Aneugens: Agents which affect CELL DIVISION and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS resulting in the loss or gain of whole CHROMOSOMES, thereby inducing an ANEUPLOIDY.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Cell Nucleus Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Thimerosal: An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Ethylmercury Compounds: Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to an ethyl group.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Catfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Acetanilides: Compounds based on N-phenylacetamide, that are similar in structure to 2-PHENYLACETAMIDES. They are precursors of many other compounds. They were formerly used as ANALGESICS and ANTIPYRETICS, but often caused lethal METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Aroclors: Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship: A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Agaricus: A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).Antimutagenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Chlorophyllides: Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Mushroom Poisoning: Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Plasticizers: Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.Phthalic Acids: A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Diethylhexyl Phthalate: An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Dibutyl Phthalate: A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.

Human meiosis: model organisms address the maternal age effect. (1/30)

Studies in Drosophila support the view that a failure of cohesion between sister chromatids may contribute to meiotic nondisjunction in humans. Moreover, the demonstration of a meiotic aneugen in mice provides important clues to the higher frequencies of nondisjunction observed in older women.  (+info)

The small molecule Hesperadin reveals a role for Aurora B in correcting kinetochore-microtubule attachment and in maintaining the spindle assembly checkpoint. (2/30)

The proper segregation of sister chromatids in mitosis depends on bipolar attachment of all chromosomes to the mitotic spindle. We have identified the small molecule Hesperadin as an inhibitor of chromosome alignment and segregation. Our data imply that Hesperadin causes this phenotype by inhibiting the function of the mitotic kinase Aurora B. Mammalian cells treated with Hesperadin enter anaphase in the presence of numerous monooriented chromosomes, many of which may have both sister kinetochores attached to one spindle pole (syntelic attachment). Hesperadin also causes cells arrested by taxol or monastrol to enter anaphase within <1 h, whereas cells in nocodazole stay arrested for 3-5 h. Together, our data suggest that Aurora B is required to generate unattached kinetochores on monooriented chromosomes, which in turn could promote bipolar attachment as well as maintain checkpoint signaling.  (+info)

Noscapine hydrochloride-induced numerical aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes: a comparison of FISH detection methods and multiple end-points. (3/30)

The cytokinesis block in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay in combination with CREST staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific DNA probes allows mechanistic information on the induction of numerical chromosomal aberrations to be obtained through a rapid and simple microscopic analysis. These techniques can now be used to investigate relationships between the induction of chromosomal loss, non-disjunction and polyploidy by aneuploidy-inducing agents. In the present study, we treated 72 h cultured lymphocytes for the last 24 h of culture with various concentrations of the cough medicine noscapine hydrochloride (NOS) (3.9-120 micro g/ml) in the presence of either cytochalasin B (CYB) (3 micro g/ml) or 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (1 micro M). Using the CREST staining modified MN assay in the CYB-treated cultures, we detected significant increases in CREST-positive but not CREST-negative MN in both binucleated and, to a lesser extent, mononucleated cells, demonstrating the ability of this compound to induce chromosomal loss. In addition, using FISH with chromosome 1- and 9-specific classical satellite probes, a significant induction of chromosomal non-disjunction in the binucleated lymphocytes and polyploidy in the mononucleated lymphocytes was seen, indicating that polyploidy induced by NOS may occur without progression through a normal anaphase and/or telophase. In the BrdU-treated cultures, a dose-dependent induction of hypodiploidy, hyperdiploidy and polyploidy was observed using FISH with a chromosome 9-specific alpha-satellite probe in the labeled cells. By comparison, in the unlabeled non-cycling cells, only a slight increase in hyperdiploidy/polyploidy but not hypodiploidy was seen. A comparison of the effects seen at different concentrations shows that at the lower effective concentrations, all three types of numerical aberrations, chromosomal loss, non-disjunction and polyploidy, contributed to the numerical aberrations seen, whereas at the highest concentration tested, polyploidy was the predominant alteration. These studies indicate that FISH in combination with CYB or BrdU immunfluorescent staining can be sensitive tools for the identification of aneuploidy-inducing agents.  (+info)

Aneugenic potential of okadaic acid revealed by the micronucleus assay combined with the FISH technique in CHO-K1 cells. (4/30)

Okadaic acid (OA) is a major toxin involved in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in humans and has been shown to be both a potent tumor promoter in rodent skin and stomach and an inhibitor of serine/threonine protein phosphatases, specifically PP1 and PP2A. The research on the genotoxic potential of OA amounts to only a few studies, which give conflicting results. In order to evaluate the ability of OA to induce DNA damage, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was performed in the CHO-K1 cell line. A statistically significant induction of micronuclei without strong cytotoxicity was obtained after a 24 h treatment with 20 (approximately 5-fold) and 30 nM (approximately 10-fold) OA. Then, in order to discriminate between a clastogenic or aneugenic effect of OA, the micronucleus assay was carried out in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a (TTAGGG)(n) DNA probe for centromere detection. FISH analysis showed that OA mainly induced centromere-positive micronuclei (68.9% induction with 20 nM OA and 77.0% with 30 nM). Therefore, OA can be considered aneugenic. Using the same assay, biotransformation of OA was studied after a 4 h treatment with and without metabolic activation. The results show that reactive metabolites of OA were generated with a significant increase in genotoxic potential. The relationship between the different components involved in the mitotic process and OA inhibition of protein phosphatase is also discussed.  (+info)

Diethylsulphate and methylnitrosourea affect different targets in Chinese hamster fibroblasts: possible mechanisms of aneuploidy induction by these agents. (5/30)

It has been shown that the ethylating agent diethylsulphate (DES) induces centromere-containing micronuclei with kinetics suggesting that molecules other than DNA could be targets. In quiescent Chinese hamster fibroblasts CHEF/18, O6-alkylated bases inhibit ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), the terminal member of a kinase cascade responsible for an increased rate of protein synthesis, but not extracellular signal-activated kinases (ERK1/2) or terminal kinases of a second cascade which activates transcription. The inhibition correlates with the appearance of abnormal metaphases at the following mitosis, suggesting that alkylation of the nucleotide pool and inhibition of S6K1 could be one of the mechanisms leading to chromosome loss by alkylating agents. To clarify the role of protein kinases in chromosome loss induced by alkylating agents, we have studied the effects of DES and methylnitrosourea (MNU) on S6K1 and ERK1/2 activation by growth factors. The alkylating agents were studied in a battery of Chinese hamster fibroblasts (CHEF/18, CHO and ClB) with normal and mutated p53 to control for DNA damage-induced activation of p53, which could indirectly inhibit protein kinases. The role of repair in induction of micronuclei was studied in mismatch repair-proficient CHO and repair-deficient ClB cells. Our results indicate that DES induced micronuclei in a mismatch repair-independent manner, within 8 h of treatment, in agreement with a role for S6K1 inhibition in micronucleus formation. MNU induced centromere-containing micronuclei only in CHO cells, one cell cycle after treatment, without any detectable influences on either kinase cascade, suggesting a role for mismatch repair in chromosome loss.  (+info)

Preantral follicle culture as a novel in vitro assay in reproductive toxicology testing in mammalian oocytes. (6/30)

The most common genetic disorder in humans, trisomy, is caused predominantly by errors in chromosome segregation during oogenesis. Isolated mouse oocytes resuming meiosis and progressing to metaphase II in vitro have recently been used to assess targets, aneugenic potential and sensitivity of oocytes to chemical exposures. In order to extend in vitro maturation tests to earlier stages of oogenesis, an in vitro assay with mouse preantral follicle cultures has been established. It permits the identification of direct and also indirect effects of environmental chemicals on the somatic compartment, the follicle and theca cells, that may lead to disturbances of oocyte growth, maturation and chromosome segregation. Early preantral follicles from prepubertal female mice are cultured in microdroplets for 12 days under strictly controlled conditions. The follicle-enclosed oocytes resume maturation, develop to metaphase II and become in vitro ovulated within 16 h after a physiological ovulatory stimulus with recombinant human gonadotrophins and epidermal growth factor. These oocytes grown and matured in vitro possess normal barrel-shaped spindles with well-aligned chromosomes. Their chromosomes segregate with high fidelity during anaphase I. The model aneugen colchicine induced a meiotic arrest and aneuploidy in these in vitro grown, follicle-enclosed oocytes in a dose-dependent manner, comparable to in vivo tests. Therefore, preantral follicle culture appears to provide an effective and reliable method to assess the influences of environmental mutagens, pharmaceutical agents and potentially endocrine disrupting chemicals on the fidelity of female meiosis.  (+info)

Micronuclei induced by aneugens and clastogens in mononucleate and binucleate cells using the cytokinesis block assay. (7/30)

The human in vitro micronucleus (MN) test has become a fast and reliable assay for mutagenicity testing. Currently, this assay is mostly performed with cytochalasin B, which prevents cytokinesis, resulting in polynucleated cells. The number of nuclei per cell indicates the number of nuclear divisions that have occurred since the addition of cytochalasin B. It is recommended that MN are only counted in binucleated lymphocytes, because these cells have finished one nuclear division. Therefore, almost no attention has been paid to MN in mononucleated cells. However, recent studies have indicated that aneugens, but not clastogens, also induce MN in mononucleates. In order to evaluate mononucleates to distinguish between aneugenic and clastogenic effects, we tested some typical aneugens and clastogens in whole blood lymphocyte cultures of four donors with the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Results showed that the aneugens diethylstilbestrol (80 microM), griseofulvin (25 microg/ml) and vincristine sulphate (15 microg/ml) increased MN frequencies in mononucleated and binucleated cells, whilst the clastogens mitomycin C (500 ng/ml), bleomycin (6 microg/ml) and doxorubicin (20 microg/ml) increased MN frequency only in binucleates. We also tested the Y heterochromatin decondensing drug berenil (300 microg/ml). Berenil induced an extremely high number of MN in mononucleated as well as in binucleated cells, indicating an aneugenic action. This was confirmed by centromere labelling. The results suggest that MN in mononucleates may be an interesting additional parameter in the CBMN assay. Future studies should clarify whether the micronucleated mononucleate cells have escaped the cytokinesis block and become polyploid.  (+info)

Tripterygium hypoglaucum (level) Hutch induces aneuploidy of chromosome 8 in mouse bone marrow cells and sperm. (8/30)

Aneuploidy of mouse chromosome 8 induced by a Chinese medicinal herb, Tripterygium hypoglaucum (level) Hutch (THH) was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in vivo. Male mice were treated with THH (single i.p. injection) at doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg. Colchicine (COL, 1.5 mg/kg i.p.) was used as a positive control. Bone marrow cells and epididymal sperm were collected 24 h and 22 days after treatment, respectively. Chromosome 8 aneuploidies induced by THH in bone marrow cells and sperm were determined by FISH with a biotin-16-dUTP labelled DNA probe corresponding to the centromeric region of chromosome 8. The hybridized probe was detected with avidin-FITC. The frequencies of trisomy 8 in bone marrow cells were 0.16% in the solvent control group, 0.39% in the COL-treated group and 0.33, 0.41 and 0.41% in the THH-treated groups, respectively. The frequencies of disomy 8 sperm were 0.11% in the solvent control group, 0.27% in the COL-treated group and 0.23, 0.27 and 0.27% in the THH-treated groups, respectively. The experiment showed that induced aneuploidy frequencies were higher in bone marrow cells than in sperm with COL and the two higher doses of THH (P < 0.05). All groups were significantly different from the corresponding solvent controls (P < 0.01-0.001), but there was no dose-related increase in either cell type. Considering the present results together with our previous studies, it appears that THH is a potent mammalian aneugen which may pose a genetic risk to human patients.  (+info)

An investigation into the effects of aneugens in the mouse lymphoma assay - a genetic toxicological assay for mamaalian gene mutation ...
The effect of coexposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields and an aneugen on human lymphocytes, determined by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay ...
Hesperadin is an inhibitor of human Aurora B, which can prevent the phosphorylation of substrate with IC(50) of 40 nM. Growth of cultured bloodstream forms was also sensitive to Hesperadin (IC(50) of 50 nM). Hesperadin blocked nuclear division and cytokinesis but not other aspects of the cell cycle. Consequently, growth arrested cells accumulated multiple kinetoplasts, flagella and nucleoli, similar to the effects of RNAi-dependent knockdown of TbAUK1 in cultured bloodstream forms cells. Molecular models predicted high-affinity binding of Hesperadin to both conserved and novel sites in TbAUK1. Collectively, these data demonstrate that cell cycle progression is essential for infections with T. brucei and that parasite Aurora kinases can be targeted with small-molecule inhibitors..............
Gentronix Offers A range Of Screening Options For The Assessment Of A Test Substance for In Vivo and In Vitro Micronucleus Tests And Assay
corner computer desk with hutch plans : wood baby cradle plans Xiv Results Shop for desks and desk hutches to convey order and vogue to your home After building was make out I. L Shaped street corner data processor Desk tungsten Hutch Shaker Cherry 439.98. Sauder Orchard Hills heavy Corner 50 Shape woodwind Computer Desk in Oak corner computer desk with hutch plans. 369.98 Contrive 03 603 3 Piece Corner Desk Hutch Plan 03 602 Corner electronic computer Desk contrive Combo Price Available drive 2 bang-up woodworking plans for a corner computer desk with hutch plans. His a la mode influence is a letter rack with an envelope in I of the slotsThe envelope reads, To constitute opened in the effect of my deathIn his freshly book The Lost Carving: A Journey to the Heart of Esterly writes that carving may comprise profession for high operation obsessive compulsives. ...
Primary cilia arise from the centrosomes of quiescent or post‐mitotic cells, and serve as sensory organelles that communicate mechanical and chemical stimuli from the environment to the interior of the cell
How to Clean a Rabbit Hutch. Rabbits are relatively clean animals, but they still need to have their hutches cleaned on a regular basis. Do a quick clean of the hutch every day to remove old food and soiled bedding. The hutch should be...
Hello everyone. Advise pls !!! How big should an external hutch be if its to house two medium sized rabbits? :?: I cant find a single pet shop that does hutches for two ! Ive read in a book that a good size is approx 180 mm wide x 90 mm High x 90 mm deep, but Im not sure if thats big enough. Neither myself or partner are very DIY minded so making one is not an option... although I guess I could find someone to make a hutch for me. I currently have one rabbit but hope to add
 Introduction and Description Introduction This is an outside hutch where the guinea pig can spend the warmer months. In the summer an outside hutch is great, guinea pigs love to eat fresh grass. Come winter, this particular guinea pig is moved to a cage inside the house. This hutch…
 Introduction and Description Introduction This is an outside hutch where the guinea pig can spend the warmer months. In the summer an outside hutch is great, guinea pigs love to eat fresh grass. Come winter, this particular guinea pig is moved to a cage inside the house. This hutch…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct differentiation of bone marrow mononucleated cells into insulin producing cells using pancreatic β-cell-derived components. AU - Oh, Ju Eun. AU - Choi, Ok Kyung. AU - Park, Ho Seon. AU - Jung, Hye Seung. AU - Ryu, Su Jeong. AU - Lee, Yong Deok. AU - Lee, Seung Ah. AU - Chung, Sung Soo. AU - Choi, Eun Young. AU - Lee, Dong Sup. AU - Gho, Yong Song. AU - Lee, Hakmo. AU - Park, Kyong Soo. PY - 2019/3/29. Y1 - 2019/3/29. N2 - Transplantation of stem cell-derived insulin producing cells (IPCs) has been proposed as an alternative to islet transplantation for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, current IPC differentiation protocols are focused on generating functional cells from the pluripotent stem cells and tend to rely on multistep, long-term exposure to various exogenous factors. In this study, we addressed the observation that under stress, pancreatic β-cells release essential components that direct the differentiation of the bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs) ...
Fred Hutch is launching a new integrated research center to prevent and find cures for cancers caused by infectious agents. It will be led by Dr. Denise Galloway, a Fred Hutch microbiologist whose research paved the way for the HPV vaccine, which prevents cervical, throat and other cancers.
$8.8 million NIH grant to help expand study of colorectal cancer outcomes; new Evergreen Fund to accelerate commercialization of research; Hutch United co-chair Erin dela Cruz receives fellowhip from American Society for Microbiology; Marlins pitcher Dustin McGowan named winner of 52nd Hutch Award
Shop a variety of unique chicken coops and rabbit hutches at affordable prices. City chicken coops, apartment hutches, collapsible chicken coops, and more.
If your rabbits live in a wooden hutch, or in a hutch with wooden parts, you need to take care in cleaning it to ensure your rabbits environment is safe.
An excellent selection of Hutches to keep your Guinea Pig fit, healthy and safe from a range of top brands such as Rosewood, Hutch Company as well as our...
When deciding on where to place your outdoor guinea pig hutch you must make a few consideration. Follow our tips and advice on position your guinea pig hutch.
Shop chicken coops & rabbit hutches in the animal & pet care section of Lowes.com. Find quality chicken coops & rabbit hutches online or in store.
Shop Bush® Business Westfield Elite 66W x 30D C-Leg Desk with Hutch, Hansen Cherry at Staples. Choose from our wide selection of Bush® Business Westfield Elite 66W x 30D C-Leg Desk with Hutch, Hansen Cherry and get fast & free shipping on select orders.
Shop Bush® Business Westfield Elite 60W x 30D C Leg Desk with Hutch and Storage, Mocha Cherry at Staples. Choose from our wide selection of Bush® Business Westfield Elite 60W x 30D C Leg Desk with Hutch and Storage, Mocha Cherry and get fast & free shipping on select orders.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. hesperadin ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
...SEATTLE Harmit Singh Malik Ph.D. an evolutionary geneticist at Fred...,Fred,Hutch,evolutionary,geneticist,Harmit,Malik,selected,as,an,HHMI,investigator,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
With The wood is treated using a water based anti fungicidal animal and environment friendly stain and Jointed, Sanded & Screwed - Rounded Felt Edge, the BUNNY HOUSE produced by FeelGoodUK. View full pictures and specs inside.
Buy Playmobil Country Rabbit Pen With Hutch from our Construction Toys range at John Lewis. Free Delivery on orders over £50.
We love this Bentley Pets Wooden Two Storey Outdoor Rabbit Hutch Guinea Pig Run Bunny House With Ramp made by Bentley Pets. Comes with great specs available. You can read extra pictures and details inside.
Very cheap for everything as the hutch was &170, piggies were $100 and everything else is over $100 so I would prefer no bargaining ...
The ToxTracker assay is a state-of-the-art stem cell-based reporter assay that provides mechanistic insight into genotoxic properties of compounds. ToxTracker ACE (Aneugen Clastogen Evaluation) is an extended version of the ToxTracker assay and includes direct discrimination between an aneugenic and a clastogenic mode-of-action of genotoxic compounds. ToxTracker ACE combines the power of 6 fluorescent reporter cell lines for detection of DNA damage, oxidative stress and protein damage with cell cycle analyses and detection of polyploidy. This unique combination gives unparalleled mechanistic insight into the hazardous properties of chemicals and pharmaceuticals in a single assay. The information generated is particularly useful in Mode-of-Action (MoA) and Adverse-Outcome Pathway (AOP) approaches.. ...
STARSKY PAUSED at the entrance to the living room. Hutch was seated on the couch with a large hardcover book propped open on one knee and a clipboard on the other. His pen was poised above the paper as he intently watched his infant son. Jack gripped the edge of the coffee table, trying to reach a blue fuzzy poodle standing in the center. He stood on his toes, lost his balance and staggered back several steps before plumping down heavily on his well-padded rear end. With a grunt of annoyance, the infant rolled forward onto his hands and knees, pushed himself back up onto his feet, and stomped forward a few steps to try again. "Walking," muttered Hutch, making a note on his clipboard. Starsky moved into the room. "What are you doing to that kid?" "Ssh!" The pen jabbed in his direction once, in a peremptory manner, before returning to the paper. Hutch looked at his son. "Jack! Hey, Jack!" The baby glanced up at his father, briefly, and then returned to his task. His fingers brushed the dogs ...
As you may remember, we first met about two and half years ago, when your neighbors adopted me from another family. I was a little over two years old. They gave me my third home, after the children in two other homes eventually tired of me. That is a sad part of the life of many bunnies. Your neighbors had been told I liked to sit on laps. Well, perhaps I did when I was a baby, but I spent so much time alone in a hutch that I really didnt care for that anymore. Plus, they had two active children and I didnt like the attention young children wanted to give to me. I alternately lived in a wire cage in their garage, or outside in a nice wooden hutch. Once in a while, you would stop and say hi to me, and although I could tell that you loved rabbits, I also could tell that you really didnt know much about us.. Then one day in September, the strangest event occurred. I found that my hutch was being carried across the street and placed in your back yard! I heard that my family was going away for ten ...
Morning all, I wanted to post what I have been up to with the piggies new Mk3 shed - which I have fully insulated with thick polystyrene sheets and a top...
Non commercial No Derivatives Download 264kB Preview Article URL http www nature com mi journal vaop ncurrent abs Item Type Article Additional Information Lemos MP Karuna ST Mize GJ Fong Y Montano SM Ganoza C Lama JR Sanchez J McElrath MJ 2015 In men at risk of HIV infection IgM IgG1 IgG3 and IgA reach the human foreskin epidermis Mucosal immunology doi 10 1038 mi 2015 103 Epub ahead ...
On Sun.I thought I`d wash his butt,it was a little dirty.I brought him inside & just washed his bottom,quickly wrapping him in a towel when I was done.He hated it.He fought me.I carried him to the deck outside & unwrapped him & placed him down.He started having a seizure,laying on his side.I quickly picked him back up & wrapped him & held him,talking to him,petting his head.I sat there for the longest time till I realized that maybe he wasn`t breathing. I carried him to the garage where the dh was working & asked him if Peter was dead.We really didn`t know at first.I held him for the longest time ,took the towel off & we watched him.He wasn`t moving,he had died.We were devestated.I have not told our friends yet.My dh buried him in my flower garden.Now his hutch stands empty,a painful reminder & the question,what happenned ...
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The Eglu Go Hutch is perfect for keeping rabbits and guinea pigs in the garden safely. The Eglu Go Guinea Pig Hutch and run is suitable for two to three guinea pigs, and the Rabbit hutch and run is ideal for two pet bunnies. The plastic rabbit and guinea pig house is easy to clean and insulated, making it perfect to use all year round and both come with fox-resistant run. See below to read about the Eglu Go Hutch.
Ideal housing for guinea pigs are hutches approximately 0.9 sq metre per adult guinea pig, although they need plenty of exercise outside their hutch. Hutches and runs should ideally be placed out of the sun and sheltered from the rain and ideally hutches should be raised off the ground. In the winter, the hutch will have to be moved into a garage or outhouse.. Straw or wood shavings are ideal for guinea pigs in outdoor hutches and wet bedding should be removed on a daily basis. Hutches should be completely stripped out and scrubbed, ideally once a week during the summer and more regularly during the winter when guinea pigs spend more time inside. In the winter its also advisable to put plenty of hay in the hutch for your guinea pig to burrow in. ...
Hesperadin is a human Aurora B inhibitor with an IC50 of 40 nM for the prevention of the phosphorylation of substrate. Find all the information about Hesperadin for cell signaling research.
Guinea pigs really give so much to our lives, from their adorable popcorn jumps, to their cosy cuddles. The list goes on, which is why want to give em plenty of space for it all, at home. That said, guinea pigs arent really best for bedsit living. And although a small home or apartment would work fine, the three-bedroom-house-with-backyard situation is truly home-squeak-home, for these compact creatures. Ahhh… Hutch sweet hutch. Because big is best for your furry friend, its wise to move him into a hutch. A hutch is a cage divided into two connecting compartments. Just how big youll want it to be will depend on the number of guinea pigs you adopt: Number of guinea pigs Preferred size of hutch 1 1.0 sqm 2 1.0 sqm 3 1.2 sqm 4 | 1.2 sqm What makes a good hutch? Definitely a covered section that will make your cuddly companion feel safe and protected, while he sleeps. Your American Short Coats hutch should also be lined with soft grass or hay - but not straw, sawdust or wood shavings, gosh darn
Radiological protection - Performance criteria for laboratories using the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes for biological dosimetry
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For a stylish and easy to clean home look no further than the Eglu Go Guinea Pig Hutch, while the Outdoor Guinea Pig Run is ideal for offering your pets even more space. Make your pet squeal with delight with the awesome Zippi Guinea Pig Tunnels - use them to connect a hutch to a run or to build a network of play tunnels. Omlet also has a great selection of Guinea Pig Toys, Guinea Pig Food and Guinea Pig Treats.
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The leading Williams 5ft Single Rabbit/Guinea Pig Hutch store offering next day delivery on a huge range of rabbit hutches. All products come with a 12 month manufacturers warranty.
They display a characteristic ruffled border where proteases and acid are secreted, allowing for bone resorption and formation of resorption pits in the bone surface [25]. Osteoclast morphology varies between mammals and teleosts (bony fishes), and also between different groups of teleosts [20]. In the skeleton of young zebrafish for example, osteoclast activity is carried out by both mononucleated and multinucleated cells [26]. In fact, there is an ontogenetic progression from mono- towards multinucleated osteoclasts. In juvenile zebrafish, bone resorbing cells in the developing lower jaw are. at first mononucleated. In thin skeletal tissues such as the neural arch, mononucleated cells are even predominant in adults [26]. In rainbow trout, scale resorption Selleck BIBF1120 PD0325901 is predominantly carried out by mononucleated osteoclasts [27]. Although in mammals these mononucleated cells are often just regarded as osteoclast precursors, in fish mononucleated osteoclasts are active bone ...
These are very nice constructed hutches that can be used for chickens, quails, rabbits and more. Measures 3 long, 2 wide and 2-1/2 tall at highest...
There are basically two types of rabbit hutches: the wooden type and the cage type. It is up to your preferences to choose between the two types as each has its own advantages and disadvantages. However, an all-wire rabbit hutch with a wooden frame is best. This type is usually easy to maintain and clean especially with a sliding pan underneath to catch dirt and debris. Besides, wooden hutches absorb rabbit urine, which have very strong odors coming from accumulated ammonia. This, in turn, is very harmful for the rabbits health.. When it comes to sliding pans, be sure to use only straw, aspen style wood shavings, or litter made from recycled paper. Pine and red cedar bedding, as well as cat litter, can cause health problems with your pet. If you opt for a wire hutch, make sure you buy appropriate materials for the floor to prevent injury to your rabbits tender feet. Your choice of materials includes cardboard, plywood, and grass mats, which should be cleaned every day. Its important to keep ...
Eglu Go Guinea Pig Hutch is available with two lengths of secure run to keep pets safe from predators. An easy to clean guinea pig house.
Most pet rabbits that are housed outdoors are housed in a hutch. A rabbit hutch is typically a raised, fully enclosed structure constructed for outdoor use. When outfitted correctly, a hutch can offer protection from predators, as well as shelter from the sun and rain. Many hutches have a wire-grate floor to allow feces and urine to fall through to a metal catch-pan below. While this design makes cleaning up easier and keeps your rabbit from having direct contact with his bodily waste, the wire can irritate a rabbits feet to the point of open sores if the rabbit has nothing solid to stand on or rest against. A mat, rug, wide flat piece of wood or other surface that allows your rabbit to step off of wire flooring is a necessity. Whats more, many rabbits like to snuggle up against something soft like a blanket or rug, which should be laundered regularly, especially if it is exposed to the elements. ...
See pricing info, deals and product reviews for Bush Business Syndicate 30W Lateral File Hutch, Harvest Cherry at Quill.com. Order online today and get fast, free shipping for your business.
As of this Sunday our family will be re-homing two guinea pigs who can no longer remain with their current family as a result of a childs severe allergies. They are two unneutered males who have been housed together for possibly several months and appear to enjoy each others company (from an e-mail description of the guinea pigs). With the guinea pigs comes the cage and many accessories. The cage is described as being a rabbit hutch with plenty of room. (A NOTE -- our family is going
Featuring a fir wood construction, our i.Pet Pet Hutch is the perfect home for your little pets. It incorporates two living areas ¨C one cosy bedroom on the upper level and a spacious play area on the ground level. The three doors provide easy access and cleaning to the living areas and are equipped with strong and fir
Micronuclei induced by aneugens and clastogens in mononucleate and binucleate cells using cytokinesis block assay. Mutagenesis ...
... aneugens MeSH D27.888.569.504 --- neurotoxins MeSH D27.888.569.540 --- oxidants MeSH D27.888.569.540.631 --- oxidants, ...
... protecting the cells against clastogens and/or aneugens that cause micronuclei formation. ...
... can detect aneugens, and this is accepted in the current International Conference on Harmonisation guidance for testing ... Consequently, aneugens with diverse mechanisms of action were tested in the MLA using 24-h exposure. No evidence of increased ... There is some evidence that the mouse lymphoma TK assay (MLA) can detect aneugens, and this is accepted in the current ... In conclusion, it appears that the TFT-resistant mutants resulting from treatment with toxic concentrations of some aneugens ...
Use of Ciliogenesis to Detect Aneugens: The Role of Primary Cilia. Kathyayini V. Divi1, Yvona Ward2, Miriam C. Poirier1, Ofelia ... Cilium formation may, therefore, become a useful end point signaling exposure to genotoxins or aneugens. Here we have used the ... Since cilia are derived from centrosomes, and aneugens can induce centrosomal amplification, the production of multiple cilia ...
An investigation into the effects of aneugens in the mouse lymphoma assay - a genetic toxicological assay for mamaalian gene ...
Aneugens. Agents which affect CELL DIVISION and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS resulting in the loss or gain of whole ...
Synopsis of the in vivo results obtained with the 10 known or suspected aneugens tested in the CEC collaborative study. Adler ( ... An overview of the results of testing of known or suspected aneugens using mammalian cells in vivo. Natarajan (1993).Mutat. Res ... The cytochalasin-B micronucleus/kinetochore assay in vitro.: studies with 10 suspected aneugens. Lynch and Parry (1993). Mutat ... detection of mitotic aneuploidy using 10 known or suspected aneugens. Warr et al., (1993). Mutat. Res. 287:29-46. (7683382) ...
Use of Ciliogenesis to Detect Aneugens: The Role of Primary Cilia.. Divi KV, Ward Y, Poirier MC, Olivero OA. ...
... probe of A 549 cells or when studying aneuploidy in V79 cells in comparison with standard clastogens or aneugens. Finally also ...
Effect of aneugens and clastogens on the rate of HAC mis-segregation during mitotic divisions. We next investigated whether the ... In this study, the HAC-based CIN assay has been verified using a set of well-known aneugens and clastogens. This new assay has ... Moreover, we found that aneugens with proposed similar mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity may greatly differ from each other ... HT1080 cells with an autonomously propagated EGFP-HAC were treated with eight known aneugens: taxol (pacilitaxel), docetaxel, ...
3. Exposure of cells to clastogens and/or aneugens. *Add 1 mL of desired chemical (e.g. Mitomycin C) to 9 mL of cells at ~7- ... The protocol outlines all steps required to expose TK6 cells to clastogens and aneugens, describes how to culture, process and ... Prepare appropriate stock concentrations of desired clastogens and aneugens. For example, for Mitomycin C, dissolve a full 2 mg ... 2. Preparation of clastogens and/or aneugens and Cytochalasin B. * ...
Rosefort, C.; Fauth, E.; Zankl, H. Micronuclei induced by aneugens and clastogens in mononucleate and binucleate cells using ...
An overview of the results of testing of known or suspected aneugens using mammalian cells in vitro. Mutat Res 1993, 287, 113-8 ...
... aneugens or carcinogens, directly affecting male and female gametes and embryos. Additionally, there is a correlation between ...
... aneugens). These effects are manifested by the formation of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) from bone marrow ...
Detection of environmental clastogens and aneugens in human fibroblasts by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay associated ...
The mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay can be used to distinguish aneugens from clastogens. ...
The micronucleus test (MN) is a widely used in vivo screening test to detect clastogens and aneugens. In the present work, the ...
part ii of the report of the 2017 iwgt workgroup on assessing the risk of aneugens for carcinogenesis and hereditary diseases ... a workgroup of experts reviewed and assessed the risk of aneugens for human health. The present manuscript is one of three ...
part ii of the report of the 2017 iwgt workgroup on assessing the risk of aneugens for carcinogenesis and hereditary diseases ... a workgroup of experts reviewed and assessed the risk of aneugens for human health. The present manuscript is one of three ...
... clastogens and aneugens. Applying techniques such as flow cytometry allows for multiparametric analysis of compound effects ...
... and aneugens.. *Chris Hughes, Adam Rabinowitz, +4 authors Richard Maurice Walmsley ...
Expression of the human GADD45a gene is increased in TK6 cells exposed to mutagens, clastogens and aneugens. It is known to be ...
... allows for the determination of both genotoxicity and cytotoxicity following treatment with known clastogens and aneugens. This ...
... allows for the determination of both genotoxicity and cytotoxicity following treatment with known clastogens and aneugens. This ...
As environmental aneugens have great opportunity to become accumulated within the ovarian microenvironment during protracted ...
  • The presentations clearly demonstrated the existence of thresholds for DNA damaging mutagens as well as aneugens, thus changing the paradigm that "one molecule is sufficient to cause cancer' even for classes of genotoxins (such as alkylating agents) for which linear dose response relations have been considered to be the norm. (ecetoc.org)
  • The tested compounds included 14 clastogens, 4 aneugens, and 12 non-mutagens (Table 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The combination of differential activation of these endpoints is a unique and very powerful means to separate clastogens from aneugens, as well as to identify potential tubulin poisons and cell cycle kinase inhibitors. (toxys.com)
  • Recently, flow cytometry approaches have been developed that are using multiple endpoints to discriminate aneugens from other classes of chemicals [Bryce et al. (aopwiki.org)
  • In conclusion, it appears that the TFT-resistant mutants resulting from treatment with toxic concentrations of some aneugens such as taxol and carbendazim have undergone complex genetic changes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, we measured NS for 14 compounds (clastogens) that are known to induce structural CAs, 4 aneugens, and 12 non-mutagenes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The screening process uses flow cytometry to quickly and efficiently screen for clastogens, aneugens and non-genotoxicants (CAN) in pharmaceutical compounds, agricultural chemicals, flavors, fragrances and consumer products. (emdgroup.com)
  • In view of the tendency to have children at advanced maternal ages it appears relevant to pursue studies on consequences of ageing on the susceptibility of human oocytes to the induction of meiotic error by aneugens and establish models to assess risks to human health by environmental exposures. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • High concentrations of these aneugens induced LOH at all loci examined indicating only one chromosome 11 was present but, perhaps surprisingly, all were found to have two copies of chromosome 11 using FISH. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The SAC has been identified in spermatogenesis and oogenesis, but gender-differences may contribute to sex-specific differential responses to aneugens. (uni-bielefeld.de)