Aneugens: Agents which affect CELL DIVISION and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS resulting in the loss or gain of whole CHROMOSOMES, thereby inducing an ANEUPLOIDY.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Cell Nucleus Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.

Human meiosis: model organisms address the maternal age effect. (1/30)

Studies in Drosophila support the view that a failure of cohesion between sister chromatids may contribute to meiotic nondisjunction in humans. Moreover, the demonstration of a meiotic aneugen in mice provides important clues to the higher frequencies of nondisjunction observed in older women.  (+info)

The small molecule Hesperadin reveals a role for Aurora B in correcting kinetochore-microtubule attachment and in maintaining the spindle assembly checkpoint. (2/30)

The proper segregation of sister chromatids in mitosis depends on bipolar attachment of all chromosomes to the mitotic spindle. We have identified the small molecule Hesperadin as an inhibitor of chromosome alignment and segregation. Our data imply that Hesperadin causes this phenotype by inhibiting the function of the mitotic kinase Aurora B. Mammalian cells treated with Hesperadin enter anaphase in the presence of numerous monooriented chromosomes, many of which may have both sister kinetochores attached to one spindle pole (syntelic attachment). Hesperadin also causes cells arrested by taxol or monastrol to enter anaphase within <1 h, whereas cells in nocodazole stay arrested for 3-5 h. Together, our data suggest that Aurora B is required to generate unattached kinetochores on monooriented chromosomes, which in turn could promote bipolar attachment as well as maintain checkpoint signaling.  (+info)

Noscapine hydrochloride-induced numerical aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes: a comparison of FISH detection methods and multiple end-points. (3/30)

The cytokinesis block in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay in combination with CREST staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific DNA probes allows mechanistic information on the induction of numerical chromosomal aberrations to be obtained through a rapid and simple microscopic analysis. These techniques can now be used to investigate relationships between the induction of chromosomal loss, non-disjunction and polyploidy by aneuploidy-inducing agents. In the present study, we treated 72 h cultured lymphocytes for the last 24 h of culture with various concentrations of the cough medicine noscapine hydrochloride (NOS) (3.9-120 micro g/ml) in the presence of either cytochalasin B (CYB) (3 micro g/ml) or 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (1 micro M). Using the CREST staining modified MN assay in the CYB-treated cultures, we detected significant increases in CREST-positive but not CREST-negative MN in both binucleated and, to a lesser extent, mononucleated cells, demonstrating the ability of this compound to induce chromosomal loss. In addition, using FISH with chromosome 1- and 9-specific classical satellite probes, a significant induction of chromosomal non-disjunction in the binucleated lymphocytes and polyploidy in the mononucleated lymphocytes was seen, indicating that polyploidy induced by NOS may occur without progression through a normal anaphase and/or telophase. In the BrdU-treated cultures, a dose-dependent induction of hypodiploidy, hyperdiploidy and polyploidy was observed using FISH with a chromosome 9-specific alpha-satellite probe in the labeled cells. By comparison, in the unlabeled non-cycling cells, only a slight increase in hyperdiploidy/polyploidy but not hypodiploidy was seen. A comparison of the effects seen at different concentrations shows that at the lower effective concentrations, all three types of numerical aberrations, chromosomal loss, non-disjunction and polyploidy, contributed to the numerical aberrations seen, whereas at the highest concentration tested, polyploidy was the predominant alteration. These studies indicate that FISH in combination with CYB or BrdU immunfluorescent staining can be sensitive tools for the identification of aneuploidy-inducing agents.  (+info)

Aneugenic potential of okadaic acid revealed by the micronucleus assay combined with the FISH technique in CHO-K1 cells. (4/30)

Okadaic acid (OA) is a major toxin involved in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in humans and has been shown to be both a potent tumor promoter in rodent skin and stomach and an inhibitor of serine/threonine protein phosphatases, specifically PP1 and PP2A. The research on the genotoxic potential of OA amounts to only a few studies, which give conflicting results. In order to evaluate the ability of OA to induce DNA damage, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was performed in the CHO-K1 cell line. A statistically significant induction of micronuclei without strong cytotoxicity was obtained after a 24 h treatment with 20 (approximately 5-fold) and 30 nM (approximately 10-fold) OA. Then, in order to discriminate between a clastogenic or aneugenic effect of OA, the micronucleus assay was carried out in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a (TTAGGG)(n) DNA probe for centromere detection. FISH analysis showed that OA mainly induced centromere-positive micronuclei (68.9% induction with 20 nM OA and 77.0% with 30 nM). Therefore, OA can be considered aneugenic. Using the same assay, biotransformation of OA was studied after a 4 h treatment with and without metabolic activation. The results show that reactive metabolites of OA were generated with a significant increase in genotoxic potential. The relationship between the different components involved in the mitotic process and OA inhibition of protein phosphatase is also discussed.  (+info)

Diethylsulphate and methylnitrosourea affect different targets in Chinese hamster fibroblasts: possible mechanisms of aneuploidy induction by these agents. (5/30)

It has been shown that the ethylating agent diethylsulphate (DES) induces centromere-containing micronuclei with kinetics suggesting that molecules other than DNA could be targets. In quiescent Chinese hamster fibroblasts CHEF/18, O6-alkylated bases inhibit ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), the terminal member of a kinase cascade responsible for an increased rate of protein synthesis, but not extracellular signal-activated kinases (ERK1/2) or terminal kinases of a second cascade which activates transcription. The inhibition correlates with the appearance of abnormal metaphases at the following mitosis, suggesting that alkylation of the nucleotide pool and inhibition of S6K1 could be one of the mechanisms leading to chromosome loss by alkylating agents. To clarify the role of protein kinases in chromosome loss induced by alkylating agents, we have studied the effects of DES and methylnitrosourea (MNU) on S6K1 and ERK1/2 activation by growth factors. The alkylating agents were studied in a battery of Chinese hamster fibroblasts (CHEF/18, CHO and ClB) with normal and mutated p53 to control for DNA damage-induced activation of p53, which could indirectly inhibit protein kinases. The role of repair in induction of micronuclei was studied in mismatch repair-proficient CHO and repair-deficient ClB cells. Our results indicate that DES induced micronuclei in a mismatch repair-independent manner, within 8 h of treatment, in agreement with a role for S6K1 inhibition in micronucleus formation. MNU induced centromere-containing micronuclei only in CHO cells, one cell cycle after treatment, without any detectable influences on either kinase cascade, suggesting a role for mismatch repair in chromosome loss.  (+info)

Preantral follicle culture as a novel in vitro assay in reproductive toxicology testing in mammalian oocytes. (6/30)

The most common genetic disorder in humans, trisomy, is caused predominantly by errors in chromosome segregation during oogenesis. Isolated mouse oocytes resuming meiosis and progressing to metaphase II in vitro have recently been used to assess targets, aneugenic potential and sensitivity of oocytes to chemical exposures. In order to extend in vitro maturation tests to earlier stages of oogenesis, an in vitro assay with mouse preantral follicle cultures has been established. It permits the identification of direct and also indirect effects of environmental chemicals on the somatic compartment, the follicle and theca cells, that may lead to disturbances of oocyte growth, maturation and chromosome segregation. Early preantral follicles from prepubertal female mice are cultured in microdroplets for 12 days under strictly controlled conditions. The follicle-enclosed oocytes resume maturation, develop to metaphase II and become in vitro ovulated within 16 h after a physiological ovulatory stimulus with recombinant human gonadotrophins and epidermal growth factor. These oocytes grown and matured in vitro possess normal barrel-shaped spindles with well-aligned chromosomes. Their chromosomes segregate with high fidelity during anaphase I. The model aneugen colchicine induced a meiotic arrest and aneuploidy in these in vitro grown, follicle-enclosed oocytes in a dose-dependent manner, comparable to in vivo tests. Therefore, preantral follicle culture appears to provide an effective and reliable method to assess the influences of environmental mutagens, pharmaceutical agents and potentially endocrine disrupting chemicals on the fidelity of female meiosis.  (+info)

Micronuclei induced by aneugens and clastogens in mononucleate and binucleate cells using the cytokinesis block assay. (7/30)

The human in vitro micronucleus (MN) test has become a fast and reliable assay for mutagenicity testing. Currently, this assay is mostly performed with cytochalasin B, which prevents cytokinesis, resulting in polynucleated cells. The number of nuclei per cell indicates the number of nuclear divisions that have occurred since the addition of cytochalasin B. It is recommended that MN are only counted in binucleated lymphocytes, because these cells have finished one nuclear division. Therefore, almost no attention has been paid to MN in mononucleated cells. However, recent studies have indicated that aneugens, but not clastogens, also induce MN in mononucleates. In order to evaluate mononucleates to distinguish between aneugenic and clastogenic effects, we tested some typical aneugens and clastogens in whole blood lymphocyte cultures of four donors with the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Results showed that the aneugens diethylstilbestrol (80 microM), griseofulvin (25 microg/ml) and vincristine sulphate (15 microg/ml) increased MN frequencies in mononucleated and binucleated cells, whilst the clastogens mitomycin C (500 ng/ml), bleomycin (6 microg/ml) and doxorubicin (20 microg/ml) increased MN frequency only in binucleates. We also tested the Y heterochromatin decondensing drug berenil (300 microg/ml). Berenil induced an extremely high number of MN in mononucleated as well as in binucleated cells, indicating an aneugenic action. This was confirmed by centromere labelling. The results suggest that MN in mononucleates may be an interesting additional parameter in the CBMN assay. Future studies should clarify whether the micronucleated mononucleate cells have escaped the cytokinesis block and become polyploid.  (+info)

Tripterygium hypoglaucum (level) Hutch induces aneuploidy of chromosome 8 in mouse bone marrow cells and sperm. (8/30)

Aneuploidy of mouse chromosome 8 induced by a Chinese medicinal herb, Tripterygium hypoglaucum (level) Hutch (THH) was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in vivo. Male mice were treated with THH (single i.p. injection) at doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg. Colchicine (COL, 1.5 mg/kg i.p.) was used as a positive control. Bone marrow cells and epididymal sperm were collected 24 h and 22 days after treatment, respectively. Chromosome 8 aneuploidies induced by THH in bone marrow cells and sperm were determined by FISH with a biotin-16-dUTP labelled DNA probe corresponding to the centromeric region of chromosome 8. The hybridized probe was detected with avidin-FITC. The frequencies of trisomy 8 in bone marrow cells were 0.16% in the solvent control group, 0.39% in the COL-treated group and 0.33, 0.41 and 0.41% in the THH-treated groups, respectively. The frequencies of disomy 8 sperm were 0.11% in the solvent control group, 0.27% in the COL-treated group and 0.23, 0.27 and 0.27% in the THH-treated groups, respectively. The experiment showed that induced aneuploidy frequencies were higher in bone marrow cells than in sperm with COL and the two higher doses of THH (P < 0.05). All groups were significantly different from the corresponding solvent controls (P < 0.01-0.001), but there was no dose-related increase in either cell type. Considering the present results together with our previous studies, it appears that THH is a potent mammalian aneugen which may pose a genetic risk to human patients.  (+info)

*Clastogen

Micronuclei induced by aneugens and clastogens in mononucleate and binucleate cells using cytokinesis block assay. Mutagenesis ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... aneugens MeSH D27.888.569.504 --- neurotoxins MeSH D27.888.569.540 --- oxidants MeSH D27.888.569.540.631 --- oxidants, ...
An investigation into the effects of aneugens in the mouse lymphoma assay - a genetic toxicological assay for mamaalian gene mutation ...
Hesperadin is an inhibitor of human Aurora B, which can prevent the phosphorylation of substrate with IC(50) of 40 nM. Growth of cultured bloodstream forms was also sensitive to Hesperadin (IC(50) of 50 nM). Hesperadin blocked nuclear division and cytokinesis but not other aspects of the cell cycle. Consequently, growth arrested cells accumulated multiple kinetoplasts, flagella and nucleoli, similar to the effects of RNAi-dependent knockdown of TbAUK1 in cultured bloodstream forms cells. Molecular models predicted high-affinity binding of Hesperadin to both conserved and novel sites in TbAUK1. Collectively, these data demonstrate that cell cycle progression is essential for infections with T. brucei and that parasite Aurora kinases can be targeted with small-molecule inhibitors..............
Gentronix Offers A range Of Screening Options For The Assessment Of A Test Substance for In Vivo and In Vitro Micronucleus Tests And Assay
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Primary cilia arise from the centrosomes of quiescent or post‐mitotic cells, and serve as sensory organelles that communicate mechanical and chemical stimuli from the environment to the interior of the cell
How to Clean a Rabbit Hutch. Rabbits are relatively clean animals, but they still need to have their hutches cleaned on a regular basis. Do a quick clean of the hutch every day to remove old food and soiled bedding. The hutch should be...
Fred Hutch is launching a new integrated research center to prevent and find cures for cancers caused by infectious agents. It will be led by Dr. Denise Galloway, a Fred Hutch microbiologist whose research paved the way for the HPV vaccine, which prevents cervical, throat and other cancers.
$8.8 million NIH grant to help expand study of colorectal cancer outcomes; new Evergreen Fund to accelerate commercialization of research; Hutch United co-chair Erin dela Cruz receives fellowhip from American Society for Microbiology; Marlins pitcher Dustin McGowan named winner of 52nd Hutch Award
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The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. hesperadin ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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We love this Bentley Pets Wooden Two Storey Outdoor Rabbit Hutch Guinea Pig Run Bunny House With Ramp made by Bentley Pets. Comes with great specs available. You can read extra pictures and details inside.
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STARSKY PAUSED at the entrance to the living room. Hutch was seated on the couch with a large hardcover book propped open on one knee and a clipboard on the other. His pen was poised above the paper as he intently watched his infant son. Jack gripped the edge of the coffee table, trying to reach a blue fuzzy poodle standing in the center. He stood on his toes, lost his balance and staggered back several steps before plumping down heavily on his well-padded rear end. With a grunt of annoyance, the infant rolled forward onto his hands and knees, pushed himself back up onto his feet, and stomped forward a few steps to try again. "Walking," muttered Hutch, making a note on his clipboard. Starsky moved into the room. "What are you doing to that kid?" "Ssh!" The pen jabbed in his direction once, in a peremptory manner, before returning to the paper. Hutch looked at his son. "Jack! Hey, Jack!" The baby glanced up at his father, briefly, and then returned to his task. His fingers brushed the dogs ...
As you may remember, we first met about two and half years ago, when your neighbors adopted me from another family. I was a little over two years old. They gave me my third home, after the children in two other homes eventually tired of me. That is a sad part of the life of many bunnies. Your neighbors had been told I liked to sit on laps. Well, perhaps I did when I was a baby, but I spent so much time alone in a hutch that I really didnt care for that anymore. Plus, they had two active children and I didnt like the attention young children wanted to give to me. I alternately lived in a wire cage in their garage, or outside in a nice wooden hutch. Once in a while, you would stop and say hi to me, and although I could tell that you loved rabbits, I also could tell that you really didnt know much about us.. Then one day in September, the strangest event occurred. I found that my hutch was being carried across the street and placed in your back yard! I heard that my family was going away for ten ...
Non commercial No Derivatives Download 264kB Preview Article URL http www nature com mi journal vaop ncurrent abs Item Type Article Additional Information Lemos MP Karuna ST Mize GJ Fong Y Montano SM Ganoza C Lama JR Sanchez J McElrath MJ 2015 In men at risk of HIV infection IgM IgG1 IgG3 and IgA reach the human foreskin epidermis Mucosal immunology doi 10 1038 mi 2015 103 Epub ahead ...
Morning all, I wanted to post what I have been up to with the piggies new Mk3 shed - which I have fully insulated with thick polystyrene sheets and a top...
On Sun.I thought I`d wash his butt,it was a little dirty.I brought him inside & just washed his bottom,quickly wrapping him in a towel when I was done.He hated it.He fought me.I carried him to the deck outside & unwrapped him & placed him down.He started having a seizure,laying on his side.I quickly picked him back up & wrapped him & held him,talking to him,petting his head.I sat there for the longest time till I realized that maybe he wasn`t breathing. I carried him to the garage where the dh was working & asked him if Peter was dead.We really didn`t know at first.I held him for the longest time ,took the towel off & we watched him.He wasn`t moving,he had died.We were devestated.I have not told our friends yet.My dh buried him in my flower garden.Now his hutch stands empty,a painful reminder & the question,what happenned ...
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The Eglu Go Hutch is perfect for keeping rabbits and guinea pigs in the garden safely. The Eglu Go Guinea Pig Hutch and run is suitable for two to three guinea pigs, and the Rabbit hutch and run is ideal for two pet bunnies. The plastic rabbit and guinea pig house is easy to clean and insulated, making it perfect to use all year round and both come with fox-resistant run. See below to read about the Eglu Go Hutch.
Ideal housing for guinea pigs are hutches approximately 0.9 sq metre per adult guinea pig, although they need plenty of exercise outside their hutch. Hutches and runs should ideally be placed out of the sun and sheltered from the rain and ideally hutches should be raised off the ground. In the winter, the hutch will have to be moved into a garage or outhouse.. Straw or wood shavings are ideal for guinea pigs in outdoor hutches and wet bedding should be removed on a daily basis. Hutches should be completely stripped out and scrubbed, ideally once a week during the summer and more regularly during the winter when guinea pigs spend more time inside. In the winter its also advisable to put plenty of hay in the hutch for your guinea pig to burrow in. ...
Guinea pigs really give so much to our lives, from their adorable popcorn jumps, to their cosy cuddles. The list goes on, which is why want to give em plenty of space for it all, at home. That said, guinea pigs arent really best for bedsit living. And although a small home or apartment would work fine, the three-bedroom-house-with-backyard situation is truly home-squeak-home, for these compact creatures. Ahhh… Hutch sweet hutch. Because big is best for your furry friend, its wise to move him into a hutch. A hutch is a cage divided into two connecting compartments. Just how big youll want it to be will depend on the number of guinea pigs you adopt: Number of guinea pigs Preferred size of hutch 1 1.0 sqm 2 1.0 sqm 3 1.2 sqm 4 | 1.2 sqm What makes a good hutch? Definitely a covered section that will make your cuddly companion feel safe and protected, while he sleeps. Your American Short Coats hutch should also be lined with soft grass or hay - but not straw, sawdust or wood shavings, gosh darn
Radiological protection - Performance criteria for laboratories using the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes for biological dosimetry
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20th Century Fox has acquired Capsule, a spec by Ian Shorr that Hutch Parker and John Zaozirny are attached to produce through Parkers Hutch Parker Entertainment banner. Parker exec Aaron Ensweiler will spearhead the project for the company. Matthias Hoene is attached to direct.
Argos hutch - 77 cms long the story so far.. Argos are selling a hutch, 77cms long that they describe as allowing the rabbit to stretch and run freely. We all know that that cant possibly be the case, and that these hutches are cruel, and would not be suitable under any circumstances. Trading Standards have been contacted and are not able to help unfortunately. Argos have chosen to ignore our advice, so we have been sending press releases for the last few months to build awareness of our campaign and gain support. The most recent press release last week gained some good coverage, notably with The Guardians website picking it up, but also local press, local radio sations and specialist magazines.. So far, Argos have added text to the description of every hutch that says they should be used in conjunction with a run, and that they will offer a discount to anyone buying a hutch and run together. It is progress, but we would like to see them review their whole range, stop selling the really tiny ...
They display a characteristic ruffled border where proteases and acid are secreted, allowing for bone resorption and formation of resorption pits in the bone surface [25]. Osteoclast morphology varies between mammals and teleosts (bony fishes), and also between different groups of teleosts [20]. In the skeleton of young zebrafish for example, osteoclast activity is carried out by both mononucleated and multinucleated cells [26]. In fact, there is an ontogenetic progression from mono- towards multinucleated osteoclasts. In juvenile zebrafish, bone resorbing cells in the developing lower jaw are. at first mononucleated. In thin skeletal tissues such as the neural arch, mononucleated cells are even predominant in adults [26]. In rainbow trout, scale resorption Selleck BIBF1120 PD0325901 is predominantly carried out by mononucleated osteoclasts [27]. Although in mammals these mononucleated cells are often just regarded as osteoclast precursors, in fish mononucleated osteoclasts are active bone ...
These are very nice constructed hutches that can be used for chickens, quails, rabbits and more. Measures 3 long, 2 wide and 2-1/2 tall at highest...
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How to Clean Out a Guinea Pigs Hutch. Guinea pigs make great pets. They can be taught to do tricks and are very social animals. Guinea pigs dont require vaccination shots to stay healthy, but that doesnt mean they never become sick. The...
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Most pet rabbits that are housed outdoors are housed in a hutch. A rabbit hutch is typically a raised, fully enclosed structure constructed for outdoor use. When outfitted correctly, a hutch can offer protection from predators, as well as shelter from the sun and rain. Many hutches have a wire-grate floor to allow feces and urine to fall through to a metal catch-pan below. While this design makes cleaning up easier and keeps your rabbit from having direct contact with his bodily waste, the wire can irritate a rabbits feet to the point of open sores if the rabbit has nothing solid to stand on or rest against. A mat, rug, wide flat piece of wood or other surface that allows your rabbit to step off of wire flooring is a necessity. Whats more, many rabbits like to snuggle up against something soft like a blanket or rug, which should be laundered regularly, especially if it is exposed to the elements. ...
Eglu Go Guinea Pig Hutch is available with two lengths of secure run to keep pets safe from predators. An easy to clean guinea pig house.
There are basically two types of rabbit hutches: the wooden type and the cage type. It is up to your preferences to choose between the two types as each has its own advantages and disadvantages. However, an all-wire rabbit hutch with a wooden frame is best. This type is usually easy to maintain and clean especially with a sliding pan underneath to catch dirt and debris. Besides, wooden hutches absorb rabbit urine, which have very strong odors coming from accumulated ammonia. This, in turn, is very harmful for the rabbits health.. When it comes to sliding pans, be sure to use only straw, aspen style wood shavings, or litter made from recycled paper. Pine and red cedar bedding, as well as cat litter, can cause health problems with your pet. If you opt for a wire hutch, make sure you buy appropriate materials for the floor to prevent injury to your rabbits tender feet. Your choice of materials includes cardboard, plywood, and grass mats, which should be cleaned every day. Its important to keep ...
A survey by the real estate data company At Home conducted last November found that among commuters who worked in central Tokyo, the average time spent traveling one-way to their jobs was about one hour. The ideal amount of time that people cited for commuting was 34 minutes. The average response to the question, At…
Eight of Japans biggest real estate companies have joined forces to run a website called Major 7 (why 7 and not 8 I have no idea), which features articles about condominiums. Last summer the group conducted its annual survey to find which urban location is the one where people would most like to buy a…
The Naturals Hay N Treat Swing can be hung in your pets home to enrich their environment and provide a stimulating challenge. As your pet tries to eat the wond...
This new updated model can comfortably house many guinea pigs and features a large front opening for easy access and cleaning. The large Run is snake and mouse proof and features galvanised mesh wire. This run can be used on its own or attached to the Manor.
Give your bunny a clean and safe place to live with this bunny hut. This rabbit cage has everything a rabbit needs, including an enclosed burrowing area.
With my own calves I bled all the calves. And, for BSTP values less than 5.0 I always marked both the calf and her hutch. A tail crayon marker on her forehead and red clip-on cow tag at the front of her individual hutch. That reminded me and everyone else that provided care that she was very vulnerable to clinical infections ...
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Description: Subject matter wherein the enclosure is of a size and weight to be ordinarily transported by a person either with the use of manually gripped handles or by torso wrapped strap means ...
HepaRG™ cells are terminally differentiated hepatic cells derived from a human liver progenitor cell line that retains many characteristics of primary human hepatocytes. HepaRG™ cells are provided in a convenient cryopreserved format.
During the last third of gestation, fetal sheep underwent exponential growth of heart and body (Fig. 2). LV-to-heart mass ratio did not change with advancing gestational age, but that of the RV to heart increased slightly during the same period (Table 1 and Fig. 3).. Lengths and widths of myocytes from the fetal ventricles over the last third of gestation are shown in Fig. 4. The lengths of binucleated myocytes from both ventricles and the lengths of RV mononucleated myocytes did not increase significantly with gestational age (Table 1). LV mononucleated myocytes significantly increased in length but only slightly. Binucleated and mononucleated myocytes from both ventricular free walls increased in width during this period. Accordingly, the ratio of lengths to widths decreased with advancing age in mononucleated and binucleated myocytes of both ventricles (Table 1).. Myocyte volumes, calculated from myocyte dimensions and a correction factor, increased with advancing gestational age (Fig. 5). ...
Protect their hutch or enclosure from the worse weather. There are a number of cheap and easy ways you can do this. Plastic tarp or insulation foil bought from any hardware store can be attached over roofs and to cover large exposed sides of runs, to make sure your pet stays dry. Always make sure to leave enough ventilation though ...
Rabbits are a popular choice for a pet, living either outdoors in a hutch or in the house as a house rabbit. Regardless of where you choose to house your rabbit, there are a few basic tips to learn to give your rabbit a fun and healthy life. Read more ...
Guinea pigs require certain standard pieces of equipment and a basic level of care. Getting things ready before they arrive at your home is important. This means setting up a guinea pig hutch. If you already keep guinea pigs, youll need to create an area of neutral territory in which the new pets and the established ones can be introduced.. ...
hi everyone! my bun is an outside rabbit and I really want to make sure hes getting enough exercise. he has a hutch and run. I was thinking about...
... The author, a raiser of champion rabbits, shares his experiences in establishing a profitable business of raising fishworms under rabbit hutches, an ideal combination. NEW 1999 edition! 64 Pages, 21 Photos
This large guinea pig run (or cage extension) has the flexibility to be used on its own, or attached to our Homestead or Manor Rabbit Hutch for extra space.
Starsky and Hutch" was recently remade by Ben Stiller and some other guy. It was successful financially. If that is the criteria for "successful" you were looking for.. In all honesty, I didnt like the TV show (S&H) and havent seen the movie.. I do know who Jessica Simpson is. And Ive even watched about 30 minutes of that show she is on with her husband. She is easy on the eye, and hard on the brain.. Posted by: The Maximum Leader at September 14, 2004 12:59 PM ...
Tweet Rabbits are cute and fuzzy but require a lot of care. Whether you plan on keeping them inside with the family or outside in a hutch, know how to make them a happy addition to the group. Choosing your Rabbit Any potential rabbit owner needs to look beyond the fuzzy fur and look closely […]. ...
BURRA, Elizabeth D. An attractive and large original pen and ink illustration Children with Dumb Creature', depicting 2 boys with rabbits, in front of a rabbit hutch in their garden. Traces of mounting on the reverse. | eBay!
If the day comes when cigars can be sold but not smoked in Jakes Cigars and Spirits in Lincoln, manager Jason "Hutch" Hutchison expects a dive in sales. But hes not pessimistic. "If we lose smoking, its not going to be as bad as people think," ...
This is one of my first posts looking at other types of animals. To me, Guinea Pigs have similar needs to horses. They need constant access to water and good forage. My hutch for my guinea pigs has 2 levels. The bottom level gives them access to grass. However, they are still very timid and…
Dec 12, 2017 - Private room for $85. This is Eastlake, the most accessible neighborhood in Seattle- just off I-5 and 520 exits. Close to Amazon, UW, F. Hutch. Homey neighborhood which ...
I dont know why it keeps growing. I put it out on the deck in the summer and feed it sometimes. Its full of thorns and grows over the sofa and into the corner hutch. Getting it outside is a mess. It lives on a wheeled wooden caddy. I try not to get falling leaves all over the house or poke my eye out when I drag it outside. Every ...
These options were optimised for improvement in predicting genotoxic compounds and in conjunction with the latest OECD guidelines and reports from International Workshop on Genotoxicity testing (IWGT) (ICH Expert Working Group 2008). Super Green Indo Kratom Review Caulfield option 1: i) A test for gene mutation in bacteria (Ames test). A cytogenetic test for chromosomal damage (in vitro metaphase chromosome aberration or in vitro micronucleus assay) or in vitro mouse tk gene mutation assay.. It is because of their offered health Super Green Indo Kratom Review Caulfield perks. These are also considered as the strongest kind of Kratom that is available in the market. Many users of Kratom Maeng Da capsules will tell kratom for alcohol withdrawal bradbury you that these are the highest quality grade available compared to the typical leaf. Others who are new in using this find it stimulating and prefer to consider it with several strains to balance the effects. Super Green Indo Kratom Review ...
It is as cruel to keep a rabbit in an outdoor hutch as it would be to keep a dog that way. Rabbits in hutches lack mental stimulation, which can cause them to become "furry vegetables," living in a vegetative state not very different from being in a coma. These unfortunate rabbits usually receive very little affection, and may become psychotic leading people to label them as a "mean rabbit" - wouldnt you become "vegetative" or "mean" in a similar situation?. If you want to keep your rabbit in a hutch, think about going out twice a day no matter what the weather, to give food and fresh water and getting nothing in return. Such rabbits become nothing but a chore for their people. Why would anyone choose to take on another chore with no benefit to themselves? People who keep rabbits in outdoor hutches usually end up asking a shelter or other people to take over their responsibilities. This is unfair to the rabbits and to the shelters, alike!. It is extremely dangerous to let rabbits run freely in ...
Ten Major League players on Tuesday were named nominees for the 49th annual Hutch Award, given yearly in honor of former Major League player and manager Fred Hutchinson. The award, bestowed annually upon a Major Leaguer who demonstrates the honor, courage and dedication exemplified by Hutchinson, will be handed out on Jan. 30 at Safeco Field. This years 10 nominees are: Jeremy Affeldt (Giants), Craig Breslow (Red Sox), Neal Cotts (Rangers), John Danks (White Sox), Sean Doolittle (Athletics), Alex Gordon (Royals), Raul Ibanez (Mariners), Scott Kazmir (Indians), Andrew McCutchen (Pirates) and Jason Motte (Cardinals).
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The multinucleated bone-resorbing osteoclast has a hematopoietic origin. We have demonstrated previously that osteoclasts are derived from the monocytic lineage by fusion of mononuclear macrophage precursors. Using an in vitro-osteoclast differentiation model derived from pure populations of chick macrophage cultures, osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) can be formed by fusion following an active proliferation phase. However, after reaching a peak with 70% of the culture being MNGCs, a new round of expansion of the mononuclear cells is observed. The following experiments suggest that these mononuclear cells were derived directly from the MNGCs by a budding process, selectively from the central zone of the apical surface. After microinjection of the membrane-impermeable probe, Lucifer Yellow, into single MNGCs, initially only diffuse fluorescence, limited to the whole MNGC injected, was observed. However, after 24-48 hours fluorescent mononuclear cells were observed adjacent but ...
Fred Hutch is world-renowned for our groundbreaking discoveries and world-class scientists, including three Nobel laureates, who work together to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer and related diseases.. The Hutch is widely recognized for our pioneering work on bone marrow transplantation, boosting survival rates for some blood cancers from zero to nearly 90 percent for some leukemias - saving thousands of lives each year. Fred Hutchs development of bone marrow transplantation has led to the discovery that the immune system can also be a powerful weapon against cancer and related diseases.. Today, the pace and potential of lifesaving research has vastly accelerated. Contributions by generous benefactors provide key support to supplement government grants. Private support acts as a catalyst for our scientists to fund new ideas and innovations in research as they emerge - accelerating our ability to pursue discoveries that save lives.. Our mission, and how your donation helps ,. Annual Report ...
Dr Walters original hypothesis came true. The interaction between the "nervous systems" of his "tortoises" and the environment generated unexpected and complex behavior. They never exactly repeated the same behavior, but rather followed a general pattern, just like animals do. For instance, Dr. Walter built a small hutch, where Elsie could enter and recharge its battery. At the top of the hutch he put a lamp. He immediately noticed that the turtles wandered a lot about the "room", but eventually they they would turn toward the hutch as the battery gradually lose power, in order to recharge them. Then they would leave again, scanning the environment for new light sources. Dr. Walter also placed a lamp on the top of each turtles shell and observed the appearance of a kind of "social behavior", that is, a kind of interaction between them as they danced around each other, in movements of attraction and repulsion, eerily evocative of mating and territorial behavior! Observing this, an astonished ...
Ivan Majestic sits at the kitchen table in his home just outside Parker, a ranch house with a deck, a barbecue grill, and a long dirt driveway, flanked on each side by brush and yucca. Hes staring at the hutch in the corner of the room, at the bronze urn behind the glass.. The urn is beautiful, a miniature mountain with an eagle soaring at its peak; the bronze reflects the sunlight. The hutch is like a time capsule, a shrine to a boy who will never grow old. Theres a photo of Tony in his baseball uniform-hands on hips, a wide, bright, mischievous smile splashed across his face-and another picture of him dressed up for Halloween as Dorothy from The Wizard of Oz. At the bottom, in a sealed white bag marked "MAJESTIC, ANTHONY," are the belongings Tony was carrying the night he died: keys, wallet, spare change. On another shelf is a ball Tony gave to his dad on Fathers Day nearly 11 years ago. The date is written in black ink across the cowhide: June 18, 2000. Four years, to the day, before the ...
A few days ago as I was walking home from work, a cat poked his head through the bushes and meowed at me. I stopped to give him a hi-five, then went along my way. After three steps I realized the poor guy was meowing for food, and seeing as how it was going to rain, my guilt wheels started to churn in overdrive. Five minutes later, I picked Tom up, meows of protest and all, and brought him back to our apartment. I built him a little hutch in our backyard to keep him from getting eaten by our Pit Bull and to protect him from the rain. I fell asleep and woke up the next morning to Tom in our bushes, bleary eyed and a little wet. Clearly the hutch was not his jam. The rain held off for the day, so I left Tom in our backyard with some food and water, and went to work. When I returned, he was patrolling the yard with diligence and looking a little less further from deaths door than he had been the night before ...
Our vet at Quarry Hill Veterinary Clinic said that his white blood cell count was so high that her equipment couldnt measure it, and neither could any other vet in Rochester. He also had a fever. Clearly, Chewie has a serious infection. She gave Chewie a subcutaneous fluid injection to get him hydrated.. When our old Labradoodle LayLa had a fluid injection, it gave her a small widespread hump on her back which quickly dissipated as the saline was absorbed. With Chewie, because he has almost no body fat left (which actually helps the fluid absorb quickly), it all flowed down into the loose folds of skin on his chest and hung there like a water balloon for the rest of the afternoon.. Melinda picked me up from work and we raced off to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Emergency Room. As soon as we came in, they asked if it was Chewie, because Quarry Hill had already called ahead to make sure we could get in and they had sent all of the information on him. We were ushered in quickly and a slew ...
Guinea Pigs do not require either large or elaborate quarters and the average man or boy can easily prepare a suitable place for them. There are two methods of housing usually used namely hutches and pens. Hutches.
Updated 1/2011 Alternative Fuel User Since 2003-vo is always in my fuel. Only one fuel tank. GPI/CIM-TEK spin on filterhead and 10 micron filter. Superchip. Hutch and Harpoon mods 2010. Diesel inline filter between tank and Airtex E2236 fuel pump (rated to 110 psi).Fuel pressure gauge. HOH for fuel line heat from tank to 12v lift pump. Two 12v 36" heaters, one before add on filter and one before OEM filter ...
The title of this post had me freaking out...I was expecting a test with a big + sign. Then I realized that little man is on 6 months old and you prolly want to wait awhile. Slly me. Thank you for the coupon, Im trying to finagle a deal on the dresser and hutch that i want, but when I called again last night the man told me that the coupon doesnt apply to the davinci stuff...odd since the lady i spoke to just got me a great deal on the crib. Anyhow Ill let ya know what happens with that. ...
Cinna came to Sweet Binks, the Rhode Island chapter of HRS, when his owner passed away of a stroke at 51 years old. None of the family wanted him and no one was really caring for him during the brutal heat spell in Rhode Island last month. He has been a outdoor hutch bunny for 8 years and is not altered. He also arrived with some early neurological problems and he has been treated with medications and he is improving. He will be neutered soon but does require special care until he can be placed appropriately. He is a wonderful bunny, doing well with his hay and is a social butterfly with the other buns. Everyone likes Cinna!. Please sponsor Cinnas neuter for $50 or his full medical treatment for $150!. ...
Babydoll is recuperating fine so far. She needs to put on some weight. I cant believe how much bad stuff was removed from her body during surgery. I have her in a rabbit hutch inside our garage and feed her lots of goodies. Although its not been 2 weeks yet since her surgery, she seems to be getting quite perky and active. I actually was able to place her outside by herself for about an hour the last 2 days so she can play and peck at the grass and of course, eat bugs ...
Jack is waiting to hear if he got into the local gifted magnet school called CAS (center for accelerated studies). His scores were really high except for math. Hes a horrible math tester. But they said he should still apply so were waiting to hear back from them next month. He participated in the homeschool spelling bee last week. He was so nervous and cried when he mixed up two letters and was out. But he made it to the fifth round so Im really proud of him. He also won a chick so Ill need to remake our chick hutch again ...
Chinchilla / rat / degu cage / home - large - great condition (new metal slopes, plus wooden too!) in Littlehampton. View this and 1000s more Hutches and Accessories ads on Friday-Ad!
Hello there! Soo Im new to bunny owning. Technically have been attempting to own bunnies since Christmas, but am failing miserably and I need a whole lot of help. My daughter (6) wanted a bunny for a SOLID YEAR... so at Christmas, we got her and her brother polish bunnies. Basically they got naming privileges, I knew full well that I was going to take care of them, not the kids. Theyre both dead. We had them inside in a cage while we built their hutch, and one got her head stuck under
Funny, but not recommended :-) Although coming home with a guinea pig suddenly sometimes happens, ideally you want to prepare the home in advance of Piggys arrival. The traditional way of keeping guinea pigs - outdoors in a hutch - is becoming...
Nylon and Leather collars, harnesses, and leashes, watering bowls, feeder bowls, toys, horse tack, rabbit cages, dog houses, kennels, carriers, books, dog beds, rabbit hutches, chicken coops, supplements, medication... ...
I have 2 new baby guinea pigs, they are in a large run and hutch with my older girl pigs one of he babys is targeting the other baby one so I have o
Tonight I saw a massive dog fox trying to get in the quail pen. The chickens & rabbits were locked in the sheds & I was only alerted by the top hutch...
Simple, sophisticated storage. Inspired by American modern design, the Mid-Century Bookcase borrows its slim legs and beveled edges from iconic 50s and 60s furniture silhouettes. Consisting of a hutch and either a 3-drawer or 1-door side table, …
Please note that in order to meet our adoption requirements which are based upon RWAF guidelines all runs must be 10ftx6ft and at least 3ft tall and hutches must be a minimum of 6ft by 2ft by 2ft and be two thirds enclosed with solid doors. All runs must be made from weld mesh and not chicken wire, be securely roofed and also be digproofed ideally by placing them on hard standing ...
BEAUTIFUL 3 LVL TEXOMA HOME W-PANORAMIC LAKEVIEW OF TREASURE ISLAND FROM 2 SIDES, UNRIVALED IN NEIGHBORHOOD. ENTERTAIN ON 1900+SQ-FT OF STURDY TREX DECKING. 2 ROCK FIREPLACES, INCL. IN MASTER! BUILT-IN CHINA HUTCH. GORGEOUS YARD W-RETAINING WALLS. FIRST FLOOR COMPLETE W-FULL KITCHEN, PERFECT FOR EXTRA INCOME AS RENTAL-GUEST HOUSE. AMPLE NATURAL LIGHT VIA WINDOWS-SKYLIGHTS GUARANTEES BEAUTIFUL DAYS IN THIS HOME. RECENTLY UPDATED PAINT & GRANITE! ...
Universal Paula Deen Guys Desk Hutch in Molasses 2391020 With the success of Universal Furnitures introduction of its youth furniture line, Smartstuff, comes - Gals & Guys: Universal Furnitures newest furniture collecton. Whats so exciting is that this combines the attributes of comfort and elegance of Paula Deen Collection and the superior construction with innovative function of Smartstuff all certified safety at an affordable price .Set out to design and build perfect youth furniture is the mindset of Universal Furniture in making Gals & Guys Collection. With Smartstuff, there is no better way to enhanced it than to add in the design of comfort and elegance from the pillar of comfort itself - the Paula Deen Furniture Collection.Perfect space to study, work on homework, and browse the web with this Desk Hutch. For your boys room, this hutch has an open removable top shelf and a cork back to display accessories and books and post mementos. Enhanced with LED light with dimmer, for a smart
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay can be employed in triage radiation biodosimetry to determine the dose of radiation to an exposed individual by quantifying the frequency of micronuclei in binucleated lymphocyte cells. Partially automated analysis of the assay has been applied to traditional microscope-based methods, and most recently, the assay has been adapted to an automated imaging flow cytometry method. This method is able to automatically score a larger number of binucleated cells than are typically scored by microscopy. Whole blood samples were irradiated, divided into 2 mL and 200 mL aliquots, cultured for 48 h and 72 h, and processed to generate calibration curves from 0-4 Gy. To validate the method for use in radiation biodosimetry, nine separate whole blood samples were then irradiated to known doses, blinded, and processed. Results indicate that dose estimations can be determined to within ±0.5 Gy of the delivered dose after only 48 h of culture time with an initial blood ...
The fungicide tolylfluanid (N -dichlorofluoromethylthio-N, N -dimethyl -N -p -tolylsulfamide), was investigated by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Tolylfluanid at the lowest concentration (1 x 10(- 6)mol L(- 1))did not influence significantly
Environmental contaminants possessing hormonal activity have long been suspected of playing a role in cancer causation. What is unclear is whether such agents elicit their effects through genotoxic and/or epigenetic mechanisms. -Hexachlorocyclohexane (-HCH, lindane) was tested in the 10-12?10-4 M range. Chromosomal damage in MCF-7 breast cells and PC-3 prostate cells was assessed using the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. Micronuclei (MNi) were scored in 1000 binucleate cells per treatment. Cell viability and cell cycle kinetics were also assessed, along with immunocytochemical and quantitative gene expression analyses of CDKN1A (P21WAF1/CIP1), BCL-2 and BAX. Following 24 h treatment, lindane (10-12?10-10 M) induced increases (up to 5-fold) in MNi in both cell lines. Increases in MNi occurred in the absence of DNA single-strand breaks or cytotoxicity and, compared with benzoapyrene and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo4,5-bpyridine, at low concentrations. Lindane induced more MNi than the or ...
L. Verschaeve, A. Maes & R. Anthonissen. The possible carcinogenic effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) are still a matter of debate and controversy. As carcinogenesis is most often related to genetic effects (mutation) it is considered of great importance to conduct studies on ELF-induced genetic effects. For the current period (2001-2005), the team investigations were mainly devoted to: (1) the comet assay in brain and blood cells of mice exposed to ELF-magnetic fields and; (2) effects of co-exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields with an aneugen (e.g. a chemical that increases the number of cells with an abnormal chromosome count).. We did not find important genetic "damage" following relatively high exposure levels, but some subtle changes were found however. These changes involved DNA damage as well as changes in gene-expression profiles and cell proliferation.. Overall, our observations were not sufficient to allow any conclusion in favor of ELF-induced negative health ...
All your dry dog food essentials, supplies & accessories at discount prices and special monthly offers delivered direct to your door in the UK. Complete Dry Dog Food, Collars & Leads, Rawhide Bones & Treats, Stainless Steel Bowls, Rubber & Rope Dog Toys, Dog Bowl Stands, Soft Beds, Plastic Beds, Retractable Extending Leads & Lots More!
KATHY HANKSThe Hutchinson NewsSOUTH HUTCHINSON - Dressed in a white jacket, Marion Reed Graber was ready to relieve the next muscle-aching complaint at his South Hutchinson business on a recent afternoon.For the past 54 years he has worked as a massage therapist, relying on his hands to bring comfort, The Hutchinson News (http://is.gd/DnUPua ) reports.A career that depends on hands rather than eyes was imperative for Graber, who is legally blind.My folks discovered I had problems when I was a
Many family homes being built across England are around the size of a bathroom too small for people to live in them comfortably, a report from the Royal Institute of British Architects
This year our childrens school has taken a different look at the holidays in their group activities. The concentration has been on having an old fashioned Christmas and focusing on the simpler things. One of the key lessons has been giving over receiving and that gifts can be as simple as a smile, a hug or doing something kind for your classmate. Instead of sending gifts for the teachers they had asked that the students make a donation to one of 2 projects- backpacks for the homeless or shoe boxes filled with stocking stuffers for someone within our own community. There was not a big concert production this year but a carol sing where families were invited to join with the students to sing carols, share memories of a favorite Christmas and have a time of fellowship with hot chocolate and cookies that had been baked by the teachers. The teachers felt that it was necessary to take the focus off of finding a fancy outfit to wear, knowing full well how much of a hardship that is for some of the ...
T cells are finicky. You cant just inject them into a tumour and have them go to work. They will die within a couple of days if they arent in an environment equipped with the right mix of nutrients and ways to eliminate waste. Plus, tumours release self-defense chemicals that stop T cells from working.. Stephan and his team have designed a homey environment to outwit those obstacles.. The sticky, spongey, dissolvable biopolymer scaffold consists of tiny pores and can be made into just about any size or shape. With collaborators at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and University of Washington, Stephan and his Fred Hutch team loaded the scaffold with CAR-T cells and proteins to keep the T cells healthy, enable them to rapidly grow and quickly attack the tumour. The mix also included a substance known as STING agonist, which ramps up the immune response to go after nearby cancer cells that arent recognized by CAR-T cells.. When placed on the tumours of mice, the scaffolds sway the ...
Desk : Off White Computer Desk White Corner Desk With Hutch Desk With Drawers And Shelves Small White Student Desk Big Office Desk Solid wood writing desk with hutch Wooden Secretary‚ Small Desk‚ White Desk along with Desks
I was fortunate enough to do my postdoctoral studies at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (aka "The Hutch") in Seattle. I was a postdoc for more years than Id like to admit, but it was a wonderful experience.. The Hutch is the kind of place where you can imagine making the impossible become possible in the biomedical sciences and it is not a daydream.. No one better exemplified that than E. Donnall Thomas, who passed away this weekend.. Eight years before I came to The Hutch, Thomas won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1990 for his pioneering work on bone marrow transplantation, but when I arrived there in 1998 he was still having a big impact.. He was the kind of person who is not just an inspiration, but in practical terms changes the world and saves thousands of peoples lives. To quote the NY Times article:. His team carried out its first transplant using a matched sibling donor for a patient with leukemia in 1969. Eight years later, the team performed the first matched ...
This thesis describes the cytogenetic effects of X-irradiation on chromosome segregation. Metaphase analysis of G0 irradiated human lymphocytes showed that X-irradiation resulted mainly in structural aberrations but that non-disjunction (measured as chromosome gains) and polyploidy were also induced. The technology used involved fluorescence in-situ hybridisation with whole chromosome probes for chromosomes 2 & 8. Radiation induced micronuclei were measured in both human fibroblasts and Chinese hamster cell lines using the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay coupled with kinetochore labelling. The results confirmed the clastogenic properties of X-rays with a large induction of kinetochore negative micronuclei. X-rays were also shown to have a small aneugenic activity through significant induction of chromosome lagging (kinetochore positive micronuclei). Cell cycle phase sensitivity studies in (HF12) showed that cells in the G2 or M phases of the cell cycle were more sensitive to the induction ...
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay is employed in biological dosimetry to determine the dose of radiation to an exposed individual from the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in binucleated lymphocyte cells. The method has been partially automated for the use in mass casualty events, but it would be advantageous to further automate the method for increased throughput. Recently, automated image analysis has been successfully applied to the traditional, slide-scoring-based method of the CBMN assay. However, with the development of new technologies such as the imaging flow cytometer, it is now possible to adapt this microscope-based assay to an automated imaging flow cytometry method. The Image StreamX is an imaging flow cytometer that has adequate sensitivity to quantify radiation doses larger than 1 Gy while adding the increased throughput of traditional flow cytometry. The protocol and analysis presented in this work adapts the CBMN assay for the use on the ImageStream X. Ex ...
The researchers say that the test is not practical for the initial diagnosis of MCC because the disease is so uncommon; instead, its main use is to detect recurrences earlier.. The test has different implications for MCC patients who do not produce these antibodies - nearly half of those in the study. It doesnt track Merkel cell carcinoma recurrence in this group, because such patients will not produce these antibodies even when the cancer returns. Still, getting the test done once is useful for all patients, including those found not to produce the antibodies. Because those who test negative are 42 percent more likely to have a recurrence, doctors should order more frequent imaging for them. When the recurring MCC is caught early, these patients may particularly benefit from immune therapy. The importance of this test goes beyond the improvement in treatment for patients with MCC. The findings highlight how monitoring the robustness of the immune system provides key insights into cancer ...

In Vivo Micronucleus Test | In Vitro Micronucleus Assay | GentronixIn Vivo Micronucleus Test | In Vitro Micronucleus Assay | Gentronix

... aneugens). As such the in vitro micronucleus test can detect both the clastogenic and aneugenic modes of action for a test ...
more infohttps://gentronix.co.uk/services/micronucleus-test/

The ability of the mouse lymphoma TK assay to detect aneugens.The ability of the mouse lymphoma TK assay to detect aneugens.

... can detect aneugens, and this is accepted in the current International Conference on Harmonisation guidance for testing ... Consequently, aneugens with diverse mechanisms of action were tested in the MLA using 24-h exposure. No evidence of increased ... There is some evidence that the mouse lymphoma TK assay (MLA) can detect aneugens, and this is accepted in the current ... In conclusion, it appears that the TFT-resistant mutants resulting from treatment with toxic concentrations of some aneugens ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/ability-mouse-lymphoma-TK-assay/21775299.html

Use of Ciliogenesis to Detect Aneugens: The Role of Primary Cilia - Current ProtocolsUse of Ciliogenesis to Detect Aneugens: The Role of Primary Cilia - Current Protocols

Use of Ciliogenesis to Detect Aneugens: The Role of Primary Cilia. Kathyayini V. Divi1, Yvona Ward2, Miriam C. Poirier1, Ofelia ... Cilium formation may, therefore, become a useful end point signaling exposure to genotoxins or aneugens. Here we have used the ... Since cilia are derived from centrosomes, and aneugens can induce centrosomal amplification, the production of multiple cilia ...
more infohttp://www.currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CPUnit/refId-tx0313.html?quicktabs_cp=materials

Use of Ciliogenesis to Detect Aneugens: The Role of Primary Cilia - Current ProtocolsUse of Ciliogenesis to Detect Aneugens: The Role of Primary Cilia - Current Protocols

Use of Ciliogenesis to Detect Aneugens: The Role of Primary Cilia. Kathyayini V. Divi1, Yvona Ward2, Miriam C. Poirier1, Ofelia ... Cilium formation may, therefore, become a useful end point signaling exposure to genotoxins or aneugens. Here we have used the ... Since cilia are derived from centrosomes, and aneugens can induce centrosomal amplification, the production of multiple cilia ...
more infohttp://www.currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CPUnit/refId-tx0313.html

Messages for Increasing Dairy ConsumptionMessages for Increasing Dairy Consumption

Aneugens. Agents which affect CELL DIVISION and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS resulting in the loss or gain of whole ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/146742/Messages-for-Increasing-Dairy-Consumption.html

Selected Studies on the Toxicity of Thimerosal Published in Peer Reviewed 
Scientific and Medical JournalsSelected Studies on the Toxicity of Thimerosal Published in Peer Reviewed Scientific and Medical Journals

Synopsis of the in vivo results obtained with the 10 known or suspected aneugens tested in the CEC collaborative study. Adler ( ... An overview of the results of testing of known or suspected aneugens using mammalian cells in vivo. Natarajan (1993).Mutat. Res ... The cytochalasin-B micronucleus/kinetochore assay in vitro.: studies with 10 suspected aneugens. Lynch and Parry (1993). Mutat ... detection of mitotic aneuploidy using 10 known or suspected aneugens. Warr et al., (1993). Mutat. Res. 287:29-46. (7683382) ...
more infohttp://www.whale.to/vaccine/thim.html

A new assay for measuring chromosome instability (CIN) and identification of drugs that elevate CIN in cancer cells | BMC...A new assay for measuring chromosome instability (CIN) and identification of drugs that elevate CIN in cancer cells | BMC...

Effect of aneugens and clastogens on the rate of HAC mis-segregation during mitotic divisions. We next investigated whether the ... In this study, the HAC-based CIN assay has been verified using a set of well-known aneugens and clastogens. This new assay has ... Moreover, we found that aneugens with proposed similar mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity may greatly differ from each other ... HT1080 cells with an autonomously propagated EGFP-HAC were treated with eight known aneugens: taxol (pacilitaxel), docetaxel, ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-13-252

Ward Y[au] - PubMed - NCBIWard Y[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Use of Ciliogenesis to Detect Aneugens: The Role of Primary Cilia.. Divi KV, Ward Y, Poirier MC, Olivero OA. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Ward+Y%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

An Automated Method to Perform The In Vitro Micronucleus Assay using Multispectral Imaging Flow Cytometry | ProtocolAn Automated Method to Perform The In Vitro Micronucleus Assay using Multispectral Imaging Flow Cytometry | Protocol

3. Exposure of cells to clastogens and/or aneugens. *Add 1 mL of desired chemical (e.g. Mitomycin C) to 9 mL of cells at ~7- ... The protocol outlines all steps required to expose TK6 cells to clastogens and aneugens, describes how to culture, process and ... Prepare appropriate stock concentrations of desired clastogens and aneugens. For example, for Mitomycin C, dissolve a full 2 mg ... 2. Preparation of clastogens and/or aneugens and Cytochalasin B. * ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/59324/an-automated-method-to-perform-vitro-micronucleus-assay-using

Jerome ROSEJerome ROSE

Detection of environmental clastogens and aneugens in human fibroblasts by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay associated ...
more infohttps://www.cerege.fr/fr/users/jerome-rose

IJERPH  | Free Full-Text | Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Profile of Electronic and Tobacco Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco and...IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Profile of Electronic and Tobacco Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco and...

Rosefort, C.; Fauth, E.; Zankl, H. Micronuclei induced by aneugens and clastogens in mononucleate and binucleate cells using ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/11/11/11325/htm

IJERPH  | Free Full-Text | Effect of Butachlor on Antioxidant Enzyme Status and Lipid Peroxidation in Fresh Water African...IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Effect of Butachlor on Antioxidant Enzyme Status and Lipid Peroxidation in Fresh Water African...

An overview of the results of testing of known or suspected aneugens using mammalian cells in vitro. Mutat Res 1993, 287, 113-8 ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/5/5/423/htm

Análises citológicas do inseticida Deltametrina usando o Teste de Micronúcleo | Revista da BiologiaAnálises citológicas do inseticida Deltametrina usando o Teste de Micronúcleo | Revista da Biologia

The micronucleus test (MN) is a widely used in vivo screening test to detect clastogens and aneugens. In the present work, the ...
more infohttp://www.ib.usp.br/revista/node/236

The involvement of WT1 in the regulation of  GADD45a  in response to genotoxic stressThe involvement of WT1 in the regulation of GADD45a in response to genotoxic stress

Expression of the human GADD45a gene is increased in TK6 cells exposed to mutagens, clastogens and aneugens. It is known to be ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/muta/201307000/00005821-201307000-00003

Spindle formation, chromosome segregation and the spindle checkpoint in mammalian oocytes and susceptibility to meiotic errorSpindle formation, chromosome segregation and the spindle checkpoint in mammalian oocytes and susceptibility to meiotic error

This might affect dose-response to aneugens. In view of the tendency to have children at advanced maternal ages it appears ... but gender-differences may contribute to sex-specific differential responses to aneugens. The age-related reduction in ... pursue studies on consequences of ageing on the susceptibility of human oocytes to the induction of meiotic error by aneugens ...
more infohttps://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/publication/1588487

Investors See Big Money In Infertility, And They re Transforming The IndustryInvestors See Big Money In Infertility, And They 're Transforming The Industry

part ii of the report of the 2017 iwgt workgroup on assessing the risk of aneugens for carcinogenesis and hereditary diseases ... a workgroup of experts reviewed and assessed the risk of aneugens for human health. The present manuscript is one of three ...
more infohttps://medworm.com/460254521/investors-see-big-money-in-infertility-and-they-re-transforming-the-industry/

2-methylpropan-1-ol - Registration Dossier - ECHA2-methylpropan-1-ol - Registration Dossier - ECHA

... are well-defined clastogens and aneugens respectively.. - Route of administration: orally or intraperitoneally. - Doses / ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/registration-dossier/-/registered-dossier/15092/7/7/1

Male infertility could be linked to noisy bedrooms, study suggestsMale infertility could be linked to noisy bedrooms, study suggests

part ii of the report of the 2017 iwgt workgroup on assessing the risk of aneugens for carcinogenesis and hereditary diseases ... a workgroup of experts reviewed and assessed the risk of aneugens for human health. The present manuscript is one of three ...
more infohttps://medworm.com/366042616/male-infertility-could-be-linked-to-noisy-bedrooms-study-suggests/

Single-Cell Based Quantitative Assay of Chromosome Transmission Fidelity | G3: Genes | Genomes | GeneticsSingle-Cell Based Quantitative Assay of Chromosome Transmission Fidelity | G3: Genes | Genomes | Genetics

One potential industrial application of qCTF assay is for identification of aneugens, chemicals that trigger CIN and produce ...
more infohttp://www.g3journal.org/content/5/6/1043.full

In Vitro Toxicology Screening ServicesIn Vitro Toxicology Screening Services

... clastogens and aneugens. Applying techniques such as flow cytometry allows for multiparametric analysis of compound effects ...
more infohttps://www.intertek.com/pharmaceutical/biopharmaceuticals/invitro-toxicology-screening/

Rapid LC/MS/MS-Based Methods For Opiates & BenzodiazepinesRapid LC/MS/MS-Based Methods For Opiates & Benzodiazepines

... allows for the determination of both genotoxicity and cytotoxicity following treatment with known clastogens and aneugens. This ...
more infohttps://www.brighttalk.com/webcast/1238/28345

Late Stage Functionalization of Drug-Like Molecules Session 2Late Stage Functionalization of Drug-Like Molecules Session 2

... allows for the determination of both genotoxicity and cytotoxicity following treatment with known clastogens and aneugens. This ...
more infohttps://www.brighttalk.com/webcast/1238/143587
  • Increases in micronuclei in the cytoplasm of interphase cells are indicative of either chromosome breaks (clastogens), or abnormal segregation of chromosomes during mitosis (aneugens). (gentronix.co.uk)
  • Micronucleus induction is a key characteristic of genotoxic compounds and analysis of micronuclei formation resulting from DNA strand breakage (clastogens) or interference with chromosome segregation (aneugens) is an important component of toxicology screening of new drug candidates. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In view of the tendency to have children at advanced maternal ages it appears relevant to pursue studies on consequences of ageing on the susceptibility of human oocytes to the induction of meiotic error by aneugens and establish models to assess risks to human health by environmental exposures. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • High concentrations of these aneugens induced LOH at all loci examined indicating only one chromosome 11 was present but, perhaps surprisingly, all were found to have two copies of chromosome 11 using FISH. (biomedsearch.com)