to the paralysis or weakness of the eye muscles, which can result in double vision (diplopia) or difficulty moving the eyes. It can be caused by various conditions, including nerve damage, muscle disorders, or neurological diseases such as myasthenia gravis or multiple sclerosis. Ophthalmoplegia can affect one or more eye muscles and can be partial or complete. Depending on the underlying cause, ophthalmoplegia may be treatable with medications, surgery, or other interventions.

Thoracotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision on the chest wall to gain access to the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, and other vital organs. The incision can be made on the side (lateral thoracotomy), back (posterolateral thoracotomy), or front (median sternotomy) of the chest wall, depending on the specific surgical indication.

Thoracotomy is performed for various indications, including lung biopsy, lung resection, esophagectomy, heart surgery, and mediastinal mass removal. The procedure allows the surgeon to directly visualize and access the organs within the thoracic cavity, perform necessary procedures, and control bleeding if needed.

After the procedure, the incision is typically closed with sutures or staples, and a chest tube may be placed to drain any accumulated fluid or air from the pleural space around the lungs. The patient will require postoperative care and monitoring in a hospital setting until their condition stabilizes.

Angioscopy is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses a small fiber-optic scope, called an angioscope, to directly visualize the interior of blood vessels. The angioscope is inserted into the vessel through a small incision or catheter and allows physicians to examine the vessel walls for abnormalities such as plaque buildup, inflammation, or damage. This procedure can be used to diagnose and monitor conditions such as coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and vasculitis. It can also be used during surgical procedures to assist with the placement of stents or other devices in the blood vessels.

Postoperative hemorrhage is a medical term that refers to bleeding that occurs after a surgical procedure. This condition can range from minor oozing to severe, life-threatening bleeding. Postoperative hemorrhage can occur soon after surgery or even several days later, as the surgical site begins to heal.

The causes of postoperative hemorrhage can vary, but some common factors include:

1. Inadequate hemostasis during surgery: This means that all bleeding was not properly controlled during the procedure, leading to bleeding after surgery.
2. Blood vessel injury: During surgery, blood vessels may be accidentally cut or damaged, causing bleeding after the procedure.
3. Coagulopathy: This is a condition in which the body has difficulty forming blood clots, increasing the risk of postoperative hemorrhage.
4. Use of anticoagulant medications: Medications that prevent blood clots can increase the risk of bleeding after surgery.
5. Infection: An infection at the surgical site can cause inflammation and bleeding.

Symptoms of postoperative hemorrhage may include swelling, pain, warmth, or discoloration around the surgical site, as well as signs of shock such as rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and confusion. Treatment for postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity of the bleeding and may include medications to control bleeding, transfusions of blood products, or additional surgery to stop the bleeding.

Radiographic image enhancement refers to the process of improving the quality and clarity of radiographic images, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI images, through various digital techniques. These techniques may include adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that can interfere with image interpretation.

The goal of radiographic image enhancement is to provide medical professionals with clearer and more detailed images, which can help in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. This process may be performed using specialized software or hardware tools, and it requires a strong understanding of imaging techniques and the specific needs of medical professionals.

Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is a white, odorless, and tasteless solid that is highly soluble in water. Calcium chloride is commonly used as a de-icing agent, a desiccant (drying agent), and a food additive to enhance texture and flavor.

In medical terms, calcium chloride can be used as a medication to treat hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium in the blood) or hyperkalemia (high levels of potassium in the blood). It is administered intravenously and works by increasing the concentration of calcium ions in the blood, which helps to regulate various physiological processes such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting.

However, it is important to note that calcium chloride can have adverse effects if not used properly or in excessive amounts. It can cause tissue irritation, cardiac arrhythmias, and other serious complications. Therefore, its use should be monitored carefully by healthcare professionals.

A headache is defined as pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck. It can be a symptom of various underlying conditions such as stress, sinus congestion, migraine, or more serious issues like meningitis or concussion. Headaches can vary in intensity, ranging from mild to severe, and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light and sound. There are over 150 different types of headaches, including tension headaches, cluster headaches, and sinus headaches, each with their own specific characteristics and causes.

A diverticulum is a small sac or pouch that forms as a result of a weakness in the wall of a hollow organ, such as the intestine. These sacs can become inflamed or infected, leading to conditions like diverticulitis. Diverticula are common in the large intestine, particularly in the colon, and are more likely to develop with age. They are usually asymptomatic but can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, or diarrhea if they become inflamed or infected.

Arteriosclerosis is a general term that describes the hardening and stiffening of the artery walls. It's a progressive condition that can occur as a result of aging, or it may be associated with certain risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle.

The process of arteriosclerosis involves the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this buildup can cause the artery walls to thicken and harden, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body's organs and tissues.

Arteriosclerosis can affect any of the body's arteries, but it is most commonly found in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, the cerebral arteries that supply blood to the brain, and the peripheral arteries that supply blood to the limbs. When arteriosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to heart disease, angina, or heart attack. When it affects the cerebral arteries, it can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). When it affects the peripheral arteries, it can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the limbs, and in severe cases, gangrene and amputation.

Morbidity, in medical terms, refers to the state or condition of being diseased or unhealthy. It is used to describe the incidence or prevalence of a particular disease or health condition within a population, or the presence of multiple diseases or health conditions in an individual. Morbidity can also refer to the complications or symptoms associated with a disease or injury. In clinical settings, morbidity may be used to assess a patient's overall health status and their response to treatment.

Prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial device or component, known as a prosthesis, is placed inside the body to replace a missing or damaged body part. The prosthesis can be made from various materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic and is designed to perform the same function as the original body part.

The implantation procedure involves making an incision in the skin to create a pocket where the prosthesis will be placed. The prosthesis is then carefully positioned and secured in place using screws, cement, or other fixation methods. In some cases, tissue from the patient's own body may be used to help anchor the prosthesis.

Once the prosthesis is in place, the incision is closed with sutures or staples, and the area is bandaged. The patient will typically need to undergo rehabilitation and physical therapy to learn how to use the new prosthesis and regain mobility and strength.

Prosthesis implantation is commonly performed for a variety of reasons, including joint replacement due to arthritis or injury, dental implants to replace missing teeth, and breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The specific procedure and recovery time will depend on the type and location of the prosthesis being implanted.

Moyamoya Disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the narrowing or occlusion (blockage) of the internal carotid artery and its main branches. The name "moyamoya" means "puff of smoke" in Japanese and describes the look of the tangle of tiny vessels formed to compensate for the blockage. Over time, these fragile vessels can become less effective or rupture, leading to transient ischemic attacks (mini-strokes), strokes, bleeding in the brain, or cognitive decline. The exact cause of moyamoya disease is unknown, but it may be associated with genetic factors and certain medical conditions such as Down syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, and sickle cell anemia. Treatment options include surgical procedures to improve blood flow to the brain.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Surgical blood loss is the amount of blood that is lost during a surgical procedure. It can occur through various routes such as incisions, punctures or during the removal of organs or tissues. The amount of blood loss can vary widely depending on the type and complexity of the surgery being performed.

Surgical blood loss can be classified into three categories:

1. Insensible losses: These are small amounts of blood that are lost through the skin, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract during surgery. They are not usually significant enough to cause any clinical effects.
2. Visible losses: These are larger amounts of blood that can be seen and measured directly during surgery. They may require transfusion or other interventions to prevent hypovolemia (low blood volume) and its complications.
3. Hidden losses: These are internal bleeding that cannot be easily seen or measured during surgery. They can occur in the abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal space, or other areas of the body. They may require further exploration or imaging studies to diagnose and manage.

Surgical blood loss can lead to several complications such as hypovolemia, anemia, coagulopathy (disorders of blood clotting), and organ dysfunction. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and manage surgical blood loss effectively to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Cerebral arterial diseases refer to conditions that affect the blood vessels supplying the brain. These diseases can result in reduced blood flow, blockages, or bleeding in the brain. The most common cerebral arterial diseases include:

1. Atherosclerosis: A buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, and other substances in the inner lining of an artery, which can lead to narrowing or blockage of the artery.
2. Embolism: A blood clot or other particle that forms elsewhere in the body and travels to the brain, where it blocks a cerebral artery.
3. Thrombosis: The formation of a blood clot within a cerebral artery.
4. Aneurysm: A weakened area in the wall of an artery that bulges out and can rupture, causing bleeding in the brain.
5. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM): An abnormal tangle of blood vessels in the brain that can cause bleeding or reduced blood flow to surrounding tissue.
6. Vasculitis: Inflammation of the blood vessels in the brain, which can lead to narrowing, blockage, or weakening of the vessel walls.

These conditions can lead to serious complications such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or vascular dementia. Treatment options include medications, surgery, and lifestyle changes to manage risk factors.

A sternotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision through the sternum, also known as the breastbone. This type of incision allows surgeons to access the thoracic cavity, which contains the heart and lungs. Sternotomies are often performed during open-heart surgery or other procedures that require access to the heart or major blood vessels. After the procedure, the sternum is typically wired or stapled back together to allow for proper healing.

Iopamidol is a non-ionic, low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) used in diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays, CT scans, and angiography. It is a type of radiocontrast agent that contains iodine atoms, which absorb X-rays and make the internal structures of the body visible on X-ray images. Iopamidol has a low osmolarity, which means it has fewer particles per unit volume compared to high-osmolar contrast media (HOCM). This makes it safer and more comfortable for patients as it reduces the risk of adverse reactions such as pain, vasodilation, and kidney damage. Iopamidol is elimated from the body primarily through the kidneys and excreted in the urine.

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare, systemic necrotizing vasculitis that affects medium-sized and small muscular arteries. It is characterized by inflammation and damage to the walls of the arteries, leading to the formation of microaneurysms (small bulges in the artery wall) and subsequent narrowing or complete occlusion of the affected vessels. This can result in tissue ischemia (reduced blood flow) and infarction (tissue death), causing a wide range of clinical manifestations that vary depending on the organs involved.

The exact cause of PAN remains unclear, but it is believed to involve an autoimmune response triggered by various factors such as infections or exposure to certain drugs. The diagnosis of PAN typically requires a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies, often supported by histopathological examination of affected tissues. Treatment usually involves the use of immunosuppressive medications to control inflammation and prevent further damage to the arteries and organs.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a medical procedure that temporarily takes over the functions of the heart and lungs during major heart surgery. It allows the surgeon to operate on a still, bloodless heart.

During CPB, the patient's blood is circulated outside the body with the help of a heart-lung machine. The machine pumps the blood through a oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and then returned to the body. This bypasses the heart and lungs, hence the name "cardiopulmonary bypass."

CPB involves several components, including a pump, oxygenator, heat exchanger, and tubing. The patient's blood is drained from the heart through cannulas (tubes) and passed through the oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and carbon dioxide is removed. The oxygenated blood is then warmed to body temperature in a heat exchanger before being pumped back into the body.

While on CPB, the patient's heart is stopped with the help of cardioplegia solution, which is infused directly into the coronary arteries. This helps to protect the heart muscle during surgery. The surgeon can then operate on a still and bloodless heart, allowing for more precise surgical repair.

After the surgery is complete, the patient is gradually weaned off CPB, and the heart is restarted with the help of electrical stimulation or medication. The patient's condition is closely monitored during this time to ensure that their heart and lungs are functioning properly.

While CPB has revolutionized heart surgery and allowed for more complex procedures to be performed, it is not without risks. These include bleeding, infection, stroke, kidney damage, and inflammation. However, with advances in technology and technique, the risks associated with CPB have been significantly reduced over time.

The external carotid artery is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the structures of the head and neck, excluding the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, then divides into several branches that supply various regions of the head and neck, including the face, scalp, ears, and neck muscles.

The external carotid artery has eight branches:

1. Superior thyroid artery: Supplies blood to the thyroid gland, larynx, and surrounding muscles.
2. Ascending pharyngeal artery: Supplies blood to the pharynx, palate, and meninges of the brain.
3. Lingual artery: Supplies blood to the tongue and floor of the mouth.
4. Facial artery: Supplies blood to the face, nose, lips, and palate.
5. Occipital artery: Supplies blood to the scalp and muscles of the neck.
6. Posterior auricular artery: Supplies blood to the ear and surrounding muscles.
7. Maxillary artery: Supplies blood to the lower face, nasal cavity, palate, and meninges of the brain.
8. Superficial temporal artery: Supplies blood to the scalp, face, and temporomandibular joint.

The external carotid artery is an essential structure for maintaining adequate blood flow to the head and neck, and any damage or blockage can lead to serious medical conditions such as stroke or tissue necrosis.

The pelvis is the lower part of the trunk, located between the abdomen and the lower limbs. It is formed by the fusion of several bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis (which together form the hip bone on each side), and the sacrum and coccyx in the back. The pelvis has several functions including supporting the weight of the upper body when sitting, protecting the lower abdominal organs, and providing attachment for muscles that enable movement of the lower limbs. In addition, it serves as a bony canal through which the reproductive and digestive tracts pass. The pelvic cavity contains several vital organs such as the bladder, parts of the large intestine, and in females, the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Treatment failure is a term used in medicine to describe the situation when a prescribed treatment or intervention is not achieving the desired therapeutic goals or objectives. This may occur due to various reasons, such as:

1. Development of drug resistance by the pathogen or disease being treated.
2. Inadequate dosage or frequency of the medication.
3. Poor adherence or compliance to the treatment regimen by the patient.
4. The presence of underlying conditions or comorbidities that may affect the efficacy of the treatment.
5. The severity or progression of the disease despite appropriate treatment.

When treatment failure occurs, healthcare providers may need to reassess the patient's condition and modify the treatment plan accordingly, which may include adjusting the dosage, changing the medication, adding new medications, or considering alternative treatments.

Cardiovascular syphilis is a tertiary stage of syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. In this stage, the infection can affect the heart and blood vessels, leading to various complications. Medical definitions describe cardiovascular syphilis as follows:

1. According to the Merck Manual, cardiovascular syphilis is characterized by the development of vasculitic lesions in the aorta and its major branches, causing damage to the heart valves and blood vessels. Common manifestations include aortic regurgitation (backflow of blood), aneurysms (bulging or ballooning of the aorta), and aortic dissection (tearing of the inner layer of the aorta).
2. The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) defines cardiovascular syphilis as a late complication of syphilis, which can involve inflammation of the aorta and its branches, leading to aneurysms or aortic insufficiency. This stage usually develops 10-30 years after the initial infection.
3. The World Health Organization (WHO) explains that tertiary syphilis can affect the cardiovascular system, causing inflammation of the aorta and its branches. This may result in aortic aneurysms or aortic insufficiency, which can lead to heart failure if left untreated.

In summary, cardiovascular syphilis is a severe and potentially life-threatening complication of tertiary syphilis, involving inflammation and damage to the heart and blood vessels. Early detection and treatment of syphilis are crucial to prevent these late manifestations.

An intracranial embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other foreign material (embolus) forms elsewhere in the body and travels to the blood vessels within the brain. This embolus then blocks the flow of blood in the cerebral arteries, leading to potential damage or death of brain tissue. Common sources of intracranial emboli include heart conditions such as atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, or following a heart attack; or from large-vessel atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. Symptoms can vary depending on the location and size of the obstruction, but may include sudden weakness or numbness, confusion, difficulty speaking, vision loss, severe headache, or even loss of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and treat intracranial embolism, often involving anticoagulation therapy, endovascular procedures, or surgery.

Angioplasty, balloon refers to a medical procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed blood vessels, particularly the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This procedure is typically performed using a catheter-based technique, where a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into an artery, usually through the groin or wrist, and guided to the site of the narrowing or obstruction in the coronary artery.

Once the catheter reaches the affected area, a small balloon attached to the tip of the catheter is inflated, which compresses the plaque against the artery wall and stretches the artery, thereby restoring blood flow. The balloon is then deflated and removed, along with the catheter.

Balloon angioplasty is often combined with the placement of a stent, a small metal mesh tube that helps to keep the artery open and prevent it from narrowing again. This procedure is known as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary angioplasty and stenting.

Overall, balloon angioplasty is a relatively safe and effective treatment for coronary artery disease, although complications such as bleeding, infection, or re-narrowing of the artery can occur in some cases.

Hoarseness is a condition characterized by an abnormal change in the quality of voice, making it sound rough, breathy, strained, or weak. Medically, it's described as a disorder of phonation, which is the process of producing sound by vibrating the vocal cords in the larynx (voice box). Hoarseness can be caused by various factors, such as inflammation, irritation, or injury to the vocal cords, and may result in symptoms like altered voice pitch, volume, and clarity. It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if hoarseness persists for more than two weeks, especially if it's accompanied by other concerning symptoms like difficulty swallowing or breathing.

A foreign-body reaction is an immune response that occurs when a non-native substance, or "foreign body," is introduced into the human body. This can include things like splinters, surgical implants, or even injected medications. The immune system recognizes these substances as foreign and mounts a response to try to eliminate them.

The initial response to a foreign body is often an acute inflammatory reaction, characterized by the release of chemical mediators that cause vasodilation, increased blood flow, and the migration of white blood cells to the site. This can result in symptoms such as redness, swelling, warmth, and pain.

If the foreign body is not eliminated, a chronic inflammatory response may develop, which can lead to the formation of granulation tissue, fibrosis, and encapsulation of the foreign body. In some cases, this reaction can cause significant tissue damage or impede proper healing.

It's worth noting that not all foreign bodies necessarily elicit a strong immune response. The nature and size of the foreign body, as well as its location in the body, can all influence the severity of the reaction.

Hemorheology is the study of the flow properties of blood and its components, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. Specifically, it examines how these components interact with each other and with the walls of blood vessels to affect the flow characteristics of blood under different conditions. Hemorheological factors can influence blood viscosity, which is a major determinant of peripheral vascular resistance and cardiac workload. Abnormalities in hemorheology have been implicated in various diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and sickle cell disease.

Vascular malformations are abnormalities in the development and growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels that can occur anywhere in the body. They can be present at birth or develop later in life, and they can affect both the form and function of the affected tissues and organs. Vascular malformations can involve arteries, veins, capillaries, and/or lymphatic vessels, and they can range from simple, localized lesions to complex, multifocal disorders.

Vascular malformations are typically classified based on their location, size, flow characteristics, and the type of blood or lymphatic vessels involved. Some common types of vascular malformations include:

1. Capillary malformations (CMs): These are characterized by abnormal dilated capillaries that can cause red or pink discoloration of the skin, typically on the face or neck.
2. Venous malformations (VMs): These involve abnormal veins that can cause swelling, pain, and disfigurement in the affected area.
3. Lymphatic malformations (LMs): These involve abnormal lymphatic vessels that can cause swelling, infection, and other complications.
4. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These involve a tangled mass of arteries and veins that can cause high-flow lesions, bleeding, and other serious complications.
5. Combined vascular malformations: These involve a combination of different types of blood or lymphatic vessels, such as capillary-lymphatic-venous malformations (CLVMs) or arteriovenous-lymphatic malformations (AVLMs).

The exact cause of vascular malformations is not fully understood, but they are believed to result from genetic mutations that affect the development and growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Treatment options for vascular malformations depend on the type, size, location, and severity of the lesion, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment may include medication, compression garments, sclerotherapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydrodynamics" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Hydrodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with the motion of fluids and the forces acting on them. It is commonly used in fields such as engineering, particularly in the design of fluid-handling systems, and in the study of phenomena like water waves and blood flow in certain scientific contexts.

If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Induced heart arrest, also known as controlled cardiac arrest or planned cardiac arrest, is a deliberate medical intervention where cardiac activity is temporarily stopped through the use of medications or electrical disruption. This procedure is typically carried out during a surgical procedure, such as open-heart surgery, where the heart needs to be stilled to allow surgeons to work on it safely.

The most common method used to induce heart arrest is by administering a medication called potassium chloride, which stops the heart's electrical activity. Alternatively, an electrical shock may be delivered to the heart to achieve the same effect. Once the procedure is complete, the heart can be restarted using various resuscitation techniques, such as defibrillation or medication administration.

It's important to note that induced heart arrest is a carefully monitored and controlled medical procedure carried out by trained healthcare professionals in a hospital setting. It should not be confused with sudden cardiac arrest, which is an unexpected and often unpredictable event that occurs outside of a medical setting.

The bronchial arteries are a pair of arteries that originate from the descending thoracic aorta and supply oxygenated blood to the bronchi, bronchioles, and connected tissues within the lungs. They play a crucial role in providing nutrients and maintaining the health of the airways in the respiratory system. The bronchial arteries also help in the defense mechanism of the lungs by delivering immune cells and participating in the process of angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) during lung injury or repair.

The Ductus Arteriosus is a fetal blood vessel that connects the pulmonary trunk (the artery that carries blood from the heart to the lungs) and the aorta (the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body). This vessel allows most of the blood from the right ventricle of the fetal heart to bypass the lungs, as the fetus receives oxygen through the placenta rather than breathing air.

After birth, with the first breaths, the blood oxygen level increases and the pressure in the lungs rises. As a result, the circulation in the newborn's body changes, and the Ductus Arteriosus is no longer needed. Within the first few days or weeks of life, this vessel usually closes spontaneously, turning into a fibrous cord called the Ligamentum Arteriosum.

Persistent Patency of the Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) occurs when the Ductus Arteriosus does not close after birth, which can lead to various complications such as heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. This condition is often seen in premature infants and may require medical intervention or surgical closure of the vessel.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

a ruptured aortic aneurysm. a ruptured renal aneurysm. acute pancreatitis.[citation needed] malignancy. Retroperitoneal bleeds ... A Clinical Sign of a Forthcoming Life-Threatening Rupture of an Intraparenchymal Aneurysm of Renal Artery (Wunderlich's ...
Ruptured splenic artery aneurysm - a case report from Saudi Arabia. Splenic artery - medterms.com Anatomy photo:38:05-0101 at ... Splenic artery aneurysms are rare,[1] but still the third most common abdominal aneurysm, after aneurysms of the abdominal ... PMID 12089631 ^ Jamsheer NS, Malik M (2001). "Ruptured splenic artery aneurysm". Ann Saudi Med. 21(5-6): pp. 340-341. Accessed ... aorta and iliac arteries.[2][3] They may occur in pregnant women in the third trimester and rupture carries a maternal ...
Without treatment, these aneurysms will ultimately progress and rupture. Infection. A mycotic aneurysm is an aneurysm that ... There may be no symptoms present at all until the aneurysm ruptures. For an aneurysm that has not ruptured the following ... The heart, including coronary artery aneurysms, ventricular aneurysms, aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, and aneurysms following ... who died from a ruptured aneurysm in his abdomen. He was 52. Charles de Gaulle, who died from a ruptured aneurysm within his ...
In those with an aneurysm less than 5.5 cm, the risk of rupture in the next year is below 1%. Among those with an aneurysm ... The vast majority of aneurysms are asymptomatic. However, as the abdominal aorta expands and/or ruptures, the aneurysm may ... "A Finite Element Analysis Rupture Index (FEARI) as an Additional Tool for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Prediction". ... Large aneurysms can sometimes be felt by pushing on the abdomen. Rupture may result in pain in the abdomen or back, low blood ...
He died from ruptured aneurysm. Rouxel, J. (1979), Lévy, F. (ed.), "Alkali Metal Intercalation Compounds of Transition Metal ...
The most common cause is an abdominal aortic aneurysm that has ruptured spontaneously. Aortic rupture is distinct from aortic ... Death The most common cause of aortic rupture is a ruptured aortic aneurysm. Other causes include trauma and iatrogenic ( ... Aortic rupture is the rupture or breakage of the aorta, the largest artery in the body. Aortic rupture is a rare, extremely ... Traumatic aortic rupture Aortic rupture secondary to an aortic aneurysm Tearing pain, located in the abdomen, flank, groin, or ...
Merkin, Scott (April 21, 2018). "Farquhar stable after ruptured brain aneurysm". mlb.com. Retrieved May 7, 2018. Greenstein, ... which was caused from a ruptured brain aneurysm. On May 7, 2018, Farquhar was discharged from the hospital. Despite being ruled ... Sanchez, Mark W. (January 1, 1970). "Yankees sign Danny Farquhar, who opens up about brain aneurysm". Nypost.com. Retrieved ...
Aneurysm may also rupture. It is fragile and may burst under stress. The rupture of an aortic aneurysm is a catastrophic, life- ... These are less common than abdominal aneurysms. Small aneurysms generally pose no threat. However, aneurysms increase the risk ... Risk of rupture for the IAA group, due to thinning of aneurysm walls, are also rare due to inflammation and fibrosis Unruptured ... If the aneurysm is large, a monitoring ultrasound may need to occur every 6 to 12 months. If the aneurysm is small, monitoring ...
Mano Solo, 46, French singer, ruptured aneurysm. Crispin Sorhaindo, 78, Dominican politician, President (1993-1998), cancer. ... Barry Blair, 56, Canadian comics artist and writer, brain aneurysm. Gianni Bonichon, 65, Italian bobsledder, Olympic silver ...
Aortic rupture can also be caused by non-traumatic mechanisms, particularly abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Symptoms are ... Growing aneurysms, symptomatic or not, have a risk of rupture so the treatment is surgical removal. Chest trauma Aortic ... They had pseudoaneurysms or large aneurysms that caused pain. Asymptomatic chronic traumatic aneurysms are not always a risk ... Thus traumatic aortic rupture is a common killer in automotive accidents and other traumas, with up to 18% of deaths that occur ...
As is typical with any aneurysm, Rasmussen aneurysm carries the inherent risk of rupture, which may result in life-threatening ... Shih SY, Tsai IC, Chang YT, Tsan YT, Hu SY (June 2011). "Fatal haemoptysis caused by a ruptured Rasmussen's aneurysm". Thorax. ... Rasmussen aneurysm is a distinctive variant of pseudoaneurysm of a branch of the pulmonary artery, predominantly found adjacent ... It is worth noting that while Rasmussen aneurysm was initially associated exclusively with cavitary tuberculosis, the term is ...
... patients with large aneurysms are likely to have continued aneurysm growth and risk of aneurysm rupture without surgical repair ... The risk of rupture of an AAA is related to its diameter; once the aneurysm reaches about 5 cm, the yearly risk of rupture may ... Aortic aneurysms result from a weakness in the wall of the aorta and increase the risk of aortic rupture. When rupture occurs, ... Unfortunately, however, rupture may be the first hint of AAA. Once an aneurysm has ruptured, it presents with classic symptoms ...
Wolfgang Reisinger, 66, Austrian jazz percussionist, ruptured aneurysm. Andrey Shumilin, 52, Russian Olympic wrestler (1996). ... complications from ruptured brain aneurysm. Juliette de La Genière, 94, French archaeologist. Helen Hodgman, 77, Scottish-born ...
He died of a ruptured aneurysm in 1989. Movies 1957: L'Œil du maître (short film) 1958: Les Surmenés (short film) 1958: Bonjour ...
Griffin, 85, died from a ruptured aortic aneurysm. She was in rehearsals for a new solo show about Margaret Mitchell that would ...
Cohen, J.R.; Graver, L.M. (November 1995). "The ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm of Albert Einstein". Surgery, Gynecology & ... pointing at his neck seconds before he unexpectedly died from aneurysm "Human life is limited; but I would like to live forever ...
Aditya Dev, 23, Indian bodybuilder, ruptured brain aneurysm. John E. Dohms, 65, American microbiologist. (disappeared on this ...
Cohen, J. R.; Graver, L. M. (November 1995). "The ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm of Albert Einstein". Surgery, Gynecology ... Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which had previously been ... Albert Einstein Dies in Sleep at 76; World Mourns Loss of Great Scientist, Rupture of Aorta Causes Death, Body Cremated, ... Deaths from abdominal aortic aneurysm, Einstein family, ETH Zurich alumni, Academic staff of ETH Zurich, European democratic ...
Qi Qian; Kianoush B. Kashani; Dylan V. Miller (10 September 2009). "Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm related to IgG4 ... Satomi Kasashima; Yoh Zen (26 January 2011). "IgG4-related Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Spectrum of IgG4-related ... "Carotid aneurism with acute dissection: an unusual case of IgG4-related diseases". Cardiovascular Pathology. 25 (1): 59-62. doi ...
... allowing increasing pressure from blood to expand the gaps resulting in an aneurysm. Aneurysms have potential for rupture. ... aneurysms should have strict blood pressure control with antihypertensive drugs to decrease the risk of aneurysm rupture. Since ... Vomiting Diarrhea Bloody stools Back pain Nervous System Headache Stroke The most severe signs occur if an aneurysm ruptures ... Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is a rare disorder of the arteries characterized by the development of aneurysms, blood ...
Carlos do Carmo, 81, Portuguese fado singer ("Uma flor de verde pinho"), ruptured aneurysm. Ben Chafin, 60, American politician ... Mike Reese, 42, American politician, member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives (since 2009), ruptured brain aneurysm ... Carlos Joseph, 40, American football player (San Diego Chargers, Manchester Wolves), ruptured brain aneurysm. Sid Lerner, 90, ... Christine Dacera, 23, Filipino flight attendant, ruptured aortic aneurysm. Carrie Dann, 88, American Western Shoshone ...
"Ischemic colitis following repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm". Archives of Surgery. 120 (12): 1368-70. doi:10.1001/ ... Use during Aortic Aneurysm repair detected when colon oxygen levels fell below sustainable levels, allowing real-time repair. ... 2008). "Use of T-Stat to predict colonic ischemia during and after endovascular aneurysm repair". J Vasc Surg. 47 (3): 632-634 ... ischemic colitis is a well-recognized complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, when the origin of the inferior ...
Bleeding may occur due to a ruptured brain aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically based on a physical exam and supported by medical ... Ischemic stroke is caused by interruption of the blood supply to the brain, while hemorrhagic stroke results from the rupture ... cerebral arteriovenous malformation and an intracranial aneurysm, which can cause intraparenchymal or subarachnoid hemorrhage. ...
May Menassa, 80, Lebanese writer and journalist, ruptured aneurysm. Tony Mendez, 78, American intelligence officer (CIA), ... Donald N. Langenberg, 86, American academic, Chancellor of the University System of Maryland (1990-2002), aortic aneurysm. ...
He died in 1993 of a ruptured aortic aneurysm. Normandin, P G (1965). Canadian Parliamentary Guide, 1965. "Must Resign Govt. ...
In December 2006, Garr had a ruptured brain aneurysm. The aneurysm left her in a coma for a week, but after therapy, she ... Grossberg, Josh (January 3, 2007). "Garr Better After Brain Aneurysm". E! Online. Retrieved October 21, 2018. "'Tootsie' ... Tan, Michelle (January 2, 2007). "Teri Garr Recovering from Brain Aneurysm". People. Retrieved August 28, 2021. "David ... Post-aneurysm, comedy keeps her going". CNN. Archived from the original on October 21, 2018. Retrieved October 21, 2018.{{cite ...
"Treatment of ruptured lenticulostriate artery aneurysms." J Neurosurg. 2008 Jul. PMID 18590430 Eloy JA, Carai A, Patel AB, ... "Hemodynamics of Giant Intracranial Aneurysms." In: Awad I and Barrow D, eds, Giant Intracranial Aneurysms. American Association ... "Reporting standards for endovascular repair of saccular intracranial cerebral aneurysms." J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2009 Jul. PMID ... "Guidelines for the management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. A statement for healthcare professionals from a special ...
A ruptured aneurysm typically leads to an aortocardiac shunt and progressively worsening heart failure. An aneurysm of the ... Aortic aneurysm Thoracic aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm Topi, Bernard; John Jinu (2012). "An uncommon cause of a ... especially if the aneurysm ruptures. If unruptured, sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (commonly abbreviated SVA or SOVA) is usually ... Aortic sinus aneurysms can burst or rupture into adjacent cardiac chambers, which can lead to heart failure if untreated. ...
Alexander, M. P.; Freedman, M (1984). "Amnesia after anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture". Neurology. 34 (6): 752-57 ... It is generally associated with certain types of brain damage (especially aneurysm in the anterior communicating artery) or a ... Most known cases of confabulation are symptomatic of brain damage or dementias, such as aneurysm, Alzheimer's disease, or ... rupture of the anterior or posterior communicating artery, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and encephalitis are also possible causes ...
"Radiological treatment of a spontaneously ruptured inferior adrenal artery aneurysm". Nature Reviews Urology. 7 (12): 694-698. ... The inferior suprarenal artery may be affected by an aneurysm. It may be assessed using Doppler ultrasound. The inferior ...
Holland died from a ruptured aneurysm in 1982, aged 86. Always in the Way (1915) - Mrs. Helen Stillwell One Day (1916) The Feud ...
... ruptured aortic aneurysm. Andres Briner, 91, Swiss music historian, academic and art journalist. Chang Feng-hsu, 85, Taiwanese ...
A ruptured intracranial aneurysm causes intracranial bleeding and is considered very dangerous. ... A ruptured intracranial aneurysm causes intracranial bleeding and is considered very dangerous. ...
This was not the case for the posterior circulation aneurysms, where coil embolization appeared to provide a susta … ... these results suggest little difference in outcome between the 2 treatments for anterior circulation aneurysms. ... Keywords: BRAT; BRAT = Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial; ISAT; ISAT = International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial; PICA = posterior ... The Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial: 6-year results J Neurosurg. 2015 Sep;123(3):609-17. doi: 10.3171/2014.9.JNS141749. Epub ...
In 25 out of 26 studies, the annualized rupture rate for aneurysms 3 mm or smaller was 0%, less than 0.5% for aneurysms 3 to 5 ... In 5- to 6-mm aneurysms, the rupture rate was 1.1% and aneurysms with a daughter sac that were located in the posterior or ... "The risk of growth and/or rupture for smaller aneurysms may be low but it isnt zero. Rupture risk prediction, and treatment ... aneurysms have no risk for rupture but rather that experts are skilled at predicting which aneurysms are more likely to rupture ...
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are segmental dilatations of the aortic wall that cause the vessel to be larger than 1.5 ... encoded search term (Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Imaging) and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Imaging What to Read Next ... Angiographic findings of abdominal aortic aneurysms rupture include the following:. * Contained rupture: Circumscribed ... Common and uncommon CT findings in rupture and impending rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Clin Radiol. 2013 Sep. 68(9): ...
Clinical trial for Intracranial Hemorrhage Ruptured Aneurysm , International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial II ... ruptured within last 30 days. Yes for At least one documented, intradural, intracranial aneurysm, ruptured within last 30 days ... Not sure for At least one documented, intradural, intracranial aneurysm, ruptured within last 30 days inclusion criteria 2 ... No for At least one documented, intradural, intracranial aneurysm, ruptured within last 30 days inclusion criteria 2 ...
Predicting Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture by Gradient Boosting Decision Tree using Clinical, Hemodynamic, and Morphological ... LightGBM was used to predict the rupture of cerebral aneurysms using a machine learning model that takes clinical, hemodynamic ... This model was used to analyze samples from 338 cerebral aneurysm cases (35 ruptured, 303 unruptured). Simulation of cerebral ... inproceedings{CATA2020:Predicting_Cerebral_Aneurysm_Rupture, author = {Toshiyuki Haruhara and Hideto Ohgi and Masaaki Suzuki ...
Do you know the difference between a stroke and a brain aneurysm? Our Seattle brain injury attorneys discuss more in our latest ... the pressure can lead to an aneurysm rupture.. Diagnosing a Patient with an Aneurysm. If an aneurysm ruptures, it can leak ... Brain Aneurysm Ruptures and Strokes. February 13, 2020 By Kornfeld Law Share * ... Once a doctor diagnoses a patient with a brain aneurysm, the goal is to prevent a rupture by treating the pressure or leaking ...
... Thesis or Dissertation ... the main predictors of rupture risk are the Dmax, sex, and the expansion rate of the aneurysm. Yet, Dmax has some limitations. ... Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is defined as a dilatation of the abdominal aorta exceeding the normal diameter by more than 50 ... Thus, there is a need to evaluate the susceptibility of a given AAA to rupture on a patient-specific basis. We present the ...
The usefulness of 3D-CTA for the diagnosis of a ruptured aneurysm at the origin of the duplicated middle cerebral artery: case ... AdultAneurysm, RupturedCerebral AngiographyCerebral ArteriesFemaleHumansImaging, Three-DimensionalIntracranial AneurysmRupture ... Ruptured frontopolar artery aneurysm: two cases].. *Two surgical cases of internal carotid-ophthalmic artery aneurysms: special ... The usefulness of 3D-CTA for the diagnosis of a ruptured aneurysm at the origin of the duplicated middle cerebral artery: case ...
Ruptured aneurysm associated with a twig-like middle cerebral artery: An illustrative case report. ... The occurrence of a brain aneurysm associated with this anatomic variant is an even rare event, and probably their development ... and rupture are related to hemodynamic stress of the tinny wall of vessels forming the network. ...
... show that when coiling is performed as first-intention treatment in a consecutive series of nonselected ruptured aneurysms by ... Background: The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) showed that for ruptured aneurysms suitable for both ... Only a small proportion of patients (22%) with ruptured aneurysms were included in that trial. Operators were selected on their ... Results of embolization used as the first treatment choice in a consecutive nonselected population of ruptured aneurysms: ...
Subacute rupture of a pseudoaneurysm formed by late rupture of a true left ventricular aneurysm. ... Subacute rupture of a pseudoaneurysm formed by late rupture of a true left ventricular aneurysm. ... A man aged 34 in whom rupture of a true aneurysm at least four weeks after acute myocardial infarction led to the development ... Because the pseudoaneurysm ruptured subacutely and the haemodynamic, clinical, and echocardiographic signs were not consistent ...
A contralateral far-lateral approach to VA-PICA aneurysms should be considered when aneurysms cross the midline. Computed ... The authors report the case of a patient with a right vertebral artery (VA)-PICA aneurysm that was reached via a contralateral ... The wide-necked saccular/fusiform aneurysm arose from the lateral aspect of the right V4 segment just proximal to the PICA ... Computed tomography angiograms demonstrated the size and configuration of the aneurysm, and 3D reconstructions revealed the ...
Methods The authors performed a nested case-control study of 290 aneurysms (123 unruptured aneurysms and 167 ruptured aneurysms ... Characteristic features of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: predictive risk factors for aneurysm rupture ... Characteristic features of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: predictive risk factors for aneurysm rupture ... to aneurysm rupture and to provide a reliable estimation for likelihood of rupture in unruptured intracranial aneurysms. ...
... the treatment of ruptured tiny intracranial aneurysms.MethodsWe enrolled 245 patients with ruptured tiny intracranial aneurysms ... Methods: We enrolled 245 patients with ruptured tiny intracranial aneurysms treated with coil embolization. Patients were ... Results: All baseline characteristics were equivalent between the two groups except for aneurysm size and dome-to-neck aspect ... However, laser-cut stent treatment is associated with statistically significant higher intraprocedural rupture risk. Prospective ...
There were 659 ruptured aneurysms (71%) and 273 unruptured aneurysms (29%). Of 659 ruptured aneurysms, 45 aneurysms in 45 ... Second, in ruptured wide-neck posterior circulation aneurysms and in poor-grade patients with ruptured wide-neck aneurysms in ... Patients with Ruptured Aneurysms. Forty-five patients with 45 ruptured aneurysms were treated with stent-assisted coiling. ... 45 acutely ruptured aneurysms and 47 unruptured aneurysms were treated with stent-assisted coiling. Patients with ruptured ...
For saccular aneurysms, a high AR (,1.6) has been shown to correlate with aneurysm rupture.9 In our series, the mean AR for the ... Eleven aneurysms were symptomatic before treatment, and symptomatic aneurysms have a relative risk for rupture of 8.3 compared ... Role of Intra-Aneurysmal Thrombus in Delayed Aneurysm Rupture. Thrombus developed in the aneurysm sac in all cases after FD ... In all cases, most of the aneurysm cavity was thrombosed before rupture. The biologic mechanisms predisposing to rupture under ...
Those over 8 centimeters - the size of Allgoods aneurysm - have a 50% chance of rupturing. But given his aneurysm was already ... the anatomy of the aneurysm and the rupture.. "Every aneurysm is different, and the operations to treat them have to be ... The surgeon explained that his aneurysm had ruptured and was now leaking into his abdomen, and that there was nothing they were ... After he was told there was nothing his local doctor could do for his ruptured aortic aneurysm, Randy Allgood, 65, of Fairhope ...
Iliac Branch Devices in the Repair of Ruptured Aorto-iliac Aneurysms : A Multicenter Study. *Mark ... CLINICAL IMPACT: This multicenter study demonstrates that ruptured aortoiliac aneurysms do not necessarily require mandatory ... alternative for maintaining the pelvic circulation for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair of ruptured aortoiliac aneurysms. ... alternative for maintaining the pelvic circulation for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair of ruptured aortoiliac aneurysms. ...
SAH, risk factors, intracranial Aneurysms, aneurysms size Abstract. Background: Un-ruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are ... 93.2% of aneurysms were below 10 mm, 75.0% were below 7 mm and 50.0% below 5 mm. Size of ruptured aneurysm is small in ... Several studies have shown that the decision to treat un-ruptured aneurysms should not be based on aneurysm size alone. A study ... Impact of Risk Factors on the Size of Ruptured Intracranial Saccular Aneurysms Authors. * Md Humayun Kabir Sarker Resident, ...
... his family received the shocking news that he had a ruptured aneurysm in the brain, which required surgery. ... Boy makes excellent recovery after ruptured brain aneurysm By Tricia Tomiyoshi. (SACRAMENTO) On the day that 13-year-old James ... A CT scan would reveal what actually happened to James that morning: He had bleeding in his brain due to a ruptured aneurysm (a ... James spent 52 days at UC Davis Childrens Hospital, recovering after a ruptured aneurysm in the brain.. Someone called 911. ...
Patients with large neck diameter have a higher risk of type IA endoleaks and aneurysm rupture after standard endovascular ... Objective: Standard endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is the most common treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). EVAR ... aneurysm rupture, and survival. Results: This study included 1257 patients (mean age, 73.1 years; 89.4% male) observed for a ... 30 mm had a threefold increased risk of EL1A and fivefold risk of aneurysm rupture after EVAR as well as worse overall survival ...
... ruptured). Nine studies comprising 377 acutely ruptured aneurysms were included. Overall, 82.7% were wide-necked, 85.9% were ... This device is promising for acutely ruptured aneurysms not amenable to clipping or coiling, considering the lower need for ... Treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms with the Woven EndoBridge device: a systematic review ... Treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms with the Woven EndoBridge device: a systematic review ...
Aortic Aneurysm, Ruptured. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several ... Aortic Rupture (Aortic Aneurysm, Ruptured). The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the aorta, such as ... It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA. ... Ranked list of diseases related to "Aortic Rupture"Drugs, active principles and "Aortic Rupture"Medicinal plantsQuestions and ...
... and aneurysm-related factors, calling for a more aggressive treatment approach in women. ... Aneurysmal rupture risk is higher in women than in men, and is not associated with patient- ... Intracranial Aneurysm Rupture: Which Sex Has a Higher Rupture Risk?. Colby Stong ... Close more info about Intracranial Aneurysm Rupture: Which Sex Has a Higher Rupture Risk? ...
A ruptured ACOM treated beautifully with the assistance of #Comaneci17 and Stryker Neurovascular Target coils, both delivered ...
... abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptures, 126 (36.8%) abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs, and 48 (14.0%) deaths occurred. Compared ... abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptures, 126 (36.8%) abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs, and 48 (14.0%) deaths occurred. Compared ... abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptures, 126 (36.8%) abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs, and 48 (14.0%) deaths occurred. Compared ... abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptures, 126 (36.8%) abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs, and 48 (14.0%) deaths occurred. Compared ...
CCF administration limited both growth and rupture of established aneurysms. These effects of vitamin D appeared to be mediated ... CCF administration limited both growth and rupture of established aneurysms. These effects of vitamin D appeared to be mediated ... CCF administration limited both growth and rupture of established aneurysms. These effects of vitamin D appeared to be mediated ... CCF administration limited both growth and rupture of established aneurysms. These effects of vitamin D appeared to be mediated ...
Unruptured brain aneurysms may have no symptoms until they burst and cause a life-threatening medical emergency ... brain aneurysm was found and treated without it rupturing , Nuvance Health twitter share Man feels "lucky" brain aneurysm was ... The most telling symptom of a ruptured brain aneurysm is a severe headache. Most people describe it as the worst headache of ... facebook share Man feels "lucky" brain aneurysm was found and treated without it rupturing , Nuvance Health linkedin share Man ...
Learn about what to do when a brain aneurysm ruptures & the symptoms that may occur. ... Brain Aneurysms are a serious matter that need to be addressed immediately. ... Prognosis for Ruptured Brain Aneurysms. The outcome of a ruptured brain aneurysm depends on several factors:. *The age of the ... Learning to Cope After a Ruptured Aneurysm. A ruptured aneurysm can be devastating, but as long as the brain is alive, it can ...
  • This ongoing randomized trial, with the final goal of a 10-year follow-up, compares the safety and efficacy of surgical clip occlusion and endovascular coil embolization in patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured aneurysm. (nih.gov)
  • Small aneurysms may rupture infrequently but they can also cause subarachnoid hemorrhage, they pointed out. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) was a turning point in modern neurosurgical history (1). (centerwatch.com)
  • The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) showed that for ruptured aneurysms suitable for both techniques, coiling should be the first-choice treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by ruptured intracranial aneurysms is one of the most common cerebrovascular diseases ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Researchers conducted a pooled analysis of individual patient data from prospective cohort studies to determine whether sex is a risk factor for intracranial aneurysm rupture independent from other risk factors, including the Population, Hypertension, Age, Size of Aneurysm, Earlier Subarachnoid Hemorrhage From Another Aneurysm, Site of Aneurysm (PHASES) score, smoking , and a positive family history for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • When a brain aneurysm ruptures in this area, it is called a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which means a hemorrhage in the area between the brain and the skull. (lisafoundation.org)
  • Subsequent care following a rupture is also subject to countless possible complications and, even in the best of cases, can only mitigate the harmful effects of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. (lisafoundation.org)
  • no history of subarachnoid hemorrhage from a dif- The management of unruptured intracranial an- ferent aneurysm (group 1), and 722 had a history of eurysms is controversial8-12 because of a lack of un- subarachnoid hemorrhage from a different aneu- derstanding of the natural history of these lesions and rysm that had been repaired successfully (group 2). (pdfroom.com)
  • The overall rate of surgery-related morbidity cranial aneurysms in patients without a history of subarachnoid and mortality was 17.5 percent in group 1 and 13.6 hemorrhage from a separate aneurysm (group 1) and in those percent in group 2 at 30 days and was 15.7 percent with such a history (group 2), and to determine whether there and 13.1 percent, respectively, at 1 year. (pdfroom.com)
  • But subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to the rupture of very small intracranial aneurysm (VSIA) (saccular aneurysm sized less than 3 mm) may lead to many critical neurological complications. (the-jcen.org)
  • Rupture of intracranial cerebral aneurysm result in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that may be life-threatening hemorrhage. (the-jcen.org)
  • A 77-year-old man presented with an extremely rare association of anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm manifesting as consciousness deterioration due to intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe and diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Improved cognitive outcomes with endovascular coiling of ruptured intracranial aneurysms: neuropsychological outcomes from the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT). (ox.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported lower rates of death and disability with endovascular versus neurosurgical treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage comprises half of spontaneous atraumatic intracranial hemorrhages (usually as the result of aneurysmal or arteriovenous malformation [AVM] leakage or rupture), with the other half consisting of bleeding that occurs within the brain parenchyma. (medscape.com)
  • See also Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Emergent Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Arteriovenous Malformation , and Cerebral Aneurysms . (medscape.com)
  • Rupture of "berry," or saccular, aneurysms of branch points of the basal vessels of the brain comprises over three quarters of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. (medscape.com)
  • This was not the case for the posterior circulation aneurysms, where coil embolization appeared to provide a sustained advantage over clipping. (nih.gov)
  • These induce clotting (embolization) of the aneurysm, eliminating the risk of a rupture. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • We enrolled 245 patients with ruptured tiny intracranial aneurysms treated with coil embolization. (frontiersin.org)
  • In ruptured aneurysms, stent-assisted coil embolization is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and should only be considered when less risky options have been excluded. (ajnr.org)
  • There are several techniques to coil wide-neck aneurysms, such as balloon- or stent-assisted coiling, 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 7 flow diversion, and, more recently introduced, the WEB aneurysm embolization system (Sequent Medical, Aliso Viejo, California). (ajnr.org)
  • If the rupture risk of an intracranial aneurysm is high, sac obliteration using aneurysmal clipping or endovascular coil embolization is recommended. (the-jcen.org)
  • In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed patients with ruptured intracranial saccular aneurysms who underwent aneurysmal clipping or endovascular coil embolization at Yeungnam University Medical Center between January 2016 and December 2019. (the-jcen.org)
  • For only seven patients, the aneurysm was repaired, either with surgical clipping or coil embolization, they add. (medscape.com)
  • The present study compared the baseline characteristics of two discrete groups of patients with ruptured and unruptured IAs treated with endovascular coil embolization. (hippokratia.gr)
  • The success of balloon embolization has been tempered by the associated complications of deflation and aneurysmal rupture. (medscape.com)
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are segmental dilatations of the aortic wall that cause the vessel to be larger than 1.5 times its normal diameter or that cause the distal aorta to exceed 3 cm. (medscape.com)
  • The most commonly used noninvasive methods to identify abdominal aortic aneurysm are ultrasound and computed tomography. (medscape.com)
  • CT reveals an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with eccentric mural thrombus. (medscape.com)
  • Objective: Standard endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is the most common treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). (eur.nl)
  • Aortic Wall Inflammation Predicts Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Expansion, Rupture, and Need for Surgical Repair. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, we assessed whether USPIO-enhanced MRI can predict aneurysm growth rates and clinical outcomes. (ed.ac.uk)
  • METHODS: In a prospective multicenter open-label cohort study, 342 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (diameter ≥40 mm) were classified by the presence of USPIO enhancement and were monitored with serial ultrasound and clinical follow-up for ≥2 years. (ed.ac.uk)
  • During follow-up (1005±280 days), 17 (5.0%) abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptures, 126 (36.8%) abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs, and 48 (14.0%) deaths occurred. (ed.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: USPIO-enhanced MRI is a novel approach to the identification of aortic wall cellular inflammation in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms and predicts the rate of aneurysm growth and clinical outcome. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Aortic Wall Inflammation Predicts Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Expansion, Rupture, and Need for Surgical Repair. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Objective To evaluate long term outcomes (reintervention and late rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm) of aortic endografts in real world practice using linked registry claims data. (bmj.com)
  • Participants 20 489 patients treated with four device types used for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR): 40.6% (n=8310) received the Excluder (Gore), 32.2% (n=6606) the Endurant (Medtronic), 16.0% (n=3281) the Zenith (Cook Medical), and 11.2% (n=2292) the AFX (Endologix). (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions The linked registry claims surveillance data identified a device specific risk in long term reintervention after EVAR of abdominal aortic aneurysm. (bmj.com)
  • The diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is often missed as a result of an unusual presentation, resulting in increased mortality. (springeropen.com)
  • Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of unheralded death in people older then 65 years, making early recognition and intervention vital [ 1 ]. (springeropen.com)
  • Kuhn M, Bonnin RL, Davey MJ et al (2000) Emergency department ultrasound scanning for abdominal aortic aneurysm: accessible, accurate, and advantageous. (springeropen.com)
  • Walker A, Brenchley J et al (2004) Ultrasound by emergency physicians to detect abdominal aortic aneurysms: a UK case series. (springeropen.com)
  • This medical exhibit depicts an abdominal aortic aneurysm with subsequent fatal rupture using four illustrations. (doereport.com)
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysms are bulges (dilations) in the wall of the aorta in the part that passes through the abdomen (abdominal aorta). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysms typically slowly expand and sometimes rupture. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Smoking is a major risk factor for development of abdominal aortic aneurysms, especially in men. (msdmanuals.com)
  • People who have an abdominal aortic aneurysm often have no symptoms, but some people become aware of a pulsing sensation in their abdomen. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Quality of life and long-term results after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (bvsalud.org)
  • LightGBM was used to predict the rupture of cerebral aneurysms using a machine learning model that takes clinical, hemodynamic and morphological information into account. (easychair.org)
  • This model was used to analyze samples from 338 cerebral aneurysm cases (35 ruptured, 303 unruptured). (easychair.org)
  • A patient is placed on a table that slides into a magnetic resonance scanner and images are taken on the blood vessels to detect a cerebral aneurysm. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • Duplication of the middle cerebral artery is known as a rare anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery and an aneurysm at the origin of the duplicated middle cerebral artery is very rare. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We presented a case of ruptured aneurysm at the origin of the duplicated middle cerebral artery and discussed the usefulness of 3D-CTA (three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography) for its diagnosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 3D-CTA was able to demonstrate clearly the aneurysm at the origin of the duplicated middle cerebral artery and we performed neck clipping of the ruptured aneurysm. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To our knowledge, previously there have been only 14 cases which reported such an aneurysm at the origin of a duplicated middle cerebral artery. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We conclude that 3D-CTA is useful for diagnosing aneurysms at the origin of the duplicated middle cerebral artery even when thy can't be detected by angiography. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Neurological surgery JO - No Shinkei Geka VL - 30 IS - 3 N2 - Duplication of the middle cerebral artery is known as a rare anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery and an aneurysm at the origin of the duplicated middle cerebral artery is very rare. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Ruptured aneurysm associated with a twig-like middle cerebral artery: An illustrative case report. (iasp-pain.org)
  • The aneurysm was partially thrombosed, which means a blood clot had formed inside the cerebral artery, restricting blood flow. (ucdavis.edu)
  • This prospective longitudinal study included all patients 70 years of age or older treated for ruptured cerebral aneurysm over 10 years (June 1997-June 2007). (neurosurgery-blog.com)
  • A cerebral aneurysm (also known as a brain aneurysm) is a weak or thin spot on an artery in the brain that balloons or bulges out and fills with blood. (nih.gov)
  • Some cerebral aneurysms, particularly those that are very small, do not bleed or cause other problems. (nih.gov)
  • Cerebral aneurysms can occur anywhere in the brain, but most form in the major arteries along the base of the skull. (nih.gov)
  • All cerebral aneurysms have the potential to rupture and cause bleeding within the brain or surrounding area. (nih.gov)
  • Most cerebral aneurysms do not show symptoms until they either become very large or rupture. (nih.gov)
  • Also known as a berry aneurysm (because it resembles a berry hanging from a vine), this is the most common form of cerebral aneurysm. (nih.gov)
  • Who is more likely to get a cerebral aneurysm? (nih.gov)
  • Cerebral aneurysms form when the walls of the arteries in the brain become thin and weaken. (nih.gov)
  • Occasionally, cerebral aneurysms may be present from birth, usually resulting from an abnormality in an artery wall. (nih.gov)
  • Brain tumours that are associated with cerebral aneurysms are rare occurrences, whereas the coexistence of brain tumours and intra-tumoural aneurysms is even rarer. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • A 34-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset headache, and an inter-hemispheric meningioma with intra-tumoural bleeding was found due to a ruptured embedded anterior cerebral artery aneurysm. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • The aneurysm was diagnosed incidentally on the third cerebral angiogram, while the initial 2 angiograms were negative. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • This paper is the first case report to describe the coexistence of a meningioma and an aneurysm, which presented with intra-tumoural haemorrhage that was negative on the initial cerebral angiogram. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • Unlike previous case reports, the aneurysm in this case was located with an anterior cerebral artery distribution. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • The NIOSH investigator concluded that the AC's death was due to rupture of a cerebral aneurysm, possibly triggered by the physical exertion associated with fire suppression training. (cdc.gov)
  • Time may permit only rapid bedside ultrasonography (US) and Doppler study of abdominal aorta and iliac arteries to confirm the presence of aneurysms. (medscape.com)
  • Two years earlier, Allgood had been diagnosed with an aortic aneurysm - a dangerous condition where the aorta, the vessel that pumps blood from the heart to the rest of the body, is enlarged. (uth.edu)
  • Unlike a balloon, the aorta usually ruptures in a small focal spot. (lakewashingtonvascular.com)
  • Overview of Aortic Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection The aorta, which is about 1 inch (2.5 centimeters) in diameter, is the largest artery of the body. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Dilatación anómala de la pared de la AORTA en forma sacular o globulosa. (bvsalud.org)
  • A single FD was used for all saccular aneurysms, while fusiform lesions were treated by using multiple devices. (ajnr.org)
  • Saccular aneurysms , also called berry aneurysms, have a rounded shape that extends from one side of a vessel wall. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • 421 saccular aneurysms from patients with SAH between January 2016 and December 2019 were included. (the-jcen.org)
  • Altogether, 421 saccular aneurysms from patients with SAH were included. (the-jcen.org)
  • Saccular aneurysms occur most often in adults. (nih.gov)
  • The advent of FD implants has provided a new endovascular tool for reconstructive treatment and vascular remodeling of broad-based, large or giant, and fusiform aneurysms, for which conventional reconstructive surgical or endovascular treatment methods are either not feasible or are prone to a high recurrence rate. (ajnr.org)
  • Walter Dandy performed the first successful clipping of an aneurysm in 1937, using a vascular clip designed by Harvey Cushing. (medscape.com)
  • The reported annual rupture rate of intracranial aneurysms is 0.95% per year [ 4 , 8 ], and the rupture risk is reported to be 0.36% in intracranial aneurysms sized 3-4 mm, below 0.5% in aneurysms sized less than 5 mm [ 4 , 7 ]. (the-jcen.org)
  • Between February 2007 and March 2015, 45 acutely ruptured aneurysms and 47 unruptured aneurysms were treated with stent-assisted coiling. (ajnr.org)
  • Therefore, stent placement is generally avoided in acutely ruptured aneurysms in favor of clip ligation or other endovascular techniques that do not mandate dual antiplatelet therapy. (ajnr.org)
  • The absence of metallic mesh in the aneurysm's parent vessel lumen obviates the need for potent antiplatelet therapy, making this device appealing for acutely ruptured aneurysms not amenable to clipping or coiling. (bmj.com)
  • Nine studies comprising 377 acutely ruptured aneurysms were included. (bmj.com)
  • WEB treatment of acutely ruptured aneurysms results in high adequate occlusion rates, low perioperative complication rates, no rebleeding, and low recurrence requiring retreatment. (bmj.com)
  • This device is promising for acutely ruptured aneurysms not amenable to clipping or coiling, considering the lower need for antiplatelet regimens during the procedure or follow-up. (bmj.com)
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of preserving the internal iliac artery (IIA) with iliac branched devices (IBDs) during acute endovascular repair of ruptured aortoiliac aneurysms. (lu.se)
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective review of all consecutive patients undergoing acute endovascular repair of ruptured aortoiliac aneurysm with an IBD at 8 aortic centers between December 2012 and June 2020. (lu.se)
  • CONCLUSION: IBD is a valid alternative for maintaining the pelvic circulation for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair of ruptured aortoiliac aneurysms. (lu.se)
  • Methods The authors performed a nested case-control study of 290 aneurysms (123 unruptured aneurysms and 167 ruptured aneurysms) occurring during a prospective cohort study in 1493 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed intracranial aneurysm and were treated in a single institute between January 1995 and December 2006. (bmj.com)
  • mately 5 percent),5,6 suggesting that 10 to 15 million Methods A total of 2621 patients at 53 participat- persons in the United States have or will have intra- ing centers in the United States, Canada, and Europe cranial aneurysms. (pdfroom.com)
  • Results In group 1, the cumulative rate of rupture METHODS of aneurysms that were less than 10 mm in diameter at diagnosis was less than 0.05 percent per year, and Study Design and Objectives in group 2, the rate was approximately 11 times as The study consisted of a retrospective component based on high (0.5 percent per year). (pdfroom.com)
  • Materials and methods An in-depth search of multiple electronic publication databases was performed for reports describing ruptured intracranial aneurysms treated by flow diversion. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions There are differences between the clinical and intrinsic characteristics of patients with unruptured and ruptured intracranial aneurysm. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions: In this study, patients with infrarenal neck diameter ≥30 mm had a threefold increased risk of EL1A and fivefold risk of aneurysm rupture after EVAR as well as worse overall survival. (eur.nl)
  • mal rupture, in order to determine the most appropriate treat- Conclusions The likelihood of rupture of unrup- tured intracranial aneurysms that were less than 10 mm in diameter was exceedingly low among pa- tients in group 1 and was substantially higher among those in group 2. (pdfroom.com)
  • Surgery for these two lesions was performed concurrently, and the ACoA aneurysm was found to be responsible for the hemorrhage. (elsevierpure.com)
  • It may also burst or rupture, spilling blood into the surrounding tissue (called a hemorrhage). (nih.gov)
  • The second and third images show the aneurysm progressing from a slow leak to a complete rupture and massive hemorrhage. (doereport.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical outcome of surgical clipping and endovascular coiling for ruptured intracranial aneurysms not included in the original ISAT Study. (centerwatch.com)
  • Background and purpose Flow diversion is an established technique to treat unruptured intracranial aneurysms not amenable to standard endovascular or microsurgical techniques. (bmj.com)
  • This study aims to compare the safety and efficacy of stent-assisted coiling (SAC) with those of coiling alone (CA) for the treatment of ruptured tiny intracranial aneurysms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Simultaneously, considering the better long-term effect, LVIS stent-assisted coiling may be a preferable choice for ruptured tiny intracranial aneurysms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Simultaneously, previous studies indicated that the stent-assisted coiling (SAC) technique was associated with a higher complete occlusion rate and lower recurrence rate at follow-up compared with coiling alone (CA) in ruptured intracranial aneurysms ( 7 , 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Since its debut as an endovascular aid, Neuroform stents (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI, USA) were quickly followed by other stents, and each stent targets aneurysms of specific shapes and parent patterns ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The complication rate of stent-assisted coiling with early adverse events in ruptured aneurysms was 10 times higher than that in unruptured aneurysms. (ajnr.org)
  • Randy Allgood, 65, of Fairhope, Alabama was able to enjoy a home-cooked meal with his family while staying with his daughter following a procedure to place a branch stent to repair a ruptured aortic aneurysm. (uth.edu)
  • On Dec. 10, Allgood had a stent replacement procedure at Memorial Hermann-Texas Medical Center, one of two options used to treat aortic aneurysms. (uth.edu)
  • The decision to use a less invasive stent procedure for Allgood was based on several factors, including his age, previous medical history, the anatomy of the aneurysm and the rupture. (uth.edu)
  • Medications to lower blood pressure are given, and aneurysms that are large or growing are repaired by either surgery or a procedure to insert a stent inside the aneurysm. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Because ISAT was a positive pragmatic trial, the interpretation of the trial results was that coiling should be adopted as the first-line treatment for ruptured lesions, for patients with the types of aneurysms included in ISAT, of which the great majority were small (≥10 mm) anterior circulation aneurysms. (centerwatch.com)
  • Endovascular treatment for ruptured aneurysms has now become first-line treatment in many centers (2), which may be appropriate for small, anterior circulation lesions, but there is no evidence to support this practice for the wide spectrum of non-ISAT patients and aneurysms. (centerwatch.com)
  • Further compounding the problem are the concerns that aneurysm coiling may not be as durable in the long-term as surgical clipping, leading many neurosurgeons to continue to clip most ruptured aneurysms in spite of ISAT results. (centerwatch.com)
  • The introduction of these devices allowed for the expansion of indications of EVT to include wide-necked aneurysms, lesions which would not have been included in ISAT. (centerwatch.com)
  • The wider spectrum of patients and aneurysms now considered for EVT may not all experience the same degree of benefit as seen in the original ISAT trial (4). (centerwatch.com)
  • Clinical results of the multicenter prospective Clarity registry show that when coiling is performed as first-intention treatment in a consecutive series of nonselected ruptured aneurysms by nonselected operators, clinical results are similar to those of the ISAT. (nih.gov)
  • Further studies regarding the characteristics of ruptured and unruptured VSIA patients is required for assistance in clinical decision related to treatment of VSIA group before the aneurysmal sac rupture. (the-jcen.org)
  • This case-control study analyzed the demographics of patients with IAs and the morphological Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) characteristics of ruptured and unruptured IAs. (hippokratia.gr)
  • From 12 different centers, 13 cases of delayed postprocedural aneurysm rupture were recorded and analyzed. (ajnr.org)
  • In the last decade, endovascular coiling has become first-line treatment for aneurysms at most centers in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • Stroke is a serious cerebrovascular condition in which brain cells die due to an abrupt blockage of arteries supplying blood and oxygen or when a blood vessel bursts or ruptures and causes bleeding in the brain. (easychair.org)
  • A stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain has been blocked or when there is a ruptured blood vessel in the brain. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • A CT scan would reveal what actually happened to James that morning: He had bleeding in his brain due to a ruptured aneurysm (a weakened area of a blood vessel). (ucdavis.edu)
  • The emergency medicine team at the New Milford Hospital Arnold Emergency Department ordered a CT scan and a CTA scan - a type of imaging used to evaluate and diagnose blood vessel conditions, such as aneurysms or blockages that could cause a stroke. (nuvancehealth.org)
  • If a brain aneurysm is unruptured, no blood has broken through the blood vessel walls. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Under a surgical microscope, an aneurysm looks like a bubble or blister in a blood vessel. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • When aneurysm location was considered, the 6-year results continued to match the previously reported results, with no difference in outcome for anterior circulation aneurysms at most time points. (nih.gov)
  • Although BRAT was statistically underpowered to detect small differences, these results suggest little difference in outcome between the 2 treatments for anterior circulation aneurysms. (nih.gov)
  • The maximal aneurysm diameter is adequately assessed by using B-mode ultrasonography, CT scanning, and MRI. (medscape.com)
  • Small platinum coils, about the diameter of hairs, are then released into the aneurysm until the dome is full. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • Mean aneurysm diameter was 22 ± 6 mm. (ajnr.org)
  • The aneurysm was near giant, measuring 19 millimeters at its widest diameter. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The rupture rate of aneu- data from the medical records of patients with diagnosed unrup- rysms that were 10 mm or more in diameter was less tured intracranial aneurysms and a prospective component based than 1 percent per year in both groups, but in group on data from patients with newly diagnosed unruptured intracra- 1, the rate was 6 percent the first year for giant an- dnoiavl aasncueularry spmrosc terdeuatreds. (pdfroom.com)
  • either conservatively or by surgical or en- eurysms (»25 mm in diameter). (pdfroom.com)
  • SWWi,e bReorcs,h eastt ethr,e M ISNU 5IA5 9C0o5.or- tured intracranial aneurysms smaller than 10 mm in *The institutions and investigators participating in the study are listed in diameter. (pdfroom.com)
  • Small aneurysms are less than 11 millimeters in diameter (about the size of a large pencil eraser). (nih.gov)
  • Giant aneurysms are greater than 25 millimeters in diameter (more than the width of a quarter). (nih.gov)
  • Angiographically, smaller diameter (p =0.01), abnormal morphology (p =0.0001), and co-existence of CWV (p =0.016) were reported in ruptured IAs. (hippokratia.gr)
  • The wide-necked saccular/fusiform aneurysm arose from the lateral aspect of the right V 4 segment just proximal to the PICA origin, anterior to the jugular tubercle at the level of the hypoglossal canal. (thejns.org)
  • For subgroup analysis, LVIS stents were associated with a significantly higher rate of complete occlusion ( P = 0.014) and a lower rate of intraprocedural rupture ( p = 0.021). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, studies on aneurysm occlusion, recurrence, and procedural complication rates of SAC treatment for ruptured tiny intracranial aneurysms were limited and heterogeneous ( 9 , 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • CLINICAL IMPACT: This multicenter study demonstrates that ruptured aortoiliac aneurysms do not necessarily require mandatory occlusion of hypogastric arteries. (lu.se)
  • Of the anterior circulation aneurysms assigned to coiling treatment, 42% (70/168) were crossed over to clipping treatment. (nih.gov)
  • A study limitation was the high selection bias with regard to treatment of higher risk aneurysms in the reviewed research. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Below, we discuss the causes of these brain conditions, how doctors accurately diagnose brain aneurysms, and the various treatment options available for individuals with these conditions. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • Another treatment option is coiling, a technique used to block blood flow to the aneurysm and keep it from rupturing. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • To evaluate the morbidity and mortality of coiling when used as first-choice treatment in a consecutive population of patients with ruptured aneurysms treated by nonselected operators. (nih.gov)
  • 3 Surgical treatment of VA-PICA aneurysms can be difficult given the location of these aneurysms to the brainstem and lower cranial nerves. (thejns.org)
  • Controls were matched for age, treatment group, number of lesion, sex, region and study period in which the incidence of ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysm was equivalently balanced. (bmj.com)
  • Notably, the unique structural characteristics of tiny intracranial aneurysms, such as very small size, thin aneurysm wall, and relatively wide neck, make it difficult and challenging for both clipping and endovascular treatment ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • With the advances in neuroimaging and endovascular devices, several recent studies corroborated comparable effectiveness and better prognosis when using endovascular treatment as compared to microsurgical clipping ( 5 , 6 ) for ruptured tiny intracranial aneurysms. (frontiersin.org)
  • The safety and efficacy of SAC in the treatment of ruptured tiny intracranial aneurysms need to be further investigated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Endovascular treatment of wide-neck intracranial aneurysms remains a technically challenging procedure due to the risk of coil protrusion into the parent artery and subsequent thrombus formation or parent vessel compromise. (ajnr.org)
  • Symptom, aneurysm location and morphology, and the time elapsed from treatment until rupture were analyzed. (ajnr.org)
  • in 3 patients, rupture occurred 3-5 months after treatment. (ajnr.org)
  • 1 , 2 Although long-term follow-up data are not yet available, promising experience is accumulating for treatment of such aneurysms. (ajnr.org)
  • In all cases, treatment was performed with the intention to cure a large or giant wide-neck saccular or fusiform intracranial aneurysm otherwise difficult to treat, and flow diversion was judged to be the most appropriate treatment option (On-line Table). (ajnr.org)
  • Therefore, history of hypertension, cigarette smoking, female sex, age and positive family history should be considered in the assessment of treatment of un-ruptured intracranial aneurysms. (banglajol.info)
  • To assess the literature regarding WEB treatment of these aneurysms, we performed a comprehensive systematic search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. (bmj.com)
  • When assessing the risk of rupture of UIAs in women, this higher risk should be taken into account and a more aggressive treatment approach in women as compared to men is justified. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Roughly 50% of people who experience ruptured brain aneurysms will die within two weeks, even with the best possible treatment. (lisafoundation.org)
  • Background: Because not much is known about the long-term results of surgical treatment of ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (RSVA), we reviewed our entire 37-year experience with this condition. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Conclusion For ruptured aneurysms not amenable to other treatment strategies, the use of flow diversion may allow for reasonably high rates of good clinical outcomes, particularly in small aneurysms. (bmj.com)
  • Ancient Greek, Egyptian, and Arabic literature all have references to intracranial aneurysms, but the first successful treatment was reported in the early 19th century. (medscape.com)
  • Endovascular therapy for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms was pioneered in the mid-1970s by Serbinenko at the Moscow Institute of Neurosurgery. (medscape.com)
  • In 1995, GDCs gained approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of aneurysms that have the potential for high surgical morbidity and mortality. (medscape.com)
  • however, the optimal management of more difficult-to-coil ruptured aneurysms remains unclear. (centerwatch.com)
  • The GDC is a radiopaque platinum coil that is delivered through a microcatheter into an aneurysm, which then is detached by electrolysis. (medscape.com)
  • When a section of one of the brain's blood vessels bulges or balloons, it's called an aneurysm. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A fusiform aneurysm balloons or bulges out on all sides of the artery. (nih.gov)
  • Blood vessels may develop bulges (aneurysm) and weak spots, making them more likely to rupture or clog. (who.int)
  • The outcomes for posterior circulation aneurysms continued to favor coiling. (nih.gov)
  • The randomization process was unexpectedly skewed, with 18 of 21 treated aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) being assigned to clipping, but even when PICA aneurysms were removed from the analysis, outcomes for the posterior circulation aneurysms still favored coiling. (nih.gov)
  • However, it does not provide independent prediction of aneurysm expansion or clinical outcomes in a model incorporating known clinical risk factors. (ed.ac.uk)
  • To foster a national dialogue and understanding around Brain Aneurysms and drive better patient outcomes through pioneering education, research, and support. (lisafoundation.org)
  • Aneurysm size greater than 7 mm was associated with more unfavorable clinical outcomes (p = 0.03). (bmj.com)
  • These results have implications for management of ruptured intracranial aneurysms and more generally for interpretation of the outcomes of clinical trials that use the modified Rankin Scale. (ox.ac.uk)
  • USPIO enhancement was associated with reduced event-free survival for aneurysm rupture or repair ( P =0.0275), all-cause mortality ( P =0.0635), and aneurysm-related mortality ( P =0.0590). (ed.ac.uk)
  • This report describes a In the prospective component, we assessed treat- large multicenter study that was conducted to deter- ment-related morbidity and mortality in 1172 pa- mine the risk of rupture and the risks associated with tients with newly diagnosed unruptured intracranial the repair of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. (pdfroom.com)
  • The risk of morbidity and mortality related to surgery greatly exceeded the 7.5-year risk of rupture among patients in group 1 with unrup- dinAadtidnrge sCs erenpterri,n tM raeyqou eCstlisn tico, D20r.0 D Fairvsitd SOt. (pdfroom.com)
  • The mortality of AAA rupture is high, 65-75% of patients die before they arrive at hospital and up to 90% die before they reach the operating room. (springeropen.com)
  • Ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are frequently associated with high morbidity and mortality among survivors 1-3 . (hippokratia.gr)
  • Identifying IAs prone to rupture is essential in reducing SAH-related mortality and establishing standard clinical practice guidelines 2,5 . (hippokratia.gr)
  • The authors assessed the predictive risk factors associated with aneurysmal rupture based on the clinical and angiographic findings reported in the patients' medical records. (bmj.com)
  • Women have a greater risk of aneurysmal rupture compared with men, and this risk is not explained by differences in patient- and aneurysm-related risk factors, according to study findings published in the journal Stroke . (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Researchers hypothesize a higher prevalence of patient- or aneurysm-related risk factors for aneurysmal rupture in women may account for the higher risk of aneurysmal rupture in this patient population. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Our results show that UIAs in women have a higher rupture risk than UIAs in men, which is not explained by differences in patient- and aneurysm-related risk factors for aneurysmal rupture, being risk factors of the PHASES score, smoking, and a positive family history for aSAH," the researchers stated. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • These types of aneurysms are usually detected during imaging tests for other medical conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical and radiologic findings are consistent with a diagnosis of contained AAA rupture with left retroperitoneal hematoma. (medscape.com)
  • Because the pseudoaneurysm ruptured subacutely and the haemodynamic, clinical, and echocardiographic signs were not consistent, diagnosis of the cardiac rupture was delayed. (bmj.com)
  • A high index of clinical suspicion of ruptured AAA should be maintained in elderly patients presenting with history of syncope. (springeropen.com)
  • The clinical manifestation of ruptured AAA can include low back pain, flank, abdominal or groin pain, which usually leads to hypovolaemic shock and altered mental status. (springeropen.com)
  • Note that this systematic review of the literature suggests that small, unruptured intracerebral aneurysms of less than 7 mm are unlikely to grow and rupture. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Numerous nuanced approaches have been used to access posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms for microsurgical clipping. (thejns.org)
  • The risk factors for growth appeared to be consistent with those for rupture, according to the authors, noting that predictors of rupture risk in UIAs 5 mm and smaller may include initial aneurysm size, posterior circulation and anterior communicating artery location, and size ratio . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Currently, the main predictors of rupture risk are the Dmax, sex, and the expansion rate of the aneurysm. (umontreal.ca)
  • AAA rupture is an important cause of unheralded deaths in people older than 55 years. (medscape.com)
  • A doctor may perform a surgical clipping, a technique that cuts off blood supply to the brain to prevent it either from rupturing or to control bleeding if a rupture has already occurred. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • 2 In the case of PICA aneurysms deemed appropriate for surgical intervention and located at the skull base, the anatomy of the jugular tubercle, hypoglossal canal, and all of the lower cranial nerves must be considered. (thejns.org)
  • Waldau had hoped he could clip the aneurysm, a type of microsurgery in which a metal surgical clip is used to close off an aneurysm in the brain. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The swelling blocked the surgical corridor to the aneurysm," Waldau said. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Computed tomography angiograms demonstrated the size and configuration of the aneurysm, and 3D reconstructions revealed the tortuosity of the right VA, defining its location just left of the midline adjacent to the lower clivus. (thejns.org)
  • Computed tomography angiography with volume rendering and interactive software capabilities can help identify the relationship of such an aneurysm to an individual's particular skull base osseous anatomy and is paramount in selecting the optimal microsurgical approach. (thejns.org)
  • It is possible for a small aneurysm to remain intact and never rupture, but it is just as likely for it to grow and rupture with devastating results. (lisafoundation.org)
  • UK small aneurysm trial participants. (springeropen.com)
  • Then we were able to perform a microsurgical clipping of the aneurysm," Waldau said. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Aneurysm obliteration rates in BRAT were significantly lower and retreatment rates significantly higher in the patients undergoing coiling than in those undergoing clipping. (nih.gov)
  • Out of 26 full-text articles, only 10 reported both growth and rupture rates, and many excluded patients considered to be at high risk for rupture. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In 14 studies, follow-up didn't account for patients with more than one aneurysm. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Only a small proportion of patients (22%) with ruptured aneurysms were included in that trial. (nih.gov)
  • Results Between January 1997 and December 2002, 167 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms were assigned to group 1, and 123 patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms during the same period were assigned to group 2. (bmj.com)
  • Among patients with ruptured aneurysms, 6.2-15.1% are tiny intracranial aneurysms ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Patients with ruptured aneurysms were not pretreated with antiplatelet medication but received intravenous aspirin during the procedure. (ajnr.org)
  • In ruptured aneurysms, 9 of 45 patients had thromboembolic complications. (ajnr.org)
  • In 46 patients with 47 unruptured aneurysms, thromboembolic complications occurred in 2. (ajnr.org)
  • No first-time hemorrhages occurred in 46 patients with 47 aneurysms during 6 months of follow-up. (ajnr.org)
  • Compared with those without uptake, patients with USPIO enhancement have increased rates of aneurysm expansion (3.1±2.5 versus 2.5±2.4 mm/year, P =0.0424), although this was not independent of current smoking habit ( P =0.1993). (ed.ac.uk)
  • 727 of the patients had do not rupture. (pdfroom.com)
  • Brown LC, Powell JT (1999) Risk factors for aneurysm rupture in patients kept under ultrasound surveillance. (springeropen.com)
  • Aneurysms originated in the right (n=24) and noncoronary (n=7) sinuses and entered the right ventricle in 21 patients and the right atrium in 10. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Half of all patients with ruptured AAA do not survive long enough to reach the emergency room. (lakewashingtonvascular.com)
  • Clearly, our emphasis for our patients is to fix an aneurysm before it ruptures . (lakewashingtonvascular.com)
  • Should ADPKD Patients Be Screened for Hidden Aneurysms? (medscape.com)
  • For patients with polycystic kidney disease, screening for brain aneurysms can identify hidden lesions, although knowing that a patient has an aneurysm does not change their management, nor does that fact affect screening recommendations, a single-center review suggests. (medscape.com)
  • They found that brain aneurysms were detected during presymptomatic screening in 9% of patients with ADPKD, more frequently in those with a history of hypertension and smoking. (medscape.com)
  • Very few patients experienced aneurysmal ruptures, but the overall rupture rate was approximately five times higher than in the general population. (medscape.com)
  • Our approach has been to recommend screening for patients with ADPKD who have a family history of aneurysm. (medscape.com)
  • We also recommend screening to patients with ADPKD before major elective surgeries (including transplantation), those with high risk occupations [in whom rupture would place the lives of others at risk], and those who after being properly informed on the available data wish to be screened for reassurance," said senior author Vicente Torres, MD, PhD, also of the Mayo Clinic, in a press release issued by the American Society of Nephrology. (medscape.com)
  • We educate our patients on the importance of correcting conditions that have been associated with aneurysmal development and/or rupture, particularly smoking and inadequately controlled hypertension. (medscape.com)
  • An aneurysm was identified in 9% of patients who underwent screening. (medscape.com)
  • Patients who were identified as having an intracranial aneurysm were also more likely to be hypertensive and to report a history of smoking than those who did not have an aneurysm. (medscape.com)
  • There were no differences in sex, age, race, or genotype between patients with and those without an aneurysm, the researchers note. (medscape.com)
  • During a mean follow-up of 8 years, the investigators identified de novo aneurysms in five patients in whom an aneurysm had been previously detected. (medscape.com)
  • two patients for whom no aneurysm was detected on initial screening suffered a rupture. (medscape.com)
  • One hundred and three patients with ruptured and eighty-six patients with unruptured IAs were studied. (hippokratia.gr)
  • The female-to-male ratio was 1.78 in ruptured and 2.44 in unruptured IAs (p =0.317), while the rupture was more frequent in younger patients (p =0.034). (hippokratia.gr)
  • This prospective study included adult patients with ruptured or unruptured saccular IAs treated with endovascular coiling at the Department of Neurosurgery and Neuroendovascular Surgery of the 401 Army General Hospital in Athens from 01/01/2015 until 31/12/2017. (hippokratia.gr)
  • This association seems incidental, but is clinically significant since the preoperative determination of the bleeding point is difficult.We conclude that these two lesions should be treated simultaneously, to avoid leaving the ruptured point untreated. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The time course of this healing process is as yet unclear, and there likely exist individual differences, influenced by factors including the type of FD and resultant flow change, parent vessel geometry, aneurysm size and morphology, and blood coagulation parameters. (ajnr.org)
  • Of the aneurysms identified on MRA, 85% were located in the anterior circulation. (medscape.com)
  • Treated aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation in 64% (81/126) cases and 36% (45/126) in the posterior circulation. (bmj.com)
  • Many people who have brain aneurysms have no symptoms at all or only subtle symptoms that come and go, often dismissed as minor health issues. (lisafoundation.org)
  • However, when a brain aneurysm begins to rupture, it can lead to a very sudden onset of severe symptoms. (lisafoundation.org)
  • Some individuals experience less severe symptoms that gradually increase in frequency and severity as a brain aneurysm slowly ruptures. (lisafoundation.org)
  • When a brain aneurysm begins to rupture, these symptoms can escalate dramatically, and the victim will usually experience a WHOL or even a complete loss of consciousness. (lisafoundation.org)
  • An unruptured brain aneurysm may cause no symptoms. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Small unchanging aneurysms generally will not produce symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • We have presented a case of ruptured aneurysm of sinus of valsalva , in a female of 24 years old, with the symptoms and signs of right heart failure . (bvsalud.org)
  • How Frequently Do Small Brain Aneurysms Rupture? (medpagetoday.com)
  • These types of injuries can cause different medical conditions, including brain aneurysms and strokes. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • While brain aneurysms and strokes both have the potential to be debilitating, they are two completely different things. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • On the other hand, a brain aneurysm is the result of an artery wall that has been weakened due to constant pressure from blood flow. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • If a brain aneurysm is not properly treated, the pressure can lead to an aneurysm rupture. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • If an aneurysm ruptures, it can leak blood into the space around the brain. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • Because of this, it's incredibly important for doctors to accurately diagnose aneurysms in the brain. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • A patient is placed on a table that slides into a CT scanner and images are taken of the blood vessels to look for abnormalities such as brain aneurysms. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • Once a doctor diagnoses a patient with a brain aneurysm, the goal is to prevent a rupture by treating the pressure or leaking of the aneurysm. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • During a craniotomy, a neurosurgeon will create an opening in the skull to reach the aneurysm in the brain. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • Sadly, many individuals who suffer from brain aneurysms are injured due to a doctor's failure to diagnose. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • If you believe that you sustained a brain aneurysm or another serious brain injury as the result of medical negligence, you need seasoned and aggressive legal representation. (kornfeldlaw.com)
  • The occurrence of a brain aneurysm associated with this anatomic variant is an even rare event, and probably their development and rupture are related to hemodynamic stress of the tinny wall of vessels forming the network. (iasp-pain.org)
  • James spent 52 days at UC Davis Children's Hospital, recovering after a ruptured aneurysm in the brain. (ucdavis.edu)
  • I could not initially approach the aneurysm because the intracranial pressure was elevated, and his brain was significantly swollen. (ucdavis.edu)
  • He would later learn he had a large brain aneurysm - a bulging or weakening of an artery wall - in the paraopthalmic artery. (nuvancehealth.org)
  • I was in denial about having a brain aneurysm. (nuvancehealth.org)
  • Brain aneurysms often remain undetected for a long time. (lisafoundation.org)
  • Most brain aneurysms develop in the arteries in the space between the surface of the brain and the skull. (lisafoundation.org)
  • Unfortunately, statistics paint a fairly grim picture when it comes to survival rates from ruptured brain aneurysms. (lisafoundation.org)
  • Those who manage to survive ruptured brain aneurysms generally experience permanent brain damage, which may entail some degree of physical or mental impairment. (lisafoundation.org)
  • Only a small percentage of people who experience brain aneurysm ruptures will return to their pre-event level of physical and mental function. (lisafoundation.org)
  • A brain aneurysm causes an intense increase in pressure that the brain simply cannot withstand. (lisafoundation.org)
  • Another layer of complexity surrounding brain aneurysms is that there is really no way to tell whether a brain aneurysm will rupture in the future. (lisafoundation.org)
  • Ultimately, it is impossible to say one way or another whether any brain aneurysm could rupture in the future. (lisafoundation.org)
  • A ruptured aneurysm can be devastating, but as long as the brain is alive, it can learn. (lisafoundation.org)
  • The Lisa Foundation, a 501 (c)(3), is the leading private funder of Brain Aneurysm initiatives that directly or indirectly support awareness, education, research, and survivor support in the U.S. (lisafoundation.org)
  • If you or someone you love has been diagnosed with a brain aneurysm you probably want to learn more about brain aneurysm basics. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • What is a brain aneurysm? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A ruptured aneurysm , sometimes called a brain bleed, is when blood breaks through the aneurysm's wall and starts bleeding. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Once a brain aneurysm bleeds, or ruptures, it requires immediate medical care in a medical center designed to handle emergencies. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • If you think you are experiencing a ruptured brain aneurysm, dial 911 immediately . (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • For unruptured brain aneurysms, doctors will treat aneurysms that are more likely to bleed and leave certain others alone. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This type makes up the majority of brain aneurysms diagnosed today. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Unlike saccular, these aneurysms tend to form outside the brain and can develop in blood vessels in many different parts of the body. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • How common are brain aneurysms? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Brain aneurysms are relatively rare. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • That means around 3 out of every 100 people in the general population have a brain aneurysm. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The bulging aneurysm can put pressure on the nerves or brain tissue. (nih.gov)
  • A ruptured aneurysm can cause serious health problems such as hemorrhagic stroke, brain damage, coma, and even death. (nih.gov)
  • Sometimes an aneurysm may leak a small amount of blood into the brain (called a sentinel bleed). (nih.gov)
  • A mycotic aneurysm occurs as the result of an infection that can sometimes affect the arteries in the brain. (nih.gov)
  • Brain aneurysms can occur in anyone and at any age. (nih.gov)
  • There have been 12 brain tumour cases that have been reported in the literature that describe an aneurysm within a brain tumour, with 4 of these tumours being meningiomas. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • The death certificate (completed by the attending physician) listed "brain death due to brain aneurysm" as the cause of death. (cdc.gov)
  • The neurovascular interdisciplinary team jointly discussed the early obliteration procedure for each aneurysm. (neurosurgery-blog.com)
  • He also said the risk of a rupture goes up depending on the aneurysm's size. (uth.edu)