Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Aneurysm, Infected: Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Aortic Aneurysm: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Iliac Aneurysm: Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any one of the iliac arteries including the common, the internal, or the external ILIAC ARTERY.Coronary Aneurysm: Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Aortic Rupture: The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the AORTA, such as thoracic or abdominal. It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Endovascular Procedures: Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Sinus of Valsalva: The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.Endoleak: Postoperative hemorrhage from an endovascular AORTIC ANEURYSM repaired with endoluminal placement of stent grafts (BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION). It is associated with pressurization, expansion, and eventual rupture of the aneurysm.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Aortitis: Inflammation of the wall of the AORTA.Mesenteric Artery, Inferior: The artery supplying nearly all the left half of the transverse colon, the whole of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the greater part of the rectum. It is smaller than the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) and arises from the aorta above its bifurcation into the common iliac arteries.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Platinum: Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Retreatment: The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome: An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Vascular Fistula: An abnormal passage between two or more BLOOD VESSELS, between ARTERIES; VEINS; or between an artery and a vein.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Marfan Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Maxillary Artery: A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)ElastinCoated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Constriction: The act of constricting.Mechanical Thrombolysis: Procedures to cause the disintegration of THROMBI by physical interventions.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Vascular Grafting: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump: Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis: Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Elastic Tissue: Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Arterio-Arterial Fistula: Abnormal communication between two ARTERIES that may result from injury or occur as a congenital abnormality.Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Arteritis: INFLAMMATION of any ARTERIES.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Aortic Coarctation: A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.Replantation: Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.
  • Bronchial Artery Aneurysm (BAA) is a rare entity, reported in less than 1% of all selective bronchial arteriograms [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Among various diseases presenting with massive haemoptysis, a ruptured bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA) is a rare entity. (bmj.com)
  • We finally studied the angiographic evolution of canine lateral wall carotid aneurysms treated with 1 or 2 stents of various activity levels positioned inside the parent artery across the neck. (ahajournals.org)
  • We also compared radioactive and nonradioactive stents positioned inside the parent artery at the level of canine lateral wall aneurysms to assess whether the presence of an "electron fence" 3 emitted from the stent wires at the neck would be sufficient to cause permanent neck closure. (ahajournals.org)
  • A parent artery is a medical term to describe an artery from which another artery originates. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Because of the high mortality associated with rupture, it is important that visceral aneurysms are taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of unexplained abdominal pain. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1 These aneurysms comprise 1% of all aneurysms and 22% of all visceral aneurysms. (hcplive.com)
  • There are only few reviews concerning visceral aneurysms in cirrhotics, and a small number of papers on visceral aneurysms in liver transplant patients. (plos.org)
  • Visceral aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms after liver transplantation (LT) represent a rare disease but the overall number of studied liver transplanted patients so far is very small. (plos.org)
  • The aim of this study is to examine separately the visceral aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms treated in our unit over the past 10 years in two different groups of patients: patients with end-stage liver diseases - considered as representatives of patients with cirrhosis, even though at an advanced stage - and patients who underwent a LT. (plos.org)
  • Starting with a review of the published literature on this subject, we tried to identify the actual prevalence of visceral aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms, the possible causes of their development in these two groups of patients, and their correct treatment. (plos.org)
  • in these patients we calculated the pre-LT incidence of visceral aneurysms. (plos.org)
  • We considered the visceral aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms in adult patients after the first LT. The LT itself was considered the main inclusion criteria for this part of the study, indipendently of the primary patology. (plos.org)
  • In these cases, electrically detachable coils have proven to provide superior outcomes in aneurysms left to medical management alone. (nih.gov)
  • Platinum coils are used which initiate a clotting effect in the aneurysm. (brain-surgery.com)
  • 1 We proposed to embolize aneurysms with coils ion-implanted with a predetermined linear activity of 32 P. 1,2 In addition to the aforementioned fundamental questions, this strategy raises practical issues: Should beta radiation be applied to the endothelium, to the vessel wall, or to the clot that forms over the surface and within the mesh of coils? (ahajournals.org)