Anestrus: A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Estrus Detection: Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Infusion Pumps, Implantable: Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Bromocriptine: A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)DirectoryGroup Purchasing: A shared service which combines the purchasing power of individual organizations or facilities in order to obtain lower prices for equipment and supplies. (From Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Location Directories and Signs: Directory signs or listings of designated areas within or without a facility.

Effects of time of suckling during the solar day on duration of the postpartum anovulatory interval in Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows. (1/254)

Previously published reports have indicated that postpartum anovulatory intervals can be markedly reduced and rebreeding performance enhanced in Bos taurus cows by eliminating nighttime suckling. We sought to confirm this hypothesis by examining the effects of day, nighttime, and ad libitum suckling on suckling behavior of calves, duration of the postpartum anovulatory interval, and pregnancy rates in 45 fall-calving Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows. Beginning on d 9 to 12 postpartum, calves were removed from lactating cows from 0700 to 1900 (Night-Suckled, n = 15) or from 1900 to 0700 (Day-Suckled, n = 15), or remained with their dams continuously (Ad Libitum-Suckled, n = 15). Cows in each group were maintained with fertile Angus bulls from d 10 postpartum until the first normal luteal phase or 100 d postpartum, whichever occurred first. Cows were observed for estrous behavior twice daily, and jugular blood samples were collected twice weekly for the determination of serum progesterone concentration. Mean number of suckling episodes per 24 h was greater (P < .0001) for the Ad Libitum-Suckled group than either Night- or Day-Suckled groups (5.9+/-.42 vs 3.8+/-.14, and 3.9+/-.32, respectively). Hourly analysis of suckling episodes in the Ad Libitum group indicated that they were not skewed toward a particular period, with suckling occurring at a periodicity of 4 to 6 h. Intervals to the first rise in progesterone > or = 1 ng/mL (32+/-2.5, 32+/-4.5, and 31+/-1.7 d, respectively), first normal luteal phase (38+/-3.1, 38+/-3.8, and 37+/-2.5 d, respectively), and first estrus (43+/-3.5, 40+/-3.9, and 36+/-1.1 d, respectively) did not differ (P > .05) among the three groups. Similarly, cumulative pregnancy rates within 100 d after calving did not differ (P > .05). These results in Bos indicus x Bos taurus (F1) cattle do not support the previous conclusions in Bos taurus that eliminating nighttime suckling reduces the postpartum anovulatory interval.  (+info)

Active immunization with a synthetic fragment of pig inhibin alpha-subunit increases ovulation rate and embryo production in superovulated ewes but season affects its efficiency. (2/254)

Two experiments were designed to determine the effects of active immunization against one of two synthetic peptides from humans (inhibin-like peptide) or pigs (inhibin alpha-subunit) on antibody titres, ovulation rate and embryo production in ewes superovulated with 16 U ovine FSH. In Expt 1, during the breeding season, 30 ewes were subdivided into three groups: group I served as the non-immunized control; group II was immunized against inhibin-like peptide (100 micrograms inhibin-like peptide equivalent, followed by three booster injections); group III was immunized against pig inhibin alpha-subunit conjugated to human serum albumin (96 micrograms for the primary administration and 46 micrograms for the booster). In Expt 2, the efficiency of immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit on ovarian response and embryo production was evaluated during the non-breeding season in two groups of ewes (n = 12): group IV was a non-immunized control; Group V was immunized against pig inhibin alpha-subunit. During the breeding season, the ewes immunized against pig inhibin alpha-subunit showed higher antibody titres compared with the group immunized against inhibin-like peptide (P < 0.01) and a significant increase in ovulation rate (12.1) compared with both the control (5.0; P < 0.05) and the inhibin-like peptide-immunized group (3.1; P < 0.01). Immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit increased transferable embryo yield 4.5-fold (6.7 versus 1.5; P < 0.01) and improved embryo quality (94.6 versus 40.6%; P < 0.01). During the non-breeding season, immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit enhanced ovulation rate from 2.6 in the controls to 9.4 (P < 0.01) but did not affect transferable embryo production (3.9 versus 2.1; P > 0.05) and significantly lowered their quality (54.1 versus 100%; P < 0.01). In conclusion, active immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit can improve superovulatory response during the breeding season, while it appears to be unable to increase embryo yield during the seasonal anoestrus.  (+info)

Oestrogen and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity and c-fos expression in the ovine cervix. (3/254)

Immunocytochemistry was used to detect the presence of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in the cervices of prepubertal lambs, seasonally anoestrous ewes, cyclic ewes, and pregnant ewes of known gestational stages, to define the roles of gonadal steroids in cervical function. The presence of the immediate early gene product, c-Fos, a marker for cellular activation, was also investigated using immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. Oestrogen receptor immunoreactivity was restricted to the endometrium on days 0-3 of the oestrous cycle (day 0 = oestrus). In immature animals, very few scattered nuclei in the endometrium were immunoreactive. Oestrogen receptor immunoreactivity was not apparent in the endometrium during the remainder of the oestrous cycle or in this region in anoestrous animals. In pregnant ewes, oestrogen receptor immunostaining appeared as relatively few isolated nuclei in the connective tissue stroma. Progesterone receptor immunoreactivity was found in the endometrium at days 0-3 of the oestrous cycle and also in the luminal epithelium, the myometrium and the blood vessels. Progesterone receptor immunoreactivity was also found in these regions, with the exception of the endometrium, at all other stages examined. Immunostaining for c-Fos was present in the endometrium at days 0-3 of the oestrous cycle, and some scattered immunopositive nuclei were present in prepubertal animals. c-Fos immunoreactivity was also found in the myometrium and in blood vessels at all other stages examined. Visualization of c-fos gene expression by in situ hybridization showed that it occurred in the luminal epithelium and blood vessels at oestrus, but was restricted to the blood vessels in all other samples examined.  (+info)

Effect of progesterone on the GnRH-induced secretion of oestradiol and androstenedione from the autotransplanted ovary of the anoestrous ewe. (4/254)

Two experiments were conducted during the anoestrous period in Border Leicester x Merino ewes with ovarian autotransplants to study the effects of a single injection of 20 mg progesterone on follicular steroid secretion. The aim of these experiments was to determine whether pretreatment with a 20 mg intramuscular injection of progesterone could reduce GnRH-induced ovarian steroid secretion in anoestrous ewes. In both experiments, an injection of 150 ng GnRH induced an LH pulse in all ewes with a maximum concentration 10 min (the first post-injection sample) after injection. Oestradiol and androstenedione secretion increased progressively after the GnRH-induced LH pulse and reached maximum rates of secretion between 60 and 90 min before decreasing slowly to pre-injection rates at 150 min. There were no differences in the pattern of secretion of oestradiol (measured in both experiments) or androstenedione (measured only in Expt 2). In Expt 1, the injection of progesterone 72 h before the challenge with GnRH had no effect on the maximum rate of oestradiol secretion from the autotransplanted ovary. However, in Expt 2, when progesterone was given either 36 or 60 h before GnRH, there was a significant suppression in the maximum rate of secretion of both oestradiol and androstenedione between 60 and 90 min after GnRH injection. These data show that pretreatment of anoestrous sheep with progesterone can suppress LH-stimulated steroid secretion from the ovary and indicate that progesterone may have a direct effect on oestrogenic follicles in sheep.  (+info)

Interactive effects of central leptin and peripheral fuel oxidation on estrous cyclicity. (5/254)

A 48-h period of fasting inhibits estrous cycles in Syrian hamsters, and fasting-induced anestrus can be prevented by intracerebroventricular treatment with leptin during the fasting period. In the present experiment, the effects of intracerebroventricular leptin were blocked by systemic treatment with inhibitors of metabolic fuel oxidation. Leptin was infused continuously into the lateral ventricles (1 microgram/day) during fasting on days 1 and 2 of the estrous cycle. Intraperitoneal injection of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) was used to block both central and peripheral glucose oxidation, and intragastric treatment with methyl palmoxirate (MP) was used to inhibit peripheral long-chain fatty acid oxidation during the fasting and leptin-treatment period. 2DG or MP were administered at doses that did not induce anestrus in ad libitum-fed hamsters. Despite elevated central levels of leptin, fasting-induced anestrus occurred in hamsters treated with either 2DG or MP. Thus an elevated intracerebroventricular leptin concentration is not a sufficient condition for normal estrous cycles when fuel oxidation is inhibited. These results raise the possibility that central leptin influences reproduction by indirect effects on peripheral fuel metabolism.  (+info)

Hormonal control of urokinase plasminogen activator secretion by sheep ovarian surface epithelial cells. (6/254)

Secretion of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) by ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) adjacent to the preovulatory ovine follicle has been implicated in apical tissue degradation and follicular rupture. In vitro experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that uPA release by OSE is under direct hormonal control. Epithelial cells were isolated from the ovarian surface of sheep using a polytetrafluorethylene scraper designed to dislodge adherent cells from culture flasks. Amidolytic cleavage of a uPA-specific chromogen (carbobenzoxy-L-gamma-glutamyl [alpha-ot-but]-glycyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide monoacetate) was used as a measure of enzymatic bioactivity in OSE-conditioned incubation media. Secretion of uPA by OSE suspensions from proestrous ewes was stimulated by exposure (2 h) to a preovulatory surge-like concentration of LH. OSE cells obtained during the luteal phase or anestrus were not responsive to LH. Baseline rates of uPA secretion and expression of estradiol receptors (in situ immunofluorescence detection) were not affected by reproductive status. Induction of uPA secretion by anestrous OSE was attained after priming (6 h) with estradiol-17beta; responsiveness was attributed to gonadotropin receptor (ligand binding) up-regulation. Monolayers of OSE established on polyethylene membranes secreted uPA predominately in a basal (i.e., toward the substratum) direction. We suggest that OSE in juxtaposition with the (hyperemic) wall of the preovulatory follicle is perfused by surge levels of LH, invoking uPA release into underlying ovarian tissues.  (+info)

Ovarian function in nutritionally induced anoestrous cows: effect of exogenous gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in vivo and effect of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I in vitro. (7/254)

Ovarian function of nutritionally induced anoestrus cows was evaluated in vivo (Expt 1) and in vitro (Expt 2). In Expt 1, 32 nutritionally induced anoestrous beef cows were divided into four treatment groups receiving: (1) saline infusions at one pulse every 4 h for 13 days (control); (2) 2 micrograms GnRH at one pulse every 4 h (2 micrograms infused in 1.8 ml saline over 5 min) for 13 days (GnRH-4); (3) 2 micrograms GnRH at one pulse every 1 h for 13 days (GnRH-1); and (4) continuous infusion of 2 micrograms GnRH (a total of 2 micrograms in 34 ml h-1) for 13 days (GnRH-C). On the last day of treatment, cows were killed, ovaries were removed and follicular fluid samples (n = 149) were collected. The percentage of cows with luteal activity on day 13 was significantly different (P < 0.01) among treatments (0, 25, 75 and 25% for control, GnRH-4, GnRH-1 and GnRH-C cows, respectively). Owing to the large percentage of ovulatory cows in the GnRH-1 group (n = 6), anovulatory cows (n = 2) were removed from this treatment group for statistical analysis, as were cows with luteal tissue from the GnRH-4 (n = 2) and GnRH-C (n = 2) groups. The numbers of small (1.0-4.9 mm) and medium plus large (> or = 5 mm) follicles were not affected (P > 0.10) by treatment. However, GnRH-4 cows (n = 6) had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of oestradiol in follicular fluid than did control (n = 8) but not GnRH-1 (n = 6) or GnRH-C (n = 6) cows. Concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I were greater (P < 0.05) in the follicular fluid of GnRH-1 cows than in all other treatment groups. Concentrations of androstenedione and progesterone in follicular fluid were not affected (P > 0.10) by treatment or follicle size. The binding activity of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins was not affected by GnRH treatment. However, the binding activity of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, 29-32 kDa and 22 kDa insulin-like growth factor binding proteins were greater (P < 0.05) in small versus medium plus large follicles. In Expt 2, granulosa cells were collected from nutritionally anoestrous cows to determine whether ovarian cells from anoestrous cows have the capacity to respond to insulin-like growth factor I or insulin in vitro. Both insulin-like growth factor I (20 and 200 ng ml-1) and insulin (10, 100 and 1000 ng ml-1) increased (P < 0.05) granulosa cell proliferation and progesterone production. In conclusion, pulsatile infusion of 2 micrograms GnRH (every 1 or 4 h) for 13 days into nutritionally induced anoestrous cows results in increased intrafollicular oestradiol and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations and can stimulate ovulation without markedly affecting concentrations of androstenedione or progesterone, or the binding activity of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, in follicular fluid. In addition, granulosa cells from nutritionally induced anoestrous cows have the capacity to respond to insulin-like growth factor I and insulin in vitro, indicating that the decrease in trophic factors observed with restricted feeding does not reduce the response of the ovary to insulin-like growth factor I and insulin.  (+info)

Segmental aplasia of the left paramesonephric duct in the cow. (8/254)

Segmental aplasia of the left uterine horn in a multiparous Holstein cow was diagnosed by palpation and ultrasonography. Treatment with prostaglandin was unsuccessful in eliminating the fluid from the distended uterine horn. Segmental aplasia should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for cows with nonresponsive uterine enlargement.  (+info)

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Antioxidant Enzymes in Postpartum Anoestrus Buffaloes Supplemented with Vitamin E and Selenium - Vitamin E;Selenium;Anoestrus;Antioxidant Enzymes;
During the autumn/winter/spring periods of three seasons, 32 pure and crossbred Irish Draught mares were stabled and maintained under extended daylength of 16 hours light beginning December 16th. Prior to the first ovulatory oestrus following a period of acyclicity (seasonal anoestrus), all mares were examined at intervals of no more than 7-10 days, more frequently when follicular activity increased and at least once daily for at least 11 days before ovulation and when a follicle reached 35 mm. All follicles of 20 mm or larger were measured and recorded. In the absence of any follicle in either ovary larger than 20 mm, the diameter of any smaller follicle was also recorded. It was therefore possible to trace back from the time of ovulation, the diameter of the ovulatory follicle during its development. Where over several days, one follicle in an ovary regressed, it was assumed that another initially smaller follicle in the same ovary had grown to overtake the larger and progressed to ovulation. ...
Body condition scoring is a tool that can be used to estimate the energy reserves of cattle. In the beef industry a 9-point scale is used, with 1 being emaciated and 9 being obese (Kunkle, Sand, and Rae 1997). Using BCS, producers can estimate the energy balance of their herd, which is critical to reproductive efficiency. Reports have shown that by 80 days postpartum 62% of cows with a BCS of 4 or lower at calving were experiencing estrous cycles compared to 88%-98% that calved at a BCS of 5-6. Experiments have also demonstrated that cows with a BCS of 4 or lower had pregnancy rates of 61%, in contrast to 90% for those cows that calved with a BCS of 5 or greater (Selk et al. 1986).. Females with restricted intake of energy have decreased levels of LH secretion, which is the hormone that signals ovulation. Beef cows with inadequate energy reserves or poor BCS typically have several follicular waves before their first ovulation. Thus, energy reserves and intake affect the length of time until the ...
BACKGROUND: In mare, different methods of earlier cyclicity induction and hastening first ovulation of the year have been reported. OBJECTIVES: The goal of present study was to investigate the effect of progesterone (Cue-mate®) on synchronization and acceleration the first ovulation of the year in winter anestrous mares under artificial lighting system. METHODS: After detection of anestrus mares, artificial lighting regimen of 16h light was conducted since early December for both treatment and control groups mares. After detecting of 25 mm follicle on the ovary, treatment group mares received Cue-Mate and examined through rectal ultrasound until follicle reached in size of 35mm, when Cue-mate was removed. Daily ultrasound examination and teasing were done until detection of ovulation. RESULTS: Based on our results, no significant difference in rate of ovulation (66% vs 60%) and size of ovulatory follicle were existed between treatment and control group. In addition to, despite of decreasing time
Twenty-eight Columbia ewes were made available for study during their breeding and anestrous seasons. After the regularity of the estrous cycles had been established, eight of the ewes were sacrificed in pairs at four different stages of the estrous cycle. Eight additional ewes were sacrificed during anestrus. Pituitary glands, ovaries, uteri, thyroids and adrenals were grossly observed, removed and weighed. The anterior pituitaries were lyophilized and assayed on a unit weight basis for gonadotropic content by the use of hypophysectomized, immature, female rats. Mean gonadotropic activity of the anterior pituitaries, as indicated by the ovarian weight response in the rats, was higher during the anestrous season than during the breeding season. Mean ICSH activity, as indicated by stimulation of the ovarian interstitial tissue of the rats, was simila for both seasons, while mean FSH activity, as indicated by ovarian follicle diameter in the assay rats, was significantly higher during anestrus ...
Christensen, A C M and Haresign, W and Khalid, M (2014) Progesterone exposure of seasonally anoestrous ewes alters the expression of angiogenic growth factors in preovulatory follicles. Theriogenology, 81 (2). pp. 358-367. ...
ogesterone analysis to determine if hypoluteoidism occurs. If the progesterone concentration falls below 2 ng/ ml, the bitch will likely resorb or abort the fetus, depending on the stage of gestation; therapy in such cases involves supplementation with progesterone until day 50. Inappropriately treating a bitch that does not require such therapy, however, can lead to abnormal development of the fetus (e.g., masculinization of the females) and potential problems with parturition.. 2 Failure to Cycle:. Potential differential diagnoses for a bitch that apparently fails to cycle may be investigated by answering the following questions.. Has the bitch ever had an oestrous cycle? The age of the bitch that has never displayed signs of an oestrous cycle (primary anestrus) must first be determined. A bitch is not routinely evaluated for primary anestrus until she is beyond two to three years of age, although bitches of many breeds (especially of smaller stature) normally experience a first oestrus ...
Ewes are seasonally polyestrous,cycling every 16-17 days during the breeding season. The major environmental factor controlling the estrous cycle is the photoperiod. Decreasing photoperiod after the summer solstice causes secretion of melatonin, which triggers the hypothalamus to produce gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Geographic location and environmental temperatures also modify the length of anestrus, as does the breed of sheep. Fine-wool breeds (eg. Rambouillet and Merino), tropical breeds, and Dorsets have a shorter anestrous period than other breeds such as the Suffolk, Hampshire, Border Leicester, and Columbia. Regardless of this breed-related variation in the length of the breeding season, all breeds are most fertile in the autumn, and anestrus is an unlikely problem associated with regular annual mating.. The duration of estrus (~30 hr.) is influenced by the breed and age of the ewe, the onset of puberty, the presence of the male, and the season. Estrous periods that occur in the autumn ...
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The present study was conducted to measure the concentration of progesterone throughout gestation and parturition in control and treated bitches. Thirty anestrus bitches aged 3-6 years and weighting 19.5-26 kg were used in this study. The bitches were divided equally into three groups as follows: the 1st group as a control group without treatment, the 2nd group as a treated group anestrus bitches treated orally with 0.125 mg/kg BW bromocriptine (Parlodel) twice daily, and the 3rd group treated orally by 0.012 mg/kg BW cabergoline (Dostinex) until appearance of estrus signs. The results showed that the number of responded animals were in proestrus bleeding and became pregnant and new born 70%, 60% and 50% for control, bromocriptine, and cabergoline treated groups, respectively. In addition, there were no significant differences (P≤0.01) in progesterone concentration between the control and treated pregnant bitches. It can be concluded that both medicines bromocriptine and cabergoline have no ...
By Heather Smith Thomas. One of the most challenging parts of breeding season is getting every mare safely in foal. Dr. James Bailey, a practitioner with Royal Vista Southwest, an equine reproduction-focused practice in Purcell, Okla., deals with broodmare challenges on a regular basis. Mare owners should always be thinking about the next breeding season, looking at mares in the fall before they cease cycling (anestrus), he said. This is a good time to do a work-up on mares that are open. Our basic work-up here includes palpation, ultrasonic evaluation, examination of the cervix, uterine biopsy, and uterine culture (assessing for microbial growth in the laboratory). The culture should include aerobic bacteria, and the veterinarian might also want to culture for anaerobic bacteria as well as fungal infections-depending on the age of the mare and the problems that have been encountered with her in the past. At this time we also try to diagnose and evaluate any conformation problems and do a ...
Irish dairy herd fertility has been declining since the 1980s. The extent, nature and causes of this decline in fertility and the current status of Irish dairy herd fertility were described. An increase in calving interval of approximately one day per year has been recorded. The principal components of this trend have been an increased incidence of postpartum endocrinopathies, reduced expression of oestrus and a fall in conception rate. Both submission rate and calving-to-service interval have increased slightly over time. Significant risk factors associated with these trends have been strain substitution within the Holstein-Friesian breed and single trait selection for milk production. Critically, these changes have been reflected in loss of body condition. Contributory factors included increased herd size and possibly increased use of DIYAI. The most recent Irish study showed that 48% of cows conceived to first service and 14% of cows were not pregnant at the end of the industry-average 15-week spring
At the end of last breeding season, my mare was cultured before the fall transition to make sure she was clean going into anestrus for the winter. My vet fractured the culture tip off inside my mares uterus. My mare had two rounds of high volume lavage with oxytocin follow up (plus she was nursing a foal at the time). The tip was never visibly recovered. My vet was never able to scan the tip in utero with 100% confidence. Is there any chance she expelled the culture tip on her own? Has anyone else ever had this happen to them? Whats next? The mare has been recultured this spring and is clean and ready to go. Should I try to have here scoped before I go forward and try to inseminate her on her next cycle ...
Weather has always been the #1 topic of conversation for anyone in agriculture. Changing weather patterns have made it even more topical. Current research suggests that there could be many more days of high temperature, and that means a growing potential for heat stressed dairy cows. For those of us in the dairy business, this trend has the potential to dramatically impact all aspects of the industry from breeding to milk production.. Lets Start with the Bad News First. Numerous studies have documented the challenges (Jordan, 2003; Rensis, 2003; West, 2004) which impact reproductive performance. Heat stressed cows eat less and this nutrition deficit results in prolonged postpartum anestrus and impaired embryonic development. In addition, this inadequate nutrient intake reduces body condition score and causes cessation of estrus cycles. Unfortunately, symptoms induced by heat stress gradually pile on and the ultimate result is that the success of gestation is severely compromised even after the ...
The Blackface Sheep Breeders Association maintains a list of sales, shows and district events covering Scotland and the north of England.
The estrus cycle (also œstrus or estrous cycle) refers to the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females (humans and great apes are the only mammals who undergo a menstrual cycle instead). Estrus cycles start after puberty in sexually mature females and are interrupted by anestrous phases (see below: anestrus). Typically estrus cycles continue until death. Some animals may display bloody vaginal discharge, often mistaken for menstruation ...
Fos induction in the rostral ARC following male exposure.Representative bright-field photomicrographs showing greater Fos immuno-localization in anestrous ewes
Figure 2: Hormonal development during oestrus cycle.. Out of these, Progesterone has been chosen to be analysed by Herd Navigator™ because it is the one that can provide the most information about the reproductive status of the cow throughout the whole lactation.. After calving the cow has no ovarian activity (anoestrus) and will not produce any progesterone. After some weeks the cow will start ovarian activity, will show heat signs and ovulate. After the ovulation the corpus luteum will be formed in the ovary and start producing Progesterone. Progesterone production will cease when the cow is approaching a new heat and will restart again after the new ovulation. This cycle is repeated every 18 to 24 days until the cow becomes pregnant. In this case the corpus luteum will continue producing Progesterone to maintain the pregnancy (Figure 3). Progesterone production will continue until calving unless the cow aborts, in this case Progesterone production will stop.. ...
Figure 2: Hormonal development during oestrus cycle.. Out of these, Progesterone has been chosen to be analysed by Herd Navigator™ because it is the one that can provide the most information about the reproductive status of the cow throughout the whole lactation.. After calving the cow has no ovarian activity (anoestrus) and will not produce any progesterone. After some weeks the cow will start ovarian activity, will show heat signs and ovulate. After the ovulation the corpus luteum will be formed in the ovary and start producing Progesterone. Progesterone production will cease when the cow is approaching a new heat and will restart again after the new ovulation. This cycle is repeated every 18 to 24 days until the cow becomes pregnant. In this case the corpus luteum will continue producing Progesterone to maintain the pregnancy (Figure 3). Progesterone production will continue until calving unless the cow aborts, in this case Progesterone production will stop.. ...
Intercalving period factor is cost effective parameter for sustainable milk business. By studying the nutritional status of our animals and available resources of feeds and fodder within our jurisdiction we are facing major problems like repeat breeding and anoestrus. To over come this problem, from June 2013 we have started the special Infertility camps for such animals. Modus operand for these camps is our Veterinarian visits the DCS for examining and treating the animals. In these camps we specially focus on the nutritional status of the animals, and accordingly we advice the farmers. We also take the awareness programmes about the use of mineral mixture, balanced cattle feed and the fodder. Till date we have good results of these camps and also excellent feedback about the use of mineral mixture. This programme is now part and parcel of our Animal Husbandry activities ...
James Lynch (B. Devizes, Wiltshire, 1956) Blackface Sheep Signed and dated 88 Watercolour and gouache 16 x 19.88ins (40.5 x 50.5cm)
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It is important to properly develop heifers before the breeding season and to continue managing them during and after the calving season. ...
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The hypothesis that pregnancy success could be improved in early postpartum ewes by prolonging the lifespan of the corpus luteum via active immunization against prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) was tested. Further experiments in ewes immunized against PGF2α investigated the effects of exogenous PGF2α on the preovulatory follicle and the effects of PGF2α and oestradiol benzoate on corpus luteum function. Four weeks prepartum, 39 ewes bred to lamb during seasonal anoestrus received either 5 mg PGF2α-ovalbumin conjugate (n = 20; immunized) or ovalbumin (n = 19; control) in Freunds complete adjuvant. Treatments were repeated on day 5 post partum with reagents emulsified in Freunds incomplete adjuvant. On day 17 post partum, ewes received 500 iu pregnant mares serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and 48 h later 50 μg gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Laparoscopy was performed 36 h after GnRH to assess ovarian activity and ewes with recent ovulations were inseminated into the uterus. No immunized ewes ...
Horses are long day breeders that depend on natural sun light for reproductive function. Mares are seasonal polyestrous animals that have multiple estrous cycles throughout the warmer months of the year. During periods of shorter daylight and colder weather, reproductive cyclicity in the mare becomes more irregular, eventually leading to a period of anestrus, or lack of estrus or heat. Stallions also experience a decrease in the number of sperm produced and variable shrinkage of the testis in response to shorter daylight. Consequently, reproduction in both stallions and mares slows down in the northern hemisphere during this time of year and mares will not resume predictive and continuous estrous cycles until around April. The horse industry has determined that January 1st of every year is the day at which a horse gains a year in age. As a result, foals born later in the year are at a distinct competitive disadvantage if their biological age is less than their registered age. This is especially ...
Exposing cows to bulls or excretory products of bulls stimulates resumption of ovarian cycling activity in postpartum, suckled, anestrous cows. This biostimulatory effect may be mediated by pheromones produced by bulls that stimulate physiological changes in metabolic regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis of cows. In Experiment 1, the hypotheses tested were that concentrations of glucose, NEFA, thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), and T3:T4 ratios do not differ between cows exposed to bulls or steers. The biostimulatory effect of bulls was associated with lower mean concentrations of NEFA in postpartum cows. Experiment 2 was designed to determine if continuous (24-h daily) bull exposure alters temporal patterns of leptin concentrations in postpartum, anestrous cows. Cows exposed to bulls that resumed cycling activity after the start of the experiment tended to have higher leptin concentrations by the end of the 30-d exposure period than cows not exposed to bulls. ...
Due to man-made time constraints with breed registries, many breeders want to speed up the onset of the breeding season to have foals born as close to January 1 as possible. So how do we match up the natural breeding season with the man-made operational breeding season?
Its not that our Minnesota forebears didnt know that minstrelsy was a racial insult against a whole group of their fellow citizens, its that they did it anyway.
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An experiment was carried out to provide a data set specifically designed to allow the development of a model to describe the dynamic behaviour of radiocaesium in sheep tissues. A single intraruminal dose of 134CsCl was given to each of 15 Scottish Blackface ewes, aged 1-2 years. Radiocaesium activity concentrations were measured at various time intervals after dosing in blood, faeces and urine and, after slaughter, in a range of tissues and digestive tract contents. A first order compartment model was developed comprising nine compartments representing various organs and tissues in the body. Rate constants for the model were obtained by optimisation to the experimental results. A limited validation of the model was carried out by using it to calculate tissue transfer coefficients (Ff) and biological half-lives (0.5) of radiocaesium in sheep. The values generated compare favourably with published figures. Applications for the model and constraints on its usage are examined along with ...
Observing cattle activity during breeding season can improve breeding performance. Cows and bulls experiencing undesirable conditions during breeding season can result in reduced pregnancy rates.
Definition of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and evaluation of the safety and tolerability of multiple injections of IMCgp100 for each of two treatment regimens (weekly dosing and daily dosing ...
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Wild boar are seasonal breeders. In European male wild boar, sexual activity and testosterone production are triggered by decreasing day length, reaching a peak in October and November when the rut occurs. During the peak of testosterone production, one wild boar under study refused food for a six week period and lost approximately 25% of body weight. In the breeding season the normally solitary males move into female groups and rival males fight for dominance, whereupon the largest and most dominant males achieve the most matings. A wild boar sow, in Europe, is in oestrus with a 21 day cycle from autumn until June/July, at which time she becomes anoestrus until the next autumn. The start of the autumn oestrus in European wild boar may be triggered by nutritional status or day length. The nutritional status of the sow is important for breeding success.The odour from steroidal pheromones present in the male wild boars saliva stimulates receptivity in sows. ;Reproductive activity is seasonal. ...
ABSTRACT. The effect of hormone therapy on the induction of breeding activity in anoestrous Angora goat does was investigated. The best breeding response was obtained with a MAP sponge+PMSG+HCG treatment. Treatment with MAP sponges+PMSG+LH-RH only, induced overt oestrus but, according to the results, failed to induce a functionally active corpus luteum subsequent to oestrus. LH-RH therapy alone, failed to induce any breeding response.. Uittreksel. INDUSERING VAN GESLAGSAKTIWITEIT BY ANGORABOKOOIE IN ANESTRUS. Die invloed van hormoonterapie op die indusering van geslagsaktiwiteit by Angorabokooie in teelrus is ondersoek. Die beste teelreaksie is met MAP-spons+DMSG+MCG-behandeling verkry. Behandeling met MAP-spons+DMSG+LH-VH her bronstigheid by diere veroorsaak, maar volgens die resultate, nie n daaropvolgende aktiewe corpus luteum tot gevolg gehad nie. LH- VH-behandeling het geen teelreaksie tot gevolg gehad nie.. ...
Leptin (Lep) is known for its involvement in the regulation of reproductive functions. It is important for uterine receptivity, implantation, placental growth and maternal energy homeostasis in several species, but Leps function in the pregnant dog has not been investigated. Pregnant bitches were ovariohysterectomized at pre-implantation, post-implantation, mid-gestation and prepartum luteolysis. Two additional groups were treated with aglepristone in mid-gestation, and ovariohysterectomized 24 or 72 h later. Lep and leptin receptor (LepR) gene expression was detected by semi-quantitative real-time PCR in pre-implantation and inter-placental uterine sections (Ut) and in utero-placental compartments (Ut/Pl). Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH) were performed for Lep and LepR protein and mRNA localization. Parametric one-way ANOVA, paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used for statistical analysis. In the Ut/Pl, Lep expression was higher at post-implantation and prepartum
And this is precisely what Colbert does with regard to politics: he engages in Conservativeface. He needs no makeup or bulbous appendage to play a conservative - after all, conservatives come in every shape and size. Instead, he acts as though he is a conservative - an idiotic, racist, sexist, bigoted, brutal conservative. He out-Archie Bunkers Archie Bunker. His audience laughs and scoffs at brutal religious "Colbert" who wishes to persecute gays; they chortle at evil sexist "Colbert" who thinks men are victims of sexism. This is the purpose of Colberts routine. His show is about pure hatred for conservatives in the same way that blackface was about pure hatred of blacks. In order to justify their racism, racists had to create a false perception of blacks; in the same way, Colbert and his audience can justify their racism only by creating a false perception of conservatives. ...
By Olaolu Oladipo, Lagos. The leadership of the Niger Delta Avengers (NDA) has expressed condition for participating in the forthcoming dialogue with the Federal Government. According to the group, it wants a genuine attitude and a conducive atmosphere that will make it commit to any proposed dialogue and last peace talk.. In a statement issued on Monday, “We want the Federal Government to commit member states of the multinational oil corporations to commit independent mediators to this proposed dialogue.. “We believed that it is only such environment that will engender genuine dialogue that will be aimed at setting up a framework for achieving the short, medium and long term demands of the Niger delta to de-escalating this conflict and bring about a lasting ...
There is an outbreak of fire at Kano’s main GSM market. The fire started late Friday afternoon. Fire fighting personnel are already on the ground. Security personnel have been deployed to the area to prevent looting of shops.. More details later.. PREMIUM TIMES. ...
Similarly, the Herring story is very...unusual. Just days ago, he slammed Northam for wearing blackface. When Herring made that attack, it must have been the case that: (1) He forgot his own bad behavior, or (2) He remembered, but expected it to remain buried, or to be unprovable (i.e., no photo evidence). What has changed, then? If its #1, then someone must have refreshed Herrings memory. And if its #2, then someone must have made clear to him that there is hard evidence, and that its dissemination was imminent. Either way, it points to the involvement of a second party in the last few days. And if that second party merely said, Hey Mark, dont forget that Kurtis Blow bit we did all those years ago, then the second option from above would presumably have kicked in. That is to say, even if he forgot and than was reminded, Herring likely would have tried to keep it on the down-low, because this is dangerously close to un-survivable, particularly after wagging his finger at Northam. Better to ...
Keen interest and excellent clearance was seen at the 11th production sale of pedigree in lamb Charollais ewes held at Builth Wells on behalf of Tim Pritch
Id rather be a bitch than be an ordinary broken heart so go ahead and talk about your bad day... i want all the details of the pain and misery that you are inflicting on the others i consider them my sisters and id like their numbers god its been a lovely day! everything is going my way i took up…
When do mares start to show pregnancy? Spooks was bred at the end of June, and she was pretty trim then. Shes keeping a good, fit weight right now,
An extensive glossary provides quick reference to hundreds of important terms and definitions Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy, 4e. When and how does a leader become a tyrant or ineffective? And, by the same token, when are subjects justified in opposing or challenging a leader? What are the barriers for women and minorities in becoming leaders? Students shall also have the opportunity to investigate and analyze local and contemporary examples of leadership. The course requires as prerequisite the successful completion of ENGL1001 and ENGL1003 Rabies (Developments in Veterinary Virology). A course covering the form and function of eukaryotic cells Endocrine Causes of Seasonal and Lactational Anestrus in Farm Animals: A Seminar in the CEC Programme of Co-ordination of Research on Livestock ... 1984 (Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine). We love to talk via Twitter - say hello @BookCreatorApp PERFECT FOR THE CLASSROOM: Book Creator is open-ended, creative and cross curriculum, and is one of the ...
1. The behaviour of ferrets which become pregnant or pseudo-pregnant at the end of the breeding season, so that these states are extended into the time normally occupied by anoestrum, has been investigated.. 2. Pregnancy can go on quite normally during this time.. 3. While the presence of an anterior-pituitary-like substance in the blood (as found in the pregnant urine of man and the horse) might be suggested as a means by which the ovarian secretions are maintained in pregnancy during the anoestrous period of time, these substances, as far as is at present known, exist only in the urine of those species in which the corpus luteum does not persist throughout pregnancy.. 4. Since the full pseudo-pregnant changes can also take place during the anoestrous period of time it is suggested that the corpus luteum can produce its internal secretions at a lower anterior pituitary level in the blood (such as exists during anoestrum) than is necessary for follicular development and the production of ...
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Zulu traces its origins to 1909 when the founders paraded as a marching club. Between 1912 and 1914, the group had adopted the name "Zulu" and an African theme for their costumes. Their inspiration was a vaudeville skit titled "There Never Was and Never Will Be a King Like Me," in which the characters wore grass skirts and dressed in blackface - a common practice in vaudeville theater, for both black and white performers. The costume also included black-dyed turtlenecks (known as "goosenecks") and tights purchased from theatrical supply stores. Some members used Spanish moss from nearby swamps for wigs and rabbit fur as trim. Boots were painted gold ...
As the days shorten, the mare returns to a period when she is not sexually receptive, known as anestrus. Anestrus - occurring ... The uterus becomes flaccid during anestrus. Cervix: the cervix starts to relax right before estrus occurs, with maximal ...
Anestrus is the period of reproductive quiescence. The female has no attraction to or from the male. Anestrus generally lasts ...
Anestrus in females lasts from September until February. The female raises its kits without help from the male. They are 1.5 to ...
Induction of oestrus in anoestrus cows. Treatment of follicular cysts Persistent ovarian follicles Improve oocyte quality ...
Anestrus refers to the phase when the sexual cycle rests. This is typically a seasonal event and controlled by light exposure ... Anestrus is induced by time of year, pregnancy, lactation, significant illness, chronic energy deficit, and possibly age. ... Other spellings include anoestrus, anestrum, and anoestrum. After completion (or abortion) of a pregnancy, some species have ... Horses mate in spring and summer, autumn is a transition time, and anestrus rules the winter. A feature of the fertility cycle ...
"Long day" breeders cycle when days get longer (spring) and are in anestrus in fall and winter. Some animals that are long day ... At other times of the year, they will be anestrus, or have a dearth of their sexual cycle. Unlike reproductive cyclicity, ... "Short day" breeders cycle when the length of daylight shortens (fall) and are in anestrus in spring and summer. The decreased ... Changes in gonadotropin secretion initiate the end of anestrus in females. Seasonal breeding readiness is strongly regulated by ...
Female mice housed together tend to go into anestrus and do not cycle. If exposed to a male mouse or the pheromones of a male ...
It is also used for treating of postweaning anestrus in economically important farm animals. For these purposes, alfaprostol is ...
As the days shorten, the mare returns to the anestrus period when she is not sexually receptive. Anestrus prevents the mare ... As the days shorten, most mares enter an anestrus period during the winter and thus do not cycle in this period. The ... Therefore, many breeding farms begin to put mares "under lights" in late winter in order to bring them out of anestrus early ...
The sow remains in anoestrus for prolonged periods, often as long as 115 days. These animals may exhibit varying degrees of ...
Adult cattle may show reproductive signs such as anoestrus, irregular oestrus patterns, agalactia, abortion, and infertility. ...
They have lower reproductive output, delayed implantation, lactation anoestrus, winter anoestrus, longer oestrous and longer ...
A period of anoestrus follows pregnancy or pseudo-pregnancy, there being only one oestral period during each breeding season. ...
Most mares enter an anestrus period during the winter and thus do not cycle in this period.[52] Foals are generally weaned from ...
Dams may return to estrus, fail to farrow despite being anestrus, farrow few pigs per litter, or farrow a large proportion of ...
... and a lack of anestrus). Horses also occasionally show anemia and elevated Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels. EMS ...
... anestrus MeSH G08.520.188.374 --- diestrus MeSH G08.520.188.500 --- estrus MeSH G08.520.188.500.500 --- estrus synchronization ...
Induction of oestrus in anoestrus cows Treatment of follicular cysts Persistent ovarian follicles Improve oocyte quality ...
... anoestrus, silent oestrus, metritis, and decreases in milk yield when C. burnetii is the major cause of these problems. The ...
... during anestrus. The oviducts are 25-28 cm (9.8-11.0 in) long. The uterus is bicornuate. The vagina is 3-3.5 cm (1.2-1.4 in) ...
Understanding Postpartum Anestrus. After giving birth, all females go through a period in which they do not experience estrous ... Postpartum anestrus is a result of several factors related to pregnancy and calving. A variety of factors influence the length ... Management of Postpartum Anestrus in Beef Cows1. Kalyn Bischoff, Vitor Mercadante, and G. Cliff Lamb2 ... Some tools that help producers successfully overcome anestrus and the incidence of short estrous cycles during the PPI include ...
A bitch during anestrus may have a mixture of parabasal and small intermediate epithelial cells, mucus, and debris. ...
... anestrus explanation free. What is anestrus? Meaning of anestrus medical term. What does anestrus mean? ... Looking for online definition of anestrus in the Medical Dictionary? ... anestrus. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to anestrus: proestrus, monoestrous ... Anestrus , definition of anestrus by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/anestrus ...
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... sialic acid residues as well as other glycosidic sugars has been investigated in the horse oviductal isthmus during anoestrus, ... terminal alphaGal in anoestrus and pregnancy and terminal or internal D-GlcNAc during anoestrus and pregnancy, respectively. ... Anestrus*. Animals. Estrus*. Fallopian Tubes / chemistry*. Female. Glycoconjugates / analysis*, metabolism. Horses / metabolism ... Distribution of sialoglycoconjugates in the oviductal isthmus of the horse during anoestrus, oestrus and pregnancy: a lectin ...
Post-partum anoestrus Reproductive efficiency among animals greatly depends upon detection of estrus. This is even more ... Agro industrial-post-partum anoestrus Discussions Write discussion on Agro industrial-post-partum anoestrus. Your posts are ... Post-partum anoestrus. Reproductive efficiency among animals greatly depends upon detection of estrus. This is even more ... Developed anoestrus is a reversible disorder that much depends on the general recovery of body condition with better feeding, ...
... - anestrus anestrus n. 1. 1 a state or interval of sexual inactivity between two periods of estrus; applies to ... anestrus, ↑anestrum, ↑anoestrus • Ant: ↑estrus (for: ↑anestrus) • … Useful english dictionary ... anestrus, ↑anoestrus, ↑anoestrum • Ant: ↑estrus (for: ↑anestrus) • … Useful english dictionary ... Anoestrus - ciklas be rujos statusas T sritis gyvūnų raida, augimas, ontogenezė, embriologija atitikmenys: lot. Anestrus; ...
Anoestrus Search. Search by Company Name, Product, Combination, Group, Indication or disease (e.g. Anthelmentics or Albendazole ...
Anestrus Treatment. A thirty-two day course of Ovaban therapy is recommended for dogs in anestrus. The dog will remain in ... Anestrus Treatment. Administer 0.25 mg per pound of body weight per day for thirty-two days. Alleviation Of False Pregnancy. ... There are no data on conception of bitches mated less than 2 months after anestrus treatment; therefore, breeding of such ... anestrus as long as therapy is continued. The next estrus may occur any time after cessation of treatment. In clinical studies ...
ANESTRUS. This period lasts 2 or 3 months and during this time there are very few cells noticeable if a slide is taken. The ... Anestrus. Proestrus begins when the bitch swells and begins to drop blood. It typically can last from 4 to 20 days. During this ...
What are the causes of anoestrus and suboestrus on a farm? More than 75% of cows must be... ... What parameters show whether anoestrus is a problem on a farm? ... Anoestrus & suboestrus Back In the section The reproductive ... Anoestrus & suboestrus. What parameters show whether anoestrus is a problem on a farm? What are the causes of anoestrus and ...
anestrus. (redirected from anestrous). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.. Related to anestrous: anestrus, ... anestrus. [a′nes·trəs] (vertebrate zoology) A prolonged period of inactivity between two periods of heat in cyclically breeding ...
Anestrus. Anestrus refers to the phase when the sexual cycle rests. This is typically a seasonal event and controlled by light ... Anestrus is induced by time of year, pregnancy, lactation, significant illness, and possibly age. ... With a diestrus of 7-10 days, a typical cycle lasts about 3 weeks followed by about 150 days of anestrus. They bleed during ... Horses mate in spring and summer, autumn is a transition time, and anestrus rules the winter. ...
Anestrus: No sexual activity takes place. Anestrus lasts between three and four months. ...
DHT exposure led to continuous anestrus, where most time was spent in pseudodiestrus (Fig. 1B), and this pattern differed from ... Increased Adiponectin Levels Do Not Protect Against DHT-Induced Anestrus and PCO Morphology.. APNko and APNtg placebo groups ... As expected, DHT exposure led to reproductive dysfunction, as judged by continuous anestrus, smaller ovaries with a decreased ...
Abbreviations: AN, anestrus; AR, androgen receptor; DES, diethylstilbestrol; LOH, loss of heterozygosity; PE, persistent estrus ... For 16-mo-old rats, the stage of reproductive senescence [pseudopregnant (PP), persistent estrus (PE), and anestrus (AN)] was ...
Antioxidant Enzymes in Postpartum Anoestrus Buffaloes Supplemented with Vitamin E and Selenium - Vitamin E;Selenium;Anoestrus; ... group 1: normal cyclic buffaloes; group 2: postpartum anoestrus buffaloes and group 3: post partum anoestrus buffaloes ... The postpartum anoestrus buffaloes had significantly higher levels of erythrocytic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and ... Antioxidant Enzymes in Postpartum Anoestrus Buffaloes Supplemented with Vitamin E and Selenium. Anita, Anita; Singha, S.P.S.; ...
Anestrus treatment: A 32-day course of OVABAN therapy is recommended for dogs in anestrus. The dog will remain anestrus as long ... Anestrus treatment: Administer 0.25 mg per pound of body weight per day for 32 days. ...
Thirty she-buffaloes with a history of anestrus were randomly assigned to either of five equal groups. Group T0 served as ... Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Herbal Regimen for the Treatment of Post-partum Anestrus in Water Buffaloes. Journal ... Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Herbal Regimen for the Treatment of Post-partum Anestrus in Water Buffaloes. ... estrus inducers and mineral supplements in the treatment of anestrus in water buffaloes. ...
The prevalence of anestrus was 18%. The odds ratio (OR) for true anestrus was 17.52 and 2.81 times higher (P < 0.05) in cows ... Risk factors for postpartum anestrus in crossbred cows in Bangladesh Authors: MD MOSTOFA KAMAL, MD MUSHARRAF UDDIN BHUIYAN, ... The OR for anestrus was 1.62 times higher (P = 0.017) in cows managed by an employee than in those managed by the farmers ... a structured questionnaire were used in a cross-sectional study to gather data on the prevalence and risk factors for anestrus ...
Efficacy of bypass fat in treatment of anoestrus was studied on basis of oestrus response, genital changes & level of some ... For this 8 anoestrus buffalo cows and 8 anoestrus buffalo heifers were taken and each divided into two groups and allotted to ... In the present study 50.00 per cent anoestrus Swamp buffalo cows and 25.00 per cent anoestrus heifers responded to the ... Keywords : Anoestrus Bypass Fat Ghrelin Leptin Swamp Buffalo Dairy industry in India is mainly buffalo oriented and buffalo ...
anestrus. time when a female is not actively in the heat cycle ...
Postpartum and seasonal anestrus appear to be the major reproductive disorder [109,124]. A study demonstrated that follicles of ... The number of visible surface follicles and corpus luteum (CL) varied, depending on the period of estrus activity or anestrus. ... For the majority of remaining non pregnant buffaloes, they become anestrus due to the hot summer months (temperature extremes: ... Swamp buffaloes are polyoestrus but with a marked seasonal pattern of breeding activity, showing a distinct anestrus, and ...
  • Distribution of sialoglycoconjugates in the oviductal isthmus of the horse during anoestrus, oestrus and pregnancy: a lectin histochemistry study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The distribution of sialic acid residues as well as other glycosidic sugars has been investigated in the horse oviductal isthmus during anoestrus, oestrus and pregnancy by means of lectin and pre-lectin methods. (biomedsearch.com)
  • anoestrus - /əˈnistrəs/ (say uh neestruhs) noun Zoology the interval in a female sexual cycle between periods of oestrus when mating does not occur. (enacademic.com)
  • Efficacy of bypass fat in the treatment of anoestrus was studied on the basis of oestrus response, genital changes and level of some of the blood biochemical constituents. (ijlr.org)
  • Bypass fat with minerals and vitamins was more effective than bypass fat alone for the treatment of anoestrus in Swamp buffalo cows and heifers resulting in higher oestrus response rate of 75 per cent. (ijlr.org)
  • A heifer was considered to be anoestrus when she failed to show the external signs of oestrus even after 4 years of age. (ijlr.org)
  • Prior to the first ovulatory oestrus following a period of acyclicity (seasonal anoestrus), all mares were examined at intervals of no more than 7-10 days, more frequently when follicular activity increased and at least once daily for at least 11 days before ovulation and when a follicle reached 35 mm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oestrus, anoestrus. (thepigsite.com)
  • relating to anoestrus, a period of sexual in activity between periods of oestrus. (absp.org.uk)
  • ii) Queens: Permanent postponement of calling (repeat injections given in 'anoestrus'/di-oestrus induced by the previous administration of the product). (viovet.co.uk)
  • Temporary postponement of calling (a single injection given during di-oestrus or anoestrus). (viovet.co.uk)
  • These variations, caused by the rhythm of oestrus and anoestrus, may influence the social behaviour of the rodents given that guinea pigs naturally maintain a hierarchy in which dominant animals take advantage. (phys.org)
  • Together with her colleagues from the Department of Behavioural Biology of the University of Vienna, Glenk observed the female guinea pigs at two different times of the cycle: oestrus, i.e. the phase in which the animals are able to reproduce, which starts with the temporary partial rupture of the vaginal closure membrane, and anoestrus during which the membrane remains closed until the next fertile period. (phys.org)
  • This includes persistent oestrus, shortened oestrus intervals or failure to cycle (anoestrus). (thebeefsite.com)
  • Proestrus je charakterizov n objeven m se krvav ho v toku z vulvy otekl a na n kolikan sobek b n velikosti na za tku t to f ze a n stupem svolnosti k p en na jej m konci. (vetcentrum.cz)
  • Anestrus is the phase between the end of diestrus and the onset of the next proestrus. (dpca.org)
  • Taking the endocrine background of anestrus into consideration, anestrous animals are relevant subjects for investigating the therapeutic action of NKB on ovarian dysfunction through the stimulation of GnRH/LH secretion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The technology is also used to treat anestrus beef cows that do not cycle because the physical demands of a suckling calf cause a negative energy balance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ultrasonography and a structured questionnaire were used in a cross-sectional study to gather data on the prevalence and risk factors for anestrus in crossbred cows at =>60 days postpartum in 273 smallholder farms. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • A study was conducted on 8 Swamp buffalo cows and 8 heifers maintained at Network Project on Buffalo Improvement (Swamp), College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, to accumulate data on efficacy of bypass fat with or without minerals and vitamins fortification in the treatment of anoestrus. (ijlr.org)
  • Bypass fat fortified with minerals and vitamins could be effectively used for treatment of anoestrus in Swamp buffalo cows and heifers. (ijlr.org)
  • Particularly in high-yielding dairy cows, occurrence of anestrus is often associated with nutritional deficiency in early lactation period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cows are faced with either an anoestrus or a deep anoestrus state when the breeding season begins. (independent.ie)
  • As the first trial, this pilot study reports the effect of intravenous treatment with senktide, a selective agonist of neurokinin 3 receptor, on LH secretion, follicular development in female goats that were clinically diagnosed with anestrus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As expected, DHT exposure led to reproductive dysfunction, as judged by continuous anestrus, smaller ovaries with a decreased number of corpus luteum, and an increased number of cystic/atretic follicles. (pnas.org)
  • Thirty she-buffaloes with a history of anestrus were randomly assigned to either of five equal groups. (who.int)
  • In India, the incidence of anoestrus in buffaloes has been reported between 20.84- 60.83 per cent (Kumar, 2014). (ijlr.org)
  • Anestrus - occurring in the majority of, but not all, mares - prevents the mare from conceiving in the winter months, as that would result in her foaling during the harshest part of the year, a time when it would be most difficult for the foal to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • A bitch during anestrus may have a mixture of parabasal and small intermediate epithelial cells, mucus, and debris. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • 1.The rise in the levels of hypothalamic P450 aromatase mRNA, hypothalamic and pituitary estrogen receptor α and β mRNAs, and plasma estradiol-17β was associated with termination of anestrus in the bitch. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Reduced gonadotrophins → anestrus in bitch/testicular atrophy in dog. (vetstream.com)
  • Montiel F, Ahuja C (2005) Body condition and suckling as factors influencing the duration of postpartum anestrus in cattle: a review. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • i) Bitches: Permanent postponement of heat (repeat injections given in 'anoestrus'/metoestrus induced by the previous administration of the product). (viovet.co.uk)
  • Obdob puberty obvykle nastupuje n kolik m s c po dosa en velikosti a iv hmotnosti dosp l ho zv ete, v pr m ru ve v ku 8 12 m s c (krajn hodnoty jsou 6 - 24 m s c ). asn ji puberta nastupuje u mal ch plemen a u fen chovan ch ve skupin ch nebo v kontaktu se psy. (vetcentrum.cz)
  • Anestrus is also observed in this species, although the incidence is very low under normal management conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, some of the current methods would appear to have significant merit for application in cases of prolonged anestrus and for enhancing fertility of research bitches in colonies of dogs maintained as animal-models of heritable or genetically-based diseases of interest in human or veterinary medicine. (vin.com)