Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The period during a surgical operation.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.
Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.
A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Specially trained personnel to assist in routine technical procedures in the operating room.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients in the recovery room following surgery and/or anesthesia.
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Electrophysiological evidence for tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in slowly conducting dural sensory fibers. (1/3062)

A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5 +info)

RINm5f cells express inactivating BK channels whereas HIT cells express noninactivating BK channels. (2/3062)

Large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated BK-type K+ channels are expressed abundantly in normal rat pancreatic islet cells and in the clonal rat insulinoma tumor (RINm5f) and hamster insulinoma tumor (HIT) beta cell lines. Previous work has suggested that the Ca2+ sensitivity of BK channels in RIN cells is substantially less than that in HIT cells, perhaps contributing to differences between the cell lines in responsiveness to glucose in mediating insulin secretion. In both RIN cells and normal pancreatic beta cells, BK channels are thought to play a limited role in responses of beta cells to secretagogues and in the electrical activity of beta cells. Here we examine in detail the properties of BK channels in RIN and HIT cells using inside-out patches and whole cell recordings. BK channels in RIN cells exhibit rapid inactivation that results in an anomalous steady-state Ca2+ dependence of activation. In contrast, BK channels in HIT cells exhibit the more usual noninactivating behavior. When BK inactivation is taken into account, the Ca2+ and voltage dependence of activation of BK channels in RIN and HIT cells is essentially indistinguishable. The properties of BK channel inactivation in RIN cells are similar to those of inactivating BK channels (termed BKi channels) previously identified in rat chromaffin cells. Inactivation involves multiple, trypsin-sensitive cytosolic domains and exhibits a dependence on Ca2+ and voltage that appears to arise from coupling to channel activation. In addition, the rates of inactivation onset and recovery are similar to that of BKi channels in chromaffin cells. The charybdotoxin (CTX) sensitivity of BKi currents is somewhat less than that of the noninactivating BK variant. Action potential voltage-clamp waveforms indicate that BK current is activated only weakly by Ca2+ influx in RIN cells but more strongly activated in HIT cells even when Ca2+ current magnitude is comparable. Concentrations of CTX sufficient to block BKi current in RIN cells have no effect on action potential activity initiated by glucose or DC injection. Despite its abundant expression in RIN cells, BKi current appears to play little role in action potential activity initiated by glucose or DC injection in RIN cells, but BK current may play an important role in action potential repolarization in HIT cells.  (+info)

Comparison of local anesthetic activities between optical isomers of cis-1-benzoyloxy-2-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene. (3/3062)

The optical isomers of cis-1-benzoyloxy-2-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (YAU-17) were compared for their local anesthetic activity, acute toxicity, spasmolytic activity, and partition coefficient between chloroform and phosphate buffer. 1-YAU-17 was more active than d-YAU-17 in blocking the conduction of action potentials in isolated frog sciatic nerves. The difference in local anesthetic activities between the optical isomers was further substantiated by in vivo tests for corneal anesthesia, intracutaneous anesthesia and sciatic nerve block in quinea-pigs. Similarly, the i.v. injection to mice revealed a higher toxicity for 1-YAU-17 as compared to its d-isomer. In these tests, the potency ratios of the enantiomers ranged from 2 to 4, and the racemate had an intermediate potency. On the contrary, no difference among the compounds was found in their liposolubility, partition coefficient, and spasmolytic activity examined with isolated guinea-pig ileum. These results indicate that the steric factors play an important role in the production of different local anesthetic activities between the optical isomers of YAU-17, and their local anesthetic potency tends to be correlated to their intravenous acute toxicity but not to their spasmolytic activity.  (+info)

Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) (4/3062)

Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine.  (+info)

Evaluation of lidocaine as an analgesic when added to hypertonic saline for sclerotherapy. (5/3062)

PURPOSE: The efficacy of sclerosing agents for the treatment of telangiectasias and reticular veins is well established. The injection of these agents is often associated with pain, and it is not uncommon for sclerotherapists to include lidocaine with the sclerosants in an attempt to reduce the pain associated with treatment. However, there are concerns that this may reduce the overall efficacy of the treatment because of dilution of the sclerosant. Patient comfort and overall outcome associated with treatment using HS with lidocaine (LIDO) versus that using HS alone was compared. METHODS: Forty-two patients were prospectively entered into the study and randomized blindly to sclerotherapy with 23.4% HS or 19% LIDO. Study subjects and treating physicians were blinded to the injection solution used. Injection sites were chosen for veins ranging in size from 0.1 to 3 mm. Photographs of the area to be treated were taken, and the patients rated their pain. They were then observed at regular intervals for four months, and clinical data was collected. Thirty-five subjects completed the full follow-up period, and photographs of the injected area were taken again. Three investigators blinded to the treatment assignment then evaluated the photographs and scored the treatment efficacy according to a standardized system. RESULTS: In the HS group, 61.9% (13 of 21) patients rated their pain as none or mild, whereas 90.5% (19 of 21) of patients in the LIDO group had no or mild discomfort. This difference is significant, with a P value of.034. There was no difference in the overall efficacy of treatment between the two groups. The groups had similar rates of vein thrombosis and skin necrosis. CONCLUSION: Although lidocaine is often used with sclerosing agents, there are no previous reports in the literature to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing the pain experienced by the patient. In this study, patients receiving LIDO experienced significantly less discomfort at the time of injection than patients who received HS alone. There were no differences in the effectiveness of treatment or in the incidence of complications between the two groups.  (+info)

A study of local anaesthetics. Part 148. Influence of auxiliary substances on the surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII. (6/3062)

The influence of auxiliary substances of the polyol group (glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol) and of their concentration (5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight) upon surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII, viz., N-[2-(2-propoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)-ethyl] piperidinium chloride was studied. The substances were applied as hydrogel humectants. It was found that their influence on the surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII depended on the type as well as concentration of the auxiliary substance. From the viewpoints of use in formulations of the drug form, sorbitol used at 5 and 10% concentrations represented the optimum.  (+info)

Dose-response effects of spinal neostigmine added to bupivacaine spinal anesthesia in volunteers. (7/3062)

BACKGROUND: Intrathecal adjuncts often are used to enhance small-dose spinal bupivacaine for ambulatory anesthesia. Neostigmine is a novel spinal analgesic that could be a useful adjunct, but no data exist to assess the effects of neostigmine on small-dose bupivacaine spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Eighteen volunteers received two bupivacaine spinal anesthetics (7.5 mg) in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design. Dextrose, 5% (1 ml), was added to one spinal infusion and 6.25, 12.5, or 50 microg neostigmine in dextrose, 5%, was added to the other spinal. Sensory block was assessed with pinprick; by the duration of tolerance to electric stimulation equivalent to surgical incision at the pubis, knee, and ankle; and by the duration of tolerance to thigh tourniquet. Motor block at the quadriceps was assessed with surface electromyography. Side effects (nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and sedation) were noted. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were recorded every 5 min. Dose-response relations were assessed with analysis of variance, paired t tests, or Spearman rank correlation. RESULTS: The addition of 50 microg neostigmine significantly increased the duration of sensory and motor block and the time until discharge criteria were achieved. The addition of neostigmine produced dose-dependent nausea (33-67%) and vomiting (17-50%). Neostigmine at these doses had no effect on hemodynamic or respiratory parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of 50 microg neostigmine prolonged the duration of sensory and motor block. However, high incidences of side effects and delayed recovery from anesthesia with the addition of 6.25 to 50 microg neostigmine may limit the clinical use of these doses for outpatient spinal anesthesia.  (+info)

Comparison of three solutions of ropivacaine/fentanyl for postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia. (8/3062)

BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine, 0.2%, is a new local anesthetic approved for epidural analgesia. The addition of 4 microg/ml fentanyl improves analgesia from epidural ropivacaine. Use of a lower concentration of ropivacaine-fentanyl may further improve analgesia or decrease side effects. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery were randomized in a double-blinded manner to receive one of three solutions: 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl 0.1% ropivacaine-2 microg fentanyl, or 0.05% ropivacaine-1 microg fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia after standardized combined epidural and general anesthesia. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia settings and adjustments for the three solutions were standardized to deliver equivalent drug doses. Pain scores (rest, cough, and ambulation), side effects (nausea, pruritus, sedation, motor block, hypotension, and orthostasis), and patient-controlled epidural analgesia consumption were measured for 48 h. RESULTS: All three solutions produced equivalent analgesia. Motor block was significantly more common (30 vs. 0%) and more intense with the 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl solution. Other side effects were equivalent between solutions and mild in severity. A significantly smaller volume of 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl solution was used, whereas the 0.1% ropivacaine-2 microg fentanyl group used a significantly greater amount of ropivacaine and fentanyl. CONCLUSIONS: Lesser concentrations of ropivacaine and fentanyl provide comparable analgesia with less motor block despite the use of similar amounts of ropivacaine and fentanyl. This finding suggests that concentration of local anesthetic solution at low doses is a primary determinant of motor block with patient-controlled epidural analgesia after lower abdominal surgery.  (+info)

Local Anesthetics Toxicity and Management Gregory Pate, MD Department of Anesthesia Bremerton Naval Hospital Local Anesthetic Toxicity Topics Local Anesthetic Pharmacology Adverse Reactions to Local Anesthetics Types of Toxicity Acute Systemic Toxicity Management of Acute Systemic Toxicity Basics: Local Anesthetic Pharm Amino esters and Amino amides Metabolism Protein binding Lipophilichydrophilic balance Hydrogen Ion concentration Katzung, Basic & clinical pharm, 10th edition Basics: Local Anesthetic Mechanism Active form of the local anesthetic Modulated receptor theory Other possible mechanisms of action Millers Anesthesia, 6th edition Local Anesthetic Toxicity Topics Local Anesthetic Pharmacology Adverse Reactions to Local Anesthetics Types of Toxicity Acute Systemic Toxicity Management of Acute Systemic Toxicity Methemoglobinemia Prilocaine and Benzocaine Benzocaine sprays like Cetacaine EMLA cream which has prilocaine although this practice is still generally considered safe Seen with use ...
This randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare single injection pectoral nerve block (Pecs I and Pecs II) versus local anesthetic infiltration for ambulatory breast augmentation under monitored anesthesia care (MAC). In this randomized, double-blind, prospective study, 80 patients scheduled for breast augmentation under MAC using dexmedetomidine were divided into two groups. Pecs group: Ultrasound-guided pectoral nerve block was performed on both sides of the chest. Local anesthetic (LA) group: Local anesthetic infiltration was performed in the desired plane and skin incision site of each breast. The number of patients converted to general anesthesia was calculated. Postoperative pain intensity was measured using visual analog scale (VAS), and morphine consumption in the first 24 h and patient satisfaction were measured. The success rate of the ultrasound-guided block versus local infiltration to complete surgery without conversion to general anesthesia was statistically non-significant.
The study aim was to explore local anesthetic properties of some tertiary and quaternary derivatives of dimethylacetamide. Materials and methods. The study was performed on white laboratory mice and rats of both sexes, male Agouti guinea pigs, and isolated sciatic nerves of lake frog. In the focus of the study there were two quaternary and eight tertiary compounds of dimethylacetamide with substituted anion with some amino and carbonic acids residue. A local anesthetic property was predicted by computational analysis. Acute toxicity of the most promising substances was studied in mice through subcutaneous route. Local anesthetic activity of tertiary compounds LKhT-3-00, LKhT-4-00 and quaternary LKhT-12-02 was studied on models of terminal, infiltration and conduction anesthesia. The influence of substances on mixed nerve conduction was investigated on lake frogs isolated sciatic nerves. Results and discussion. The greatest probability of the local anesthetic activity during
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(2017) Zhang et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. Background: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were to evaluate the effect and safety of local anesthetic infusion pump versus placebo for pain management following total knee arthroplasty (T...
This is a list of local anesthetic agents. Not all of these drugs are still used in clinical practice and in research. Some are primarily of historical interest. 4-Aminobenzoic acid Amino amide Amino esters Anesthesia Anesthetic Brachial plexus block Cocaine analogues: local anesthetics Dental anesthesia Dibucaine number Epidural Intravenous regional anesthesia Local anesthesia Local anesthetic with vasoconstrictor Local anesthetic toxicity Methemoglobin Sodium channel blocker Spinal anesthesia Topical anesthesia Veterinary anesthesia Büchi, J; Stünzi, E; Flury, M; Hirt, R; Labhart, P; Ragaz, L (1951). Über lokalanästhetisch wirksame basische Ester und Amide verschiedener Alkoxy-amino-benzoesäuren. Helvetica Chimica Acta. 34 (4): 1002-1013. doi:10.1002/hlca.19510340404. S. M. McElvain and T. P. Carney, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 68, 2592 (1946). K. Miescher, Helv. Chim. Acta, 15, 163 (1932). 44. T. H. Rider, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 52, 2115 (1930). M. S. Raasch and W. R. Brode, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, ...
The present invention relates to pharmacological active preparations, especially local anesthetic preparations and deals with the problem of i a obtaining a solution of a local anesthetic agent in the form of its base, where the concentration is higher than otherwise possible. This problem has been dissolved according to the present invention thereby that one local anesthetic agent in the form of its base and as such having a melting point of 30 to 50 C., preferably prilocaine or tetracaine, is provided with one other local anesthetic agent in the form of its base and as such having a melting point of above 30 C., preferably above 40 C., preferably bensocaine, lidocaine, bupivacaine, mepivacaine, etidocaine or tetracaine which agents when brought and heated together form a homogenous oil having a melting of preferably below 40 C., more preferably below 25 C.
general anesthetic. Local anesthetics do not require the circulation as an intermediate carrier, and they usually are not transported to distant organs. Therefore, the actions of local anesthetics are largely confined to the structures with which they come into direct contact. Local anesthetics may provide analgesia in various parts of the body by topical application, injection in the vicinity of peripheral nerve endings and major nerve trunks, or via instillation within the epidural or subarachnoid spaces. The various local anesthetics differ with regard to their potency, duration of action, and degree of effects on sensory and motor fibers. Toxicity may be local or systemic. With systemic toxicity, the central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular systems typically are affected. ...
Note the lack of local anesthetics on that list. Lidocaine? No. Hyperbaric bupivacaine? No. Good ol tetracaine? Nope. All local anesthetics in the intrathecal space are off-label. Yet these are the very drugs that serve as the cornerstone for spinal anesthesia.. With a spinal needle and a few milliliters of local anesthetic like bupivacaine or lidocaine, we can achieve an anesthetic which enables surgeons to operate on the abdomen or lower extremities pain-free without any significant cardiopulmonary drawbacks. Sure, sympathectomies are a concern, but weve become extremely good at predicting and mitigating the effects of hypotension, tachy/bradycardias, etc ...
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This paper shows experimental results obtained from a T100 microturbine connected with different volume sizes. The activity was carried out with the test rig developed at the University of Genoa for hybrid system emulation. However, these results apply to all the advanced cycles where a microturbine is connected with an additional external component responsible for volume size increase. Even if the tests were performed with a microturbine, similar analyses can be extended to large size turbines. A modular vessel was used to perform and to compare the tests with different volume sizes. To highlight the volume size effect, preliminary experimental results were carried out considering the transient response due to an on/off bleed valve operation. So, the main differences between system parameters obtained for a bleed line closing operation are compared considering three different volume sizes. The main results reported in this paper are related to surge operations. To produce surge conditions in ...
We reviewed the literature and found only one case series, published as a letter, that described complications associated with the use of pump systems for direct anesthetic infusion. This case series describes plastic surgery consultations for three patients referred by the same orthopedic surgeon after knee arthroplasties. 8 Two patients needed wound débridements and gastrocnemius flaps, and the third patient underwent repeated débridements and skin grafting. The likely cause of wound ischemia and necrosis was thought to be the infusion of bupivacaine with epinephrine. Reportedly, there was adequate drainage of the wound and no apparent compartment compression. The authors of the letter speculate that the adverse events were related to continuous infusion of epinephrine and subsequent vasoconstriction of the area. In adverse event reports to the FDA, some reports described similar adverse events with use of anesthetic infusion alone. These reports did not explicitly state that epinephrine was ...
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The investigators propose a prospective blinded randomized control trial (RCT) to assess the efficacy and safety of a simple method of continuous infusion of a local anesthetic, ropivacaine, via a surgical wound to control pain after ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) stenosis correction in children during the first 48 hrs after surgery. The investigators hypothesize that this technique will provide greater pain relief post-operatively and reduce the need for systemic opioid use along with a reduction in associated side effects of such analgesics ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Local anesthetics induce apoptosis in human breast tumor cells. AU - Chang, Yuan Ching. AU - Liu, Chien Liang. AU - Chen, Ming Jen. AU - Hsu, Yung Wei. AU - Chen, Shan Na. AU - Lin, Chi Hsin. AU - Chen, Chin Man. AU - Yang, Feng Ming. AU - Hu, Meng Chun. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - BACKGROUND:: Previous studies have shown that local anesthetics may induce apoptosis in some cell types. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effects of local anesthetics in human breast tumor cells. METHODS:: Human breast cancer (MCF-7) and mammary epithelial (MCF-10A) cell lines were treated with lidocaine and/or bupivacaine. Cell viability, DNA fragmentation, and annexin V immunofluorescence staining were assessed. The effects on apoptosis-related protein expression were investigated by Western blot analysis. The findings were extended to studies in an in vivo xenograft model. RESULTS:: Treatment of breast tumor cells with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in inhibition of cell ...
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are rare when it is administered correctly. Most ADRs relate to administration technique (resulting in systemic exposure) or pharmacological effects of anesthesia, however allergic reactions can rarely occur. Systemic exposure to excessive quantities of ropivacaine mainly result in central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular effects - CNS effects usually occur at lower blood plasma concentrations and additional cardiovascular effects present at higher concentrations, though cardiovascular collapse may also occur with low concentrations. CNS effects may include CNS excitation (nervousness, tingling around the mouth, tinnitus, tremor, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures followed by depression (drowsiness, loss of consciousness), respiratory depression and apnea). Cardiovascular effects include hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmias, and/or cardiac arrest - some of which may be due to hypoxemia secondary to respiratory depression.[2] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel molecular determinants in the pore region of sodium channels regulate local anesthetic binding. AU - Yamagishi, Toshio. AU - Xiong, Wei. AU - Kondratiev, Andre. AU - Vélez, Patricio. AU - Méndez-Fitzwilliam, Ailsa. AU - Balser, Jeffrey R.. AU - Marbán, Eduardo. AU - Tomaselli, Gordon F.. PY - 2009/10. Y1 - 2009/10. N2 - The pore of the Na+ channel is lined by asymmetric loops formed by the linkers between the fifth and sixth transmembrane segments (S5-S6). We investigated the role of the N-terminal portion (SS1) of the S5-S6 linkers in channel gating and local anesthetic (LA) block using site-directed cysteine mutagenesis of the rat skeletal muscle (NaV1.4) channel. The mutants examined have variable effects on voltage dependence and kinetics of fast inactivation. Of the cysteine mutants immediately N-terminal to the putative DEKA selectivity filter in four domains, only Q399C in domain I and F1236C in domain III exhibit reduced use-dependent block. These two mutations ...
Group 2(control group): 42 patients will have placebo/normal saline in paravertebral space, same amount, and injection at incision sites for all four insufflation ports with ropivacaine 0.5%.. control group: Group 2(control group): 42 patients will have placebo/normal saline in paravertebral space, same amount, and injection at incision sites for all four insufflation ports with ropivacaine 0.5%.. ...
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Comparison of Plain, Warmed, and Buffered Lidocaine for Anesthesia of Traumatic Wounds - G.X. Brogan Jr.. Comparison of Room Temperature and Body Temperature Local Anaesthetic Solutions - L. C. Bainbridge. Development of an Electronically Heated Painless Injection System - K. Konuma. Local Anaesthesia: to Warm or Alter the pH? A Survey of Current Practice - D. J. Courtney. Reducing the Pain of Local Anesthetic Infiltration: Warming and Buffering have a Synergistic Effect - Timothy J. Mader, Stephen J. Playe, Jane L. Garb. The Warming of Local Anesthetic Agents to Decrease Discomfort - L. H. Bloom. Warming Anesthetics Reduces Pain of Injections - Bill Hendrick. Warming Lignocaine Reduces the Pain of Injection During Peribulbar Local Anaesthesia for Cataract Surgery - R.W. Bell. ...
Biodegradable controlled release microspheres for the prolonged administration of a local anesthetic agent, and a method for the manufacture thereof are disclosed. The microspheres are formed of a biodegradable polymer degrading significantly within a month, with at least 50% of the polymer degrading into non-toxic residues which are removed by the body within a two week period. Useful polymers include polyanhydrides, polylactic acid-glycolic acid copolymers and polyorthoesters containing a catalyst; polylactic acid-glycolic acid copolymers are preferred. Local anesthetics are incorporated into the polymer using a method that yields a uniform dispersion, preferably solvent casting. Prolonged release is obtained by incorporation of a glucocorticoid into the polymeric matrix or by co-administration of the glucocorticoid with the microspheres. The type of anesthetic and the quantity are selected based on the known pharmaceutical properties of these compounds.
Objectives: To investigate the quantitative impact of experience on competence in local anesthetic administration amongst final-year Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) students.. Methods: A Longitudinal cohort study design was employed. Purposive sampling was used to enrol final year BDS students and assess their competence longitudinally over a full academic year. The assessment criteria and scoring structure were reviewed during inspection of the institution by the regulator and the external examiner. Participants were assessed on four occasions, namely, after they had gained experience in performing 15, 40, 70 and 100 patient encounters involving local anesthetic administration.. Results: A total of 177 participants who were assessed including 31 males (18%) and 146 females (82%). Assessment of the participants on four occasions provided a total of 885 data points. A chi-square test was carried out to test the hypothesis. Students in Group 4 with over 100 patient encounters were most likely to ...
1. Säkkinen J, Huppunen M, Suuronen R. Complications following local anaesthesia. Nor Tannlegeforen Tid. 2005;115:48-52.. 2. Becker DE, Reed KL. Essentials of local anesthetic pharmacology. Anesth Prog. 2006; 53(3):98-108.. 3. Niwa H, Hirota Y, Shibutani T, Matsuura H. Systemic emergencies and their management in dentistry: complications independent of underlying disease. Anesth Prog. 1996;1:29-35.. 4. Meechan JG, Skelly AM. Problems complicating dental treatment with local anaesthesia or sedation: prevention and management. Dent Update. 1997;24(7):278-283.. 5. Tentindo G, Rosenberg M. Methemoglobinemia and local anesthesia: what every dentist should know. J Mass Dent Soc. 2010;59(2):18-20.. 6. Bourne E, Wright C, Royse C. A review of local anesthetic cardiotoxicity and treatment with lipid emulsion. Local Reg Anesth. 2010;3:11-19.. 7. Nizharadze N, Mamaladze M, Chipashvili N, Vadachkoria D. Articane - the best choice of local anesthetic in contemporary dentistry. Georgian Med News. ...
In the following experiments, the use dependence of Na sup + current block by local anesthetics (i.e., phasic block) was studied. Na sup + currents were activated every second by voltage steps from -80 to -30 mV, first in control solution and then in the presence of local anesthetics. Control current and several consecutive currents recorded with 100-micro Meter bupivacaine are shown in Figure 4(A). The amplitudes of peak Na sup + currents as a function of pulse number for 0-(control solution), 3-, and 300-micro Meter bupivacaine (n = 8, 8, and 6, respectively) are given in Figure 4(B). Na sup + currents recorded in the presence of local anesthetic were normalized to first currents recorded in control solution. The strongest reduction in the amplitude was seen in the currents activated by the first two pulses (N1 and N2;Figure 4(B)). In the presence of 300-micro Meter bupivacaine, the Na sup + current activated by the second pulse was reduced by 40.0 +/- 4.9%(n = 6) compared with that activated ...
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While generally safe, local anesthetic agents can be toxic if administered inappropriately, and in some cases may cause unintended reactions even when properly administered. Adverse effects are usually caused by high plasma concentrations of the agent, which may result from one of the following: Inadvertent intravascular injection Excessive d...
The major findings of this study are that infusion of clinically utilized local anesthetics after renal I/R injury significantly worsened renal function in rats. Exacerbation of renal function with local anesthetic treatment was associated with increased necrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation.. Our study is the first report to describe that local anesthetics worsen renal injury in rats after I/R in vivo. Renal I/R alone doubled Cr values 24 h after injury, with a complete return to baseline Cr values at 48 h after injury. However, chronic infusion with 5% lidocaine, 1% bupivacaine, or 2.5% tetracaine during the period of I/R caused a further doubling of Cr values at 24 h above those increases seen with I/R alone. Moreover, increases in Cr values persisted to 48 h. Thus chronic local anesthetic infusions not only augmented the initial rise in Cr values but added to the duration of renal insufficiency.. We next sought to illustrate the mechanism (necrosis, apoptosis, and/or inflammation) by which ...
ABSTRACT. Introduction: The peripheral nerve blockade produces high analgesic quality in knee surgery. Local anesthetics are used upon the base of its effectiveness and toxicity, so we decided to evaluate the postoperative analgesia through the comparison of ropivacaine (R) against bupivacaine (B) for femoral and sciatic blockade in the arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior crossed ligament (ALC) repair. Methods: Study of cohort, randomized and comparative. There were studied patients submitted to ALC. Surgery being divided in two groups: R and B. Blockade was applied femoral and sciatic postoperative, the anesthetic place use in concentration of 0.25%, total volume of 40 mL for every nerve. VAS was evaluated at 6, 12, 18, 24 hours at rest and movement, analgesia time (ADT) and motor blockade time (MBT). Result: There were no differences in the demographic variables. The VAS, at rest and movement, was similar for both groups until 18 hours, when it significantly differed for the group R. ...
Nicolais answer is not entirely correct.. Background. The most common local anesthetics are all the -caine drugs - like novocaine, lidocaine, - and even cocaine has some of the same pharmacology, as well as other effects (in movies this is why cops might rub some white powder on their lips - if its cocaine, it will make their lips tingle; this is not standard training for non-movie police; also not advised for drug sellers or purchasers, because for exactly this reason cocaine is often cut with other -caines or other compounds that give a tingly feeling).. What all of these drugs do is to block voltage-gated sodium channels. These are the channels that propagate action potentials through axons and excitable dendrites. Other local anesthetics that arent used in the clinic, like tetrodotoxin from pufferfish, block the same types of channels. At sufficient concentrations, local anesthetics block all nervous activity: unlike @Nicolais answer, they do shut down nerves (as a brief note for ...
Background: We report a case with apparent resistance to local anesthetics. While regional anesthetics failure are often attributed to technical failure, the clinical presentation and medical history of this patient suggests a true resistance to local anesthetics. Case report: A 28 years old man was scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery for right sided ...
PubMed. Poroikov V.V., Filimonov D.A., Gloriozova T.A., Lagunin A.A., Druzhilovsky D.S., Stepanchikova A.V. (2009). Computer-aided prediction of biological activity spectra for substances: virtual chemogenomics. The Herald of Vavilov Society for Genecitists and Breeding Scientists, 13 (1) 137-143 (Rus).. Lagunin A., Filimonov D., Zakharov A., Xie W., Huang Y., Zhu F., Shen T., Yao J., Poroikov V. (2009). Computer-Aided Prediction of Rodent Carcinogenicity by PASS and CISOC-PSCT. QSAR and Combinatorial Science, 28 (8) 806-810.. Geronikaki A., Vicini P., Dabarakis N., Lagunin A., Poroikov V., Dearden J., Modarresi H., Hewitt M., Theophilidis G.(2009). Evaluation of the local anaesthetic activity of 3-aminobenzo[d]isothiazole derivatives using the rat sciatic nerve model. Eur. J. Med. Chem., 44 (2), 473-481 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Allergic reactions to local anesthetics in dental patients. T2 - Analysis of intracutaneous and challenge tests. AU - Tomoyasu, Yumiko. AU - Mukae, Kazuo. AU - Suda, Michiyo. AU - Hayashi, Tomoko. AU - Ishii, Minako. AU - Sakaguchi, Mai. AU - Watanabe, Yoshihisa. AU - Jinzenji, Ayako. AU - Arai, Yukiko. AU - Higuchi, Hitoshi. AU - Maeda, Shigeru. AU - Miyawaki, Takuya. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Some dental patients have histories of adverse reactions to local anesthesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of allergy to local anesthetics of dental patients who had histories of adverse reactions to local anesthesia based on the results of allergy tests in our institute over a period of 5 years. We investigated the past medical records of dental patients retrospectively, and twenty patients were studied. Three of the 20 showed a positive or false-positive reaction in the intracutaneous test, and one patient showed a false-positive reaction in the ...
Anesthesia before wound repair can be accomplished with one of the two classes of local anesthetics: esters (e.g., procaine) and amides (e.g., lidocaine). Anesthesia is usually accomplished by local infiltration; pain on administration of the injection can be decreased by buffering the solution with sodium bicarbonate. Warming the anesthetic solution also decreases pain with infiltration. Prior administration of topical anesthetics such as tetracaine 1 percent can ameliorate injection pain. Alternative methods for local anesthesia include topical and regional applications. A topical combination of tetracaine, adrenaline and cocaine (TAC) has been shown to be an effective anesthetic in children and patients with face or scalp lacerations; however, serious adverse events have been reported. Eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) cream has been useful, but the onset of anesthesia is delayed. Local anesthetics can be administered regionally by infiltrating around a regional sensory nerve. This ...
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This in vitro study compared the pH buffering ability of these two methods in seven commercially available dental local anesthetic preparations.
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Conrad on zit removal: For patients undergoing sebeceous cyst removal we start with a local anesthetic cream, followed by a local anesthetic injection. This is very well tolerated. After surgery the majority of patients do not require any pain killers afterward, if they do tylenol (acetaminophen) is usually sufficient. for topic: Zit Removal
Whereas I support continued study of paravertebral catheter placement with continuous local anesthetic infusion, I caution against advocacy for a therapeutic intervention with associated risk and expense based on clinical experience in a series of patients without adequate study in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Before our trial, I was enthusiastic about the technique and was of the opinion that the results of the study would be unequivocally positive. I had observed that patients seemed to wake up with less pain and required less narcotic administration in the recovery area. Although these observations proved to be correct, patients were less comfortable after leaving the recovery room. From 6 to 12 h after nerve blockade, the treatment group used more patient-controlled morphine than the control group, making the cumulative morphine dose indistinguishable between groups by the 12th h. Although morphine usage may be an imperfect endpoint, we were unable to ...
You do feel the local anaesthetic injections but these are usually rated 2 out of a pain scale of 1-10 so they are just a little bit uncomfortable. You do not feel any discomfort while the vein is being lasered because the local anaesthetic numbs the area.. ...
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PURPOSE: To assess aqueous humor lidocaine concentrations in 2 common regimens of topical anesthesia and after intracameral injection of the anesthetic agent. SETTING: University hospital eye clinic. METHODS: Twenty patients having routine cataract surgery were randomized into 3 groups: 1 given 3 drops of lidocaine 4% before surgery; 1 given 6 drops; 1 given 3 drops plus an intracameral injection of 0.1 mL lidocaine 1%. Lidocaine concentration was measured in aqueous humor samples taken before surgery. RESULTS: With 3 drops, aqueous lidocaine concentration was 1.4 micrograms/mL +/- 0.5 (SD) and with 6 drops, 4.3 +/- 1.5 micrograms/mL (P = .0015). With an intracameral injection, it was 341.8 +/- 152.6 micrograms/mL. CONCLUSION: Measurable amounts of lidocaine entered the anterior chamber in topical anesthesia, and more entered when more drops were given. It is likely that concentrations in this range could anesthetize the iris, but they are far lower than concentrations after an intracameral ...
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0 % ; 6 - 12 months: 0. Company: Akorn, Inc. 20ml Lidocaine Liquid 2%(Bottle) 10ml Lidocaine Jelly 2% (put a little on the end of your catheter too, feels great) 10ml Marcaine 0. 0 % ; 10+ years: …. Lidocaine hydrochloride jelly USP, 2% should be stored at controlled room temperature, 59° - 86°F; Rx onlySDS: Lidocaine Hydrochloride Jelly, USP 2% 1 of 8 SAFETY DATA SHEET 1. Transdermal: When used concomitantly with other products …Select Page. Dog Veterinarian: Dr Scott Nimmo , Dog Veterinarian …Lidocaine is a local anesthetic that works by causing temporary numbness/loss of feeling in the skin and mucous membranes. 5% 5ml Sodium Bicarbonate 40mg. Lidocaine Hydrochloride Jelly to cialis prices in canada. 0 % ; 2 - 5 years: 0. 0 % ; 1 - 2 years: 0. What is Xylocaine Jelly? Xylocaine 2% Jelly is a topical anaesthetic that is used to help prevent pain and discomfort during certain medical Xylocaine 2% Jelly is a clear to almost clear, slightly coloured gel that contains the active ingredient ...
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Blockade of voltage-gated sodium (Na+) channels by local anesthetics represents the main mechanism for inhibition of impulse propagation. Local anesthetic-induced potassium (K+) channel inhibition is also known to influence transmission of sensory impulses and to potentiate inhibition. K+ channels involved in this mechanism may belong to the emerging family of background tandem pore domain K+ channels (2P K+ channels). To determine more precisely the effects of local anesthetics on members of this ion channel family, we heterologously expressed the 2P K+ channels TASK-2 (KCNK5), TASK-1 (KCNK3), and chimeric TASK-1/TASK-2 channels in oocytes of Xenopus laevis. TASK-2 cDNA-transfected HEK 293 cells were used for single-channel recordings. Local anesthetic inhibition of TASK-2 was dose-dependent, agent-specific, and stereoselective. The IC50 values for R-(+)-bupivacaine and S-(-)-bupivacaine were 17 and 43 μM and for R-(+)-ropivacaine and S-(-)-ropivacaine, 85 and 236 μM. Lidocaine (1 mM) inhibited TASK
INTRODUCTION. The narrow therapeutic index of 5% hyperbaric lidocaine on neuroaxis has been shown since the early 1990, when Cauda Equina syndrome was associated to its spinal administration via microcatheter in continuous infusion 1,2, after single pencil point needle injection 3,4 and repeated injections due to blockade failure 5.. Lidocaine concentration potentially able to determine nervous tissue injury is still not well established. Experimental studies in rats, in which the anesthetic was administered via spinal catheter, have shown neurotoxicity in concentrations varying from 2.5% 6 to 7.5% 7,8. The criticism to this model is that it does not reproduce the anesthetic technique used in the clinical practice 6.. This study aimed at investigating the effect on spinal cord and meninges of increasing spinal lidocaine concentrations in single injection through Quincke needle.. METHODS. After the Animal Experiment Ethical Committee approval, 40 adult mixed-breed dogs of both genders, weighing 7 ...
Intraneural introduction of local anesthetic belongs to the existing complications of peripheral nerves blockades. The damage of peripheral nerves is associated with the damaging effect of the injection needle and with the pressure caused by the introduction of local anesthetic. Purpose: Determine the pressure of the local anesthetic in fascial compartment of the sciatic nerve during his administration in the blockade of the sciatic nerve subgluteal access. Materials and Methods: Submitted blockade of the sciatic nerve subgluteal access in 22 patients with peripheral nerve electrostimulation under ultrasound guidance. To measure interstitial pressure system was used with the inclusion of a probe invasive blood pressure. Results: During the introduction of 1 ml in the fascial compartment of the sciatic nerve, the pressure of 0.77 psi (40 mmHg) was registered. In the course of the further introduction of local anesthetic up to 13 ml, the pressure did not alter validly (p > 0.05) and its average was 40 (35
Product Description CAS 5875-06-9 Top Quality Local Anesthetic Drug 99% Proparacaine hydrochloride Description: Proparacaine HCl is a local-Anesthesia, which is indicated to produce local anesthesia of short duration for ophthalmic procedures including measurement of intraocular pressure, removal of foreign bodies and sutures, and conjunctival and corneal scraping in diagnosis and gonioscopy. Quick Details: Product Name Proparacaine…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Movement discrimination after intra-articular local anaesthetic of the ankle joint. AU - Down, Stuart. AU - Waddington, Gordon. AU - Adams, Roger. AU - Thomson, Malcolm. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Background: The effect on clinical safety of dampening articular mechanoreceptor feedback at the ankle is unknown. Injection of the ankle joint for pain control may result in such dampening. Athletes receiving intra-articular local anaesthetic may therefore be at increased risk of sustaining ankle injuries, which are a common reason for missed sporting participation. Objective: To determine the effect of intra-articular local anaesthetic on movement discrimination at the ankle joint. Design: Prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.Setting: Australian Institute of Sport Medical Centre, Canberra, Australia. Patients: Twenty two healthy subjects (44 ankles) aged 18-26 were recruited for the three visits of the study. Interventions: Subjects were tested ...
Efficacy of tramadol as a preincisional infiltration anesthetic in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomized study Kemal Varim Numanoglu,1 Hilal Ayoglu,2 Duygu Tatli,1 Ebubekir Er11Department of Pediatric Surgery, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bülent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak, TurkeyBackground: Preincisional local anesthetic infiltration at the surgical site is a therapeutic option for postoperative pain relief for pediatric inguinal hernia. Additionally, tramadol has been used as an analgesic for postoperative pain in children. Recently, the local anesthetic effects of tramadol have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine both the systemic analgesic and the local anesthetic effects of tramadol and to determine how it differs from bupivacaine when administered preincisionally.Methods: Fifty-two healthy children, aged 2â 7 years, who were scheduled for elective herniorrhaphy were randomly allocated to receive either
OBJECTIVES: The relationship between the dose, volume, and concentration of local anesthetic and the quality and success of regional anesthesia remains unclear. Our aim was to test whether using 3 different volumes of the same local anesthetic dose i
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of excessive lidocaine concentrations for local anesthesia. AU - Bashein, G.. AU - Zipes, D.. AU - Nattel, S.. AU - Rinkenberger, R. L.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 7350424. AN - SCOPUS:0018913417. VL - 302. SP - 122. JO - New England Journal of Medicine. JF - New England Journal of Medicine. SN - 0028-4793. IS - 2. ER - ...
Product Description 99.9% Prilocaine Powder Local Anesthetics For Anti Paining Prilocaine HCL Prilocaine Prilocaine Powerful Propitocaine HCL Local Anesthetic With Longer Duration CAS: 721-50-6 MF: C13H20N2O Assay: 99% min. Character: White crystalline powder Propitocaine HCl Name: Propitocaine HCL CAS: 1786-81-8 MF: C13H21ClN2O Assay: 99% min. Character: White crystalline powder Description: As local anesthetics, lidocaine same…
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Gelato Topical Anesthetic Gel is 20% benzocaine anesthetic gel that is fast acting with no systemic absorption. The 20% benzocaine provides temporary relief of pain during procedures, including local anesthetic injections, periodontal curettage, impression taking, scaling, intra-oral radiographs, root planning and prophylaxis. Gelato Topical Anesthetic Gel comforts patients with ulcers, wounds or other minor mouth irritations. Also, Gelato Topical Anesthetic Gel has no bitter aftertaste ...
Gelato Topical Anesthetic Gel is 20% benzocaine anesthetic gel that is fast acting with no systemic absorption. The 20% benzocaine provides temporary relief of pain during procedures, including local anesthetic injections, periodontal curettage, impression taking, scaling, intra-oral radiographs, root planning and prophylaxis. Gelato Topical Anesthetic Gel comforts patients with ulcers, wounds or other minor mouth irritations. Also, Gelato Topical Anesthetic Gel has no bitter aftertaste ...
The dosage varies and depends upon the area to be anesthetized, vascularity of the tissues, individual tolerance, and the technique of anesthesia. The lowest dosage needed to provide effective anesthesia should be administered. Dosages should be reduced for children and for elderly and debilitated patients. Although the incidence of adverse effects with Lidocaine Hydrochloride Jelly USP, 2% is quite low, caution should be exercised, particularly when employing large amounts, since the incidence of adverse effects is directly proportional to the total dose of local anesthetic agent administered ...
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Minor dermal procedures (eg, IV cannulation, venipuncture): apply 2.5g in a thick layer with occlusion over 20-25cm2 for at least 1hr. Major dermal procedures (eg, skin graft harvesting): apply 2g per 10cm2 in a thick layer with occlusion for at least 2hrs. Pretreatment before local anesthetic infiltration on adult male genital skin: apply 1g per 10cm2 in a thick layer with occlusion for 15mins. Minor procedures on female external genitalia (eg, wart removal, local anesthetic infiltration): apply 5-10g in a thick layer for 5-10mins; may occlude to help keep cream in place.. ...
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The patient is positioned as in a conventional axillary block. One 21 size hypodermic needle is inserted into the axillary sheath on each side of the axillary artery. Total 20ml (10ml through each needle) of local anaesthetic solution is injected and the needles are withdrawn. The ring is applied over the skin encircling the injection sites and pressure is applied on the ring by vertically pressing on the collars, which distributes the force on the ring. This pressure on the ring is transmitted to the axillary sheath sealing it on all sides which prevents escape of anaesthetic solution on all sides and confines it to the area inside the ring. The skin inside the ring is massaged to allow fast passage of anaesthetic solution around the nerves within the confines of the ring ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Naloxone prolongs cutaneous nociceptive block by lidocaine in rats. AU - Chen, Yu Wen. AU - Shieh, Ja Ping. AU - Liu, Kuo Sheng. AU - Wang, Jhi Joung. AU - Hung, Ching Hsia. N1 - Funding Information: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided for this study by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST 104-2314-B-039-017-MY3) of Taiwan.. PY - 2017/12. Y1 - 2017/12. N2 - We aimed to investigate the local anesthetic properties of naloxone alone or as an adjunct for the local anesthetic lidocaine. After the block of the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex (CTMR) with drugs delivery by subcutaneous infiltration, cutaneous nociceptive block was tested on the ratsꞌ backs. We demonstrated that naloxone, as well as lidocaine, elicited cutaneous analgesia dose-dependently. The relative potency in inducing cutaneous analgesia was lidocaine [22.6 (20.1 - 25.4) μmol/kg] , naloxone [43.2 (40.3 - 46.4) μmol/kg] (P , 0.05). On an equianesthetic basis [50% effective dose ...
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The number of ambulatory surgical procedures is growing and local anesthesia represents the technique of choice for outpatients undergoing minor surgery. The aim of this study was to verify whether differences exist in postoperative pain relief using equipotent doses of two long-acting local anesthetics, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine, in patients who underwent minor breast surgery. A series of 86 consecutive women (median age=55, range=39-75 years) with small (,2 cm in size) breast masses requiring surgical excision were prospectively enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly selected to receive 75 mg/ml ropivacaine (group A, 42 patients) or 5 mg/ml levobupivacaine (group B, 44 patient). For post-surgical measurement of pain intensity a visual analog scale (VAS) was used. The age of the patients (56.4±9.6 vs. 56.7 ±9.5 years; p=0.88) and operative time (38.4 ± vs. 39.8 ±5.0 min; p=0.16), did not differ significantly between the groups (A vs. B). Transient adverse effects were observed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preferential partitioning of uncharged local anesthetics into the surface-adsorbed film. AU - Matsuki, Hitoshi. AU - Yamanaka, Michio. AU - Kamaya, Hiroshi. AU - Kaneshina, Shoji. AU - Ueda, Issaku. PY - 2004/10/10. Y1 - 2004/10/10. N2 - The surface tension and pH of aqueous solutions of three hydrochloric acid (HCl) - uncharged anesthetic (mepivacaine (MC), bupibacaine (BC) and dibucaine (DC)) mixtures were measured as a function of total molality and composition of local anesthetic in order to investigate the competitive surface-adsorption of uncharged and charged local anesthetics. The behavior of the surface tension versus total molality and pH versus total molality curves remarkably changed at the composition corresponding to an equimolar mixture. The pH measurements showed that uncharged and charged forms coexisted only at compositions more than the equimolar mixture. The partitioning quantities of respective uncharged and charged anesthetics into the surface-adsorbed film ...
1. This study was devised to test the hypothesis that dyspnoea could be mediated by unmyelinated vagal sensory nerve endings (type J receptors) situated at alveolar level in the lung.. 2. A modified jet nebulizer was used to generate an aerosol of local anaesthetic in particles small enough to allow alveolar deposition. Lignocaine (2% and 5%) produced aerosols with an arithmetic mean diameter (+sd) of 1.5+0.3 and 1.2+0.6 μm respectively, the mass median diameters being 1.7 (geometric standard deviation = 1.2) and 2.5 (geometric standard deviation = 1.7) μm respectively.. 3. In experimental animal models a vagally mediated tachypnoea may be induced acutely by pulmonary microembolism. This response is known to be mediated by unmyelinated pulmonary afferent nerves in the vagus. Local anaesthetic agents administered as small particles, but not as large particles, obtunded this response, which suggests that the aerosol was capable of penetration to alveolar level.. 4. Upon this background, a ...
Background Ropivacaine is a new amide local anesthetic, having therapeutic properties similar to those of bupivacaine but with a wider margin of safety. Bupivacaine is probably the most commonly used drug in obstetric epidural analgesia, even though laboratory studies have suggested that pregnancy increases the cardiotoxicity of bupivacaine but not of other local anesthetics. The current study was designed to reevaluate, in a random and blinded fashion, the systemic toxicity of bupivacaine and ropivacaine in nonpregnant and pregnant sheep. Methods Chronically prepared nonpregnant and pregnant ewes were randomized to receive an intravenous infusion of ropivacaine or bupivacaine at a constant rate of 0.5 until circulatory collapse. The investigators were blinded to the identity of local anesthetic. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and cardiac rhythm were monitored throughout the study. Arterial blood samples were obtained before infusion and at the onset of toxic manifestations, ...
This study reports an investigation of the pharmacological activity, cytotoxicity, and local effects of a liposomal formulation of the novel local anaesthetic ropivacaine (RVC) compared with its plain solution. RVC was encapsulated into large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) composed of egg phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and a-tocopherol (4:3:0.07, mole %). Particle size, partition coefficient determination and in-vitro release studies were used to characterize the encapsulation process. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the tetrazolium reduction test using sciatic nerve Schwann cells in culture. Local anaesthetic activity was assessed by mouse sciatic and rat infraorbital nerve blockades. Histological analysis was performed to verify the myotoxic effects evoked by RVC formulations. Plain (RVCPLAIN) and liposomal RVC (RVCLUV) samples were tested at 0.125%, 0.25% and 0.5% concentrations. Vesicle size distribution showed liposomal populations of 370 and 130 nm (85 and 15%, respectively), without changes ...
Is regional anesthesia indicated?. 1. Should you avoid using local anesthetics?. No. His allergic reaction could have been an intravascular injection, a reaction to epinephrine added to the solution, or a reaction to a derivative of para-aminobenzoic acid, from Novacaines ester local anesthetic.. 2. What determines potency of local anesthetics?. Lipid solubility determines potency. The higher the solubility, the more potent the agent is.. 3. What determines duration of action of local anesthetics?. Protein binding determines duration of action. The more the protein binding, the longer the duration of action.. 4. What determines onset of action of local anesthetics?. pKa determines onset of action. The closer the pKa is to the tissue pH, the faster the onset. All local anesthetics are weak bases, so those with a pKa near 7.4 have more molecules that are lipid-soluble and unionized.. ...
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Update on the clinical utility and practical use of ropivacaine in Chinese patients Man Li, Li Wan, Wei Mei, Yuke Tian Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China Abstract: We reviewed the Chinese and English literature for efficacy and tolerability data as well as pharmacological properties of ropivacaine in Chinese patients. Ropivacaine is a long-acting amide local anesthetic agent that elicits nerve block via reversible inhibition of sodium ion influx in nerve fibers. The available evidence in the literature on anesthesia practice indicates that ropivacaine produces equally surgical sensory block and postoperative and obstetrics analgesia with good maternal and fetal outcome to those of bupivacaine or levobupivacaine. It appears to be associated with comparable onset, quality, and duration of sensory block, but with a lower incidence or grade of motor block, compared to bupivacaine. The
Local anaesthetics. Local anaesthetics are drugs which act on nerves to stop or block transmission of information. We often use local anaesthetics to block sensory nerves. This means that the painful stimulus cannot pass up to the brain and the animal does not feel the pain. Local anaesthetics will also affect motor nerves which cause the muscles to move. It can therefore cause temporary inhibition of muscle movement. Some drugs last a number of hours so also provide effective pain relief for the first evening after surgery.. Benefits of local anaesthetic use. Using local anaesthetics have been shown to have a number of benefits when used in people including:. ...
We assessed the effect of local anesthetics (LA) from different families such as esters (benzocaine), linear aminoamides (lidocaine) and cyclic aminoamides (bupivacaine) on the platelet aggregation induced by ADP. Liposomal formulations of the three LA, prepared with egg phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol a-tocopherol, were also tested. The three LA were able to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP, in the following order: bupivacaine , lidocaine , benzocaine. After encapsulation into liposomes the inhibitory effect increased for all anesthetics studied, showing that aggregation tests could be used to assess the toxicity of new drug formulations ...
... local anesthetics Dental anesthesia Dibucaine number Epidural Intravenous regional anesthesia Local anesthesia Local anesthetic ... This is a list of local anesthetic agents. Not all of these drugs are still used in clinical practice and in research. Some are ... Articles needing additional references from November 2014, All articles needing additional references, Local anesthetics). ... with vasoconstrictor Local anesthetic toxicity Methemoglobin Sodium channel blocker Spinal anesthesia Topical anesthesia ...
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes absence of pain sensation. In the context of surgery, a local anesthetic ... Amylocaine Anesthetic General anesthetic List of cocaine analogues List of local anesthetics Ryan T, Hodge A, Holyoak R, Vlok R ... Local anesthetic solutions for injection typically consist of: The local anesthetic agent itself A vehicle, which is usually ... Depending on local tissue concentrations of local anesthetics, excitatory or depressant effects on the central nervous system ...
... (local anesthetic regional nerve blockade, or often simply nerve block) is a short-term nerve ... Since the plexus is located deep, there is an increased risk of local anesthetic toxicity, so less toxic anesthetics like ... block involving the injection of local anesthetic as close to the nerve as possible for pain relief. The local anesthetic ... The most common local anesthetics used at the site of the nerves are bupivicaine, mepivicaine, and chloroprocaine. There is a ...
A topical anesthetic is a local anesthetic that is used to numb the surface of a body part. They can be used to numb any area ... In dentistry, topical anesthetics are used to numb oral tissue before administering a dental local anesthetic due to the entry ... Some topical anesthetics (e.g. oxybuprocaine) are also used in otolaryngology. Topical anesthetics are now commonly used in the ... Topical anesthetics are used in ophthalmology and optometry to numb the surface of the eye (the outermost layers of the cornea ...
Each of the local anesthetics has the suffix "-caine" in their names. Local anesthetics can be either ester- or amide-based. ... Only preservative-free local anesthetic agents may be injected intrathecally. Pethidine also has local anesthetic properties, ... Anesthetics are distinct from analgesics, which block only sensation of painful stimuli.[citation needed] Local anesthetic ... Ester local anesthetics (such as procaine, amethocaine, cocaine, benzocaine, tetracaine) are generally unstable in solution and ...
Wilson, James W.; Dawson, Norman D.; Brooks, Walter.; Ullyot, Glenn E. (1949). "Local Anesthetics. Aminoalkoxyisoquinoline ... Local anesthetics, Isoquinolines, Phenol ethers, Dimethylamino compounds, All stub articles, Dermatologic drug stubs). ... Quinisocaine (INN) or dimethisoquin (BAN and USAN) is a topical anesthetic used as an antipruritic. The Henry reaction between ...
Alfred Einhorn synthesises the local anesthetic novocaine. The first commercial use of the Frank-Caro process for the nitrogen ... Ritchie, J. Murdoch; Greene, Nicholas M. (1990). "Local Anesthetics". In Gilman, Alfred Goodman; Rall, Theodore W.; Nies, Alan ...
... is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. It is most commonly used in dental procedures to numb the area ... Like other local anesthetics (such as mepivacaine, and prilocaine), procaine is a vasodilator, thus is often coadministered ... Ritchie JM, Greene NM (1990). "Local Anesthetics". In Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The ... Prior to the discovery of amylocaine and procaine, cocaine was a commonly used local anesthetic. Einhorn wished his new ...
This tetrameric enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of a number of substances, including amino ester local anesthetics and ... Dibucaine, also known as cinchocaine, is an amino amide local anesthetic. When administered to humans intravenously, it is ...
"Local Anesthetics". New England Journal of Medicine. 263 (19): 963-965.1960. doi:10.1056/NEJM196011102631912. Cope Arthur C, U. ... Hexylcaine hydrochloride, also called cyclaine (Merck) or osmocaine, is a short-acting local anesthetic. It acts by inhibiting ... Local anesthetics, Benzoate esters, Cyclohexylamines, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ... as topical anesthetic in gastroscopy and esophagoscopy". Gastroenterology. 36 (1): 120-1. doi:10.1016/S0016-5085(59)80102-5. ...
"Studies on Local Anesthetics. XX. Synthesis of Some alpha-Monoalkylamino-2-methylpropionanilides. A New Useful Local Anesthetic ... Prilocaine (/ˈpraɪləˌkeɪn/) is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Löfgren. In ... "Topical Anesthesia Use in Children: Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics". Retrieved 2014-01-07. The United ... "Synthesis of Two Local Anesthetics from Toluene: An Organic Multistep Synthesis in a Project-Oriented Laboratory Course". ...
de La Coussaye JE, Eledjam JJ, Brugada J, Sassine A (1993). "[Cardiotoxicity of local anesthetics]". Cahiers d'Anesthésiologie ...
It is the most commonly used local anesthetic in epidural anesthesia during labor, as well as in postoperative pain management ... The rate of systemic absorption of bupivacaine and other local anesthetics is dependent upon the dose and concentration of drug ... de La Coussaye JE, Eledjam JJ, Brugada J, Sassine A (1993). "[Cardiotoxicity of local anesthetics]". Cahiers d'Anesthésiologie ... the aromatic head and the hydrocarbon chain are linked by an amide bond rather than an ester as in earlier local anesthetics. ...
Procaine Trimecaine Local anesthetic List of local anesthetics "NCATS Inxight: Drugs". Retrieved 2018-08-07. ... Pyrrocaine is a local anesthetic drug. The cogency of pyrrocaine is equivalent to lidocaine in blocking the motor nerve and ... Löfgren, Nils; Tegnér, Claës; Takman, Bertil (1957). "Studies on Local Anesthetics. XVI.". Acta Chemica Scandinavica 11: 1724- ... In the 1960s it was most of the time used as a nerve blocker dental anesthetic and dentists recommended it due to its fast ...
Solubilities of local anesthetics". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 36 (1): 17-19. doi:10.1002/jps. ... Isopropyl alcohol can also be used similarly to ether as a solvent or as an anesthetic by inhaling the fumes or orally. Early ... "Guide to Local Production: WHO-recommended Handrub Formulations" (PDF). World Health Organization. August 2009. Archived (PDF) ... uses included using the solvent as general anesthetic for small mammals and rodents by scientists and some veterinarians. ...
... is a local anesthetic. Proprietary names includes Alvogil in Spain and Alvogyl in Switzerland. It is one of three ... components in the topical anesthetic Cetacaine. It is the ester of 4-aminobenzoic acid and butanol. A white, odourless, ...
Maher, T.J. (2013). Anesthetic agents: General and local anesthetics. In: T.L. Lemke & D.A. Williams (editors). Foye's ... synthetic novel site partial agonist Antagonists of the NMDA receptor are used as anesthetics for animals and sometimes humans ... and xenon are used as general anesthetics. These and similar drugs like dextromethorphan and methoxetamine also produce ...
... , marketed under the trade name Duranest, is an amide-type local anesthetic given by injection during surgical ... "Long-acting local anesthetics in dentistry". Anesthesia Progress. 39 (3): 53-60. PMC 2148750. PMID 1308373. DE2162744 idem H ... Local anesthetics, Anilides, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ...
788-791, doi:10.1021/ol9028622 J.W. Wilson; N.D. Dawson; W. Brooks; G.E. Ullyot (1949), "Local anesthetics. ... Synthesis pathways for the isoquinoline derivative quinisocaine (acting as a local anesthetic) and the antihistamine azelastine ...
O'Mahony C, Timms MS, Ramsden RT (December 1988). "Local anesthetic creams". BMJ. 297 (6661): 1468. doi:10.1136/bmj.297.6661. ... One of the projects of the HRC was to create a network of local support (HELP) groups. The goal of these HELP groups was to ... Topical anesthetic treatments such as prilocaine, lidocaine, benzocaine, or tetracaine can also relieve itching and pain. ... The charity started as a string of local group meetings before acquiring an office and a national spread. Research has gone ...
Burlacu CL, Buggy DJ (April 2008). "Update on local anesthetics: focus on levobupivacaine". Therapeutics and Clinical Risk ... Gulihar A, Robati S, Twaij H, Salih A, Taylor GJ (December 2015). "Articular cartilage and local anaesthetic: A systematic ... Levobupivacaine (rINN) /liːvoʊbjuːˈpɪvəkeɪn/ is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group. It is the S- ... Levobupivacaine is indicated for local anaesthesia including infiltration, nerve block, ophthalmic, epidural and intrathecal ...
... is a local anesthetic. The reductive amination between aminomethyl propanol (1) and isobutanal [78-84-2] (2) ... List of local anesthetics Thoma KH (1961). Accepted Dental Remedies (26th ed.). Chicago: American Dental Association. p. 30. ... Local anesthetics, Benzoate esters, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
A local anesthetic is applied if necessary. The location of the vein is identified by landmarks or with the use of a small ... The clinician and patient may elect to apply a topical anesthetic before accessing the port. Ports can be used for medications ... Relative contraindications include: coagulopathy, trauma or local infection at the placement site, or suspected proximal ...
This involves the administration of local anesthetic and inserting a needle connected to a three-way tap; up to 2.5 liters of ... Local anesthetic is applied. Two types of tubes may be used. In spontaneous pneumothorax, small-bore (smaller than 14 F, 4.7 mm ...
NSTX local safety: All available local anesthetic are associated with local damage in different models. This undesired effect ... Local anesthetic receptor site binds local anesthetics, antiarrhythmic drugs and antiepileptic drugs NSTX and other site 1 ... NSTX anesthetic duration: Any current available local anesthetic hardly produces clinical effects 12 hours after a single ... well over all the current available local anesthetics. Some investigations demonstrated anesthetic effect lasting over one week ...
Chung G, Oh SB (2013). "Eugenol as Local Anesthetic". Natural Products. Springer-Verlag Berlin; In: Natural Products - ...
Covino, B., & Vassallo, H. (1976). Local anesthetics : mechanisms of action and clinical use. New York: Grune & Stratton. ISBN ...
It includes local anesthetics, sedation, and general anesthesia. In dentistry, the most commonly used local anesthetic is ... 100,000 adrenaline is the local anesthetic of choice in the treatment of pregnant women. Allergic reactions from local ... A dental syringe is a syringe for the injection of a local anesthetic. It consists of a breech-loading syringe fitted with a ... In root canal treatment, for example, more Lidocaine is required than for a simple filling Other local anesthetic agents in ...
Local anesthetics such as benzocaine, however, are contraindicated. Schwellnus et al. state that topical steroids (such as ... While lidocaine cream (a local anesthetic) is often used as a sunburn treatment, there is little evidence for the effectiveness ...
Clinical local anesthetics belong to one of two classes: aminoamide and aminoester local anesthetics. Synthetic local ... Conduction anesthesia encompasses a great variety of local and regional anesthetic techniques. A local anesthetic is a drug ... and cyanosis due to local anesthetic toxicity. lack of anesthetic effect due to infectious pus such as an abscess. Local pain ... Local anesthetics vary in their pharmacological properties and they are used in various techniques of local anesthesia such as ...
... developing as a leader in the actions of local anesthetics and toxins on membrane excitability and building up one of the three ... the mechanisms of C-type inactivation in voltage-gated ion channels and the effects of neurotoxins and local anesthetics on ...
From 1 to 5 divisions/ligatures are performed under local anesthetics and without hospitalization (ambulatory). In addition, ...
Parents contacted the local media and succeeded in reinstalling the uncensored copies. In 2006, parents of a 10th-grade high ... As Montag escapes the scene, the Mechanical Hound attacks him, managing to inject his leg with an anesthetic. He destroys the ... As a frequent visitor to his local libraries in the 1920s and 1930s, he recalls being disappointed because they did not stock ... Parents complained to the school and contacted local newspapers, who sent reporters to write stories about the irony of a book ...
... usually in conjunction with local anesthetic injections. List of cutaneous conditions Hill r.n., Pamela (2006). Milady's ... There is minimal discomfort so usually no anesthetic is given because the patient feels only a slight stinging when the ...
... and as a local anesthetic). The potencies of doxepin in terms of its receptor antagonism specifically are as follows: Extremely ...
First the physician applies a local anesthetic, such as lidocaine/prilocaine cream on the frenulum and surrounding area. In ...
Varicose veins for example can now be treated by local anesthetic endovenous surgery. Rates of CVI are higher in women than in ... performed under local anaesthetic. CVI is not a benign disorder and, with its progression, can lead to morbidity. Venous ulcers ...
Paik, AM; Daniali, LN; Lee, ES; Hsia, HC (2014). "Local anesthetic use in tumescent liposuction: an American Society of Plastic ... Lidocaine was also added as a local anesthetic. Fournier also advocated using compression after the operation, and travelled ... By injecting a large volume of very dilute lidocaine (local anesthetic) and epinephrine (capillary constrictor) into ... in the 1980s American dermatologists pioneered techniques allowing only local anesthetics to be used. Jeffrey Klein published a ...
Similarly to certain other beta blockers, butidrine also possesses local anesthetic properties. Bristol JA (1986). ... Local anesthetics, Tetralins, Sodium channel blockers, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system drug stubs). ...
Although barbiturates fell out of favor, they continue to serve as a short-acting anesthetic and anti-epileptic drugs. ... After the local synthesis or from metabolism of adrenal of gonadal steroids many neurosteroids accumulate in the brain. ... In a rat brain slice preparation, the synthetic steroidal anesthetic alphaxalone (5α-pregnan-3α-ol-11,20 dione) enhanced both ... Structure- activity studies (SAR) showed that the 3alpha-OH group is essential for the anesthetic actions of these steroids, ...
Some general anesthetics act by reducing the effects of glutamate; most tranquilizers exert their sedative effects by enhancing ... These receptors sense the local environment, causing the growth cone to be attracted or repelled by various cellular elements, ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are released at synapses when the local membrane is depolarised and Ca2+ enters into the ...
For example, "Patient M" presents to his local emergency room for abdominal pain and a CT is ordered to rule-out appendicitis; ... or during anesthetic induction. While the above symptoms are classic, other common clinical manifestations have been reported ... local control of the disease, and to limit spinal cord compression. A multidisciplinary team from the Mayo Clinic ... or percutaneous ethanol injection for metastatic pheochromocytoma and reported that local control was achieved in over 85% of ...
The limiting factor of the single shot approach has always been the half-life period of the local anesthetics which would not ... Continuous wound infiltration (CWI) refers to the continuous infiltration of a local anesthetic into a surgical wound to aid in ... A local anesthetic is administered into the wound with a specially designed, multi-holed catheter. The catheter allows for even ... found a way to evenly spread and continuously infiltrate a local anesthetic, via a specially designed multi holed catheter, ...
Some also have local anesthetic action. The analgesic effects have also been proven, by acting as Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors on ...
It is weaker than morphine as an analgesic but longer-lasting in effects, and was thought to have more local anesthetic effect ...
Local villages in Vietnam were inoculated. The United States military screened patients, dispensed medication, distributed ... and the use of anæsthetics". A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom. New York: Appleton. Bazin H ( ... Initially, vaccination regulations were organised by the local Poor Law Guardians, and in towns where there was strong ... Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (September 2013). "National, state, and local area vaccination coverage among ...
Numbers of such high magnitude weigh a heavy burden on the local and global economy. A study conducted at Oxford University in ... "Anesthetic Gases - Reproductive Health , NIOSH , CDC". 2021-11-10. Retrieved 2022-03-17. "Hazardous Drug Exposures ... Most countries provide for their health services through a combination of funding from government tax revenue and local ... Some reproductive hazards include: Anesthetic gases Antineoplastic (cancer treatment drugs) Chemical disinfectants and ...
The radiologist will first numb the skin with the local anesthetic and then inject the gadolinium based contrast media into the ...
Cool, wet compresses over the eyes and artificial tears may help local symptoms when the feeling returns. Nonsteroidal anti- ... Khakshoor, Hamid (October 2012). "Anesthetic keratopathy presenting as bilateral Mooren-like ulcers". Clinical Ophthalmology. 6 ...
The spice contains a chemical ingredient, sanshool, a local anesthetic that causes a tingling sensation on the tongue. Sanshool ...
This was done without an anesthetic. Yuè (刖), also known as bìn (臏) during the Xia dynasty and zhǎnzhǐ (斬趾) during the Qin ... execution then abandonment of the offender's body in the local public market (qìshì 棄市); strangulation (jiǎo 絞); and slow ...
Some patients are allergic to the common local anesthetics like lidocaine and probably should not consider lip injections. Some ... Under a local anesthesia, Alloderm is placed into the mucosa, or body, of the lips in small rolls to make them larger. Alloderm ...
Local anesthetic may bring almost instant relief for several hours. Vinegar and papain are ineffective.[citation needed] Weever ... Pain may be treated with local anesthetic in and around the wound, a regional nerve blockade, or parenteral opiates such as ... Contact with the stinger causes local trauma (from the cut itself), pain, swelling, and muscle cramps from the venom, and ...
Unlike most local anesthetics, oxetacaine does not break down under strongly acidic conditions. "Mucaine Gel". ... Oxetacaine (INN, also known as oxethazaine) is a potent local anesthetic. It is administered orally (usually in combination ... Seifter J, Glassman JM, Hudyma GM (1962). "Oxethazaine and related congeners: a series of highly potent local anesthetics". ... Local anesthetics, Acetamides, Primary alcohols, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system drug stubs, Nervous system drug stubs ...
... the presumed course of the pectoral nerves and the optimal spread of the local anesthetic. Blockade of the lateral pectoral ... local anesthetic injection), can facilitate better cosmetic results during breast augmentation or post-mastectomy breast ... may be the guide for local anesthetic applications in order to achieve pectoral muscle denervation. "Routine botulinum toxin ...
Oversby was also responsible for the adoption of the use of topical and local anesthetics as part piercing procedure in Europe ... Although they are used less now, it used to be standard practice to use anesthetics when performing piercings in England, where ...
The same experiment demonstrated that injection of lidocaine, a local anesthetic, inhibits theta oscillations from the medial ... leading to implications of anesthetic use during surgeries, and influence on sleep patterns. Some of these oxygen environments ... "An unexpected role for TASK-3 potassium channels in network oscillations with implications for sleep mechanisms and anesthetic ... "An unexpected role for TASK-3 potassium channels in network oscillations with implications for sleep mechanisms and anesthetic ...
One study utilized IP injections to study pain in the abdomen after a hysterectomy when administering anesthetic continuously ... controlled trial comparing continuous infusion vs patient-controlled intraperitoneal injection of local anaesthetic". British ... The results depicted that ketobemidone consumption was significantly lower when patients controlled anesthetic through IP. This ...
Local Anesthetics. Class Summary. Mepivacaine, bupivacaine and ropivacaine are all amide local anesthetics. They work by ... Tetracaine is an ester local anesthetic. It works the same as the amides by decreasing the permeability to sodium ions in ... Ultrasound image of the needle in plane with local anesthetic posterior to the axillary artery. Arrows = block needle, AA = ...
Is ultrasound guidance superior to nerve stimulator guidance for reducing the incidence of local anesthetic systemic toxicity ... Table 3. Summary of Events of Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity (LAST) Group. Sex. Age(Y). Weight(kg). Height(cm). Signs and ... Table 4. Associated risk factors for local anesthetic systemic toxicity Categorical Variables. No. LAST Events(%). OR 95% CI. P ... Combined Ultrasound and Nerve Stimulator-guided Deep Nerve Block May Decrease the Rate of Local Anesthetics Systemic Toxicity. ...
Injection of Local Anesthetics or Corticosteroids. Intrabursal injection of local anesthetics, corticosteroids, or both ... Intrabursal injection of local anesthetics, corticosteroids, or both constitutes a second line of treatment. Surgical therapy ...
Nomination Summary for Nomination Summary for Local anesthetics & metabolites (N20041). Nomination Summary for Local ... Rationale: Local anesthetics have widespread clinical use and human exposure including prenatal/postnatal exposure. Some of ... NIEHS has identified for nomination local anesthetics that contain the 2,6-xylidine or o-toludine substructure for metabolism ... anesthetics & metabolites (N20041). Nominated Substances: Bupivacaine, Bupivacaine hydrochloride, Etidocaine, Mepivicaine, ...
Local Anesthetics. Class Summary. Local anesthetic agents are used to increase patient comfort during the procedure. ... Lidocaine is an amide local anesthetic used in a 0.5-1% concentration in combination with bupivacaine (50:50 mixture). This ... General Anesthetics. Class Summary. After standard monitoring equipment is attached and peripheral venous access achieved but ... It has general anesthetic properties when administered intravenously. Propofol IV produces rapid hypnosis, usually within 40 ...
... Nov 1, 2020, 00:00 AM by ASRA Pain Medicine ... Local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) is a rare but life-threatening complication of regional anesthesia administration. ... Practitioners should be prepared to respond quickly to a local anesthetic overdose. ASRA convened a symposium on LAST in 2001 ... the ASRA Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity checklist was developed to guide management. The checklist has been revised over ...
Local anesthetics bind to serum α1-acid glycoproteins and other proteins. The duration of action for local anesthetics is based ... Local anesthetics. Current Opinions Anaesthesiology. 2007;. 20. :336-342. *72. Nysora, Gadsden J. Local Anesthetics: Clinical ... Thus, more local anesthetic will be available for neural blockade.. Local anesthetic sensitivity of nerve fibers differs to ... The action of local anesthetics on ion channels of excitable tissues. In: Strichartz GR, editor. Local Anesthetics. 1st ed. ...
Local Anesthetics, Vasoconstrictors and Clinical Dental Considerations with Diabetes Patient Care Planning. Six CE credits ... The lecture will provide participants with an overview of local anesthetic agents commonly used in dental practice with special ... individualize patient care and assess the efficacy of the local anesthetic agents administered. The afternoon will explore ...
Multiple choice questions concerning local anesthetic drugs are presented. ... Previous Local Anesthetic Pharmacology Practice Question Set. Next Local Anesthetic Pharmacology Practice Question Set. ... direct relationship between PaCO2 and local anesthetic seizure thresholds. *. ? hypokalemia: increased local anesthetic ... Factors influencing local anesthetic CNS toxicity:. *. ? rate of injection -- injection rate more important than total amount ...
Inhibition of Peritonitis by Amide Local Anesthetics Gunnar Rimbäck, M.D.; Gunnar Rimbäck, M.D. ... Local Anesthetics Reduce Mortality and Protect against Renal and Hepatic Dysfunction in Murine Septic Peritonitis ... Gunnar Rimbäck, Jean Cassuto, Gunnar Wallin, Göran Westlander; Inhibition of Peritonitis by Amide Local Anesthetics. ...
Motor blocking minimum local anesthetic concentrations of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine in labor. ... Motor blocking minimum local anesthetic concentrations of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine in labor. Journal ... BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adequate comparison of blocking capabilities of local anesthetics should be done with some knowledge ... The objective of this clinical trial was to simultaneously determine the motor blocking minimum local anesthetic concentrations ...
Use Your Own Local Anesthetic. Onset can be used to buffer standard dental cartridges of articaine, lidocaine, mepivacaine, and ... Onset makes your local anesthetics faster and more predictable. Onpharma makes buffering easy to try by provding you a 100% ... Once buffered with our Onset Mixing Pen, you place the local anesthetic cartridge in your own syringe and give the injection ... If you give injections without first buffering your anesthetic cartridge, your patients bodies must raise the pH of the local ...
Local Anesthetic: Film Festivals Part IV. By Adam Lippe "We want to show movies that wont be seen at the local mallplex," ... If there was ever a movie that was made for the local mallplex, its Law Abiding Citizen, but since the movie was shot in ...
Matsuki H, Hashimoto S, Kaneshina S, Yamanaka M. Surface Adsorption and Volume Behavior of Local Anesthetics. Langmuir. 1994 ... Matsuki, H., Hashimoto, S., Kaneshina, S., & Yamanaka, M. (1994). Surface Adsorption and Volume Behavior of Local Anesthetics. ... Matsuki, H, Hashimoto, S, Kaneshina, S & Yamanaka, M 1994, Surface Adsorption and Volume Behavior of Local Anesthetics, ... N2 - The surface tension and densities of the aqueous solutions of six hydrochloride salts of local anesthetics in clinical use ...
... and Adverse Reactions of Anesthetics and Analgesics - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128202371, 9780128202388 ... 3. Intraperitoneal local anesthetic agents in the management of post-operative pain. Karlin Sevensma. 4. Automatic control of ... Dietary constituents contribute to local anesthetic agent: neurophysiologicals mechanism of nociceptive pain. Mamoru Takeda. 41 ... which is made more complex with the use of analgesics and local or general anesthetics. This volume works to clarify all of the ...
Shop Henry Schein Dental for Benzo-Jel 03-32419 Gel Topical Anesthetic. Browse our full selection of products and order online. ... 20% benzocaine gel that provides effective relief of discomfort from local anesthetic injections, periodontal curettage, ... Benzo-Jel 03-32419 Gel Topical Anesthetic. Anesthetics / Topicals / 5700364 , Henry Schein Inc. - 03-32419 Preferred ... Benzo-Jel Topical Anesthetic Gel Pina Colada 1oz/Jr 5700364YAA , Henry Schein Inc. - 03-32419 ...
SOUZA, Liane Maciel de Almeida; RAMACCIATO, Juliana Cama MOTTA, Rogério Heládio Lopes. Use of local anesthetics in elderly ... Time and length of procedures, positioning of the patient in the dental chair, most commonly prescribed local anesthetics and ... Therefore, this literature review is aimed at dental surgeons attitude toward use of local anesthetics in elderly patients ...
This Alert presents control measures for preventing or greatly reducing exposure to N2O during the administration of anesthetic ... Scavenging systems use local exhaust ventilation to collect waste gases from anesthetic breathing systems and remove them from ... Anesthetic delivery. Excessive exposure to N2O may occur as a result of leaks from the anesthetic delivery system during ... the hoses connected to the anesthetic machine, and the anesthetic machine (especially the on-demand valve). Low-pressure leaks ...
... to ropivacaine or other amide-type local anesthetic agents, those who have undergone emergency local surgery or septic disease ... Efficacy of a local anesthetic gel infusion kit for pain relief after minimally invasive colorectal surgery: an open-label ...
Local Anesthetics, Amides. Class Summary. The use of a urethral anesthetic in female patients is controversial. The decision to ... Local anesthetics block the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses. Anesthetics used for the urethra include lidocaine and ... This may be done with any local anesthetic injectable agent. The benefits of prolonged local anesthesia have not been ...
... local anesthetic agents can be toxic if administered inappropriately, and in some cases may cause unintended reactions even ... encoded search term (Local Anesthetic Toxicity) and Local Anesthetic Toxicity What to Read Next on Medscape ... Local Anesthetic Agents Used Commonly for Infiltrative Injection. *Table 3. Minimum Intravenous Toxic Dose of Local Anesthetic ... Local anesthetic systemic toxicity: current perspectives. Local Reg Anesth. 2018. 11:35-44. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ...
Local Anesthetics in Lipid-Depot Formulations-Neurotoxicity in Relation to Duration of Effect in a Rat Model ... Local Anesthetics in Lipid-Depot Formulations-Neurotoxicity in Relation to Duration of Effect in a Rat Model ... Conclusions: The findings suggest that depot formulations of local anesthetics with advantageous pharmaceutical and ... of this study was to investigate the possible local neurotoxicity of a number of lipid-depot formulations of local anesthetics ...
Local Anesthetics. When SYNERA is used concomitantly with other products containing local anesthetic agents, the amount ... Lidocaine is an amide-type local anesthetic agent and tetracaine is an ester-type local anesthetic agent. Both lidocaine and ... SYNERA is a combination amide and ester local anesthetic indicated for use on intact skin to provide local dermal analgesia for ... If local anesthetics must be used in these patients, close monitoring for symptoms and signs of methemoglobinemia is ...
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Local Anesthetics Review , 2 CEs - MDC - , Continuing Education & OSHA Training ... This course is a comprehensive review of the most commonly used local anesthetics and their properties, an anatomy review of ... Review and know the most commonly used local anesthetics in clinical dentistry. ... Identify common anatomical landmarks used in the administration of a local anesthetic. ...
Get access to cutting edge treatment via Twin block local anesthetic nerve block using standard dental anesthetic, Twin block ... Twin Block with Local Anesthetic. Drug. ActiveComparator Group · 1 Intervention: Twin block local anesthetic nerve block using ... Twin block local anesthetic nerve block using standard dental anesthetic. - Drug. You have a chance of qualifying for this ... Surgery-specific General Anesthetic + Local Anesthetic At Incision Sitefor Gender Dysphoria. Phase-Based Progress Estimates. ...
Home » Consumables » Anaesthetics & Surgical » Local Anesthetics Local Anesthetics. Products Ordered By:. Our Listing. Product ...
Propyl gallate as a local anesthetic agent. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1971 May; 59(5): 795-8. ...
Local anesthetics after transmembrane cytoskeletal control of mobility and distribution of cell surface receptors. / Poste, G. ... The effects of local anesthetics on ligand induced redistribution of membrane receptors in both 3T3 cells and lymphocytes can ... The effects of local anesthetics on ligand induced redistribution of membrane receptors in both 3T3 cells and lymphocytes can ... The effects of local anesthetics on ligand induced redistribution of membrane receptors in both 3T3 cells and lymphocytes can ...
Section 7 - Pharmacology of local anesthetics. Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 February 2015 ...
  • Lidocaine is an amide local anesthetic used in a 0.5-1% concentration in combination with bupivacaine (50:50 mixture). (
  • Epinephrine prolongs the duration of the anesthetic effects from lidocaine by causing vasoconstriction of the blood vessels surrounding the nerve axons. (
  • Buffering with Onset costs me less than $12 per day, and I can buffer all my local anesthetics (lidocaine, articaine, carbocaine, prilocaine). (
  • The surface tension and densities of the aqueous solutions of six hydrochloride salts of local anesthetics in clinical use, tetracaine (TC·HCl), procaine (PC·HCl), dibucaine (DC·HCl), bupivacaine (BC·HCl), mepivacaine (MC·HCl), and lidocaine (LC·HCl), were measured as a function of the molality at 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure. (
  • Anesthetics used for the urethra include lidocaine and, possibly, bupivacaine. (
  • Lidocaine is the most common local anesthetic used in dentistry, however, there are many others. (
  • Purpose: This study investigated the local anesthetic efficiency of tramadol versus lidocaine hydrochloride in maxillary infiltration anesthesia. (
  • Thus, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine injected into the oral mucosa in combination with lidocaine on local anesthetic potency in humans. (
  • Conclusion The present study showed that a combination of dexmedetomidine plus lidocaine considerably enhances the local anesthetic potency of lidocaine without any major influences on the cardiovascular system when locally injected into the oral mucosa. (
  • The duration of anesthesia and local tissue toxicity produced by these new agents were compared with those produced by such widely used local anesthetics as procaine, tetracaine (Pontocaine), and lidocaine (Xylocaine). (
  • Lidocaine is in a class of medications called local anesthetics. (
  • Our fillers are also infused with lidocaine, a local anesthetic, to provide the most comfortable experience possible. (
  • Your provider will prep the areas to be treated with a topical numbing solution, the fillers contain lidocaine as local anesthetic, so the injection treatment is minimal in pain. (
  • may administer after waiting at least 20 minutes following local administration of lidocaine. (
  • A local anesthetic (e.g. lidocaine) is administered in the area where the surgery is to be performed. (
  • Lidocaine is a local anesthetic medicine used for numbing. (
  • Local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) is a rare but life-threatening complication of regional anesthesia administration. (
  • In 2008, ASRA created a Practice Advisory on Neurological Complications of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, and in 2010, the ASRA Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity checklist was developed to guide management. (
  • Watch this webinar to understand the science of local anesthesia and learn how buffering can address the inconsistencies in anesthetic performance, duration, predictability and patient perception. (
  • The benefits of prolonged local anesthesia have not been established. (
  • The Third American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Practice Advisory on Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity: Executive Summary 2017. (
  • American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity checklist: 2020 version. (
  • This course is suitable for dentists and hygienists who are licensed by their state boards to administer local anesthesia and who require a continuing education course in local anesthetics for license renewal. (
  • Paresthesia is an unfortunate yet sometimes unavoidable complication associated with local anesthesia administration. (
  • Injury to branches of the trigeminal nerve can be a result of chemical insult during dental treatment e.g. due to injection of local anesthesia directly into nerve branches, or through direct contact of obturating chemicals with nerve during endodontics management [4, 5]. (
  • However, most dentists use local anesthesia , which only numbs a small area to prevent pain. (
  • A topical anesthetic may be applied before the local anesthesia is injected to numb the mouth tissues. (
  • For the introduction of local (topical) anesthesia of accessible mucous membranes of the oral, laryngeal and nasal cavities. (
  • Cocaine is a local anesthetic indicated for the introduction of local (topical) anesthesia of accessible mucous membranes of the oral, laryngeal and nasal cavities. (
  • After the injections, total duration of anesthesia, start and finish times of anesthesia, soft tissue (sensory) innervation, depth of anesthetic, possible side effects, and satisfaction levels were recorded from all volunteers. (
  • Conclusion: Tramadol hydrochloride can be a good alternative to local anesthetic agents and beneficial to support anesthesia during long operations. (
  • Purpose Recently, attention has been paid to dexmedetomidine, a selective α-2 adrenoceptor agonist, as a possible additive for local anesthesia. (
  • The advantages which would accrue from local anesthesia of sufficient duration to avoid postoperative pain are obvious. (
  • Regional anesthesia refers to the focused delivery of anesthetic agent(s) to a given part of the body. (
  • Regional anesthesia is used extensively for various purposes, including as a primary anesthetic technique for surgery, as an analgesic modality to manage pain in the perioperative period, and as an analgesic modality for various other forms of acute and/or chronic pain. (
  • Regional anesthesia can reduce operative anesthetic requirements and in some cases allow avoidance of general anesthesia altogether. (
  • Intrathecal (IT), often referred to as "spinal," anesthesia refers to the delivery of anesthetic agents to the subarachnoid layer of the spinal column into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the spinal cord. (
  • IT opioids can be administered as an adjunct to general anesthesia (e.g., for scoliosis surgery) or combined with local anesthetics and administered during spinal anesthesia (e.g., for total hip arthroplasty). (
  • Today, cocaine is a Schedule II drug, which means that it has high potential for abuse but can be administered by a doctor for legitimate medical uses, such as local anesthesia for some eye, ear, and throat surgeries. (
  • such as local anesthesia. (
  • The following table illustrates the choices of anesthesia, a description of the anesthetic technique, and the usual indications for that technique. (
  • Local anesthetic is used in conjunction with the other methods of anesthesia in all oral surgery procedures. (
  • General anesthesia may be necessary if local anesthesia fails to anesthetize the surgical site which often occurs in the presence of infection. (
  • Most patients who undergo this type of liposuction procedure are administered local anesthesia, compared to more-invasive general anesthesia for traditional lipo. (
  • Ultrasound guidance might decrease the incidence of local anesthetics systemic toxicity (LAST) for many peripheral nerve blocks compared with nerve stimulator guidance. (
  • LAST, Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity. (
  • Local anesthetic systemic toxicity: current perspectives. (
  • Guidelines for the Management of Severe Local Anaesthetic Toxicity. (
  • Lipid Emulsion for Treating Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity. (
  • Reversal of central nervous system and cardiac toxicity after local anesthetic intoxication by lipid emulsion injection. (
  • The goals of pharmacologic therapy in patients with neurologic toxicity from local anesthetic agents are to terminate the neuromuscular and cerebral manifestations. (
  • Intrabursal injection of local anesthetics, corticosteroids, or both constitutes a second line of treatment. (
  • By buffering with Onset, you eliminate the anesthetic wait time, which lets you give the injection, go right to work, and complete the procedure without leaving the operatory. (
  • If you would rather go right to work, buffering your cartridges at chairside using Onset raises the pH of your anesthetic immediately before the injection, eliminating the wait time and allowing you to go right to work. (
  • By removing the patient's physiology from the process of raising the pH of each local anesthetic injection, the Onset Buffering System makes your local anesthetic more reliable and predictable, which helps keep your practice on time and on schedule. (
  • Once buffered with our Onset Mixing Pen, you place the local anesthetic cartridge in your own syringe and give the injection using your own injection technique. (
  • This course is a comprehensive review of the most commonly used local anesthetics and their properties, an anatomy review of knowledge necessary for proper placement of local anesthetics and a review of commonly used injection types and their indications for use. (
  • As a result, unless the dentist is using local anesthetic from a multi-use container (which is incredibly unlikely in your typical private practice in the U.S.), you will not be exposed to methylparaben as part of the local anesthetic injection. (
  • A local anesthetic of the amino ester group that is primarily used as a topical anesthetic.Also used to control the pain of intramuscular injection of penicillin as well as in dentistry.Non Caine local anesthetic. (
  • The local anesthetic effect of the solutions was evaluated by measuring the current perception threshold (CPT) in the oral mucosa for 120 minutes after injection. (
  • During a trigger point injection, a local anesthetic is injected directly into the trigger point(s) thought to be contributing to migraine pain. (
  • The patient is given a local anesthetic to prevent any pain caused by the incisions, and they are typically able to see with normal visions within several days. (
  • The patient is typically given a local anesthetic. (
  • Sedation vs. Local Anesthetic: What's The Difference? (
  • Sedation and local anesthetic are two commonly used options, and though they may seem interchangeable, there are actually several key differences between them that help your dentist decide which is right for you. (
  • Dermabrasion for skin damage is a painful procedure and is best performed under some sort of mild sedation and local anesthetic blocks. (
  • Because of this, since the mid 1980s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration mandated the removal of methylparaben from single use dental local anesthetic cartridges. (
  • In this article, a patient was injected repeatedly on one side with a dental local anesthetic containing metabisulfite. (
  • Mepivacaine, bupivacaine and ropivacaine are all amide local anesthetics. (
  • Motor blocking minimum local anesthetic concentrations of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine in labor. (
  • The objective of this clinical trial was to simultaneously determine the motor blocking minimum local anesthetic concentrations (MMLAC) and the relative potency ratios for racemic bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine during labor. (
  • The findings suggest that depot formulations of local anesthetics with advantageous pharmaceutical and pharmacologic properties can be prepared by use of bupivacaine as the active component and natural lipids as carriers. (
  • Zynrelef contains bupivacaine, an amide local anesthetic, and meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). (
  • Bupivacaine: Local anesthetics block the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. (
  • Dental surgery uses a local anesthetic that numbs the tooth and surrounding tissues. (
  • Dr. Caspe numbs the area with local anesthetic. (
  • The local anesthetic numbs pain receptors in the nerves to alleviate discomfort. (
  • The steroid provides long-lasting relief of inflammation, and the anesthetic numbs the irritated nerves by disrupting pain signals that travel from the nerve to your brain. (
  • Tetracaine is an ester local anesthetic. (
  • SYNERA is a combination amide and ester local anesthetic indicated for use on intact skin to provide local dermal analgesia for superficial venous access and superficial dermatological procedures such as excision, electrodessication and shave biopsy of skin lesions [see Clinical Studies ]. (
  • In Part I of this series, we covered allergic reactions to ester based local anesthetics used in dentistry. (
  • These occur very rarely now because the entire class of ester local anesthetics has essentially been phased out in favor of amide based local anesthetics. (
  • Methylparaben is chemically very similar to PABA - the metabolic by-product of many ester-type local anesthetics. (
  • Most local anesthetics structures have amino-ester or an amino-amide group which are linked to hydrophilic (secondary or tertiary amine) and to hydrophobic group (aromatics) on the other side. (
  • If you give injections without first buffering your anesthetic cartridge, your patients' bodies must raise the pH of the local anesthetic toward physiologic (~7.4) before they will achieve pulpal analgesia. (
  • 20% benzocaine gel that provides effective relief of discomfort from local anesthetic injections, periodontal curettage, impression taking, and intraoral radiographs. (
  • Joint injections: Typically a combination of local anesthetic and a steroid medication. (
  • Achieving complete comfort for both patient and doctor while administering local anesthetic injections is a paradigm shift for my practice and a true WIN/WIN! (
  • The injections contain a mix of a local anesthetic and a steroid medication. (
  • Street dealers generally dilute it with inert substances such as cornstarch, talcum powder, or sugar, or with active drugs such as procaine (a chemically related local anesthetic) or amphetamine (another stimulant). (
  • Local anesthetic agents are used to increase patient comfort during the procedure. (
  • Understand the criteria for anesthetic choice based on the procedure and the patient's medical history. (
  • Most pacemakers are inserted under the chest wall through a small incision during a short surgical procedure using only a local anesthetic. (
  • Synera belongs to a class of drugs called Anesthetics, Topical. (
  • Know the difference between infiltration and nerve block anesthetic applications. (
  • These methods can be categorized into neuraxial local analgesics and opioids, peripheral nerve blocks, and wound infiltration. (
  • They decreased in the order of DC·HCl, TC·HCl, BC·HCl, MC·HCl, LC·HCl, and PC·HCl in accordance with anesthetic potency. (
  • The lecture will provide participants with an overview of local anesthetic agents commonly used in dental practice with special emphasis given to developing stratgies and techniques to accurately identify the need for pain control, individualize patient care and assess the efficacy of the local anesthetic agents administered. (
  • Time and length of procedures, positioning of the patient in the dental chair, most commonly prescribed local anesthetics and vasoconstrictors recommended for elderly patients and their maximum recommended dose. (
  • Review and know the most commonly used local anesthetics in clinical dentistry. (
  • This study aimed to reveal the antimicrobial effect of commonly used local anesthetics (LAs) on HP. (
  • Commonly used IT analgesic agents specifically in the perioperative setting include local anesthetics, opioids, and adjuncts such as epinephrine. (
  • Let the arm rest for approximately 5 minutes and check for anesthetic effect before making skin incision. (
  • Inject 2mL of local anesthetic applied just under the skin, raising a wheal at the insertion point and advancing up to 5 cm along the first insertion track, injecting 1mL of local anesthetic along the track as you withdraw. (
  • Without completely removing the needle, reorient to the second insertion track, advance up to 5 cm, and again inject 1mL of local anesthetic along track as needle is withdrawn. (
  • A doctor may inject a local anesthetic to numb the affected knee only. (
  • [ 1 ] The use of regional anesthetic and analgesic techniques can offer superior overall pain control and reduced postoperative opioid requirements. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the possible local neurotoxicity of a number of lipid-depot formulations of local anesthetics in relation to their duration of action in sciatic-nerve block. (
  • Here, we describe a case of intractable PHI, which was successfully managed with peripheral nerve block by a high concentration of local anesthetics. (
  • In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. (
  • Synera is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Local Dermal Analgesia . (
  • Dental local anesthetics that do not contain epinephrine do not have metabisulfite. (
  • Injectable anesthetics work by blocking the nerves that transmit pain, which allows the dentist to perform procedures like cavity fillings. (
  • Your dentist performs this treatment for gum disease under a local anesthetic. (
  • A local anesthetic is applied so your Dentist can prepare the abutments. (
  • Because of this similarity to PABA, when methylparaben is injected as part of a local anesthetic, allergic reactions can occasionally occur. (
  • Tertiary amine local anesthetics facilitated concanavalin A induced redistribution of lectin receptors on murine BALB/3T3 cells and enhanced the susceptibility of these cells to agglutination by concanavalin A. In contrast, these drugs at similar concentrations inhibited ligant induced capping of immunoglobulin receptors on mouse lymphocytes. (
  • RESULTS: There were no differences in demographic, hemodynamic, or obstetric characteristics between the patients receiving the three local anesthetics. (
  • This means that without buffering, standard dental cartridges will make you, your staff, and your patients wait while the patients' bodies work to raise the pH of the anesthetic towards physiologic. (
  • Therefore, this literature review is aimed at dental surgeons' attitude toward use of local anesthetics in elderly patients undergoing oral implant rehabilitation. (
  • Patients with hypersensitivity (or history of hypersensitivity) to ropivacaine or other amide-type local anesthetic agents, those who have undergone emergency local surgery or septic disease, those who suffered from mental illness, those who had taken medications and painkillers within a month before surgery, and those with serious comorbidities such as cirrhosis of the liver, renal failure or cardiomyopathy, were excluded. (
  • The use of a urethral anesthetic in female patients is controversial. (
  • Local anesthetics were invented to perform surgical operations on patients. (
  • Treatments, Mechanisms, and Adverse Reactions of Anesthetics and Analgesics is an essential read for anyone working in pain management. (
  • The etiology of pain is complex and multi-factorial, which is made more complex with the use of analgesics and local or general anesthetics. (
  • Academic libraries that covers the neuroscience of pain, anesthetics and analgesics. (
  • Objective: To assess the effectiveness of dressings, local anaesthetics/analgesics for pain relief in venous leg ulceration. (
  • Opioid analgesics such as local anesthetics. (
  • Control is more difficult in dental operatories because only the patient's nose is covered during anesthetic administration and scavenging, but both the nose and mouth can be covered in general operating theaters. (
  • Local anesthetic is also administered simultaneously to ensure the patient's comfort. (
  • This may be done with any local anesthetic injectable agent. (
  • They take several drugs, which, in many cases, might lead to undesirable interactions or complications, especially those involving local anesthetics. (
  • The authors present electron microscopic evidence of structural alterations in microtubule and microfilament organization in anesthetic treated cells, together with data on changes in the responsiveness of anesthetic treated cells to drugs that act on microtubules and/or microfilaments. (
  • Local anesthetic drugs refer to those that can temporarily, completely, and reversibly block nerve conduction within the limited range of the human body, that is, make a part of the human body lose sensation without losing consciousness. (
  • Local anesthetics have widespread clinical use and human exposure including prenatal/postnatal exposure. (
  • THIS PAPER presents certain experimental and clinical observations on the ophthalmologic use of two new long-lasting anesthetic agents, efocaine and U-0045. (
  • Propitocaine hydrochloride is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Lö Fgren. (
  • Briggs, M & Nelson, EA 1999, ' Local interventions for pain in venous leg ulcers ', Journal of Tissue Viability , vol. 9, pp. 139-139. (
  • The type of anesthetic used to numb pain will depend on the extent of the arthroscopy. (
  • It is a local anesthetic that starts to numb the lining of the mouth and throat 1-2 minutes after application. (
  • A local anesthetic is used to numb the ears. (
  • If both knees are affected, the doctor may use a regional anesthetic to numb the person from the waist down. (
  • When SYNERA is used concomitantly with other products containing local anesthetic agents, the amount absorbed from all formulations should be considered, as local anesthetics are thought to have at least additive toxicities. (
  • Both anesthetic agents were well tolerated by the volunteers. (
  • Scavenging systems use local exhaust ventilation to collect waste gases from anesthetic breathing systems and remove them from the workplace. (
  • Ultrasound image of the needle in plane with local anesthetic posterior to the axillary artery. (
  • Arrows = block needle, AA = axillary artery, LA = local anesthetic posterior to the artery. (
  • An 82-year-old, 152 cm, 68 kg male patient had decompression surgery for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (C4/5 to C5/6) at a local hospital. (
  • Local anesthetics block the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses. (
  • The fundamental difference between a local anesthetic and a general anesthetic is that after the local anesthetic is combined with some specific parts of the sodium ion channel on the nerve membrane, the sodium ion through the sodium ion channel is reduced to change the nerve membrane potential, leading to the conduction of nerve impulses. (
  • Allergy testing later concluded an allergy to bisulfite found in the local anesthetic. (
  • number of reported cases involving articaine increased markedly, and articaine became the local anesthetic most reported to be associated with paresthesia across the entire study period. (
  • This type of local anesthetic is typically only seen in hospitals and physician offices. (
  • The SYNERA heating component generates a mild warming that is intended to enhance the delivery of the local anesthetic. (
  • It provides a mild anesthetic effect, promotes relaxation, and relieves anxiety. (
  • When the numbing medicine (local anesthetic) is injected, you will feel a prick and a mild sting. (
  • Aside from cavities, local anesthetic may be needed for other procedures, such as treating gum disease or preparing teeth for crowns. (
  • SYNERA consists of a thin, uniform layer of a local anesthetic formulation with an integrated, oxygen-activated heating component that is intended to enhance the delivery of the local anesthetic. (