Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The period during a surgical operation.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.
Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.
A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Specially trained personnel to assist in routine technical procedures in the operating room.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients in the recovery room following surgery and/or anesthesia.
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Electrophysiological evidence for tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in slowly conducting dural sensory fibers. (1/3062)

A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5 +info)

RINm5f cells express inactivating BK channels whereas HIT cells express noninactivating BK channels. (2/3062)

Large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated BK-type K+ channels are expressed abundantly in normal rat pancreatic islet cells and in the clonal rat insulinoma tumor (RINm5f) and hamster insulinoma tumor (HIT) beta cell lines. Previous work has suggested that the Ca2+ sensitivity of BK channels in RIN cells is substantially less than that in HIT cells, perhaps contributing to differences between the cell lines in responsiveness to glucose in mediating insulin secretion. In both RIN cells and normal pancreatic beta cells, BK channels are thought to play a limited role in responses of beta cells to secretagogues and in the electrical activity of beta cells. Here we examine in detail the properties of BK channels in RIN and HIT cells using inside-out patches and whole cell recordings. BK channels in RIN cells exhibit rapid inactivation that results in an anomalous steady-state Ca2+ dependence of activation. In contrast, BK channels in HIT cells exhibit the more usual noninactivating behavior. When BK inactivation is taken into account, the Ca2+ and voltage dependence of activation of BK channels in RIN and HIT cells is essentially indistinguishable. The properties of BK channel inactivation in RIN cells are similar to those of inactivating BK channels (termed BKi channels) previously identified in rat chromaffin cells. Inactivation involves multiple, trypsin-sensitive cytosolic domains and exhibits a dependence on Ca2+ and voltage that appears to arise from coupling to channel activation. In addition, the rates of inactivation onset and recovery are similar to that of BKi channels in chromaffin cells. The charybdotoxin (CTX) sensitivity of BKi currents is somewhat less than that of the noninactivating BK variant. Action potential voltage-clamp waveforms indicate that BK current is activated only weakly by Ca2+ influx in RIN cells but more strongly activated in HIT cells even when Ca2+ current magnitude is comparable. Concentrations of CTX sufficient to block BKi current in RIN cells have no effect on action potential activity initiated by glucose or DC injection. Despite its abundant expression in RIN cells, BKi current appears to play little role in action potential activity initiated by glucose or DC injection in RIN cells, but BK current may play an important role in action potential repolarization in HIT cells.  (+info)

Comparison of local anesthetic activities between optical isomers of cis-1-benzoyloxy-2-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene. (3/3062)

The optical isomers of cis-1-benzoyloxy-2-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (YAU-17) were compared for their local anesthetic activity, acute toxicity, spasmolytic activity, and partition coefficient between chloroform and phosphate buffer. 1-YAU-17 was more active than d-YAU-17 in blocking the conduction of action potentials in isolated frog sciatic nerves. The difference in local anesthetic activities between the optical isomers was further substantiated by in vivo tests for corneal anesthesia, intracutaneous anesthesia and sciatic nerve block in quinea-pigs. Similarly, the i.v. injection to mice revealed a higher toxicity for 1-YAU-17 as compared to its d-isomer. In these tests, the potency ratios of the enantiomers ranged from 2 to 4, and the racemate had an intermediate potency. On the contrary, no difference among the compounds was found in their liposolubility, partition coefficient, and spasmolytic activity examined with isolated guinea-pig ileum. These results indicate that the steric factors play an important role in the production of different local anesthetic activities between the optical isomers of YAU-17, and their local anesthetic potency tends to be correlated to their intravenous acute toxicity but not to their spasmolytic activity.  (+info)

Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) (4/3062)

Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine.  (+info)

Evaluation of lidocaine as an analgesic when added to hypertonic saline for sclerotherapy. (5/3062)

PURPOSE: The efficacy of sclerosing agents for the treatment of telangiectasias and reticular veins is well established. The injection of these agents is often associated with pain, and it is not uncommon for sclerotherapists to include lidocaine with the sclerosants in an attempt to reduce the pain associated with treatment. However, there are concerns that this may reduce the overall efficacy of the treatment because of dilution of the sclerosant. Patient comfort and overall outcome associated with treatment using HS with lidocaine (LIDO) versus that using HS alone was compared. METHODS: Forty-two patients were prospectively entered into the study and randomized blindly to sclerotherapy with 23.4% HS or 19% LIDO. Study subjects and treating physicians were blinded to the injection solution used. Injection sites were chosen for veins ranging in size from 0.1 to 3 mm. Photographs of the area to be treated were taken, and the patients rated their pain. They were then observed at regular intervals for four months, and clinical data was collected. Thirty-five subjects completed the full follow-up period, and photographs of the injected area were taken again. Three investigators blinded to the treatment assignment then evaluated the photographs and scored the treatment efficacy according to a standardized system. RESULTS: In the HS group, 61.9% (13 of 21) patients rated their pain as none or mild, whereas 90.5% (19 of 21) of patients in the LIDO group had no or mild discomfort. This difference is significant, with a P value of.034. There was no difference in the overall efficacy of treatment between the two groups. The groups had similar rates of vein thrombosis and skin necrosis. CONCLUSION: Although lidocaine is often used with sclerosing agents, there are no previous reports in the literature to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing the pain experienced by the patient. In this study, patients receiving LIDO experienced significantly less discomfort at the time of injection than patients who received HS alone. There were no differences in the effectiveness of treatment or in the incidence of complications between the two groups.  (+info)

A study of local anaesthetics. Part 148. Influence of auxiliary substances on the surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII. (6/3062)

The influence of auxiliary substances of the polyol group (glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol) and of their concentration (5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight) upon surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII, viz., N-[2-(2-propoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)-ethyl] piperidinium chloride was studied. The substances were applied as hydrogel humectants. It was found that their influence on the surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII depended on the type as well as concentration of the auxiliary substance. From the viewpoints of use in formulations of the drug form, sorbitol used at 5 and 10% concentrations represented the optimum.  (+info)

Dose-response effects of spinal neostigmine added to bupivacaine spinal anesthesia in volunteers. (7/3062)

BACKGROUND: Intrathecal adjuncts often are used to enhance small-dose spinal bupivacaine for ambulatory anesthesia. Neostigmine is a novel spinal analgesic that could be a useful adjunct, but no data exist to assess the effects of neostigmine on small-dose bupivacaine spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Eighteen volunteers received two bupivacaine spinal anesthetics (7.5 mg) in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design. Dextrose, 5% (1 ml), was added to one spinal infusion and 6.25, 12.5, or 50 microg neostigmine in dextrose, 5%, was added to the other spinal. Sensory block was assessed with pinprick; by the duration of tolerance to electric stimulation equivalent to surgical incision at the pubis, knee, and ankle; and by the duration of tolerance to thigh tourniquet. Motor block at the quadriceps was assessed with surface electromyography. Side effects (nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and sedation) were noted. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were recorded every 5 min. Dose-response relations were assessed with analysis of variance, paired t tests, or Spearman rank correlation. RESULTS: The addition of 50 microg neostigmine significantly increased the duration of sensory and motor block and the time until discharge criteria were achieved. The addition of neostigmine produced dose-dependent nausea (33-67%) and vomiting (17-50%). Neostigmine at these doses had no effect on hemodynamic or respiratory parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of 50 microg neostigmine prolonged the duration of sensory and motor block. However, high incidences of side effects and delayed recovery from anesthesia with the addition of 6.25 to 50 microg neostigmine may limit the clinical use of these doses for outpatient spinal anesthesia.  (+info)

Comparison of three solutions of ropivacaine/fentanyl for postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia. (8/3062)

BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine, 0.2%, is a new local anesthetic approved for epidural analgesia. The addition of 4 microg/ml fentanyl improves analgesia from epidural ropivacaine. Use of a lower concentration of ropivacaine-fentanyl may further improve analgesia or decrease side effects. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery were randomized in a double-blinded manner to receive one of three solutions: 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl 0.1% ropivacaine-2 microg fentanyl, or 0.05% ropivacaine-1 microg fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia after standardized combined epidural and general anesthesia. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia settings and adjustments for the three solutions were standardized to deliver equivalent drug doses. Pain scores (rest, cough, and ambulation), side effects (nausea, pruritus, sedation, motor block, hypotension, and orthostasis), and patient-controlled epidural analgesia consumption were measured for 48 h. RESULTS: All three solutions produced equivalent analgesia. Motor block was significantly more common (30 vs. 0%) and more intense with the 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl solution. Other side effects were equivalent between solutions and mild in severity. A significantly smaller volume of 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl solution was used, whereas the 0.1% ropivacaine-2 microg fentanyl group used a significantly greater amount of ropivacaine and fentanyl. CONCLUSIONS: Lesser concentrations of ropivacaine and fentanyl provide comparable analgesia with less motor block despite the use of similar amounts of ropivacaine and fentanyl. This finding suggests that concentration of local anesthetic solution at low doses is a primary determinant of motor block with patient-controlled epidural analgesia after lower abdominal surgery.  (+info)

Local Anesthetics Toxicity and Management Gregory Pate, MD Department of Anesthesia Bremerton Naval Hospital Local Anesthetic Toxicity Topics Local Anesthetic Pharmacology Adverse Reactions to Local Anesthetics Types of Toxicity Acute Systemic Toxicity Management of Acute Systemic Toxicity Basics: Local Anesthetic Pharm Amino esters and Amino amides Metabolism Protein binding Lipophilichydrophilic balance Hydrogen Ion concentration Katzung, Basic & clinical pharm, 10th edition Basics: Local Anesthetic Mechanism Active form of the local anesthetic Modulated receptor theory Other possible mechanisms of action Millers Anesthesia, 6th edition Local Anesthetic Toxicity Topics Local Anesthetic Pharmacology Adverse Reactions to Local Anesthetics Types of Toxicity Acute Systemic Toxicity Management of Acute Systemic Toxicity Methemoglobinemia Prilocaine and Benzocaine Benzocaine sprays like Cetacaine EMLA cream which has prilocaine although this practice is still generally considered safe Seen with use ...
This randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare single injection pectoral nerve block (Pecs I and Pecs II) versus local anesthetic infiltration for ambulatory breast augmentation under monitored anesthesia care (MAC). In this randomized, double-blind, prospective study, 80 patients scheduled for breast augmentation under MAC using dexmedetomidine were divided into two groups. Pecs group: Ultrasound-guided pectoral nerve block was performed on both sides of the chest. Local anesthetic (LA) group: Local anesthetic infiltration was performed in the desired plane and skin incision site of each breast. The number of patients converted to general anesthesia was calculated. Postoperative pain intensity was measured using visual analog scale (VAS), and morphine consumption in the first 24 h and patient satisfaction were measured. The success rate of the ultrasound-guided block versus local infiltration to complete surgery without conversion to general anesthesia was statistically non-significant.
The study aim was to explore local anesthetic properties of some tertiary and quaternary derivatives of dimethylacetamide. Materials and methods. The study was performed on white laboratory mice and rats of both sexes, male Agouti guinea pigs, and isolated sciatic nerves of lake frog. In the focus of the study there were two quaternary and eight tertiary compounds of dimethylacetamide with substituted anion with some amino and carbonic acids residue. A local anesthetic property was predicted by computational analysis. Acute toxicity of the most promising substances was studied in mice through subcutaneous route. Local anesthetic activity of tertiary compounds LKhT-3-00, LKhT-4-00 and quaternary LKhT-12-02 was studied on models of terminal, infiltration and conduction anesthesia. The influence of substances on mixed nerve conduction was investigated on lake frogs isolated sciatic nerves. Results and discussion. The greatest probability of the local anesthetic activity during
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(2017) Zhang et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. Background: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were to evaluate the effect and safety of local anesthetic infusion pump versus placebo for pain management following total knee arthroplasty (T...
This is a list of local anesthetic agents. Not all of these drugs are still used in clinical practice and in research. Some are primarily of historical interest. 4-Aminobenzoic acid Amino amide Amino esters Anesthesia Anesthetic Brachial plexus block Cocaine analogues: local anesthetics Dental anesthesia Dibucaine number Epidural Intravenous regional anesthesia Local anesthesia Local anesthetic with vasoconstrictor Local anesthetic toxicity Methemoglobin Sodium channel blocker Spinal anesthesia Topical anesthesia Veterinary anesthesia Büchi, J; Stünzi, E; Flury, M; Hirt, R; Labhart, P; Ragaz, L (1951). Über lokalanästhetisch wirksame basische Ester und Amide verschiedener Alkoxy-amino-benzoesäuren. Helvetica Chimica Acta. 34 (4): 1002-1013. doi:10.1002/hlca.19510340404. S. M. McElvain and T. P. Carney, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 68, 2592 (1946). K. Miescher, Helv. Chim. Acta, 15, 163 (1932). 44. T. H. Rider, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 52, 2115 (1930). M. S. Raasch and W. R. Brode, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, ...
The present invention relates to pharmacological active preparations, especially local anesthetic preparations and deals with the problem of i a obtaining a solution of a local anesthetic agent in the form of its base, where the concentration is higher than otherwise possible. This problem has been dissolved according to the present invention thereby that one local anesthetic agent in the form of its base and as such having a melting point of 30 to 50 C., preferably prilocaine or tetracaine, is provided with one other local anesthetic agent in the form of its base and as such having a melting point of above 30 C., preferably above 40 C., preferably bensocaine, lidocaine, bupivacaine, mepivacaine, etidocaine or tetracaine which agents when brought and heated together form a homogenous oil having a melting of preferably below 40 C., more preferably below 25 C.
general anesthetic. Local anesthetics do not require the circulation as an intermediate carrier, and they usually are not transported to distant organs. Therefore, the actions of local anesthetics are largely confined to the structures with which they come into direct contact. Local anesthetics may provide analgesia in various parts of the body by topical application, injection in the vicinity of peripheral nerve endings and major nerve trunks, or via instillation within the epidural or subarachnoid spaces. The various local anesthetics differ with regard to their potency, duration of action, and degree of effects on sensory and motor fibers. Toxicity may be local or systemic. With systemic toxicity, the central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular systems typically are affected. ...
Note the lack of local anesthetics on that list. Lidocaine? No. Hyperbaric bupivacaine? No. Good ol tetracaine? Nope. All local anesthetics in the intrathecal space are off-label. Yet these are the very drugs that serve as the cornerstone for spinal anesthesia.. With a spinal needle and a few milliliters of local anesthetic like bupivacaine or lidocaine, we can achieve an anesthetic which enables surgeons to operate on the abdomen or lower extremities pain-free without any significant cardiopulmonary drawbacks. Sure, sympathectomies are a concern, but weve become extremely good at predicting and mitigating the effects of hypotension, tachy/bradycardias, etc ...
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This paper shows experimental results obtained from a T100 microturbine connected with different volume sizes. The activity was carried out with the test rig developed at the University of Genoa for hybrid system emulation. However, these results apply to all the advanced cycles where a microturbine is connected with an additional external component responsible for volume size increase. Even if the tests were performed with a microturbine, similar analyses can be extended to large size turbines. A modular vessel was used to perform and to compare the tests with different volume sizes. To highlight the volume size effect, preliminary experimental results were carried out considering the transient response due to an on/off bleed valve operation. So, the main differences between system parameters obtained for a bleed line closing operation are compared considering three different volume sizes. The main results reported in this paper are related to surge operations. To produce surge conditions in ...
We reviewed the literature and found only one case series, published as a letter, that described complications associated with the use of pump systems for direct anesthetic infusion. This case series describes plastic surgery consultations for three patients referred by the same orthopedic surgeon after knee arthroplasties. 8 Two patients needed wound débridements and gastrocnemius flaps, and the third patient underwent repeated débridements and skin grafting. The likely cause of wound ischemia and necrosis was thought to be the infusion of bupivacaine with epinephrine. Reportedly, there was adequate drainage of the wound and no apparent compartment compression. The authors of the letter speculate that the adverse events were related to continuous infusion of epinephrine and subsequent vasoconstriction of the area. In adverse event reports to the FDA, some reports described similar adverse events with use of anesthetic infusion alone. These reports did not explicitly state that epinephrine was ...
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The investigators propose a prospective blinded randomized control trial (RCT) to assess the efficacy and safety of a simple method of continuous infusion of a local anesthetic, ropivacaine, via a surgical wound to control pain after ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) stenosis correction in children during the first 48 hrs after surgery. The investigators hypothesize that this technique will provide greater pain relief post-operatively and reduce the need for systemic opioid use along with a reduction in associated side effects of such analgesics ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Local anesthetics induce apoptosis in human breast tumor cells. AU - Chang, Yuan Ching. AU - Liu, Chien Liang. AU - Chen, Ming Jen. AU - Hsu, Yung Wei. AU - Chen, Shan Na. AU - Lin, Chi Hsin. AU - Chen, Chin Man. AU - Yang, Feng Ming. AU - Hu, Meng Chun. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - BACKGROUND:: Previous studies have shown that local anesthetics may induce apoptosis in some cell types. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effects of local anesthetics in human breast tumor cells. METHODS:: Human breast cancer (MCF-7) and mammary epithelial (MCF-10A) cell lines were treated with lidocaine and/or bupivacaine. Cell viability, DNA fragmentation, and annexin V immunofluorescence staining were assessed. The effects on apoptosis-related protein expression were investigated by Western blot analysis. The findings were extended to studies in an in vivo xenograft model. RESULTS:: Treatment of breast tumor cells with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in inhibition of cell ...
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are rare when it is administered correctly. Most ADRs relate to administration technique (resulting in systemic exposure) or pharmacological effects of anesthesia, however allergic reactions can rarely occur. Systemic exposure to excessive quantities of ropivacaine mainly result in central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular effects - CNS effects usually occur at lower blood plasma concentrations and additional cardiovascular effects present at higher concentrations, though cardiovascular collapse may also occur with low concentrations. CNS effects may include CNS excitation (nervousness, tingling around the mouth, tinnitus, tremor, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures followed by depression (drowsiness, loss of consciousness), respiratory depression and apnea). Cardiovascular effects include hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmias, and/or cardiac arrest - some of which may be due to hypoxemia secondary to respiratory depression.[2] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel molecular determinants in the pore region of sodium channels regulate local anesthetic binding. AU - Yamagishi, Toshio. AU - Xiong, Wei. AU - Kondratiev, Andre. AU - Vélez, Patricio. AU - Méndez-Fitzwilliam, Ailsa. AU - Balser, Jeffrey R.. AU - Marbán, Eduardo. AU - Tomaselli, Gordon F.. PY - 2009/10. Y1 - 2009/10. N2 - The pore of the Na+ channel is lined by asymmetric loops formed by the linkers between the fifth and sixth transmembrane segments (S5-S6). We investigated the role of the N-terminal portion (SS1) of the S5-S6 linkers in channel gating and local anesthetic (LA) block using site-directed cysteine mutagenesis of the rat skeletal muscle (NaV1.4) channel. The mutants examined have variable effects on voltage dependence and kinetics of fast inactivation. Of the cysteine mutants immediately N-terminal to the putative DEKA selectivity filter in four domains, only Q399C in domain I and F1236C in domain III exhibit reduced use-dependent block. These two mutations ...
Group 2(control group): 42 patients will have placebo/normal saline in paravertebral space, same amount, and injection at incision sites for all four insufflation ports with ropivacaine 0.5%.. control group: Group 2(control group): 42 patients will have placebo/normal saline in paravertebral space, same amount, and injection at incision sites for all four insufflation ports with ropivacaine 0.5%.. ...
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Comparison of Plain, Warmed, and Buffered Lidocaine for Anesthesia of Traumatic Wounds - G.X. Brogan Jr.. Comparison of Room Temperature and Body Temperature Local Anaesthetic Solutions - L. C. Bainbridge. Development of an Electronically Heated Painless Injection System - K. Konuma. Local Anaesthesia: to Warm or Alter the pH? A Survey of Current Practice - D. J. Courtney. Reducing the Pain of Local Anesthetic Infiltration: Warming and Buffering have a Synergistic Effect - Timothy J. Mader, Stephen J. Playe, Jane L. Garb. The Warming of Local Anesthetic Agents to Decrease Discomfort - L. H. Bloom. Warming Anesthetics Reduces Pain of Injections - Bill Hendrick. Warming Lignocaine Reduces the Pain of Injection During Peribulbar Local Anaesthesia for Cataract Surgery - R.W. Bell. ...
Biodegradable controlled release microspheres for the prolonged administration of a local anesthetic agent, and a method for the manufacture thereof are disclosed. The microspheres are formed of a biodegradable polymer degrading significantly within a month, with at least 50% of the polymer degrading into non-toxic residues which are removed by the body within a two week period. Useful polymers include polyanhydrides, polylactic acid-glycolic acid copolymers and polyorthoesters containing a catalyst; polylactic acid-glycolic acid copolymers are preferred. Local anesthetics are incorporated into the polymer using a method that yields a uniform dispersion, preferably solvent casting. Prolonged release is obtained by incorporation of a glucocorticoid into the polymeric matrix or by co-administration of the glucocorticoid with the microspheres. The type of anesthetic and the quantity are selected based on the known pharmaceutical properties of these compounds.
Objectives: To investigate the quantitative impact of experience on competence in local anesthetic administration amongst final-year Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) students.. Methods: A Longitudinal cohort study design was employed. Purposive sampling was used to enrol final year BDS students and assess their competence longitudinally over a full academic year. The assessment criteria and scoring structure were reviewed during inspection of the institution by the regulator and the external examiner. Participants were assessed on four occasions, namely, after they had gained experience in performing 15, 40, 70 and 100 patient encounters involving local anesthetic administration.. Results: A total of 177 participants who were assessed including 31 males (18%) and 146 females (82%). Assessment of the participants on four occasions provided a total of 885 data points. A chi-square test was carried out to test the hypothesis. Students in Group 4 with over 100 patient encounters were most likely to ...
1. Säkkinen J, Huppunen M, Suuronen R. Complications following local anaesthesia. Nor Tannlegeforen Tid. 2005;115:48-52.. 2. Becker DE, Reed KL. Essentials of local anesthetic pharmacology. Anesth Prog. 2006; 53(3):98-108.. 3. Niwa H, Hirota Y, Shibutani T, Matsuura H. Systemic emergencies and their management in dentistry: complications independent of underlying disease. Anesth Prog. 1996;1:29-35.. 4. Meechan JG, Skelly AM. Problems complicating dental treatment with local anaesthesia or sedation: prevention and management. Dent Update. 1997;24(7):278-283.. 5. Tentindo G, Rosenberg M. Methemoglobinemia and local anesthesia: what every dentist should know. J Mass Dent Soc. 2010;59(2):18-20.. 6. Bourne E, Wright C, Royse C. A review of local anesthetic cardiotoxicity and treatment with lipid emulsion. Local Reg Anesth. 2010;3:11-19.. 7. Nizharadze N, Mamaladze M, Chipashvili N, Vadachkoria D. Articane - the best choice of local anesthetic in contemporary dentistry. Georgian Med News. ...
In the following experiments, the use dependence of Na sup + current block by local anesthetics (i.e., phasic block) was studied. Na sup + currents were activated every second by voltage steps from -80 to -30 mV, first in control solution and then in the presence of local anesthetics. Control current and several consecutive currents recorded with 100-micro Meter bupivacaine are shown in Figure 4(A). The amplitudes of peak Na sup + currents as a function of pulse number for 0-(control solution), 3-, and 300-micro Meter bupivacaine (n = 8, 8, and 6, respectively) are given in Figure 4(B). Na sup + currents recorded in the presence of local anesthetic were normalized to first currents recorded in control solution. The strongest reduction in the amplitude was seen in the currents activated by the first two pulses (N1 and N2;Figure 4(B)). In the presence of 300-micro Meter bupivacaine, the Na sup + current activated by the second pulse was reduced by 40.0 +/- 4.9%(n = 6) compared with that activated ...
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While generally safe, local anesthetic agents can be toxic if administered inappropriately, and in some cases may cause unintended reactions even when properly administered. Adverse effects are usually caused by high plasma concentrations of the agent, which may result from one of the following: Inadvertent intravascular injection Excessive d...
The major findings of this study are that infusion of clinically utilized local anesthetics after renal I/R injury significantly worsened renal function in rats. Exacerbation of renal function with local anesthetic treatment was associated with increased necrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation.. Our study is the first report to describe that local anesthetics worsen renal injury in rats after I/R in vivo. Renal I/R alone doubled Cr values 24 h after injury, with a complete return to baseline Cr values at 48 h after injury. However, chronic infusion with 5% lidocaine, 1% bupivacaine, or 2.5% tetracaine during the period of I/R caused a further doubling of Cr values at 24 h above those increases seen with I/R alone. Moreover, increases in Cr values persisted to 48 h. Thus chronic local anesthetic infusions not only augmented the initial rise in Cr values but added to the duration of renal insufficiency.. We next sought to illustrate the mechanism (necrosis, apoptosis, and/or inflammation) by which ...
ABSTRACT. Introduction: The peripheral nerve blockade produces high analgesic quality in knee surgery. Local anesthetics are used upon the base of its effectiveness and toxicity, so we decided to evaluate the postoperative analgesia through the comparison of ropivacaine (R) against bupivacaine (B) for femoral and sciatic blockade in the arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior crossed ligament (ALC) repair. Methods: Study of cohort, randomized and comparative. There were studied patients submitted to ALC. Surgery being divided in two groups: R and B. Blockade was applied femoral and sciatic postoperative, the anesthetic place use in concentration of 0.25%, total volume of 40 mL for every nerve. VAS was evaluated at 6, 12, 18, 24 hours at rest and movement, analgesia time (ADT) and motor blockade time (MBT). Result: There were no differences in the demographic variables. The VAS, at rest and movement, was similar for both groups until 18 hours, when it significantly differed for the group R. ...
Nicolais answer is not entirely correct.. Background. The most common local anesthetics are all the -caine drugs - like novocaine, lidocaine, - and even cocaine has some of the same pharmacology, as well as other effects (in movies this is why cops might rub some white powder on their lips - if its cocaine, it will make their lips tingle; this is not standard training for non-movie police; also not advised for drug sellers or purchasers, because for exactly this reason cocaine is often cut with other -caines or other compounds that give a tingly feeling).. What all of these drugs do is to block voltage-gated sodium channels. These are the channels that propagate action potentials through axons and excitable dendrites. Other local anesthetics that arent used in the clinic, like tetrodotoxin from pufferfish, block the same types of channels. At sufficient concentrations, local anesthetics block all nervous activity: unlike @Nicolais answer, they do shut down nerves (as a brief note for ...
Background: We report a case with apparent resistance to local anesthetics. While regional anesthetics failure are often attributed to technical failure, the clinical presentation and medical history of this patient suggests a true resistance to local anesthetics. Case report: A 28 years old man was scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery for right sided ...
PubMed. Poroikov V.V., Filimonov D.A., Gloriozova T.A., Lagunin A.A., Druzhilovsky D.S., Stepanchikova A.V. (2009). Computer-aided prediction of biological activity spectra for substances: virtual chemogenomics. The Herald of Vavilov Society for Genecitists and Breeding Scientists, 13 (1) 137-143 (Rus).. Lagunin A., Filimonov D., Zakharov A., Xie W., Huang Y., Zhu F., Shen T., Yao J., Poroikov V. (2009). Computer-Aided Prediction of Rodent Carcinogenicity by PASS and CISOC-PSCT. QSAR and Combinatorial Science, 28 (8) 806-810.. Geronikaki A., Vicini P., Dabarakis N., Lagunin A., Poroikov V., Dearden J., Modarresi H., Hewitt M., Theophilidis G.(2009). Evaluation of the local anaesthetic activity of 3-aminobenzo[d]isothiazole derivatives using the rat sciatic nerve model. Eur. J. Med. Chem., 44 (2), 473-481 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Allergic reactions to local anesthetics in dental patients. T2 - Analysis of intracutaneous and challenge tests. AU - Tomoyasu, Yumiko. AU - Mukae, Kazuo. AU - Suda, Michiyo. AU - Hayashi, Tomoko. AU - Ishii, Minako. AU - Sakaguchi, Mai. AU - Watanabe, Yoshihisa. AU - Jinzenji, Ayako. AU - Arai, Yukiko. AU - Higuchi, Hitoshi. AU - Maeda, Shigeru. AU - Miyawaki, Takuya. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Some dental patients have histories of adverse reactions to local anesthesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of allergy to local anesthetics of dental patients who had histories of adverse reactions to local anesthesia based on the results of allergy tests in our institute over a period of 5 years. We investigated the past medical records of dental patients retrospectively, and twenty patients were studied. Three of the 20 showed a positive or false-positive reaction in the intracutaneous test, and one patient showed a false-positive reaction in the ...
Anesthesia before wound repair can be accomplished with one of the two classes of local anesthetics: esters (e.g., procaine) and amides (e.g., lidocaine). Anesthesia is usually accomplished by local infiltration; pain on administration of the injection can be decreased by buffering the solution with sodium bicarbonate. Warming the anesthetic solution also decreases pain with infiltration. Prior administration of topical anesthetics such as tetracaine 1 percent can ameliorate injection pain. Alternative methods for local anesthesia include topical and regional applications. A topical combination of tetracaine, adrenaline and cocaine (TAC) has been shown to be an effective anesthetic in children and patients with face or scalp lacerations; however, serious adverse events have been reported. Eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) cream has been useful, but the onset of anesthesia is delayed. Local anesthetics can be administered regionally by infiltrating around a regional sensory nerve. This ...
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This in vitro study compared the pH buffering ability of these two methods in seven commercially available dental local anesthetic preparations.
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Conrad on zit removal: For patients undergoing sebeceous cyst removal we start with a local anesthetic cream, followed by a local anesthetic injection. This is very well tolerated. After surgery the majority of patients do not require any pain killers afterward, if they do tylenol (acetaminophen) is usually sufficient. for topic: Zit Removal
Whereas I support continued study of paravertebral catheter placement with continuous local anesthetic infusion, I caution against advocacy for a therapeutic intervention with associated risk and expense based on clinical experience in a series of patients without adequate study in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Before our trial, I was enthusiastic about the technique and was of the opinion that the results of the study would be unequivocally positive. I had observed that patients seemed to wake up with less pain and required less narcotic administration in the recovery area. Although these observations proved to be correct, patients were less comfortable after leaving the recovery room. From 6 to 12 h after nerve blockade, the treatment group used more patient-controlled morphine than the control group, making the cumulative morphine dose indistinguishable between groups by the 12th h. Although morphine usage may be an imperfect endpoint, we were unable to ...
You do feel the local anaesthetic injections but these are usually rated 2 out of a pain scale of 1-10 so they are just a little bit uncomfortable. You do not feel any discomfort while the vein is being lasered because the local anaesthetic numbs the area.. ...
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PURPOSE: To assess aqueous humor lidocaine concentrations in 2 common regimens of topical anesthesia and after intracameral injection of the anesthetic agent. SETTING: University hospital eye clinic. METHODS: Twenty patients having routine cataract surgery were randomized into 3 groups: 1 given 3 drops of lidocaine 4% before surgery; 1 given 6 drops; 1 given 3 drops plus an intracameral injection of 0.1 mL lidocaine 1%. Lidocaine concentration was measured in aqueous humor samples taken before surgery. RESULTS: With 3 drops, aqueous lidocaine concentration was 1.4 micrograms/mL +/- 0.5 (SD) and with 6 drops, 4.3 +/- 1.5 micrograms/mL (P = .0015). With an intracameral injection, it was 341.8 +/- 152.6 micrograms/mL. CONCLUSION: Measurable amounts of lidocaine entered the anterior chamber in topical anesthesia, and more entered when more drops were given. It is likely that concentrations in this range could anesthetize the iris, but they are far lower than concentrations after an intracameral ...
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0 % ; 6 - 12 months: 0. Company: Akorn, Inc. 20ml Lidocaine Liquid 2%(Bottle) 10ml Lidocaine Jelly 2% (put a little on the end of your catheter too, feels great) 10ml Marcaine 0. 0 % ; 10+ years: …. Lidocaine hydrochloride jelly USP, 2% should be stored at controlled room temperature, 59° - 86°F; Rx onlySDS: Lidocaine Hydrochloride Jelly, USP 2% 1 of 8 SAFETY DATA SHEET 1. Transdermal: When used concomitantly with other products …Select Page. Dog Veterinarian: Dr Scott Nimmo , Dog Veterinarian …Lidocaine is a local anesthetic that works by causing temporary numbness/loss of feeling in the skin and mucous membranes. 5% 5ml Sodium Bicarbonate 40mg. Lidocaine Hydrochloride Jelly to cialis prices in canada. 0 % ; 2 - 5 years: 0. 0 % ; 1 - 2 years: 0. What is Xylocaine Jelly? Xylocaine 2% Jelly is a topical anaesthetic that is used to help prevent pain and discomfort during certain medical Xylocaine 2% Jelly is a clear to almost clear, slightly coloured gel that contains the active ingredient ...
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Blockade of voltage-gated sodium (Na+) channels by local anesthetics represents the main mechanism for inhibition of impulse propagation. Local anesthetic-induced potassium (K+) channel inhibition is also known to influence transmission of sensory impulses and to potentiate inhibition. K+ channels involved in this mechanism may belong to the emerging family of background tandem pore domain K+ channels (2P K+ channels). To determine more precisely the effects of local anesthetics on members of this ion channel family, we heterologously expressed the 2P K+ channels TASK-2 (KCNK5), TASK-1 (KCNK3), and chimeric TASK-1/TASK-2 channels in oocytes of Xenopus laevis. TASK-2 cDNA-transfected HEK 293 cells were used for single-channel recordings. Local anesthetic inhibition of TASK-2 was dose-dependent, agent-specific, and stereoselective. The IC50 values for R-(+)-bupivacaine and S-(-)-bupivacaine were 17 and 43 μM and for R-(+)-ropivacaine and S-(-)-ropivacaine, 85 and 236 μM. Lidocaine (1 mM) inhibited TASK
INTRODUCTION. The narrow therapeutic index of 5% hyperbaric lidocaine on neuroaxis has been shown since the early 1990, when Cauda Equina syndrome was associated to its spinal administration via microcatheter in continuous infusion 1,2, after single pencil point needle injection 3,4 and repeated injections due to blockade failure 5.. Lidocaine concentration potentially able to determine nervous tissue injury is still not well established. Experimental studies in rats, in which the anesthetic was administered via spinal catheter, have shown neurotoxicity in concentrations varying from 2.5% 6 to 7.5% 7,8. The criticism to this model is that it does not reproduce the anesthetic technique used in the clinical practice 6.. This study aimed at investigating the effect on spinal cord and meninges of increasing spinal lidocaine concentrations in single injection through Quincke needle.. METHODS. After the Animal Experiment Ethical Committee approval, 40 adult mixed-breed dogs of both genders, weighing 7 ...
Intraneural introduction of local anesthetic belongs to the existing complications of peripheral nerves blockades. The damage of peripheral nerves is associated with the damaging effect of the injection needle and with the pressure caused by the introduction of local anesthetic. Purpose: Determine the pressure of the local anesthetic in fascial compartment of the sciatic nerve during his administration in the blockade of the sciatic nerve subgluteal access. Materials and Methods: Submitted blockade of the sciatic nerve subgluteal access in 22 patients with peripheral nerve electrostimulation under ultrasound guidance. To measure interstitial pressure system was used with the inclusion of a probe invasive blood pressure. Results: During the introduction of 1 ml in the fascial compartment of the sciatic nerve, the pressure of 0.77 psi (40 mmHg) was registered. In the course of the further introduction of local anesthetic up to 13 ml, the pressure did not alter validly (p > 0.05) and its average was 40 (35
Product Description CAS 5875-06-9 Top Quality Local Anesthetic Drug 99% Proparacaine hydrochloride Description: Proparacaine HCl is a local-Anesthesia, which is indicated to produce local anesthesia of short duration for ophthalmic procedures including measurement of intraocular pressure, removal of foreign bodies and sutures, and conjunctival and corneal scraping in diagnosis and gonioscopy. Quick Details: Product Name Proparacaine…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Movement discrimination after intra-articular local anaesthetic of the ankle joint. AU - Down, Stuart. AU - Waddington, Gordon. AU - Adams, Roger. AU - Thomson, Malcolm. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Background: The effect on clinical safety of dampening articular mechanoreceptor feedback at the ankle is unknown. Injection of the ankle joint for pain control may result in such dampening. Athletes receiving intra-articular local anaesthetic may therefore be at increased risk of sustaining ankle injuries, which are a common reason for missed sporting participation. Objective: To determine the effect of intra-articular local anaesthetic on movement discrimination at the ankle joint. Design: Prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.Setting: Australian Institute of Sport Medical Centre, Canberra, Australia. Patients: Twenty two healthy subjects (44 ankles) aged 18-26 were recruited for the three visits of the study. Interventions: Subjects were tested ...
Efficacy of tramadol as a preincisional infiltration anesthetic in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomized study Kemal Varim Numanoglu,1 Hilal Ayoglu,2 Duygu Tatli,1 Ebubekir Er11Department of Pediatric Surgery, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bülent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak, TurkeyBackground: Preincisional local anesthetic infiltration at the surgical site is a therapeutic option for postoperative pain relief for pediatric inguinal hernia. Additionally, tramadol has been used as an analgesic for postoperative pain in children. Recently, the local anesthetic effects of tramadol have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine both the systemic analgesic and the local anesthetic effects of tramadol and to determine how it differs from bupivacaine when administered preincisionally.Methods: Fifty-two healthy children, aged 2â 7 years, who were scheduled for elective herniorrhaphy were randomly allocated to receive either
OBJECTIVES: The relationship between the dose, volume, and concentration of local anesthetic and the quality and success of regional anesthesia remains unclear. Our aim was to test whether using 3 different volumes of the same local anesthetic dose i
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of excessive lidocaine concentrations for local anesthesia. AU - Bashein, G.. AU - Zipes, D.. AU - Nattel, S.. AU - Rinkenberger, R. L.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 7350424. AN - SCOPUS:0018913417. VL - 302. SP - 122. JO - New England Journal of Medicine. JF - New England Journal of Medicine. SN - 0028-4793. IS - 2. ER - ...
Product Description 99.9% Prilocaine Powder Local Anesthetics For Anti Paining Prilocaine HCL Prilocaine Prilocaine Powerful Propitocaine HCL Local Anesthetic With Longer Duration CAS: 721-50-6 MF: C13H20N2O Assay: 99% min. Character: White crystalline powder Propitocaine HCl Name: Propitocaine HCL CAS: 1786-81-8 MF: C13H21ClN2O Assay: 99% min. Character: White crystalline powder Description: As local anesthetics, lidocaine same…
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Gelato Topical Anesthetic Gel is 20% benzocaine anesthetic gel that is fast acting with no systemic absorption. The 20% benzocaine provides temporary relief of pain during procedures, including local anesthetic injections, periodontal curettage, impression taking, scaling, intra-oral radiographs, root planning and prophylaxis. Gelato Topical Anesthetic Gel comforts patients with ulcers, wounds or other minor mouth irritations. Also, Gelato Topical Anesthetic Gel has no bitter aftertaste ...
Gelato Topical Anesthetic Gel is 20% benzocaine anesthetic gel that is fast acting with no systemic absorption. The 20% benzocaine provides temporary relief of pain during procedures, including local anesthetic injections, periodontal curettage, impression taking, scaling, intra-oral radiographs, root planning and prophylaxis. Gelato Topical Anesthetic Gel comforts patients with ulcers, wounds or other minor mouth irritations. Also, Gelato Topical Anesthetic Gel has no bitter aftertaste ...
The dosage varies and depends upon the area to be anesthetized, vascularity of the tissues, individual tolerance, and the technique of anesthesia. The lowest dosage needed to provide effective anesthesia should be administered. Dosages should be reduced for children and for elderly and debilitated patients. Although the incidence of adverse effects with Lidocaine Hydrochloride Jelly USP, 2% is quite low, caution should be exercised, particularly when employing large amounts, since the incidence of adverse effects is directly proportional to the total dose of local anesthetic agent administered ...
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Minor dermal procedures (eg, IV cannulation, venipuncture): apply 2.5g in a thick layer with occlusion over 20-25cm2 for at least 1hr. Major dermal procedures (eg, skin graft harvesting): apply 2g per 10cm2 in a thick layer with occlusion for at least 2hrs. Pretreatment before local anesthetic infiltration on adult male genital skin: apply 1g per 10cm2 in a thick layer with occlusion for 15mins. Minor procedures on female external genitalia (eg, wart removal, local anesthetic infiltration): apply 5-10g in a thick layer for 5-10mins; may occlude to help keep cream in place.. ...
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The patient is positioned as in a conventional axillary block. One 21 size hypodermic needle is inserted into the axillary sheath on each side of the axillary artery. Total 20ml (10ml through each needle) of local anaesthetic solution is injected and the needles are withdrawn. The ring is applied over the skin encircling the injection sites and pressure is applied on the ring by vertically pressing on the collars, which distributes the force on the ring. This pressure on the ring is transmitted to the axillary sheath sealing it on all sides which prevents escape of anaesthetic solution on all sides and confines it to the area inside the ring. The skin inside the ring is massaged to allow fast passage of anaesthetic solution around the nerves within the confines of the ring ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Naloxone prolongs cutaneous nociceptive block by lidocaine in rats. AU - Chen, Yu Wen. AU - Shieh, Ja Ping. AU - Liu, Kuo Sheng. AU - Wang, Jhi Joung. AU - Hung, Ching Hsia. N1 - Funding Information: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided for this study by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST 104-2314-B-039-017-MY3) of Taiwan.. PY - 2017/12. Y1 - 2017/12. N2 - We aimed to investigate the local anesthetic properties of naloxone alone or as an adjunct for the local anesthetic lidocaine. After the block of the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex (CTMR) with drugs delivery by subcutaneous infiltration, cutaneous nociceptive block was tested on the ratsꞌ backs. We demonstrated that naloxone, as well as lidocaine, elicited cutaneous analgesia dose-dependently. The relative potency in inducing cutaneous analgesia was lidocaine [22.6 (20.1 - 25.4) μmol/kg] , naloxone [43.2 (40.3 - 46.4) μmol/kg] (P , 0.05). On an equianesthetic basis [50% effective dose ...
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The number of ambulatory surgical procedures is growing and local anesthesia represents the technique of choice for outpatients undergoing minor surgery. The aim of this study was to verify whether differences exist in postoperative pain relief using equipotent doses of two long-acting local anesthetics, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine, in patients who underwent minor breast surgery. A series of 86 consecutive women (median age=55, range=39-75 years) with small (,2 cm in size) breast masses requiring surgical excision were prospectively enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly selected to receive 75 mg/ml ropivacaine (group A, 42 patients) or 5 mg/ml levobupivacaine (group B, 44 patient). For post-surgical measurement of pain intensity a visual analog scale (VAS) was used. The age of the patients (56.4±9.6 vs. 56.7 ±9.5 years; p=0.88) and operative time (38.4 ± vs. 39.8 ±5.0 min; p=0.16), did not differ significantly between the groups (A vs. B). Transient adverse effects were observed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preferential partitioning of uncharged local anesthetics into the surface-adsorbed film. AU - Matsuki, Hitoshi. AU - Yamanaka, Michio. AU - Kamaya, Hiroshi. AU - Kaneshina, Shoji. AU - Ueda, Issaku. PY - 2004/10/10. Y1 - 2004/10/10. N2 - The surface tension and pH of aqueous solutions of three hydrochloric acid (HCl) - uncharged anesthetic (mepivacaine (MC), bupibacaine (BC) and dibucaine (DC)) mixtures were measured as a function of total molality and composition of local anesthetic in order to investigate the competitive surface-adsorption of uncharged and charged local anesthetics. The behavior of the surface tension versus total molality and pH versus total molality curves remarkably changed at the composition corresponding to an equimolar mixture. The pH measurements showed that uncharged and charged forms coexisted only at compositions more than the equimolar mixture. The partitioning quantities of respective uncharged and charged anesthetics into the surface-adsorbed film ...
1. This study was devised to test the hypothesis that dyspnoea could be mediated by unmyelinated vagal sensory nerve endings (type J receptors) situated at alveolar level in the lung.. 2. A modified jet nebulizer was used to generate an aerosol of local anaesthetic in particles small enough to allow alveolar deposition. Lignocaine (2% and 5%) produced aerosols with an arithmetic mean diameter (+sd) of 1.5+0.3 and 1.2+0.6 μm respectively, the mass median diameters being 1.7 (geometric standard deviation = 1.2) and 2.5 (geometric standard deviation = 1.7) μm respectively.. 3. In experimental animal models a vagally mediated tachypnoea may be induced acutely by pulmonary microembolism. This response is known to be mediated by unmyelinated pulmonary afferent nerves in the vagus. Local anaesthetic agents administered as small particles, but not as large particles, obtunded this response, which suggests that the aerosol was capable of penetration to alveolar level.. 4. Upon this background, a ...
Background Ropivacaine is a new amide local anesthetic, having therapeutic properties similar to those of bupivacaine but with a wider margin of safety. Bupivacaine is probably the most commonly used drug in obstetric epidural analgesia, even though laboratory studies have suggested that pregnancy increases the cardiotoxicity of bupivacaine but not of other local anesthetics. The current study was designed to reevaluate, in a random and blinded fashion, the systemic toxicity of bupivacaine and ropivacaine in nonpregnant and pregnant sheep. Methods Chronically prepared nonpregnant and pregnant ewes were randomized to receive an intravenous infusion of ropivacaine or bupivacaine at a constant rate of 0.5 until circulatory collapse. The investigators were blinded to the identity of local anesthetic. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and cardiac rhythm were monitored throughout the study. Arterial blood samples were obtained before infusion and at the onset of toxic manifestations, ...
This study reports an investigation of the pharmacological activity, cytotoxicity, and local effects of a liposomal formulation of the novel local anaesthetic ropivacaine (RVC) compared with its plain solution. RVC was encapsulated into large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) composed of egg phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and a-tocopherol (4:3:0.07, mole %). Particle size, partition coefficient determination and in-vitro release studies were used to characterize the encapsulation process. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the tetrazolium reduction test using sciatic nerve Schwann cells in culture. Local anaesthetic activity was assessed by mouse sciatic and rat infraorbital nerve blockades. Histological analysis was performed to verify the myotoxic effects evoked by RVC formulations. Plain (RVCPLAIN) and liposomal RVC (RVCLUV) samples were tested at 0.125%, 0.25% and 0.5% concentrations. Vesicle size distribution showed liposomal populations of 370 and 130 nm (85 and 15%, respectively), without changes ...
Is regional anesthesia indicated?. 1. Should you avoid using local anesthetics?. No. His allergic reaction could have been an intravascular injection, a reaction to epinephrine added to the solution, or a reaction to a derivative of para-aminobenzoic acid, from Novacaines ester local anesthetic.. 2. What determines potency of local anesthetics?. Lipid solubility determines potency. The higher the solubility, the more potent the agent is.. 3. What determines duration of action of local anesthetics?. Protein binding determines duration of action. The more the protein binding, the longer the duration of action.. 4. What determines onset of action of local anesthetics?. pKa determines onset of action. The closer the pKa is to the tissue pH, the faster the onset. All local anesthetics are weak bases, so those with a pKa near 7.4 have more molecules that are lipid-soluble and unionized.. ...
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Update on the clinical utility and practical use of ropivacaine in Chinese patients Man Li, Li Wan, Wei Mei, Yuke Tian Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China Abstract: We reviewed the Chinese and English literature for efficacy and tolerability data as well as pharmacological properties of ropivacaine in Chinese patients. Ropivacaine is a long-acting amide local anesthetic agent that elicits nerve block via reversible inhibition of sodium ion influx in nerve fibers. The available evidence in the literature on anesthesia practice indicates that ropivacaine produces equally surgical sensory block and postoperative and obstetrics analgesia with good maternal and fetal outcome to those of bupivacaine or levobupivacaine. It appears to be associated with comparable onset, quality, and duration of sensory block, but with a lower incidence or grade of motor block, compared to bupivacaine. The
Local anaesthetics. Local anaesthetics are drugs which act on nerves to stop or block transmission of information. We often use local anaesthetics to block sensory nerves. This means that the painful stimulus cannot pass up to the brain and the animal does not feel the pain. Local anaesthetics will also affect motor nerves which cause the muscles to move. It can therefore cause temporary inhibition of muscle movement. Some drugs last a number of hours so also provide effective pain relief for the first evening after surgery.. Benefits of local anaesthetic use. Using local anaesthetics have been shown to have a number of benefits when used in people including:. ...
We assessed the effect of local anesthetics (LA) from different families such as esters (benzocaine), linear aminoamides (lidocaine) and cyclic aminoamides (bupivacaine) on the platelet aggregation induced by ADP. Liposomal formulations of the three LA, prepared with egg phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol a-tocopherol, were also tested. The three LA were able to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP, in the following order: bupivacaine , lidocaine , benzocaine. After encapsulation into liposomes the inhibitory effect increased for all anesthetics studied, showing that aggregation tests could be used to assess the toxicity of new drug formulations ...
Local anesthetics[edit]. Adrenaline is added to injectable forms of a number of local anesthetics, such as bupivacaine and ... Some of the adverse effects of local anesthetic use, such as apprehension, tachycardia, and tremor, may be caused by adrenaline ... Rahn R, Ball B (2001). Local Anesthesia in Dentistry: Articaine and Epinephrine for Dental Anesthesia (1 st ed.). Seefeld, ... Due to epinephrine's vasoconstricting abilities, the use of epinephrine in localized anesthetics also helps to diminish the ...
21.3 Local anesthetics. *21.4 Miotics and antiglaucoma medicines. *21.5 Mydriatics. *21.6 Anti-vascular endothelial growth ... Carbimazole is an alternative depending on local availability *^ For use when alternative first-line treatment is not ... Carbimazole is an alternative depending on local availability *^ For use when alternative first-line treatment is not ... Thiopental may be used as an alternative depending on local availability and cost. ...
Alfred Einhorn synthesises the local anesthetic novocaine. The first commercial use of the Frank-Caro process for the nitrogen ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Ritchie, J. Murdoch; Greene, Nicholas M. (1990). "Local Anesthetics". In Gilman, Alfred ...
... is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. It is most commonly used in dental procedures to numb the area ... Like other local anesthetics (such as mepivacaine, and prilocaine), procaine is a vasodilator, thus is often coadministered ... Ritchie JM, Greene NM (1990). "Local Anesthetics". In Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The ... Prior to the discovery of amylocaine and procaine, cocaine was a commonly used local anesthetic. Einhorn wished his new ...
Local anesthetics (e.g., lidocaine). *Mexiletine. *TCAs (e.g., amitriptyline, nortriptyline, desipramine) ...
Local anesthetics: pFBT. *Amylocaine. *Articaine. *Benzocaine. *Bupivacaine (Levobupivacaine, Ropivacaine). *Butacaine. * ...
Local anesthetics: pFBT. *Amylocaine. *Articaine. *Benzocaine. *Bupivacaine (Levobupivacaine, Ropivacaine). *Butacaine. * ...
... s are also used as local anesthetics and anticonvulsants.[5] ...
Avoid giving intramuscular formulation unless necessary due to skin cell death and local tissue destruction. ... Local anesthetics: pFBT. *Amylocaine. *Articaine. *Benzocaine. *Bupivacaine (Levobupivacaine, Ropivacaine). *Butacaine. * ...
Local anesthetics (e.g., cocaine, lidocaine). *Mexiletine. *Nefopam. *Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline#) ...
"Local anesthetic creams". BMJ. 297 (6661): 1468. doi:10.1136/bmj.297.6661.1468-a. PMC 1835116. PMID 3147021.. ... Topical anesthetic treatments such as prilocaine, lidocaine, benzocaine, or tetracaine can also relieve itching and pain.[58][ ... One of the projects of The Herpes Resource Center (HRC) was to create a network of local support (HELP) groups. The goal of ... The charity started as a string of local group meetings before acquiring an office and a national spread.[117] ...
It is the most commonly used local anesthetic in epidural anesthesia during labor, as well as in postoperative pain management ... The rate of systemic absorption of bupivacaine and other local anesthetics is dependent upon the dose and concentration of drug ... de La Coussaye, J. E.; Eledjam, J. J.; Brugada, J.; Sassine, A. (1993). "[Cardiotoxicity of local anesthetics]". Cahiers ... the aromatic head and the hydrocarbon chain are linked by an amide bond rather than an ester as in earlier local anesthetics. ...
Solubilities of local anesthetics". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 36 (1): 17-19. doi:10.1002/jps. ... Isopropyl alcohol can also be used similarly to ether as a solvent or as an anesthetic by inhaling the fumes or orally. Early ... "Guide to Local Production: WHO-recommended Handrub Formulations" (PDF). World Health Organization. August 2009. Otitis Externa ... uses included using the solvent as general anesthetic for small mammals and rodents by scientists and some veterinarians. ...
... is a local anesthetic. It is the ester of 4-aminobenzoic acid and butanol. A white, odourless, crystalline powder. ... It is one of three components in the topical anesthetic Cetacaine. Butamben v t e. ...
Some also have local anesthetic action. The analgesic effects have also been proven, by acting as Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors on ...
Maher, T.J. (2013). Anesthetic agents: General and local anesthetics. In: T.L. Lemke & D.A. Williams (editors). Foye's ... and xenon are used as general anesthetics. These and similar drugs like dextromethorphan and methoxetamine also produce ... weak partial agonist of an allosteric site of the glycine site Antagonists of the NMDA receptor are used as anesthetics for ...
... , marketed under the trade name Duranest, is an amide-type local anesthetic given by injection during surgical ... Sisk AL (1992). "Long-acting local anesthetics in dentistry". Anesthesia Progress. 39 (3): 53-60. PMC 2148750. PMID 1308373. ...
788-791, doi:10.1021/ol9028622 J.W. Wilson; N.D. Dawson; W. Brooks; G.E. Ullyot (1949), "Local anesthetics. ... Synthesis pathways for the isoquinoline derivative quinisocaine (acting as a local anesthetic) and the antihistamine azelastine ...
O'Mahony C, Timms MS, Ramsden RT (December 1988). "Local anesthetic creams". BMJ. 297 (6661): 1468. doi:10.1136/bmj.297.6661. ... One of the projects of the HRC was to create a network of local support (HELP) groups. The goal of these HELP groups was to ... Topical anesthetic treatments such as prilocaine, lidocaine, benzocaine, or tetracaine can also relieve itching and pain. ... The charity started as a string of local group meetings before acquiring an office and a national spread. Research has gone ...
Burlacu CL, Buggy DJ (April 2008). "Update on local anesthetics: focus on levobupivacaine". Therapeutics and Clinical Risk ... Gulihar A, Robati S, Twaij H, Salih A, Taylor GJ (December 2015). "Articular cartilage and local anaesthetic: A systematic ... Levobupivacaine (rINN) /liːvoʊbjuːˈpɪvəkeɪn/ is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group. It is the S- ... Levobupivacaine is indicated for local anaesthesia including infiltration, nerve block, ophthalmic, epidural and intrathecal ...
A local anesthetic is applied if necessary. The location of the vein is identified by landmarks or with the use of a small ... The clinician and patient may elect to apply a topical anesthetic before accessing the port. Ports can be used for medications ... Relative contraindications include: coagulopathy, trauma or local infection at the placement site, or suspected proximal ...
This involves the administration of local anesthetic and inserting a needle connected to a three-way tap; up to 2.5 liters of ... Local anesthetic is applied. Two types of tubes may be used. In spontaneous pneumothorax, small-bore (smaller than 14 F, 4.7 mm ...
NSTX local safety: All available local anesthetic are associated with local damage in different models. This undesired effect ... Local anesthetic receptor site binds local anesthetics, antiarrhythmic drugs and antiepileptic drugs NSTX and other site 1 ... NSTX anesthetic duration: Any current available local anesthetic hardly produces clinical effects 12 hours after a single ... well over all the current available local anesthetics. Some investigations demonstrated anesthetic effect lasting over one week ...
ISBN 978-1-85230-661-8. Chung G, Oh SB (2013). "Eugenol as Local Anesthetic". Natural Products. Springer-Verlag Berlin; In: ...
Covino, B., & Vassallo, H. (1976). Local anesthetics : mechanisms of action and clinical use. New York: Grune & Stratton. ISBN ...
It includes local anesthetics, sedation, and general anesthesia. In dentistry, the most commonly used local anesthetic is ... 100,000 adrenaline is the local anesthetic of choice in the treatment of pregnant women. Allergic reactions from local ... A dental syringe is a syringe for the injection of a local anesthetic. It consists of a breech-loading syringe fitted with a ... Haas DA (2002). "Local anesthetic failure in endodontics:. Mechanisms and Management". Endodontic Topics. 1: 26-39. doi:10.1034 ...
Some herbal remedies can cause dangerous interactions with chemotherapy drugs, radiation therapy, or anesthetics during surgery ... but a physician typically may not legally practice medicine until licensed by the local government authority. Licensed ...
... involves sedation or local anesthetic and is done by a team that includes an anesthesiologist; a 2008 systematic review did not ... and Chiropractic Supply in Local Health Care Markets". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 38 (8): 533-44. ...
Selye H (1 January 1941). "Anesthetic Effect of Steroid Hormones". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 46 (1): 116-121. doi: ... After the local synthesis or from metabolism of adrenal of gonadal steroids many neurosteroids accumulate in the brain.[26][27] ... Although barbiturates fell out of favor, they continue to serve as a short-acting anesthetic and anti-epileptic drugs. ... Within 30 years, many other barbiturates were developed and found use as sedatives, sleep aids and general anesthetics. ...
Alternative local standards of care exist, such as in the Netherlands, Germany, and Italy. Much of the criticism surrounding ... The conditions do increase the anesthetic risk and the rate of post-operative complications. Surgeons may require overweight ...
Jeffrey A. Klein) adapted the procedure to local infusion of dilute anesthetic called tumescent liposuction. This method is now ...
... is often practiced prior to surgery or other procedures that require general anesthetics because of the risk of ... He recommended that fasting be appropriate to the local economic situation, and that all Catholics voluntarily fast and abstain ... Individuals observe different kinds of fasts based on personal beliefs and local customs. Some are listed below. ... donating to a local charity, or directly to the poor, depending on circumstances). To engage in fasting without them is ...
The veins are filled with the anesthetic, with the anesthetic setting into local tissue after approximately 6-8 minutes, after ... or Bier's block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique on the body's extremities where a local anesthetic is injected ... Cardiotoxic local anesthetic agents like bupivacaine and etidocaine are strictly contraindicated.[1][2][7] ... A high dose of local anesthetic, typically lidocaine or prilocaine without adrenaline,[6] is slowly injected as distally as ...
RFA is usually performed in an outpatient setting, using either local anesthetics or conscious sedation anesthesia, the ... There is also a theory that long-term snoring might induce local nerve lesions in the pharynx in the same way as long-term ... and studies have shown electrophysiological findings in the nerves and muscles of the pharynx indicating local nerve lesions. ...
A pacemaker is typically inserted into the patient through a simple surgery using either local anesthetic or a general ... anesthetic. The patient may be given a drug for relaxation before the surgery as well. An antibiotic is typically administered ...
The root of the plant is used to produce a drink with sedative, anesthetic, and euphoriant properties. Its active ingredients ... In Papua New Guinea, the locals in Madang province refer to their kava as waild koniak ("wild cognac" in English). ...
Local anesthetics (e.g., cocaine, lidocaine). *Mexiletine. *Nefopam. *Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline#) ...
So you can see that the volatile anesthetic agents of today are really a spin-off of the technology developed during the ... As an aside, I'm also a local DC Wikimedian. We'd love for you to attend the next DC meetups. I'm specifically contacting you ... All of the currently used volatile anesthetic agents, including methoxyflurane, are fluorinated haloalkanes. With the exception ...
Skin: Severe local reactions after extravasculation of intravenous solutions or following intramuscular injection treatment ...
Common applications are ophthalmic surgery, in combination with local anesthetics. It also increases the absorption rate of ...
"State and Local Task Forces". Drug Enforcement Administration. United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 2012-12-30.. ... Cocaine: used as a topical anesthetic and to stop severe epistaxis. *Codeine (pure) and any drug for non-parenteral ... Ketamine, a drug originally developed as a safer, shorter-acting replacement for PCP (mainly for use as a human anesthetic) but ... GHB, a general anesthetic and treatment for narcolepsy-cataplexy and alcohol withdrawal with a limited safe dosage range and ...
Duchenne married a local woman, and, following the birth of their son, his wife died. This resulted in a lengthy period of ... and furthermore said that because the patient was suffering from an anesthetic condition of the face, he could experiment upon ...
Antibiotics, sympathomimetics, antihistamines, anticholinergics, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, antiseptics, local anesthetics, ... Some anesthetics include Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates. For musculo-skeletal disordersEdit. The main categories of drugs for ... Diagnostic: topical anesthetics, sympathomimetics, parasympatholytics, mydriatics, cycloplegics. *Antibacterial: antibiotics, ...
Dexamethasone (Decadron) is given in low dose at the onset of a general anesthetic as an effective antiemetic. It is also used ...
... using a local anesthetic) for examination under the microscope by the dermatologist who is a trained dermatopathologist. ... The skin is obviously accessible to topical local therapy. Antibiotic creams can help eliminate infections, while inflammatory ...
To shake off the "anesthetic of familiarity," Dawkins shows the audience a number of strange terrestrial organisms which he ... However, Dawkins explains that the alien anthropologists would most likely scoff at our local, parochial religious beliefs. He ... discusses the digger wasp and the set of experiments conducted by Nikolaas Tinbergen of how the digger wasp models the local ...
Local anesthetics (e.g., cocaine, lidocaine). *Mexiletine. *Nefopam. *Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline#) ...
"Local anesthetic creams". BMJ. 297 (6661): 1468. PMC 1835116. PMID 3147021.. Unknown parameter ,month=. ignored (tulong). ...
Local anesthetics (e.g., lidocaine). *Mexiletine. *TCAs (e.g., amitriptyline, nortriptyline, desipramine) ...
In AF, there is no regularity of this kind, except at the sources where the local activation rate can exceed 500 bpm. Although ... This depends on the problem, the length of the operation, and whether or not general anesthetic was used. Additionally, people ...
Local anesthetics (e.g., cocaine, lidocaine). *Mexiletine. *Nefopam. *Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline#) ... These topical anesthetics contain anesthetic drugs such as lidocaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, and prilocaine in a cream, ... Local inflammatory response.. As per bufexamac. Feprazone. Comes in free acid and piperazine salt forms. Phenylbutazone.. As ... Local inflammation and pain.. As per diclofenac. Magnesium salicylate. Comes in free form; soluble in water and ethanol; ...
... is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. It is most commonly used in dental procedures to numb the area ... Prior to the discovery of amylocaine and procaine, cocaine was a commonly used local anesthetic.[6] Einhorn wished his new ... Like other local anesthetics (such as mepivacaine, and prilocaine), procaine is a vasodilator, thus is often coadministered ... Ruetsch YA, Böni T, Borgeat A (August 2001). "From cocaine to ropivacaine: the history of local anesthetic drugs". Current ...
... although it sees clinical use as a local anesthetic, in particular in ophthalmology. Most cocaine use is recreational and its ... nasal congestion and as anesthetics.[24] Drugs used to treat obesity are called anorectics and generally include drugs that ...
List of local anesthetics. References[edit]. *^ Ryan, T (2019). "Tramadol as an adjunct to intra‐articular local anaesthetic ... Depending on local tissue concentrations of local anesthetics, excitatory or depressant effects on the central nervous system ... due to an increase in unbound fraction of local anesthetic and physiological changes increase the transfer of local anesthetic ... of Wisconsin, Local Anesthesia and Regional Anesthetics *^ a b Weinberg GL, VadeBoncouer T, Ramaraju GA, Garcia-Amaro MF, Cwik ...
... anesthetic: Local anesthetics: Local anesthetics provide restricted anesthesia because they are administered to the peripheral ... Thus, local anesthetics are useful in minor surgical procedures, such as the extraction of teeth. The first known and generally ... In anesthetic: Local anesthetics. Local anesthetics provide restricted anesthesia because they are administered to the ... In therapeutics: Local drug therapy. Local anesthetics produce loss of sensation and make it possible for many surgical ...
... local anesthetics Dental anesthesia Dibucaine number Epidural Intravenous regional anesthesia Local anesthesia Local anesthetic ... This is a list of local anesthetic agents. Not all of these drugs are still used in clinical practice and in research. Some are ... with vasoconstrictor Local anesthetic toxicity Methemoglobin Sodium channel blocker Spinal anesthesia Topical anesthesia ... 4-Aminobenzoic acid Amino amide Amino esters Anesthesia Anesthetic Brachial plexus block Cocaine analogues: ...
View list of generic drugs that are classified under Local Anesthetics along with ICD Code. Find related prescribing ... Local Anesthetics. ICD Code -Y48.3 Benoxinate. This medication is a local anesthetic, used in ophthalmology to determine fluid ... This medication is a local anesthetic, used as a topical local analgesia before certain medical procedures for skin. ... This medication is a local anesthetic, prescribed for inducing local or regional analgesia and anesthesia during surgical ...
Can you name the Local Anesthetics? Test your knowledge on this miscellaneous quiz to see how you do and compare your score to ... Miscellaneous Quiz / Local Anesthetics. Random Miscellaneous or Nintendo Quiz Can you name the Local Anesthetics?. by ltakehana ...
... local anesthetic agents can be toxic if administered inappropriately, and in some cases may cause unintended reactions even ... Local Anesthetic Agents Used Commonly for Infiltrative Injection. *Table 3. Minimum Intravenous Toxic Dose of Local Anesthetic ... encoded search term (Local%20Anesthetic%20Toxicity) and Local Anesthetic Toxicity What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Table 2. Local Anesthetic Agents Used Commonly for Infiltrative Injection Agent Duration of Action Maximum Dosage Guidelines ( ...
Local Anesthetics, Amides. Class Summary. Local anesthetics block the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses. Anesthetics ... Topical 2% lidocaine (Xylocaine) is a commonly used anesthetic. Administer local lidocaine sprays into the nostril. Its onset ...
Compare local injectable anesthetics with corticosteroids. View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, popularity ... Local injectable anesthetics with corticosteroids. What are Local injectable anesthetics with corticosteroids?. Corticosteroid ... Anesthetic can be administered with the corticosteroid injection to reduce pain by blocking nerves and reduce the transient ...
Acid and alkaline solutions of local anesthetics: duration of nerve block and tissue pH. Anesth Analg. 1985 May. 64(5):477-82. ... What are possible toxic reactions to local anesthetics for pain management injections?. Updated: Jun 19, 2018 ... Regional anesthesia with local anesthetics. The Management of Pain. 1990. 1883-1966. ... The colored areas represent patterns of diffusion of local anesthetic solutions for the following techniques: cervicothoracic ...
Local anesthetic definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... local anesthetic. loc., local, local anaesthetic, local anaphylaxis, local anesthesia, local anesthetic, local area network, ... local anesthetic. opiate, shot, dope, gas, soporific, analgesic, anodyne, hypnosis, inhalant, spinal, general anesthetic ... local anesthetic ON THESAURUS.COM. n.. An agent that, when applied directly to mucous membranes or when injected about the ...
False test results may occur if benzocaine or tetracaine is present in your body when a certain laboratory test is done. This test uses a medicine called bentiromide (e.g., Chymex) to show how well your pancreas is working. You should not use any products containing benzocaine or tetracaine for about 72 hours (3 days) before this test is done.. ...
Local Anesthetics? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by ... Science Quiz / Specific Muscle Relaxants & Local Anesthetics. Random Science or Clickable Quiz ...
However, whether local anesthetics affect cancer metastasis and their underly.... Volume of ropivacaine 0.2% and common ... As a new generation of amide-type local anesthetics (LAs), ropivacaine has been widely used for pain management in clinical ... More From BioPortfolio on "Topical Formulations of Liposomal Local Anesthetics". *Related Companies*Related Events*Related ... The direct anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of local anesthetics have been well documented in various cancers. ...
Commonly used local anesthetics include the following{ref49}: 0.5-1% lidocaine with epinephrine 0.25% bupivacaine A combination ... What are the commonly used local anesthetics for an open inguinal hernia repair?. Updated: Jan 17, 2018 ... Spinal or local anesthesia in lichtenstein hernia repair: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2008 Mar. 247(3):428-33. [ ... Local anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair step-by-step procedure. Ann Surg. 1994 Dec. 220(6):735-7. [Medline]. ...
... to determine the relationship between the reported physicochemical properties of local anesthetics and the local anesthetic ... Aminoamide local anesthetics induce vasoconstriction in vivo and in vitro. The goals of this in vitro study were to investigate ... Vasoconstriction Potency Induced by Aminoamide Local Anesthetics Correlates with Lipid Solubility. Hui-Jin Sung,1 Seong-Ho Ok,2 ... The potency of the vasoconstriction in the endothelium-denuded aorta induced by local anesthetics is determined primarily by ...
Anesthetics. Anesthetics, Local. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Sensory System Agents. ... Local Anesthetics After Total Knee Arthroplasty. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... Local Anesthetics After Total Knee Arthroplasty: Intra- vs. Extraarticular Administration? A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo- ... Intervention Details: Procedure: local infiltration analgesia local wound infiltration with 30 ml ropivacaine 0.2 % (60 mg) ...
The perturbation effect of local anesthetics on membrane and lipid solubility correlates with the potency of local anesthetics ... Figure 2: Relationship between logarithm of local anesthetic concentration producing 50% of the local anesthetic-induced ... the higher local anesthetic potency [18]. The pKa is a constant that determines the unionized form of local anesthetic which ... among local anesthetics to be levobupivacaine , ropivacaine , lidocaine , mepivacaine (Table 2). The local anesthetic ...
For applying a rectal anesthetic to the area around the rectum: * First, clean the area, using mild soap and water or a ... Rectal anesthetics usually come with patient directions. Read them carefully before using the medicine, even if it was ...
... were to evaluate the effect and safety of local anesthetic infusion pump versus placebo for pain management following total ... Local anesthetic infusion pump are associated with less pain scores with rest or mobilization at 24 and 48 h with significant ... Local anesthetic infusion pump for pain management following total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis. *Zhang Y ... However, local anesthetic infusion pump may be associated with more infection. Conclusion: Based on the current meta-analysis, ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: Ester Local Anesthetic [Drug Class] (51 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark & ... CETACAINE TOPICAL ANESTHETIC (benzocaine, butamben, and tetracaine hydrochloride) gel NDC Code(s): 10223-0217-3, 10223-0221-1 ... CETACAINE ANESTHETIC (benzocaine, butamben, and tetracaine hydrochloride) aerosol, spray NDC Code(s): 10223-0201-1, 10223-0201- ... CETACAINE ANESTHETIC (benzocaine, butamben, and tetracaine hydrochloride) solution NDC Code(s): 10223-0202-2, 10223-0202-4, ...
I was entranced by an essay in Emergency Physicians Monthly . . . If you want to know what professional craftsmanship looks like, this is it. ". -David Brooks, New York Times Op/Ed Editor. ...
... By Laird Harrison, Senior Editor. May 12, 2008 -- Can you say, "the sixth sheiks ... Epinephrine and neocobefrin are included in most dental anesthetic formulations as vasoconstrictors to keep the anesthetic in ... The FDA has approved the use of phentolamine mesylate as the first-ever drug for reversing local anesthesia, the company ... Dentists can inject OraVerse as a cartridge in the same manner and in the same site as anesthetics. ...
LOCAL ANESTHETICS Local anesthetics block pain in a small area of the body. In orthopaedic surgery, they may be used as ... LOCAL ANESTHETICS. Local Anesthetics block pain in a small region of the body. ... Local/Regional Anesthetics. 0 Shares Share 0 Tweet Share 0 Email 0 ... Local anesthetics block pain in a small area of the body. In orthopaedic surgery, they may be used as anesthesia during a ...
Physiologic Stress Reduction by a Local Anesthetic During Newborn Circumcision Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Physiologic Stress Reduction by a Local Anesthetic During Newborn Circumcision. Paul S. Wiliamson, Marvel L. Williamson ... No complications resulted from injection of the local anesthetic or from the circumcision procedure itself. Inasmuch as dorsal ... than infants circumcised in an identical manner without anesthetic (N = 10). ...
Anesthetics. Anesthetics, Local. Neosaxitoxin. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Sensory ... Phase 1 Study of Local Infiltration of Neosaxitoxin as a Local Anesthetic. ... Local Anesthetic Properties of Neosaxitoxin. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... The objective of the present work is to evaluate the neosaxitoxin efficacy and safety as local anesthetic in a human trial ...
Local Anesthetics, Amides. Class Summary. Local anesthetics are used for local pain relief. ... and local anesthetics. Cyclooxygenase type-2 inhibitors(COX-2 inhibitors) are the drug of choice for this condition; in cases ...
... local+anesthetic+drug? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat ... or reduce the symptoms of administration+of+local+anesthetic+drug ... lidocaine Cream Topical Local Anesthetics. On Label. RX/OTC. 21 ... lidocaine Ointment Topical Local Anesthetics. On Label. RX/OTC. 21 Reviews. lidocaine Adhesive Patch, Medicated Topical Local ... cocaine 4 % topical solution Local Anesthetics. On Label. RX. 6 Reviews. Emla 2.5 %-2.5 % topical cream. On Label. RX. 6 ...
The local anesthetic effects of cocaine and one of its main metabolites norcocaine, were investigated comparatively on isolated ... Cocaine Ganglion Cell Maximum Rate Local Anesthetic Effect Potential Parameter These keywords were added by machine and not by ... The local anesthetic effects of cocaine and one of its main metabolites norcocaine, were investigated comparatively on isolated ... which demonstrated that norcocaine exhibits a higher local anesthetic potency than cocaine. ...
... the local anesthetic was not associated with a decreased risk in patient opioid-related complications. ... The local anesthetic is injected into tissues surrounding the surgical wound, and is designed to provide pain control for up to ... Local Anesthetic Fails to Curb In-Hospital Opioid Use. By John Commins , May 22, 2018 ... Despite the dramatic rise in the use of the use of liposomal bupivacaine, the local anesthetic was not associated with a ...
  • However, many anaesthetists, surgeons, patients and nurses believe that it is safer to perform major surgeries under local anesthesia than general anesthesia. (
  • Local anesthesia is also used during insertion of IV devices, such as pacemakers and implantable defibrillators, ports used for giving chemotherapy medications and hemodialysis access catheters. (
  • Local anesthetic s provide restricted anesthesia because they are administered to the peripheral sensory nerves innervating a region, usually by injection. (
  • Concerns about the negative effects that systemic drugs may have on the mother and newborn have led to heavy reliance on local anesthesia. (
  • Local anesthesia involves loss of sensation in one area of the body by the blockage of conduction in nerves. (
  • This medication is a local anesthetic, prescribed for inducing local or regional analgesia and anesthesia during surgical procedures, labor, or delivery. (
  • American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine checklist for managing local anesthetic systemic toxicity: 2012 version. (
  • They are used in various techniques of local anesthesia such as: Topical anesthesia (surface) Topical administration of cream, gel, ointment, liquid, or spray of anaesthetic dissolved in DMSO or other solvents/carriers for deeper absorption Infiltration Brachial plexus block Epidural (extradural) block Spinal anesthesia (subarachnoid block) Iontophoresis Acute pain may occur due to trauma, surgery, infection, disruption of blood circulation, or many other conditions in which tissue injury occurs. (
  • Surface anesthesia also facilitates some endoscopic procedures such as bronchoscopy (visualization of the lower airways) or cystoscopy (visualization of the inner surface of the bladder) Edema of tongue, pharynx and larynx may develop as a side effect of local anaesthesia. (
  • Gianetta E, Cuneo S, Vitale B, Camerini G, Marini P, Stella M. Anterior tension-free repair of recurrent inguinal hernia under local anesthesia: a 7-year experience in a teaching hospital. (
  • This leads to prolonged nerve exposure to local anesthetics and reduced plasma levels, in addition to the potency of intrinsic vasoconstriction being partially associated with duration of anesthesia produced by the local anesthetic [ 3 , 14 ]. (
  • The FDA has approved the use of phentolamine mesylate as the first-ever drug for reversing local anesthesia, the company announced today. (
  • Regional anesthetics offer the advantage of providing anesthesia of a large body area during surgery and pain relief for several hours afterward. (
  • Local anesthesia is one mode that has been proposed as being part of a multimodal approach to reducing opioid consumption. (
  • 8. A method of obtaining local anesthesia in mammals as described in claim 7, wherein the weight ratio is 47:53 to 62:38. (
  • 9. A method of obtaining local anesthesia in mammals as described in claim 8, wherein the weight ratio is 55:45. (
  • 10. A method of obtaining local anesthesia in mammals as described in claim 8, wherein the weight ratio is 52:48. (
  • 11. A method of obtaining local anesthesia in mammals as described in claim 8, wherein the weight ratio is 50:50 and the combination also contains an emulsifying agent. (
  • The present invention relates to a mixture of local anesthetically active compounds in base form in order to obtain topical anesthesia through skin, process for its preparation, and method for obtaining topical local anesthesia. (
  • The object of the present invention is to obtain a possibility of utilizing local anesthetically active compounds in base form and to obtain a maximal concentration of active substance at the application on skin in order to obtain local anesthesia with as low a dose as can be. (
  • Caudal block anesthesia relieves the pain your child feels when waking up from surgery and reduces the amount of general anesthetic needed during the procedure. (
  • Henry Schein's ARTICAINE 4% with Epinephrine Indicated for local, infiltrative, or conductive anesthesia in both simple and complex. (
  • Precision Local Anesthetic Buffering System Onpharma Inc Onset provides profound anesthesia in minutes, allowing dentists to stay with. (
  • While the injection of local anesthetic solutions to achieve anesthesia is one of the most commonly performed dental procedures, getting a. (
  • Local and regional anesthesia and analgesia appear to be undergoing a renaissance, as judged by attendance at specialty meetings and substantial increase in research activity, as evidenced by growing number of scientific publications. (
  • In contrast to general anesthesia, in which the molecular mechanism remains the subject of speculation, the site at which local anesthetic (LA) drugs bind to produce nerve blocks has been cloned and mutated. (
  • Local anesthesia was accomplished by having the operator chew coca leaves and apply the macerated pulp to the skin and wound edges while using a tumi knife to bore through the bone. (
  • The birth of local and regional anesthesia dates from 1884, when Koller and Gartner reported their success at producing topical cocaine anesthesia of the eye in the frog, rabbit, dog, and human. (
  • The use of local anesthesia quickly spread around the world. (
  • Switching the one million annual hip and knee replacement operations in the United States to local anaesthetic would save the equivalent of 7.3 million miles driven in a car, according to the study, which was based on a one-year experiment at a hospital in New York and published in the journal Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine. (
  • In our previous Cochrane review of several small, randomized control trials (RCT) of carotid endarterectomy using local anesthesia (LA) vs general anesthesia published during 1966 to 2007, there was a trend toward lower operative mortality with LA and no difference in risk of stroke, 2,3 but statistical power was limited. (
  • Rats received BPC 157 (10 μg, 10 ng, 10 pg/kg intraperitoneally or intragastrically) or an equivolume of saline (5 ml/kg), either immediately or at 10 min when local anesthesia was fully established. (
  • While lidocaine application produced a prolong function failure, all BPC 157 regimens significantly shortened time to full function recovery in the conditions of full local anesthesia. (
  • However, there has been a renewed interest in local infiltration analgesia (LIA), partly due to the work in 2008 of Kerr and Kohan, who demonstrated superior analgesia after total knee or hip arthroplasty with extended, diluted infiltration of local anesthesia with epinephrine and ketorolac added and repeated injections through intraarticular catheters. (
  • However, anesthesia of the small nerve endings in and around joints does not require high-concentration local anesthetic. (
  • Why local anesthesia? (
  • Local anesthesia is generally included in the fee for each of our full-service dental treatments. (
  • When Do You Need Local Anesthesia? (
  • The presence of inflammation decreases local anesthetic efficacy, especially in dental anesthesia. (
  • The effects of local anesthetics on nerve cell model membranes were inhibited by treating with peroxynitrite (50 μM), suggesting that inflammatory cells producing peroxynitrite may affect local anesthesia. (
  • Local anesthetics are used to provide surgical anesthesia and analgesia in peripheral and central nervous system nerve blocks (spinal and epidural anesthesia). (
  • 217-244-0 Molecular Weight 256.77 Assay 99% Shipping Express Courier Standard Enterprise Standard Use Local anesthetics , long duration, lower toxicity, chemicals that are also small suitable for epidural anesthesia, block anesthesia. (
  • Local Anesthetics are drugs that produce reversible conduction blockade of impulses along central and peripheral nerve pathways after regional anesthesia this produces transient loss of sensory, motor, and autonomic function. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Local and regional anesthesia" applicable to this article? (
  • The practice advisory panel recommends that the checklist be immediately available wherever potentially toxic doses of local anesthetics are used.In 2008 the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) convened its second practice advisory panel on LAST. (
  • The obvious implications for clinicians (including non-anesthesia providers) who use potentially toxic doses of local anesthetic are that all patients should be observed with standard monitors for at least 30 minutes after block placement, and resuscitation equipment should be readily available. (
  • I went for the extraction of the lower eighth (Wisdom Tooth) right side, they gave me Local Anesthesia, as soon as it entered into my blood stream, i got my Right eye diplopic ( Double Vision). (
  • The doctor gave me several injections of Local Anesthesia. (
  • Diplopia that is double visit doesn't usually occur after local anesthesia injection. (
  • Diplopia after local anesthesia injection complication is transient in nature. (
  • The onset of local anesthesia was rapid, and the anesthesia obtained was profound. (
  • Administration of infiltration and block local anesthesia. (
  • Local anesthesia onset within 45 seconds for infiltration and 2 to 3 minutes for blocks. (
  • The buffering and delivery system reduce onset time for profound local anesthesia and increase its predictability. (
  • Haegerstam, Introduction to Dental Local anesthesia 1990. (
  • Periprostatic nerve block (PNB) with local anesthesia is a popular technique, but its overall efficacy is not known. (
  • To determine the efficacy of PNB with local anesthesia for prostate biopsy analgesia. (
  • Data were collected and the overall pain scores of patients who received local anesthesia were compared with the pain scores of patients who did not. (
  • These studies included 660 patients who received local anesthesia for PNB (lidocaine, articaine, bupivacaine or mepivacaine) and 616 who did not. (
  • The authors conclude that patients undergoing prostate biopsy who were administered a PNB with local anesthesia experienced significantly lower levels of pain when compared with those who received no anesthesia, and that this reduction in pain is clinically meaningful. (
  • ALCAINE ® Solution 0.5% 15mL, the only branded proparacaine available, is a topical local anesthetic indicated for corneal anesthesia of short duration, and for short corneal and conjunctival procedures. (
  • Tens of millions of patients have operations requiring local anesthesia each year. (
  • Neosaxitoxin (neoSTX) provides local anesthesia for more than 24 hours. (
  • The team believes that even more prolonged local anesthesia is possible. (
  • and the installation of a local anesthetic, usually lidocaine, which takes effect quickly and lasts for one to two hours. (
  • Anesthetics used for the cystoscopy include lidocaine. (
  • Topical 2% lidocaine (Xylocaine) is a commonly used anesthetic. (
  • Administer local lidocaine sprays into the nostril. (
  • Cumulative concentration-response curves to local anesthetics (levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine) were obtained from isolated rat aorta. (
  • Levobupivacaine and ropivacaine are long-acting aminoamide local anesthetics, whereas mepivacaine and lidocaine have an intermediate duration [ 13 ]. (
  • Infants receiving the dorsal penile nerve block with lidocaine (1% Xylocaine) (N = 20) experienced significantly less stress, as evidenced by smaller decreases in transcutaneous oxygen pressure levels, less time spent crying, and smaller increases in heart rate, than infants circumcised in an identical manner without anesthetic (N = 10). (
  • 1. A locally active anesthetic agent in the form of a homogenous oil which is useful for topical or parenteral application, consisting essentially of prilocaine in the form of its base in admixture with lidocaine, in the form of its base in a weight ratio of 42:58 to 80:20 such that the resulting mixture is a homogenous oil which has a melting point of below 40 C. (
  • It is previously known, e.g. by Swedish Patent S/No. 352 239 to produce a local anesthetically active film comprising lidocaine in crystallized, microdisperse form. (
  • and she ended up dying from an overdose of the local anesthetic lidocaine . (
  • Though lidocaine toxicity is rare, it is a risk, and that's why equipment for emergency care is supposed to be immediately available whenever local anesthetic is administered. (
  • The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare post-operative pain levels following the first stage of two-visit emergency endodontic treatment in patients with either an intermediate-acting local anesthetic (2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine) or a long-acting local anesthetic (0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine). (
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the activity of benzydamine, lidocaine, and bupivacaine, three drugs with local anesthetic activity, against Candida albicans and non-albicans strains and to clarify their mechanism of activity. (
  • 2019). 'Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Antagonized Local Anesthetic Effect of Lidocaine', Liječnički vjesnik , 141(suppl.1), str. (
  • The most common topical anesthetics used in dentistry are those containing benzocaine or lidocaine. (
  • It has a low incidence of allergic reactions but is absorbed systemically and application of excessive amounts of topical lidocaine may absorb rapidly into the cardiovascular system leading to higher local anesthetic blood levels with an increased risk, especially in the pediatric patient, of overdose reaction. (
  • ROSEMONT, Ill. , Oct. 6, 2017 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- A lower dose of the local anesthetic lidocaine can be made as effective as a higher dosage by changing the formulation's acidity, giving oral and maxillofacial surgeons and other dental clinicians more options when administering the drug, according to a new study. (
  • The study, published in the October issue of the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery , found 1 percent lidocaine numbed the midface area quicker than 2 percent lidocaine when the 1 percent anesthetic was buffered, meaning the drug had a more neutral acidity than the 2 percent non-buffered anesthetic. (
  • Although lidocaine is more toxic than bupivacaine and ropivacaine, mepivacaine, which has a similar pharmacological effect to lidocaine, has the least-adverse effects on cone growth among clinically used local anesthetics. (
  • Although lidocaine is more toxic than bupivacaine and ropivacaine, mepivacaine, which has a similar pharmacological effect to lidocaine, is the safest among clinically used local anesthetics. (
  • Lidocaine or xylocaine is one of the most common local anesthetic agent which can rarely cause adverse reactions like nervousness, apprehension, drowsiness, tinnitus, blurred or double vision. (
  • New Anutra Local Anesthetic Delivery System is a buffering and delivery system that raises the pH of the injected solution from approximately 3.5-3.9 to an effective pH neutral range, similar to that naturally found in the body by combining lidocaine and sodium bicarbonate. (
  • New Anutra Local Anesthetic Delivery System consists of the Anutra Cassette that allows for the mixing of lidocaine and sodium bicarbonate in a closed, filtered environment, the Anutra Dispenser that precisely buffers (mixes) at the correct ratio, and the lightweight Anutra Feedback Aspiration Syringes . (
  • SALT LAKE CITY, July 6 -- ZARS Pharma announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a topical local anesthetic peel developed under the name of S-Caine(TM) Peel (Lidocaine and Tetracaine) 7%/7% Cream. (
  • The Lidocaine and Tetracaine 7%/7% Cream is a topical local anesthetic cream that forms a pliable peel on the skin when exposed to air. (
  • The Lidocaine and Tetracaine 7%/7% Cream should not be used for a duration longer than recommended, and is contraindicated in patients with a known history of sensitivity to lidocaine, tetracaine, or local anesthetics of the amide or ester type. (
  • Benzocaine was the first of many local anesthetics with similar chemical structures and led to the synthesis and introduction of a variety of compounds with more efficacy and less toxicity. (
  • Guidelines for the Management of Severe Local Anaesthetic Toxicity. (
  • Lipid resuscitation for local anesthetic toxicity: is it really lifesaving? (
  • Reversal of central nervous system and cardiac toxicity after local anesthetic intoxication by lipid emulsion injection. (
  • Recurrence of Local Anesthetic Cardiac Toxicity or Hypokalem. (
  • Recurrence of Local Anesthetic Cardiac Toxicity or Hypokalemia? (
  • Second, the dysrhythmia was not the only sign of local anesthetic toxicity. (
  • 2. Krishnan S, Raw R. Recurrence of local anesthetic cardiac toxicity, or hypokalemia? (
  • From bedside to bench and back: perfecting lipid emulsion therapy for local anesthetic toxicity. (
  • Lipid emulsion has been shown to be an effective treatment for systemic toxicity induced by local anesthetics, which is reflected in case reports. (
  • The current review includes the following: 1) an introduction, 2) a list of the proposed mechanisms, 3) a discussion of the best lipid emulsion treatment for reversal of local anesthetic toxicity, 4) a description of the effect of epinephrine on lipid emulsion-mediated resuscitation, 5) a description of the recommended lipid emulsion treatment, and 6) a conclusion. (
  • However, lipid emulsion is currently used to treat local anesthetic-induced systemic toxicity [ 2 - 6 ]. (
  • The administration of lipid emulsion affected the central nervous system toxicity induced by local anesthetics by increasing the dosage of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine needed to produce convulsion in awake rats [ 15 ]. (
  • With conventional concentrations of local anesthetic solutions, such high volumes carry an unacceptable risk of systemic toxicity (see Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity ). (
  • A new study in the February issue of Anesthesiology found that the type of lipid emulsion used to reverse toxicity of local anesthetics may make a difference in effectiveness of the reversal. (
  • One way to reverse toxicity of local anesthetics is through lipid emulsion infusion, a technique commonly used to feed patients intravenously. (
  • Our hope was to further previous research regarding the use of lipid rescue in local anesthetic toxicity. (
  • Local anesthetic toxicity often occurs in the setting of high acid in the blood. (
  • The study is part of an ongoing effort to characterize the suitability of lipid administration in the reversal of toxicity from local anesthetics, as well as other drugs commonly encountered in the setting of a life-threatening overdose. (
  • It is not known to produce systemic toxicity but can produce local allergic reactions especially after prolonged or repeated use. (
  • Local anesthetics are used upon the base of its effectiveness and toxicity, so we decided to evaluate the postoperative analgesia through the comparison of ropivacaine (R) against bupivacaine (B) for femoral and sciatic blockade in the arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior crossed ligament (ALC) repair. (
  • Such is the current state of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST). (
  • Moreover, we must heighten our vigilance in those patients who have a lower-than-normal threshold for local anesthetic toxicity: extremes of age, and/or underlying cardiac, hepatic, neurologic, or metabolic co-morbidities. (
  • Vadi, M.G., Patel, N. and Stiegler, M.P. (2014) Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity after Combined Psoas Compartment-Sciatic Nerve Block Analysis of Decision Factors and Diagnostic Delay. (
  • They are not addictive, have no cardiac toxicity and don't cross the blood-brain barrier, thus avoiding the risk of seizures occasionally seen with existing local anesthetics. (
  • Your mind immediately jumps to the possibility of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST). (
  • Despite the dramatic rise in the use of the use of liposomal bupivacaine, the local anesthetic was not associated with a decreased risk in patient opioid-related complications. (
  • We used human serum instead of buffer solutions that were used in prior research to produce results as clinically relevant as possible," said lead study author Deborah French, Ph.D. "The local anesthetics bupivacaine, ropivacaine and mepivacaine were added to the serum along with a lipid emulsion for testing. (
  • Casati A, Fanelli G, Magistris L, Beccaria P, Berti M, Torri G. Minimum local anesthetic volume blocking the femoral nerve in 50% of cases: a double blinded comparison between 0.5% ropivacaine and 0.5% bupivacaine. (
  • Impaired autophagosome clearance contributes to local anesthetic bupivacaine-induced myotoxicity in mouse myoblasts. (
  • In addition, we have combined the new EST with local anesthetic injections (bupivacaine 0.25%) with clinical success. (
  • In a randomized, double-blind trial, patients given neosaxitoxin, a new local anesthetic derived from algae, had significantly less postoperative pain and recovered about two days sooner than those given the commonly used local anesthetic bupivacaine. (
  • Local anesthetic s produce loss of sensation and make it possible for many surgical procedures to be performed without a general anesthetic. (
  • In the context of surgery, a local anesthetic creates an absence of pain in a specific location of the body without a loss of consciousness, as opposed to a general anesthetic. (
  • Compare general anesthetic . (
  • Depending on the vascularity of the injection site, vasoconstriction induced by local anesthetic and the addition of epinephrine may contribute to decreased absorption of local anesthetics into systemic circulation [ 14 ]. (
  • Reduce systemic absorption rate due to the addition of vasoconstrictors with local anesthetics is most typically noted with shorter-acting, less lipid-soluble and less potent agents. (
  • These systems, commonly referred to pain pumps by patients, possess a catheter(s) attached to a reservoir of local anesthetic that directly infuses into the surgical site to provide local pain control thus avoiding the common and less desirable systemic effects of oral narcotic pain medication. (
  • They have data from animals and exploratory studies in humans showing that combining Site-1 sodium channel blockers with existing local anesthetics can produce nerve blockade for up to 2 to 4 days - with minimal local or systemic side effects. (
  • Epinephrine and neocobefrin are included in most dental anesthetic formulations as vasoconstrictors to keep the anesthetic in the targeting area. (
  • Septocaine (Articaine HCl and Epinephrine) Injection is a local anesthetic, made by Septodont Inc., used in both straightforward and. (
  • Epinephrine is often empirically included "just in case" due to the potential to prolong effect of other locally active drugs as their clearance from the local site is delayed due to the epinephrine-induced vasoconstriction. (
  • Boston, MA - A U.S.-Chile collaboration is bringing surgical patients closer to having a long-acting local anesthetic. (
  • Levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, and mepivacaine are aminoamide local anesthetics that belong to the n -alkyl-substituted pipecholyl xylidine family [ 2 ]. (
  • The local anesthetic effects of cocaine and one of its main metabolites norcocaine, were investigated comparatively on isolated ganglion cells of the marine gastropod, Aplysia californica . (
  • During a 1-hour-period, different action potential parameters such as amplitude, duration, maximum rate of rise were observed, which demonstrated that norcocaine exhibits a higher local anesthetic potency than cocaine. (
  • Clinical application of cocaine involve not only local anesthetic properties but also vasoconstriction due to reduced cholinergic action at nerve terminals. (
  • We used Monte Carlo minimizations to model the channel with representative local anesthetics N -(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)triethylammonium (QX-314), cocaine, and tetracaine. (
  • Cocaine was widely used as a local anesthetic after Carl Koller (1857-1944) demonstrated the drug's effectiveness in 1884. (
  • Agents of treatment include Celecoxib (Celebrex), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), skeletal muscle relaxants, and local anesthetics. (
  • Nonlocal anesthetic adjuvants such as anti-inflammatory agents, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs-traditional or cyclooxygenase [COX] 2 inhibitors) and steroids, as well as opioids and ketamine have all been used. (
  • ICD-9 code E938.9 for Other and unspecified local anesthetics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range -DRUGS, MEDICINAL AND BIOLOGICAL SUBSTANCES CAUSING ADVERSE EFFECTS IN THERAPEUTIC USE (E930-E949). (
  • To compare the types of anesthetic, researchers administered the drugs to adult patients during a two-week period. (
  • The selectivity filter separates the outer pore, which is targeted by tetrodotoxin (TTX), saxotoxin, and conotoxins, from the inner pore, which is targeted by local anesthetics (LAs) and other small cationic drugs ( Zhorov and Tikhonov, 2004 ). (
  • Voltage-gated sodium (Na + ) channels are targets for local anesthetic (LA) drugs that bind in the inner pore of the channel with affinities related to the channel gating states. (
  • leaf, was the only known local anesthetic until about 1900, when the synthetic compound benzocaine was introduced. (
  • Benzocaine (ethyl aminobenzoate) is an ester local anesthetic. (
  • Usage: Benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever or in cough drops. (
  • This medication is a local anesthetic, used as a topical local analgesia before certain medical procedures for skin. (
  • The development of tolerance to morphine is delayed, and the quality of analgesia can be improved because of the morphine-sparing effect of local anesthetics (3) . (
  • Tachyphylaxis to local anesthetics is defined as a decrease in duration, segmental spread, or intensity of analgesia despite repeated constant dosages. (
  • In contrast, providing a lower concentration of local anesthetic at a higher basal rate provided superior analgesia. (
  • Epidural infusions of local anesthetic are routinely used for intraoperative and postoperative analgesia (frequently lasting several days) in patients undergoing major abdominal and vascular procedures. (
  • As a new generation of amide-type local anesthetics (LAs), ropivacaine has been widely used for pain management in clinical settings. (
  • ropivacaine is the most effective local anesthetic for the blockade of femoral and sciatic nerves. (
  • Intravenous lipid infusion in the successful resuscitation of local anesthetic-induced cardiovascular collapse after supraclavicular brachial plexus block. (
  • Local anesthetic infusion pump fo. (
  • Background: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were to evaluate the effect and safety of local anesthetic infusion pump versus placebo for pain management following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). (
  • Randomized controlled trials of patients prepared for primary TKA that compared local anesthetic infusion pump versus placebo for pain management following TKA were retrieved. (
  • Local anesthetic infusion pump are associated with less pain scores with rest or mobilization at 24 and 48 h with significant difference. (
  • However, local anesthetic infusion pump may be associated with more infection. (
  • Conclusion: Based on the current meta-analysis, we found no evidence to support the routine use of local anesthetic infusion pump in the management of acute pain following TKA. (
  • Because repeated injection of the local anesthetic is painful or inconvenient, one approach is to leave one or more catheters in the wound or joint to provide the vehicle for boluses or continuous infusion of local anesthetics. (
  • Findings showed that a lipid emulsion infusion containing both medium- and long-chain triglycerides extracts local anesthetics from human serum more effectively than an emulsion containing only long-chain triglycerides. (
  • Importantly, the study also found that lipid emulsion infusion extracts local anesthetics out of a patient's serum at an acidic blood pH the same as it would at a normal pH, suggesting that lipid rescue need not be delayed for normalization of the patient's acidosis. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: For continuous infraclavicular nerve blocks, local anesthetic concentration and volume influence perineural infusion effects in addition to the total mass of local anesthetic administered. (
  • Continuous local anesthetic infusion with renal I/R injury resulted in an increased magnitude and duration of renal dysfunction compared with the saline-infused I/R group. (
  • Local anesthetic infusion alone without I/R injury had no effect on renal function. (
  • As careful injections of local anesthetic are made close to the site of surgical injury, there is a potential for targeting the source of pain caused by local inflammation and pain to supply effective treatment close to the origin of pain. (
  • Diagnostic tests such as bone marrow aspiration, lumbar puncture (spinal tap) and aspiration of cysts or other structures are made to be less painful upon administration of local anesthetic before insertion of larger needles. (
  • Considering taking medication to treat administration+of+local+anesthetic+drug? (
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of administration+of+local+anesthetic+drug. (
  • Regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between the reported physicochemical properties of local anesthetics and the local anesthetic concentration that produced 50% (ED 50 ) of the local anesthetic-induced maximum vasoconstriction. (
  • Moreover, other factors of pharmacodynamic origin have been implicated, such as antagonistic effects of nucleotides or increased sodium concentration, increased afferent input from nociceptors, or receptor downregulation of the sodium channels, and often the interpretation is quite difficult because of time-dependent variations in pain or circadian changes in the duration of local anesthetic action: phenomena that are named pseudotachyphylaxis (5) . (
  • The present invention relates to pharmacological active preparations, especially local anesthetic preparations and deals with the problem of i a obtaining a solution of a local anesthetic agent in the form of its base, where the concentration is higher than otherwise possible. (
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is currently unknown if the primary determinant of continuous peripheral nerve block effects is simply total drug dose, or whether local anesthetic concentration and/or volume have an influence. (
  • Thus, the concentration of local anesthetic may be lowered and the volume increased, keeping the total dose within safe limits. (
  • BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether local anesthetic concentration or total drug dose is the primary determinant of continuous peripheral nerve block effects. (
  • The interaction between local anesthetic concentration and volume is thus complex and varies among catheter locations. (
  • Surgery being divided in two groups: R and B. Blockade was applied femoral and sciatic postoperative, the anesthetic place use in concentration of 0.25%, total volume of 40 mL for every nerve. (
  • Therefore, local anesthetics with pKa closer to physiologic pH will have higher concentration of nonionized base that can be pass through the nerve cell membrane, and onset will be more rapid. (
  • The goals of this in vitro study were to investigate the potency of local anesthetic-induced vasoconstriction and to identify the physicochemical property (octanol/buffer partition coefficient, pKa, molecular weight, or potency) of local anesthetics that determines their potency in inducing isolated rat aortic ring contraction. (
  • The potency of the vasoconstriction in the endothelium-denuded aorta induced by local anesthetics is determined primarily by lipid solubility and, in part, by other physicochemical properties including potency and pKa. (
  • In addition, the membrane disordering efficiency of local anesthetics corresponds to their potency [ 4 ]. (
  • However, to our knowledge, the physicochemical property of local anesthetics that is primarily responsible for determining the local anesthetic-induced vasoconstriction potency has not yet been identified. (
  • Therefore, the aims of this in vitro study were to investigate the potency of local anesthetic-induced vasoconstriction and to determine which physicochemical property is principally involved in determining this potency in isolated rat aortic rings. (
  • Local anesthetics acted on phosphatidylserine liposomes, as well as nerve cell model membranes, at pH 6.4 with almost the same potency as that at pH 7.4, but not on phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin liposomes. (
  • Potency correlates with lipid solubility it depends on the ability of the local anesthetic to penetrate a hydrophobic environment. (
  • This local anesthetic exhibits not only blockade of norepinephrine but also catecholamine sensitization and mydriasis. (
  • Since unimpaired microtubule and microfilament functions are required by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in order to respond normally to surface stimulation, we have studied effects of the local anesthetic, tetracaine on the function and morphology of these cells in vitro. (
  • Dyclonine Hydrochloride is the hydrochloride salt of Dyclonine, an unclassified compound with local anesthetic effect. (
  • It is a local anesthetic, used topically as the hydrochloride salt. (
  • Llidocaine hydrochloride jelly, 2% (Anestacon), from Polymedica, is alocal anesthetic used to decrease pain and discomfort resulting from urinarytract procedures. (
  • Alcon, the global leader in eye care and a division of Novartis, today announces the latest addition of ALCAINE ® (proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution, USP) 0.5% 15mL to its Procedural Eye Drops portfolio, which is made up of mydriatic, cycloplegic, diagnostic and anesthetic products. (
  • Through a randomized trial comparing plain saline to a common local anesthetic, The investigators hope to evaluate the effectiveness of these pain pumps as an outpatient modality for pain management following hemorrhoidectomy patients. (
  • The use of local anesthetics in dentistry has a long history of efficacy and safety. (
  • The local anesthetics dibucaine (basic pKa=8.8) and articaine. (
  • Therefore, it may be possible that BPC 157 acts as the missing antidote to local anesthethics, and potentially deleterious and even life threatening adverse effects of toxic doses of local anesthethics would be markedly attenuated or even abolished. (
  • In fact, most nonanesthesiologists lack knowledge of toxic doses of local anesthetics or the treatments for LAST, with one survey finding that only 7% of nonanesthesiologists are aware of the role of lipid therapy. (
  • Aminoamide local anesthetics induce vasoconstriction in vivo and in vitro . (
  • Aminoamide local anesthetics induce vasoconstriction at low doses and vasodilation at high doses [ 1 ]. (
  • Description: Prilocaine is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils. (
  • 1786-81-8 Local Anesthetic Powder Prilocaine HCL Description Procaine HCL is a local anesthetic of amino amide prepared by Claes Tegner and NilsLöFgren. (
  • Infiltration or instillation of local anesthetics around and into the joint as an analgesic adjunct for postoperative joint surgery pain has been used for decades. (
  • A problem with local anesthetic infiltration for major surgery is that many different structures and layers must be infiltrated. (
  • In doing so, a certain minimum volume of local anesthetic is required for an effective local infiltration to cover all relevant structures. (
  • Long-acting local anesthetics used for infiltration, perioperative injections, and infiltration all have a limited duration and wear off within a few hours after injection. (
  • Thus, local anesthetics are useful in minor surgical procedures, such as the extraction of teeth. (
  • Paajanen H, Varjo R. Ten-year audit of Lichtenstein hernioplasty under local anaesthesia performed by surgical residents. (
  • The local anesthetic is injected into tissues surrounding the surgical wound, and is designed to provide pain control for up to three days, with the hope of reducing the need for opioids. (
  • [6] Reliance on support staff becomes even more significant with the frequency of surgical procedures employing regional anesthetics performed in ASCs with limited staffing. (
  • More RCTs are still need to identify the pain control effects and optimal dose and speed of local anesthetic pain pump. (
  • Small-dose intraspinal local anesthetics, when added to either epidural or intrathecal opioids, synergistically enhance the antinociceptive effects of the opioid dose, as demonstrated by isobolographic analysis (2) , likely because of inhibition of neuronal excitability. (
  • The lipid soluble, phosphodiesterase-resistant 6-N, 2-0, dibutyryl analog of cyclic AMP (db-cyclic AMP) when administered intracerebroventricularly, dose-dependently shortened narcosis induced by amobarbital [2] and a wide variety of anesthetic, sedative-hypnotic, and tranquilizer agents [3]. (
  • [1-2] Awareness of some independent risk factors for LAST, such as local anesthetic dose, site of injection, and extremes of age, is useful, but providers cannot fully predict which patients may develop this life-threatening complication. (
  • Analyze the action of buffering solutions and anesthetic reversal agents. (
  • What are the commonly used local anesthetics for an open inguinal hernia repair? (
  • The efficiency of local anesthetics (LAs) in the treatment of peripheral pain is commonly attributed to their capacity to block the axon conduction of sensory nerves. (
  • Local anesthetic agents work by preventing the conduction of nerve impulses. (
  • This medication is a local anesthetic agent, prescribed for acute pain management and for blocking the generation and conduction of nerve impulses that send signal to the brain. (
  • Local anesthetics block the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses. (
  • Local anesthetics reduce impulse transmission by interfering with the mechanism of normal depolarization, binding to specific receptors located at the nerve membrane-more specifically, on the voltage-gated, tetrodoxin-sensitive sodium channel-and resulting in decreased or eliminated permeability to sodium ions, leading to interruption of nerve conduction. (
  • Although it is well-established that local anesthetic agents produce nondepolarizing conduction block by inhibiting sodium ion flux through axonal membrane sodium channels, the specific biochemical events governing the process remain unknown. (
  • When I asked is there any local analgesic he could apply he simply said "we're almost done. (
  • During the following day, no additional analgesic effects were observed for patients who received long-acting local anesthetics. (
  • The trends observed in this study suggest that long-acting local anesthetics are effective in the management of post-operative pain, and that males may benefit more than females from the analgesic effects of long-acting local anesthetics. (
  • The injection of local anesthetic is perhaps the greatest source of patient fear and inability to obtain adequate pain control with minimal discomfort remains a significant concern of dental practitioners. (
  • This course is designed for all dental professionals whose patients may be administered local anesthetics. (
  • The purpose of this course is to provide dental professionals with a comparative perspective on the use of local anesthetics. (
  • Having experienced frustration with the performance of local anesthetic in his practice, particularly around the frequency of failed anesthetic, delayed onset, injection pain and post-operative discomfort, he began research into the pharmacokinetics of dental anesthetic. (
  • Injected by a needle, novocain immediately became popular as a local anesthetic for both medical and dental purposes. (
  • Compare and contrast ester-type and amide-type local anesthetics. (
  • Amide-type local anesthetics undergo hepatic biotransformation involving hydroxylation and N-dealkylation catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing system. (
  • A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes absence of pain sensation. (
  • This medication is a local anesthetic, used in ophthalmology to determine fluid pressure inside the eye and for fitting of contact lenses. (
  • This medication is a local anesthetic used to treat painful conditions such as mouth ulcers, sore throat, before inserting instruments into the rectum or vagina for examination. (
  • This medication is a local anesthetic, used for surgery and for obstetrical procedures. (
  • This medication is a potent local anesthetic, prescribed for rapid and effective relief in gastritis, esophagitis, hiatus hernia, heartburn of pregnancy and peptic ulcer. (
  • This medication is a local anaesthetic and antipruritic agent, prescribed for small varicose veins. (
  • In my opinion, there has not been a truly innovative new local anesthetic medication in the last 40 to 50 years," notes study coauthor Charles Berde, MD, PhD, chief of the Division of Pain Medicine at Children's Hospital Boston. (
  • The primary site of action of local anesthetics appears to exist on the intracellular side of the sodium channel, and the charged form appears to be predominantly active form. (
  • It is a site 1 sodium-channel blocker, part of a larger class of emerging anesthetics based on molecules derived from aquatic organisms. (
  • The phenomenon of tachyphylaxis (acute tolerance) is generally explained on the basis of the physicochemical properties of local anesthetic agents. (
  • Clinical LAs belong to one of two classes: aminoamide and aminoester local anesthetics. (
  • Patients and surgeons can choose either anesthetic technique, depending on the clinical situation and preferences. (
  • Local anesthetics are widely used in clinical practice, even in patients with impaired preoperative renal function. (
  • The effects of corticosteroid injection versus local anesthetic injection in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a randomized single-blinded clinical trial. (
  • Based on this finding, Children's Hospital Boston, a co-investigator on the study, has signed a collaboration agreement with biotech start-up company Proteus SA (Santiago, Chile) to move the new anesthetic toward clinical adoption. (
  • In clinical trials, the most common side effects were local skin reactions, such as erythema, blanching and edema. (
  • All the data for Therapeutic inhibition of keratinocyte TRPV3 sensory channel by local anesthetic dyclonine have been deposited in Dyrad with DOI (
  • These anesthetics can also be injected into the back using an epidural catheter. (
  • Pt has a HD catheter in right internal jugular vein: The area of the tunneled catheter skin exit site was infiltrated with local anesthetic. (
  • There is risk of accidental damage to local blood vessels during injection of the local anaesthetic solution. (
  • No complications resulted from injection of the local anesthetic or from the circumcision procedure itself. (
  • The uncharged form is very important for rapid penetration of cell membranes (local anesthetic receptor is not accessible from the external side of the cell membrane). (