Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Tetraploidy: The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.Triploidy: Polyploidy with three sets of chromosomes. Triploidy in humans are 69XXX, 69XXY, and 69XYY. It is associated with HOLOPROSENCEPHALY; ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; and MISCARRAGES.Preimplantation Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.Aneugens: Agents which affect CELL DIVISION and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS resulting in the loss or gain of whole CHROMOSOMES, thereby inducing an ANEUPLOIDY.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Abnormal Karyotype: A variation from the normal set of chromosomes characteristic of a species.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Noscapine: A naturally occurring opium alkaloid that is a centrally acting antitussive agent.Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Thalictrum: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain isoquinoline alkaloids and triterpene glycosides.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Cleome: A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains cleogynol and 15alpha-acetoxycleomblynol (dammaranes) and 1-epibrachyacarpone (a triterpene), and ISOTHIOCYANATES.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Endoreduplication: A type of nuclear polyploidization in which multiple cycles of DNA REPLICATION occur in the absence of CELL DIVISION and result in a POLYPLOID CELL.Polar Bodies: Minute cells produced during development of an OOCYTE as it undergoes MEIOSIS. A polar body contains one of the nuclei derived from the first or second meiotic CELL DIVISION. Polar bodies have practically no CYTOPLASM. They are eventually discarded by the oocyte. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Genes, Duplicate: Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Genes, Chloroplast: Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.Mad2 Proteins: Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Portulacaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. There are no true petals; each flower has two to six sepals. They produce betacyanin and betaxanthin pigments and lack anthocyanins.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Tragopogon: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The root and shoots have been used for food.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.XYY Karyotype: Abnormal genetic constitution in males characterized by an extra Y chromosome.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Klinefelter Syndrome: A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Apomixis: Asexual reproduction resulting in the formation of viable seeds from FLOWERS without fertlization (i.e. use of POLLEN). Progeny plants produced from apomictic seeds are perfect clones of the parent.Onagraceae: The evening primrose plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Flower parts are mostly in fours and the ovary is inferior.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Sex Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Primed In Situ Labeling: A technique that labels specific sequences in whole chromosomes by in situ DNA chain elongation or PCR (polymerase chain reaction).Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Reproductive Isolation: Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Oligospermia: A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Gametogenesis, Plant: The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.Spectral Karyotyping: The simultaneous identification of all chromosomes from a cell by fluorescence in situ hybridization (IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION, FLUORESCENCE) with chromosome-specific florescent probes that are discerned by their different emission spectra.Maternal Serum Screening Tests: Analysis of the level of specific BIOMARKERS in a pregnant woman's sera to identify those at risk for PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS or BIRTH DEFECTS.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Acanthaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Rosa: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.Dipsacaceae: A plant family of the order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes called the teasel family.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Ecotype: Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.p-Fluorophenylalanine: 3-(p-Fluorophenyl)-alanine.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Image Cytometry: A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Tetrasomy: The possession of four chromosomes of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Cyclin D3: A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Thysanoptera: An order of very small, fringed-wing INSECTS including many agricultural pests.Nuchal Translucency Measurement: A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Polyploidy and aneuploidy are common phenomena in cancer cells. Given that oncogenesis and endoreplication likely involve ... Storchova Z; Pellman D (2004). "From polyploidy to aneuploidy, genome instability and cancer". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell ... Orr-Weaver, Terry L. "When bigger is better: the role of polyploidy in organogenesis". Trends in Genetics. 31 (6): 307-315. doi ... Ravid K; Lu J; Zimmet JM; Jones MR (2002). "Roads to polyploidy: The megakaryocyte example". Journal of Cell Physiology. 190: 7 ...
PMC 125866 . PMID 11847097 Storchova, Z.; Pellman, D. (2004). "From polyploidy to aneuploidy, genome instability and cancer". ...
Copy-number variation Dosage compensation Genetic association Polyploidy, Aneuploidy Leland H. Hartwell; et al. (2011), ...
Numerical variation in whole chromosomes or genomes can be either polyploidy or aneuploidy. A variety of factors maintain ... Polyploidy is an example of chromosomal mutation. Polyploidy is a condition wherein organisms have three or more sets of ...
Common sources of gene duplications include ectopic recombination, retrotransposition event, aneuploidy, polyploidy, and ... Aneuploidy occurs when nondisjunction at a single chromosome results in an abnormal number of chromosomes. Aneuploidy is often ... Aneuploidy often alters gene dosage in ways that are detrimental to the organism; therefore, it is unlikely to spread through ... Polyploidy is common in plants, but historically has also occurred in animals, with two rounds of whole genome duplication in ...
Subtribe Hippeastrinae (Clade B), by contrast has a variable chromosome number, x=6-11, with frequent aneuploidy and polyploidy ... Characterisation includes a haploid chromosome number, x=8, lack of polyploidy and a capitate stigma. ...
Polyploidy events will result in higher levels of heterozygosity, and, over time, can lead to an increase in the total number ... along with errors in meiosis that lead to aneuploidy, can create an environment where autopolyploidy is very likely. This fact ... A polyploidy event 160 million years ago is theorized to have created the ancestral line that led to all modern flowering ... Following polyploidy events, there are several possible fates for duplicated genes; both copies may be retained as functional ...
Typical genetic alterations are: changes in chromosome numbers (polyploidy and aneuploidy), chromosome structure ( ...
... the distinction between aneuploidy and polyploidy is that aneuploidy refers to a numerical change in part of the chromosome set ... Aneuploidy is more common. Polyploidy occurs in humans in the form of triploidy, with 69 chromosomes (sometimes called 69,XXX ... However, polyploidy is found in some organisms and is especially common in plants. In addition, polyploidy occurs in some ... whereas polyploidy refers to a numerical change in the whole set of chromosomes. Polyploidy may occur due to abnormal cell ...
... dosage compensation can occur when aberrant meiotic events or mutations result in either aneuploidy or polyploidy. Genes on the ... Mable B.K. (2004). "'Why polyploidy is rarer in animals than in plants': myths and mechanisms". Biological Journal of the ... Orr H.A. (1990). ""Why Polyploidy is Rarer in Animals Than in Plants" Revisited". The American Naturalist. 136 (6): 759-770. ...
"From polyploidy to aneuploidy, genome instability and cancer", Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 5 (1): 45-54, doi:10.1038/nrm1276, PMID ... Situations of genome instability (as well as aneuploidy) are common in cancer cells, and they are considered a "hallmark" for ... Also, chromosomal rearrangements and aneuploidy increase in humans defective in DNA repair gene BLM. A deficiency in DNA repair ... These mutations can include changes in nucleic acid sequences, chromosomal rearrangements or aneuploidy. Genome instability ...
... aneuploidy) or whole genomes (polyploidy). A classic view, owing to Susumu Ohno, is that duplication creates redundancy, and ...
Aneuploidy Antioxidant Budgerigar colour genetics Carcinogenesis Ecogenetics Embryology Frameshift mutation Homeobox Muller's ... morphs Mutagenesis Mutant Mutation rate Polyploidy Robertsonian translocation Saltation (biology) Signature-tagged mutagenesis ...
... polyploidy MeSH G13.810.200 --- sequence homology, amino acid MeSH G13.810.550 --- sequence homology, nucleic acid MeSH G13.810 ... aneuploidy MeSH G13.700.131.500 --- monosomy MeSH G13.700.131.750 --- trisomy MeSH G13.700.264 --- diploidy MeSH G13.700.456 ... aneuploidy MeSH G13.920.590.175.050.500 --- monosomy MeSH G13.920.590.175.050.750 --- trisomy MeSH G13.920.590.175.125 --- ...
... deletions and duplications Aneuploidy and polyploidy Structure Epigenetics C. Genomics Genome structure Physical mapping ...
The extreme in polyploidy occurs in the fern genus Ophioglossum, the adder's-tongues, in which polyploidy results in chromosome ... Aneuploidy is the state where one or more chromosomes of a normal set are missing or present in more than their usual number of ... Though polyploidy in humans is not viable, mixoploidy has been found in live adults and children. There are two types: diploid- ... Polyploidy occurs commonly in plants, but rarely in animals. Even in diploid organisms, many somatic cells are polyploid due to ...
Aneuploidy due to nondisjunction is a common feature in tumor cells. Some of the most frequent genetic disorders are ... Ahuja, MR; Neale DB (2002). "Origins of Polyploidy in Coast Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. DON) ENDL.) and Relationship of ... Aneuploids possess chromosome numbers that are not exact multiples of the haploid number and polysomy is a type of aneuploidy. ... 2000). An Introduction to Genetic Analysis: Aneuploidy (7th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman & Co. Retrieved 24 March 2014. [page ...
Kops GJ, Weaver BA, Cleveland DW (October 2005). "On the road to cancer: aneuploidy and the mitotic checkpoint". Nature Reviews ... Lee HO, Davidson JM, Duronio RJ (November 2009). "Endoreplication: polyploidy with purpose". Genes & Development. 23 (21): 2461 ... Aneuploidy Binary fission Chromosome abnormality Cytoskeleton Meiosis Mitogen Mitosis Promoting Factor Mitotic bookmarking ... Mantikou E, Wong KM, Repping S, Mastenbroek S (December 2012). "Molecular origin of mitotic aneuploidies in preimplantation ...
AneuploidyEdit. Aneuploidy is the condition in which the chromosome number in the cells is not the typical number for the ... 8: Polyploidy in animals". In Gregory, T. Ryan (ed.). The Evolution of the Genome. Academic Press. pp. 427-517. ISBN 978-0-08- ... Aneuploidy may also occur within a group of closely related species. Classic examples in plants are the genus Crepis, where the ... Polyploidy, where there are more than two sets of homologous chromosomes in the cells, occurs mainly in plants. It has been of ...
Increased aneuploidy is often associated with increased DNA damage in spermatozoa. Aneuploidy Chromosome segregation DNA ... Mendell JE; Clements KD; Choat JH; Angert ER (May 2008). "Extreme polyploidy in a large bacterium". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. ... Shi Q, Ko E, Barclay L, Hoang T, Rademaker A, Martin R (2001). "Cigarette smoking and aneuploidy in human sperm". Mol. Reprod. ... Governini L, Guerranti C, De Leo V, Boschi L, Luddi A, Gori M, Orvieto R, Piomboni P (2015). "Chromosomal aneuploidies and DNA ...
There is little more than a dicdef here; I propose moving the Haploidy, Diploidy, Haploidisation, Polyploidy, and Aneuploidy ... The explanation of aneuploidy higher up the page seems to be sufficient. Nadiatalent (talk) 12:44, 31 October 2010 (UTC). Germ ... Euploidy/aneuploidy can also be defined in terms of genomes (e.g. Kondrashov, AS. 1997. Evolutionary genetics of life cycles. ... The term "aneuploidy" refers to an abnormal numbers of nuclear chromosomes; extra-nuclear genomes are not counted. It's ...
PolyploidyEdit. Polyploidy occurs in cells and organisms when there are more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes. ... Aneuploidy, one or a few chromosomes more or less than the usual number in the species ... Polyploidy in animals. In The Evolution of the Genome ed T.R. Gregory. Elsevier, San Diego. 427-517. ... Polyploidy in plants. In The Evolution of the Genome ed T.R. Gregory. Elsevier, San Diego. 371-426. ...
Aneuploidy. *Euploidy. *Polyploidy. *Paleopolyploidy. *Polyploidization. Structures. *Telomere: Telomere-binding protein (TINF2 ...
Aneuploidy. *Euploidy. *Polyploidy. *Paleopolyploidy. *Polyploidization. Structures. *Telomere: Telomere-binding protein (TINF2 ...
Aneuploidy. *Euploidy. *Polyploidy. *Paleopolyploidy. *Polyploidization. Structures. *Telomere: Telomere-binding protein (TINF2 ...
... of 28 cases of mosaic polyploidy detected on CVS, fetal mosaicism was confirmed in only one case. This is compared to marker ... "The predictive value of findings of the common aneuploidies, trisomies 13, 18 and 21, and numerical sex chromosome ...
Aneuploidy, polyploidy and ploidy reversal in the liver.. Duncan AW1.. Author information. 1. Department of Pathology, McGowan ... Aneuploidy in the liver is pervasive, affecting 60% of hepatocytes in mice and 30-90% of hepatocytes in humans. Polyploidy and ... Polyploidy has been described in the liver for over 100 years. The frequency of polyploid hepatocytes varies by age and species ... New evidence suggests that random hepatic aneuploidy can promote adaptation to liver injury. For instance, in response to ...
Activation of the human FP prostanoid receptor disrupts mitosis progression and generates aneuploidy and polyploidy. / Chen, X ... Activation of the human FP prostanoid receptor disrupts mitosis progression and generates aneuploidy and polyploidy. Cellular ... keywords = "Aneuploidy, Cdc2, Cell cycle, Cyclin B1, Cytokinesis, FP prostanoid receptor, Polyploidy, RhoA", ... Defective cytokinesis was also observed which resulted in gross aneuploidy and polyploidy. Expression of dominant negative Rho ...
Todd RT, Forche A, Selmecki A. Ploidy variation in fungi: Polyploidy, aneuploidy, and genome evolution. Microbiology spectrum. ... Todd, R. T., Forche, A., & Selmecki, A. (2017). Ploidy variation in fungi: Polyploidy, aneuploidy, and genome evolution. ... Todd, RT, Forche, A & Selmecki, A 2017, Ploidy variation in fungi: Polyploidy, aneuploidy, and genome evolution, Microbiology ... Ploidy variation in fungi : Polyploidy, aneuploidy, and genome evolution. In: Microbiology spectrum. 2017 ; Vol. 5, No. 4. ...
Polyploidy and aneuploidy are common phenomena in cancer cells. Given that oncogenesis and endoreplication likely involve ... Storchova Z; Pellman D (2004). "From polyploidy to aneuploidy, genome instability and cancer". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell ... Orr-Weaver, Terry L. "When bigger is better: the role of polyploidy in organogenesis". Trends in Genetics. 31 (6): 307-315. doi ... Ravid K; Lu J; Zimmet JM; Jones MR (2002). "Roads to polyploidy: The megakaryocyte example". Journal of Cell Physiology. 190: 7 ...
PMC 125866 . PMID 11847097 Storchova, Z.; Pellman, D. (2004). "From polyploidy to aneuploidy, genome instability and cancer". ...
Aneuploidy, Polyploidy, and Cancer Dana-Farber Cancer Institute * Norbert Perrimon, PhD Investigator Communication Between ...
Aneuploidy, Polyploidy, and Cancer Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA Sue Biggins, PhD Investigator Structure and Function ...
Aneuploidy, Polyploidy, and Cancer Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA Todd Golub, MD Investigator Cancer Genomics Dana- ... Causes and Consequences of Aneuploidy Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA Darrell Irvine, PhD Investigator ...
Chromosome studies in the genus Carex with special reference to aneuploidy and polyploidy. Cytologia 15: 15-29.Google Scholar ... Aneuploidy and polyploidy in Carex. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 26: 137-145.Google Scholar ... The problem of aneuploidy (Chromosome studies in Cyperaceae, with special reference to the problem of aneuploidy). Biological ... Polyploidy, ecology and the British Flora. J. Ecol. 40: 265-282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Polyploidy, Aneuploidy & Genome Stability. David Pellman, MD, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. 4:45 PM. DNA Repair and ... Guarding the Genome: Centromeres, Aneuploidy, and Tumorigenesis. Don Cleveland, PhD, University of California San Diego. 2:45 ...
Drug-induced aneuploidy and polyploidy is a mechanism of disease relapse in MYC/BCL2-addicted diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. ... Drug-induced aneuploidy and polyploidy is a mechanism of disease relapse in MYC/BCL2-addicted diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. / ... Drug-induced aneuploidy and polyploidy is a mechanism of disease relapse in MYC/BCL2-addicted diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In ... Drug-induced aneuploidy and polyploidy is a mechanism of disease relapse in MYC/BCL2-addicted diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. ...
In humans, polyploidy often occurs in specific tissues as part of terminal differentiation. Changes in ploidy can also result ... Polyploidy, an increased number of chromosome sets, is a surprisingly common phenomenon in nature, particularly in plants and ... The Consequences of Tetraploidy and Aneuploidy J Cell Sci. 2008 Dec 1;121(Pt 23):3859-66. doi: 10.1242/jcs.039537. ... In humans, polyploidy often occurs in specific tissues as part of terminal differentiation. Changes in ploidy can also result ...
Abnormal Phenotypes Due to Autosomal Aneuploidy or Polyploidy. Pages 175-185. Miller, Orlando J. (et al.) ...
Polyploidy, aneuploidy, and haploidy Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline. February 27, 2020. ...
From polyploidy to aneuploidy, genome instability and cancer. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 5:45-54. View this article via: ... Tetraploidy, aneuploidy and cancer. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 17:151-162. View this article via: CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar ... Hepatic polyploidy and liver growth control. Semin. Cancer Biol. 10:161-171. View this article via: CrossRef PubMed Google ... Cell polyploidy: its relation to tissue growth and function. Int. Rev. Cytol. 50:275-332. View this article via: CrossRef ...
Polyploidy is a condition in which an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes. It is found naturally in several types of ... Polyploidy should not be confused with aneuploidy. In the case of aneuploidy, there are extras of one or more chromosomes, ... Polyploidy is a term which describes having more than two sets of chromosomes. A number of animals and plants naturally exhibit ... People may refer to polyploidy as whole genome duplication, emphasizing that it involves an entire extra copy of the genome. ...
Storchova Z., Pellman D. (2004) From polyploidy to aneuploidy, genome instability and cancer. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 5:45-54. ... What are the differences and similarities between polyploidy (increased number of chromosome sets) and aneuploidy (increased ... Aneuploidy is also found in up to 70 % of malignant tumors. The consequences of aneuploidy and the reasons for the associated ... Somewhat surprisingly, polyploidy is frequent in nature for example in fungi and plants. Some tissues in Metazoans contain ...
Another common characteristic of human cancer is aneuploidy, but the causes and its role in carcinogenesis are not well ... A/C in non-cancerous primary ovarian surface epithelial cells led to morphological deformation and development of aneuploidy. ... coincident with polyploidy and aneuploidy. We reasoned that loss of lamin A/C and subsequent aneuploidy by itself is not ... Suppression of Lamin A/C leads to polyploidy and aneuploidy in ovarian surface epithelial cells. Next, we analyzed cellular DNA ...
Storchova, Z., and Pellman, D. (2004). From polyploidy to aneuploidy, genome instability and cancer. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. ... Genetically altered cells tend during division to develop abnormalities such as polyploidy, multipolar mitosis and aneuploidy ( ... Nagl, W. (1990). Polyploidy in differentiation and evolution. Int. J. Cell Cloning 8, 216-223. doi: 10.1002/stem.5530080404 ... Storchova, Z., and Kuffer, C. (2008). The consequences of tetraploidy and aneuploidy. J. Cell Sci. 121, 3859-3866. doi: 10.1242 ...
In addition, aneuploidy/polyploidy was frequently observed in HCV-infected PBMC. Because aneuploidy/polyploidy formation ... From polyploidy to aneuploidy, genome instability and cancer. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 5: 45-54. ... The aneuploidy/polyploidy was scored separately from translocations/gaps/fragments, because they most likely result from very ...
If others then this causes a risk of Aneuploidy at meiosis. 19 ...
numerical aberrations (aneuploidy/polyploidy) was not demonstrated. The observation of an increase in the number of ...
Estimation of polyploidy and aneuploidy by non-radioactive in situ hybridisation. Serge Bauwens (UGent) , Gilbert Engler (UGent ...
Storchova Z, Pellman D (2004). From polyploidy to aneuploidy, genome instability and cancer. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 5:45-54. ... Storchová Z (2009) Polyploidy and aneuploidy in yeast - an insight for cancer research? Book chapter - in "Yeast as a model ... Storchová Z (2012) Causes and consequences of aneuploidy in eukaryotic cells. In: Aneuploidy in health and disease. InTech Open ... Dürrbaum M, Storchová Z (2015) Effects of aneuploidy on gene expression: implications for cancer, FEBS J. doi: 10.1111/febs. ...
... aneuploidy, polyploidy, or any other change from the normal pattern. ...
  • Further, the ability of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based microarray analysis to identify aneuploidy, polyploidy, whole-genome homozygosity, segmental genomic imbalances and maternal cell contamination maximizes sensitivity and decreases the number of false-negative results. (cnbc.com)
  • High-throughput sequencing-based analyses identified major genomic alterations including partial aneuploidy and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity predominantly in nwt isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is proposed that a combination of factors (rampant aneuploidy, polyploidy, hybridization, lineage sorting, and concerted evolution of ITS sequences) are responsible for the incongruent but not totally unexpected results. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • We performed multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization on samples from nine men obtained before and during the pesticide spraying season to assess sperm aneuploidy. (cdc.gov)
  • Endoreduplication (also referred to as endoreplication or endocycling) is replication of the nuclear genome in the absence of mitosis, which leads to elevated nuclear gene content and polyploidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering the importance of polyploidy in evolution, surprisingly little is known about how new polyploids arise and whether gene flow occurs between polyploids and their cognate diploids, a feature that could affect their evolutionary relationship. (genetics.org)
  • Although the two members of each gene pair must originally have had identical transcription profiles, less than half of the pairs formed by the most recent polyploidy event still retain significantly correlated profiles. (plantcell.org)
  • Andalis A.A., Storchova Z., Galitski T., Styles C., Pellman D., and Fink G.R. (2004) Polyploidy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to stationary phase death. (mpg.de)
  • While endoreplication is often limited to specific cell types in animals, it is considerably more widespread in plants, such that polyploidy can be detected in the majority of plant tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants are especially prone to polyploidy, with some scientists estimating that up to 80% of flowering plants may have this trait. (wisegeek.com)
  • Other common crops such as wheat also demonstrate polyploidy, which would suggest that breeding plants has resulted in some fundamental changes to their genomes. (wisegeek.com)
  • Polyploidy, the inheritance of more than two genome copies per cell, has played a major role in the evolution of higher plants. (genetics.org)
  • Geneticist Hermann Muller argued that polyploidy is more rare in animals than plants because animals have a more complex development, with more organ systems that are fine-tuned to dosages of genes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In plants, polyploidy can be induced through exposing the seeds of the plant to colchicine. (thesourcenatural.com)
  • Inefficient Crossover Maturation Underlies Elevated Aneuploidy in Human Female Meiosis "Meiosis is the cellular program that underlies gamete formation. (edu.au)
  • Scott A, Richmond P, Dowell D, Selmecki A. (2017) The influence of polyploidy on the evolution of yeast grown in a sub-optimal carbon source . (creighton.edu)
  • Polyploidy occurs in some animal s, such as goldfish , salmon , and salamander s, but is especially common among fern s and flowering plant s, including both wild and cultivated species . (askdefine.com)
  • Organophosphorous pesticide exposure increases the frequency of sperm sex null aneuploidy. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with sperm hyperploidy/polyploidy. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, we aimed to assess the frequency of sperm aneuploidy (X, Y, and 18) and its relationship with urinary OP metabolites in agricultural workers. (cdc.gov)
  • Aneuploidies were found in 0.67% of total sperm nuclei. (cdc.gov)
  • However, Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age, alcohol intake, and sperm concentration showed significant associations between OP metabolite concentrations and increased frequency of sperm aneuploidies. (cdc.gov)