Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Benzocaine: A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Mexiletine: Antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to LIDOCAINE. It may have some anticonvulsant properties.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.EthersFentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Hypnosis, Anesthetic: Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Pregnanediones: Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Ethyl EthersAbattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Tiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Malignant Hyperthermia: Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, IntratrachealAnalgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.CyclobutanesConsciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Felypressin: A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedMembrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain: Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Propanidid: An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Thiamylal: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedCalcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Batrachotoxins: Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.Ethyl Chloride: A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.CADASIL: A familial, cerebral arteriopathy mapped to chromosome 19q12, and characterized by the presence of granular deposits in small CEREBRAL ARTERIES producing ischemic STROKE; PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY; and multiple subcortical infarcts (CEREBRAL INFARCTION). CADASIL is an acronym for Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy. CADASIL differs from BINSWANGER DISEASE by the presence of MIGRAINE WITH AURA and usually by the lack of history of arterial HYPERTENSION. (From Bradley et al, Neurology in Clinical Practice, 2000, p1146)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Blade Implantation: Insertion of an endosseous implant with a narrow wedge-shaped infrastructure extending through the oral mucosa into the mouth and bearing openings or vents through which tissue grows to obtain retention.Operating Room Technicians: Specially trained personnel to assist in routine technical procedures in the operating room.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Postanesthesia Nursing: The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients in the recovery room following surgery and/or anesthesia.GABA Modulators: Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.

Electrophysiological evidence for tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in slowly conducting dural sensory fibers. (1/3062)

A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5 +info)

RINm5f cells express inactivating BK channels whereas HIT cells express noninactivating BK channels. (2/3062)

Large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated BK-type K+ channels are expressed abundantly in normal rat pancreatic islet cells and in the clonal rat insulinoma tumor (RINm5f) and hamster insulinoma tumor (HIT) beta cell lines. Previous work has suggested that the Ca2+ sensitivity of BK channels in RIN cells is substantially less than that in HIT cells, perhaps contributing to differences between the cell lines in responsiveness to glucose in mediating insulin secretion. In both RIN cells and normal pancreatic beta cells, BK channels are thought to play a limited role in responses of beta cells to secretagogues and in the electrical activity of beta cells. Here we examine in detail the properties of BK channels in RIN and HIT cells using inside-out patches and whole cell recordings. BK channels in RIN cells exhibit rapid inactivation that results in an anomalous steady-state Ca2+ dependence of activation. In contrast, BK channels in HIT cells exhibit the more usual noninactivating behavior. When BK inactivation is taken into account, the Ca2+ and voltage dependence of activation of BK channels in RIN and HIT cells is essentially indistinguishable. The properties of BK channel inactivation in RIN cells are similar to those of inactivating BK channels (termed BKi channels) previously identified in rat chromaffin cells. Inactivation involves multiple, trypsin-sensitive cytosolic domains and exhibits a dependence on Ca2+ and voltage that appears to arise from coupling to channel activation. In addition, the rates of inactivation onset and recovery are similar to that of BKi channels in chromaffin cells. The charybdotoxin (CTX) sensitivity of BKi currents is somewhat less than that of the noninactivating BK variant. Action potential voltage-clamp waveforms indicate that BK current is activated only weakly by Ca2+ influx in RIN cells but more strongly activated in HIT cells even when Ca2+ current magnitude is comparable. Concentrations of CTX sufficient to block BKi current in RIN cells have no effect on action potential activity initiated by glucose or DC injection. Despite its abundant expression in RIN cells, BKi current appears to play little role in action potential activity initiated by glucose or DC injection in RIN cells, but BK current may play an important role in action potential repolarization in HIT cells.  (+info)

Comparison of local anesthetic activities between optical isomers of cis-1-benzoyloxy-2-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene. (3/3062)

The optical isomers of cis-1-benzoyloxy-2-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (YAU-17) were compared for their local anesthetic activity, acute toxicity, spasmolytic activity, and partition coefficient between chloroform and phosphate buffer. 1-YAU-17 was more active than d-YAU-17 in blocking the conduction of action potentials in isolated frog sciatic nerves. The difference in local anesthetic activities between the optical isomers was further substantiated by in vivo tests for corneal anesthesia, intracutaneous anesthesia and sciatic nerve block in quinea-pigs. Similarly, the i.v. injection to mice revealed a higher toxicity for 1-YAU-17 as compared to its d-isomer. In these tests, the potency ratios of the enantiomers ranged from 2 to 4, and the racemate had an intermediate potency. On the contrary, no difference among the compounds was found in their liposolubility, partition coefficient, and spasmolytic activity examined with isolated guinea-pig ileum. These results indicate that the steric factors play an important role in the production of different local anesthetic activities between the optical isomers of YAU-17, and their local anesthetic potency tends to be correlated to their intravenous acute toxicity but not to their spasmolytic activity.  (+info)

Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) (4/3062)

Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine.  (+info)

Evaluation of lidocaine as an analgesic when added to hypertonic saline for sclerotherapy. (5/3062)

PURPOSE: The efficacy of sclerosing agents for the treatment of telangiectasias and reticular veins is well established. The injection of these agents is often associated with pain, and it is not uncommon for sclerotherapists to include lidocaine with the sclerosants in an attempt to reduce the pain associated with treatment. However, there are concerns that this may reduce the overall efficacy of the treatment because of dilution of the sclerosant. Patient comfort and overall outcome associated with treatment using HS with lidocaine (LIDO) versus that using HS alone was compared. METHODS: Forty-two patients were prospectively entered into the study and randomized blindly to sclerotherapy with 23.4% HS or 19% LIDO. Study subjects and treating physicians were blinded to the injection solution used. Injection sites were chosen for veins ranging in size from 0.1 to 3 mm. Photographs of the area to be treated were taken, and the patients rated their pain. They were then observed at regular intervals for four months, and clinical data was collected. Thirty-five subjects completed the full follow-up period, and photographs of the injected area were taken again. Three investigators blinded to the treatment assignment then evaluated the photographs and scored the treatment efficacy according to a standardized system. RESULTS: In the HS group, 61.9% (13 of 21) patients rated their pain as none or mild, whereas 90.5% (19 of 21) of patients in the LIDO group had no or mild discomfort. This difference is significant, with a P value of.034. There was no difference in the overall efficacy of treatment between the two groups. The groups had similar rates of vein thrombosis and skin necrosis. CONCLUSION: Although lidocaine is often used with sclerosing agents, there are no previous reports in the literature to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing the pain experienced by the patient. In this study, patients receiving LIDO experienced significantly less discomfort at the time of injection than patients who received HS alone. There were no differences in the effectiveness of treatment or in the incidence of complications between the two groups.  (+info)

A study of local anaesthetics. Part 148. Influence of auxiliary substances on the surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII. (6/3062)

The influence of auxiliary substances of the polyol group (glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol) and of their concentration (5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight) upon surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII, viz., N-[2-(2-propoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)-ethyl] piperidinium chloride was studied. The substances were applied as hydrogel humectants. It was found that their influence on the surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII depended on the type as well as concentration of the auxiliary substance. From the viewpoints of use in formulations of the drug form, sorbitol used at 5 and 10% concentrations represented the optimum.  (+info)

Dose-response effects of spinal neostigmine added to bupivacaine spinal anesthesia in volunteers. (7/3062)

BACKGROUND: Intrathecal adjuncts often are used to enhance small-dose spinal bupivacaine for ambulatory anesthesia. Neostigmine is a novel spinal analgesic that could be a useful adjunct, but no data exist to assess the effects of neostigmine on small-dose bupivacaine spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Eighteen volunteers received two bupivacaine spinal anesthetics (7.5 mg) in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design. Dextrose, 5% (1 ml), was added to one spinal infusion and 6.25, 12.5, or 50 microg neostigmine in dextrose, 5%, was added to the other spinal. Sensory block was assessed with pinprick; by the duration of tolerance to electric stimulation equivalent to surgical incision at the pubis, knee, and ankle; and by the duration of tolerance to thigh tourniquet. Motor block at the quadriceps was assessed with surface electromyography. Side effects (nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and sedation) were noted. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were recorded every 5 min. Dose-response relations were assessed with analysis of variance, paired t tests, or Spearman rank correlation. RESULTS: The addition of 50 microg neostigmine significantly increased the duration of sensory and motor block and the time until discharge criteria were achieved. The addition of neostigmine produced dose-dependent nausea (33-67%) and vomiting (17-50%). Neostigmine at these doses had no effect on hemodynamic or respiratory parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of 50 microg neostigmine prolonged the duration of sensory and motor block. However, high incidences of side effects and delayed recovery from anesthesia with the addition of 6.25 to 50 microg neostigmine may limit the clinical use of these doses for outpatient spinal anesthesia.  (+info)

Comparison of three solutions of ropivacaine/fentanyl for postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia. (8/3062)

BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine, 0.2%, is a new local anesthetic approved for epidural analgesia. The addition of 4 microg/ml fentanyl improves analgesia from epidural ropivacaine. Use of a lower concentration of ropivacaine-fentanyl may further improve analgesia or decrease side effects. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery were randomized in a double-blinded manner to receive one of three solutions: 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl 0.1% ropivacaine-2 microg fentanyl, or 0.05% ropivacaine-1 microg fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia after standardized combined epidural and general anesthesia. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia settings and adjustments for the three solutions were standardized to deliver equivalent drug doses. Pain scores (rest, cough, and ambulation), side effects (nausea, pruritus, sedation, motor block, hypotension, and orthostasis), and patient-controlled epidural analgesia consumption were measured for 48 h. RESULTS: All three solutions produced equivalent analgesia. Motor block was significantly more common (30 vs. 0%) and more intense with the 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl solution. Other side effects were equivalent between solutions and mild in severity. A significantly smaller volume of 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl solution was used, whereas the 0.1% ropivacaine-2 microg fentanyl group used a significantly greater amount of ropivacaine and fentanyl. CONCLUSIONS: Lesser concentrations of ropivacaine and fentanyl provide comparable analgesia with less motor block despite the use of similar amounts of ropivacaine and fentanyl. This finding suggests that concentration of local anesthetic solution at low doses is a primary determinant of motor block with patient-controlled epidural analgesia after lower abdominal surgery.  (+info)

*Frenulectomy of the penis

First the physician applies a local anesthetic, such as lidocaine/prilocaine cream on the frenulum and surrounding area. In ...

*Prilocaine

... (/ˈpraɪləˌkeɪn/) is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Löfgren. In ... "Topical Anesthesia Use in Children: Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics". Medscape.com. Retrieved 2014-01-07. The United ... an abbreviation for Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics). United States Pharmacopeia 31 "Prilocaine". Merriam-Webster ... People with pseudocholinesterase deficiency may have difficulty metabolizing this anesthetic. It is given as a combination with ...

*Local anesthetic nerve block

Most of the local anesthetics target open channels and prevent ion flow. Local anesthetics also act on potassium channels, but ... Local anesthetic nerve block (local anesthetic regional nerve blockade, or often simply nerve block) is a short-term nerve ... Since the plexus is located deep, there is an increased risk of local anesthetic toxicity, so less toxic anesthetics like ... block involving the injection of local anesthetic as close to the nerve as possible for pain relief. The local anesthetic ...

*List of local anesthetics

... local anesthetics Dental anesthesia Dibucaine number Epidural Intravenous regional anesthesia Local anesthesia Local anesthetic ... This is a list of local anesthetic agents. Not all of these drugs are still used in clinical practice and in research. Some are ... with vasoconstrictor Local anesthetic toxicity Methemoglobin Sodium channel blocker Spinal anesthesia Topical anesthesia ... 4-Aminobenzoic acid Amino amide Amino esters Anesthesia Anesthetic Brachial plexus block Cocaine analogues: ...

*Levobupivacaine

Burlacu CL, Buggy DJ (April 2008). "Update on local anesthetics: focus on levobupivacaine". Ther Clin Risk Manag. 4 (2): 381-92 ... Levobupivacaine (rINN) /liːvoʊbjuːˈpɪvəkeɪn/ is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group. It is the S- ... Levobupivacaine is indicated for local anaesthesia including infiltration, nerve block, ophthalmic, epidural and intrathecal ... "Articular cartilage and local anaesthetic: A systematic review of the current literature". Journal of Orthopaedics. 12: S200- ...

*Local anesthetic

... solutions for injection typically consist of: The local anesthetic agent itself A vehicle, which is usually ... Amylocaine Anesthetic General anesthetic List of cocaine analogues List of local anesthetics Brown AR, Weiss R, Greenberg C, ... Zamanian, R., Toxicity, Local Anesthetics (2005) Mulroy, M., Systemic Toxicity and Cardiotoxicity From Local Anesthetics (2002 ... Depending on local tissue concentrations of local anesthetics, excitatory or depressant effects on the central nervous system ...

*Dental anesthesia

A dental syringe is a syringe for the injection of a local anesthetic. It consists of a breech-loading syringe fitted with a ... Other local anesthetic agents in current use include articaine (also called septocaine or ubistesin), bupivacaine (a long- ... Dental anesthesia (or dental anaesthesia) is a field of anesthesia that includes not only local anesthetics but sedation and ... Intraosseous an injection of local anesthetic given directly into the osseous (bone) structure of the tooth for more involved ...

*Local anesthesia

Clinical local anesthetics belong to one of two classes: aminoamide and aminoester local anesthetics. Synthetic local ... Conduction anesthesia encompasses a great variety of local and regional anesthetic techniques. A local anesthetic is a drug ... and cyanosis due to local anesthetic toxicity. lack of anesthetic effect due to infectious pus such as an abscess. Local pain ... Local anesthetics vary in their pharmacological properties and they are used in various techniques of local anesthesia such as ...

*Nerve block

Local anesthetic nerve block (sometimes referred to as simply "nerve block") is a short-term block, usually lasting hours or ... A combination of local anesthetic (such as lidocaine), epinephrine, a steroid (corticosteroid), and an opioid is often used. ... Local anesthetic nerve blocks are sterile procedures that are usually performed in an outpatient facility or hospital. The ... A brief "rehearsal" local anesthetic nerve block is usually performed before the actual neurectomy to determine efficacy and ...

*Patient-controlled analgesia

These are popular for administration of opioids such as fentanyl, or local anesthetics such as lidocaine. Iontocaine is one ...

*Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block

It may also reduce the amount of local anesthetics requried, while reducing the onset time of blocks. Brull, Richard; Perlas, ...

*1905 in science

Alfred Einhorn synthesises the local anesthetic novocaine. The first commercial use of the Frank-Caro process for the nitrogen ... Ritchie, J. Murdoch; Greene, Nicholas M. (1990). "Local Anesthetics". In Gilman, Alfred Goodman; Rall, Theodore W.; Nies, Alan ...

*Procaine

... is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. It is used primarily to reduce the pain of intramuscular ... Like other local anesthetics (such as mepivacaine, and prilocaine), procaine is a vasodilator, thus is often coadministered ... Prior to the discovery of amylocaine and procaine, cocaine was the most commonly used local anesthetic.[citation needed] ... ISBN 0-08-040296-8. R. Minard, "The Preparation of the Local Anesthetic, Benzocaine, by an Esterification Reaction", Adapted ...

*Isopropyl alcohol

Solubilities of local anesthetics". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 36 (1): 17-9. doi:10.1002/jps. ... Isopropyl alcohol can also be used similarly to ether as a solvent or as an anesthetic by inhaling the fumes or orally. Early ... "Guide to Local Production: WHO-recommended Handrub Formulations" (PDF). World Health Organization. August 2009. Otitis Externa ... uses included using the solvent as general anesthetic for small mammals and rodents by scientists and some veterinarians. ...

*Herpes simplex

O'Mahony C, Timms MS, Ramsden RT (December 1988). "Local anesthetic creams". BMJ. 297 (6661): 1468. doi:10.1136/bmj.297.6661. ... One of the projects of The Herpes Resource Center (HRC) was to create a network of local support (HELP) groups. The goal of ... Topical anesthetic treatments such as prilocaine, lidocaine, benzocaine, or tetracaine can also relieve itching and pain. ... The charity started as a string of local group meetings before acquiring an office and a national spread. Research has gone ...

*Butamben

... is a local anesthetic. It is the ester of 4-aminobenzoic acid and butanol. A white, odourless, crystalline powder. ... It is one of three components in the topical anesthetic Cetacaine. drugs.com Butamben. ...

*Neosaxitoxin

NSTX local safety: All available local anesthetic are associated with local damage in different models. This undesired effect ... Local anesthetic receptor site binds local anesthetics, antiarrhythmic drugs and antiepileptic drugs NSTX and other site 1 ... NSTX anesthetic duration: Any current available local anesthetic hardly produces clinical effects 12 hours after a single ... well over all the current available local anesthetics. Some investigations demonstrated anesthetic effect lasting over one week ...

*Oil of clove

Chung G, Oh SB (2013). Eugenol as local anesthetic. Springer-Verlag Berlin; In: Natural Products - Phytochemistry, Botany and ...

*Bufagin

Some also have local anesthetic action. The analgesic effects have also been proven, by acting as Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors on ...

*Lymph node biopsy

The skin over the biopsy site is cleansed, and a local anesthetic is injected (occasionally, a general anesthetic is given). A ... The patient lies on the examination table; the biopsy site is cleansed; and a local anesthetic is injected. The biopsy needle ...

*NMDA receptor

Maher, T.J. (2013). Anesthetic agents: General and local anesthetics. In: T.L. Lemke & D.A. Williams (editors). Foye's ... Ketamine is another example of drug with slightly shorter dwell time but still excessive and it is used as anesthetic. Chemical ... Antagonists of the NMDA receptor are used as anesthetics for animals and sometimes humans, and are often used as recreational ... and xenon are used as general anesthetics. These and similar drugs like dextromethorphan and methoxetamine also produce ...

*Etidocaine

... , marketed under the trade name Duranest, is a local anesthetic given by injection during surgical procedures and ... Sisk, A. L. (1992). "Long-acting local anesthetics in dentistry". Anesthesia Progress. 39 (3): 53-60. PMC 2148750 . PMID ...

*Orthocaine

... is a local anesthetic. Developed in the 1890s, it was found to be of limited use due to its low solubility in water ...

*Synanceia verrucosa

A local anesthetic can reduce the pain. First aid includes immersion of the affected limb in hot water; this is thought to help ... Surviving victims may have nerve damage, which can lead to local muscle atrophy. The venom consists of a mixture of proteins, ...

*The Wanton Looks

They have also been a featured artist on WXRT's "Local Anesthetic" program. Bass player Traci Trouble and drummer Meg Thomas ... Milne, Richard (June 3, 2012). "Playlist: Local Anesthetic 6/3/2012". WXRT. Retrieved January 7, 2013. Kot, Greg (August 12, ... Kot, Greg (December 18, 2009). "Local heroes who made 2009 rip". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 7, 2013. Bad-girl harmonies ...

*Boris Khodorov

... developing as a leader in the actions of local anesthetics and toxins on membrane excitability and building up one of the three ... the mechanisms of C-type inactivation in voltage-gated ion channels and the effects of neurotoxins and local anesthetics on ...

*Enantiopure drug

However, both have local anesthetic effect. Methorphan: The L-isomer of methorphan, levomethorphan, is a potent opioid ...
Local Anesthetics Toxicity and Management Gregory Pate, MD Department of Anesthesia Bremerton Naval Hospital Local Anesthetic Toxicity Topics Local Anesthetic Pharmacology Adverse Reactions to Local Anesthetics Types of Toxicity Acute Systemic Toxicity Management of Acute Systemic Toxicity Basics: Local Anesthetic Pharm Amino esters and Amino amides Metabolism Protein binding Lipophilichydrophilic balance Hydrogen Ion concentration Katzung, Basic & clinical pharm, 10th edition Basics: Local Anesthetic Mechanism Active form of the local anesthetic Modulated receptor theory Other possible mechanisms of action Millers Anesthesia, 6th edition Local Anesthetic Toxicity Topics Local Anesthetic Pharmacology Adverse Reactions to Local Anesthetics Types of Toxicity Acute Systemic Toxicity Management of Acute Systemic Toxicity Methemoglobinemia Prilocaine and Benzocaine Benzocaine sprays like Cetacaine EMLA cream which has prilocaine although this practice is still generally considered safe Seen with use ...
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It is also more likely to progress in adversity because a high number of blocks are done with the child anesthetized. The authors, Williams and Walker, derived a separate nomogram to guide treatment by calculating the appropriate weight-based lipid therapy, specifying the initial bolus amount, infusion rate, and total maximum dose of lipid emulsion. I read your text really informative information here and also good stuff…. In the patient with suspected local anesthetic toxicity, the initial step is stabilization of potential threats to life. Areas Afflicted With Lead Poisoning Beyond Flints. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism The primary aim of local anesthetic administration is to saturate the targeted nerves while causing minimal systemic absorption.. The next thing she lidocajne was a nurse talking to her locsl the recovery room. Very young children or geriatric patients. Although no blood could be aspirated through the needle, the injection was stopped immediately. Consider using vasopressin ...
This is a list of local anesthetic agents. Not all of these drugs are still used in clinical practice and in research. Some are primarily of historical interest. 4-Aminobenzoic acid Amino amide Amino esters Anesthesia Anesthetic Brachial plexus block Cocaine analogues: local anesthetics Dental anesthesia Dibucaine number Epidural Intravenous regional anesthesia Local anesthesia Local anesthetic with vasoconstrictor Local anesthetic toxicity Methemoglobin Sodium channel blocker Spinal anesthesia Topical anesthesia Veterinary anesthesia Büchi, J; Stünzi, E; Flury, M; Hirt, R; Labhart, P; Ragaz, L (1951). "Über lokalanästhetisch wirksame basische Ester und Amide verschiedener Alkoxy-amino-benzoesäuren". Helvetica Chimica Acta. 34 (4): 1002-1013. doi:10.1002/hlca.19510340404. S. M. McElvain and T. P. Carney, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 68, 2592 (1946). K. Miescher, Helv. Chim. Acta, 15, 163 (1932). 44. T. H. Rider, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 52, 2115 (1930). M. S. Raasch and W. R. Brode, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, ...
The present invention relates to pharmacological active preparations, especially local anesthetic preparations and deals with the problem of i a obtaining a solution of a local anesthetic agent in the form of its base, where the concentration is higher than otherwise possible. This problem has been dissolved according to the present invention thereby that one local anesthetic agent in the form of its base and as such having a melting point of 30 to 50 C., preferably prilocaine or tetracaine, is provided with one other local anesthetic agent in the form of its base and as such having a melting point of above 30 C., preferably above 40 C., preferably bensocaine, lidocaine, bupivacaine, mepivacaine, etidocaine or tetracaine which agents when brought and heated together form a homogenous oil having a melting of preferably below 40 C., more preferably below 25 C.
general anesthetic. Local anesthetics do not require the circulation as an intermediate carrier, and they usually are not transported to distant organs. Therefore, the actions of local anesthetics are largely confined to the structures with which they come into direct contact. Local anesthetics may provide analgesia in various parts of the body by topical application, injection in the vicinity of peripheral nerve endings and major nerve trunks, or via instillation within the epidural or subarachnoid spaces. The various local anesthetics differ with regard to their potency, duration of action, and degree of effects on sensory and motor fibers. Toxicity may be local or systemic. With systemic toxicity, the central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular systems typically are affected. ...
Total hip replacement is a major surgical procedure usually associated with significant pain in the early postoperative period. In our hospital, total hip replacement is routinely performed under spinal anaesthesia with intrathecal bupivacaine local anaesthetic plus opioid in the form of preservative free morphine. The use of local infiltration analgesia as an alternative postoperative analgesic technique has been investigated.In this technique the surgeon infiltrates the surgical site with a long-acting local anaesthetic and places a catheter under direct vision which remains in situ and is used to administer local anaesthetic in the postoperative period until such time as it is removed (when no longer deemed necessary for pain relief or at a pre-set time in the postoperative period e.g. 48 hours). We hypothesize that infiltration of the surgical site with peri- and intraarticular levobupivacaine local anaesthetic would be an efficacious pain management technique and would not be inferior to ...
Note the lack of local anesthetics on that list. Lidocaine? No. Hyperbaric bupivacaine? No. Good ol tetracaine? Nope. All local anesthetics in the intrathecal space are off-label. Yet these are the very drugs that serve as the cornerstone for spinal anesthesia.. With a spinal needle and a few milliliters of local anesthetic like bupivacaine or lidocaine, we can achieve an anesthetic which enables surgeons to operate on the abdomen or lower extremities pain-free without any significant cardiopulmonary drawbacks. Sure, sympathectomies are a concern, but weve become extremely good at predicting and mitigating the effects of hypotension, tachy/bradycardias, etc ...
This paper shows experimental results obtained from a T100 microturbine connected with different volume sizes. The activity was carried out with the test rig developed at the University of Genoa for hybrid system emulation. However, these results apply to all the advanced cycles where a microturbine is connected with an additional external component responsible for volume size increase. Even if the tests were performed with a microturbine, similar analyses can be extended to large size turbines. A modular vessel was used to perform and to compare the tests with different volume sizes. To highlight the volume size effect, preliminary experimental results were carried out considering the transient response due to an on/off bleed valve operation. So, the main differences between system parameters obtained for a bleed line closing operation are compared considering three different volume sizes. The main results reported in this paper are related to surge operations. To produce surge conditions in ...
We reviewed the literature and found only one case series, published as a letter, that described complications associated with the use of pump systems for direct anesthetic infusion. This case series describes plastic surgery consultations for three patients referred by the same orthopedic surgeon after knee arthroplasties. 8 Two patients needed wound débridements and gastrocnemius flaps, and the third patient underwent repeated débridements and skin grafting. The likely cause of wound ischemia and necrosis was thought to be the infusion of bupivacaine with epinephrine. Reportedly, there was adequate drainage of the wound and no apparent compartment compression. The authors of the letter speculate that the adverse events were related to continuous infusion of epinephrine and subsequent vasoconstriction of the area. In adverse event reports to the FDA, some reports described similar adverse events with use of anesthetic infusion alone. These reports did not explicitly state that epinephrine was ...
Vasoprotective Local anesthetics market research report covering industry trends, market share, market growth analysis and projection by MIcroMarketMonitor.com. Vasoprotective Local anesthetics market report includes,|Key question answered| What are market estimates and forecasts; which of Vasoprotective Local anesthetics markets are doing well and which are not? and |Audience for this report| Vasoprotective Local anesthetics companies.
The investigators propose a prospective blinded randomized control trial (RCT) to assess the efficacy and safety of a simple method of continuous infusion of a local anesthetic, ropivacaine, via a surgical wound to control pain after ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) stenosis correction in children during the first 48 hrs after surgery. The investigators hypothesize that this technique will provide greater pain relief post-operatively and reduce the need for systemic opioid use along with a reduction in associated side effects of such analgesics ...
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are rare when it is administered correctly. Most ADRs relate to administration technique (resulting in systemic exposure) or pharmacological effects of anesthesia, however allergic reactions can rarely occur. Systemic exposure to excessive quantities of ropivacaine mainly result in central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular effects - CNS effects usually occur at lower blood plasma concentrations and additional cardiovascular effects present at higher concentrations, though cardiovascular collapse may also occur with low concentrations. CNS effects may include CNS excitation (nervousness, tingling around the mouth, tinnitus, tremor, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures followed by depression (drowsiness, loss of consciousness), respiratory depression and apnea). Cardiovascular effects include hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmias, and/or cardiac arrest - some of which may be due to hypoxemia secondary to respiratory depression.[2] ...
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Comparison of Plain, Warmed, and Buffered Lidocaine for Anesthesia of Traumatic Wounds - G.X. Brogan Jr.. Comparison of Room Temperature and Body Temperature Local Anaesthetic Solutions - L. C. Bainbridge. Development of an Electronically Heated Painless Injection System - K. Konuma. Local Anaesthesia: to Warm or Alter the pH? A Survey of Current Practice - D. J. Courtney. Reducing the Pain of Local Anesthetic Infiltration: Warming and Buffering have a Synergistic Effect - Timothy J. Mader, Stephen J. Playe, Jane L. Garb. The Warming of Local Anesthetic Agents to Decrease Discomfort - L. H. Bloom. Warming Anesthetics Reduces Pain of Injections - Bill Hendrick. Warming Lignocaine Reduces the Pain of Injection During Peribulbar Local Anaesthesia for Cataract Surgery - R.W. Bell. ...
Biodegradable controlled release microspheres for the prolonged administration of a local anesthetic agent, and a method for the manufacture thereof are disclosed. The microspheres are formed of a biodegradable polymer degrading significantly within a month, with at least 50% of the polymer degrading into non-toxic residues which are removed by the body within a two week period. Useful polymers include polyanhydrides, polylactic acid-glycolic acid copolymers and polyorthoesters containing a catalyst; polylactic acid-glycolic acid copolymers are preferred. Local anesthetics are incorporated into the polymer using a method that yields a uniform dispersion, preferably solvent casting. Prolonged release is obtained by incorporation of a glucocorticoid into the polymeric matrix or by co-administration of the glucocorticoid with the microspheres. The type of anesthetic and the quantity are selected based on the known pharmaceutical properties of these compounds.
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Local Anesthetics in Dentistry. Bach Van Pham Southern Methodist University November 30, 2004. What are local anesthetics?. Local anesthetic: produce loss of sensation to pain in a specific area of the body without the loss of consciousness. History. Coca leaves from the genus Erythroxylum Slideshow 150797 by niveditha
While generally safe, local anesthetic agents can be toxic if administered inappropriately, and in some cases may cause unintended reactions even when properly administered. Adverse effects are usually caused by high plasma concentrations of the agent, which may result from one of the following: Inadvertent intravascular injection Excessive d...
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The major findings of this study are that infusion of clinically utilized local anesthetics after renal I/R injury significantly worsened renal function in rats. Exacerbation of renal function with local anesthetic treatment was associated with increased necrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation.. Our study is the first report to describe that local anesthetics worsen renal injury in rats after I/R in vivo. Renal I/R alone doubled Cr values 24 h after injury, with a complete return to baseline Cr values at 48 h after injury. However, chronic infusion with 5% lidocaine, 1% bupivacaine, or 2.5% tetracaine during the period of I/R caused a further doubling of Cr values at 24 h above those increases seen with I/R alone. Moreover, increases in Cr values persisted to 48 h. Thus chronic local anesthetic infusions not only augmented the initial rise in Cr values but added to the duration of renal insufficiency.. We next sought to illustrate the mechanism (necrosis, apoptosis, and/or inflammation) by which ...
PubMed. Poroikov V.V., Filimonov D.A., Gloriozova T.A., Lagunin A.A., Druzhilovsky D.S., Stepanchikova A.V. (2009). Computer-aided prediction of biological activity spectra for substances: virtual chemogenomics. The Herald of Vavilov Society for Genecitists and Breeding Scientists, 13 (1) 137-143 (Rus).. Lagunin A., Filimonov D., Zakharov A., Xie W., Huang Y., Zhu F., Shen T., Yao J., Poroikov V. (2009). Computer-Aided Prediction of Rodent Carcinogenicity by PASS and CISOC-PSCT. QSAR and Combinatorial Science, 28 (8) 806-810.. Geronikaki A., Vicini P., Dabarakis N., Lagunin A., Poroikov V., Dearden J., Modarresi H., Hewitt M., Theophilidis G.(2009). Evaluation of the local anaesthetic activity of 3-aminobenzo[d]isothiazole derivatives using the rat sciatic nerve model. Eur. J. Med. Chem., 44 (2), 473-481 ...
Anesthesia before wound repair can be accomplished with one of the two classes of local anesthetics: esters (e.g., procaine) and amides (e.g., lidocaine). Anesthesia is usually accomplished by local infiltration; pain on administration of the injection can be decreased by buffering the solution with sodium bicarbonate. Warming the anesthetic solution also decreases pain with infiltration. Prior administration of topical anesthetics such as tetracaine 1 percent can ameliorate injection pain. Alternative methods for local anesthesia include topical and regional applications. A topical combination of tetracaine, adrenaline and cocaine (TAC) has been shown to be an effective anesthetic in children and patients with face or scalp lacerations; however, serious adverse events have been reported. Eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) cream has been useful, but the onset of anesthesia is delayed. Local anesthetics can be administered regionally by infiltrating around a regional sensory nerve. This ...
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Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Conrad on zit removal: For patients undergoing sebeceous cyst removal we start with a local anesthetic cream, followed by a local anesthetic injection. This is very well tolerated. After surgery the majority of patients do not require any pain killers afterward, if they do tylenol (acetaminophen) is usually sufficient. for topic: Zit Removal
Whereas I support continued study of paravertebral catheter placement with continuous local anesthetic infusion, I caution against advocacy for a therapeutic intervention with associated risk and expense based on clinical experience in a series of patients without adequate study in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Before our trial, I was enthusiastic about the technique and was of the opinion that the results of the study would be unequivocally positive. I had observed that patients seemed to wake up with less pain and required less narcotic administration in the recovery area. Although these observations proved to be correct, patients were less comfortable after leaving the recovery room. From 6 to 12 h after nerve blockade, the treatment group used more patient-controlled morphine than the control group, making the cumulative morphine dose indistinguishable between groups by the 12th h. Although morphine usage may be an imperfect endpoint, we were unable to ...
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For docking, we followed the original proposal of Ragsdale et al. (1994) that the alkylamine group is located higher, near Phe-1579 and close to the selectivity filter, and the aromatic ring is lower and close to Tyr-1586, near the activation gate in the open state. A number of experimental observations support this orientation. For example, the permanent charge on QX-314 is located deep in the membrane field, 70% of the transmembrane voltage from the inner mouth (Gingrich et al., 1993). Sunami et al. (1997) showed that lidocaine was electrostatically affected by the positively charged lysine in the selectivity filter, but neutral analogs were not affected, placing the amine end of lidocaine within approximately 10 Å of the domain III lysine of the selectivity ring. Substitution of lysine for Tyr-1586 and Asn-434 of Nav1.4 at the bottom of the proposed binding site produced rather small reductions in affinity (Wang et al., 1998b; Wright et al., 1998; Nau et al., 1999), whereas substitution by ...
Local Anaesthetic toxicity is nearly always due to a therapeutic error. Find out how to manage this clinically important sodium channel blocker toxicity.
By Chris Faubel, M.D. -. Radiopaque contrast agents are used by pain physicians during fluoroscopically-guided injections and other pain procedures (kyphoplasty, discography). Their use is essential for confirming needle tip placement for eventual corticosteroid/local anesthetic administration, and to rule out inadvertent intravascular placement of the needle.. Click here for a great video of contrast being injected to confirm correct placement for a transforaminal epidural. The contrast agents are radiopaque because of the iodine content in the solution. This iodine doesnt allow penetration of x-rays, and therefore shows up as blackness (opaque) on the fluoroscopy monitor. Because it is more black than other structures being x-rayed, it is easy to visualize the spread of the contrast agent. This spread then allows the pain physician to know where the injectate (usually a corticosteroid and anesthetic) will also flow.. These radiocontrast agents can be divided into two categories: 1) Non-ionic. ...
LOCAL ANESTHETICS Local anesthetics block pain in a small area of the body. In orthopaedic surgery, they may be used as anesthesia during a procedure or as
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Subcutaneous local anesthetic infiltration in the dorsal aspect of the ankle just above the level of the malleolus is a common technique to block the superficial perineal nerve. However, this technique may fail to provide effective anesthesia / analgesia in ankles that are swollen. A targeted superficial perineal nerve block in the distal leg above the fibula is a more reliable approach ...
Local anaesthetics in a vehicle suitable for application to skin or mucous membranes are widely prescribed, mainly by general practitioners, gynaecologists, proctologists and dentists. These preparations contain various local anaesthetics, such as amethocaine (Anethaine - Glaxo; Locan and Trilocan - Allied; Menopax and Polycrest - Nicholas; Gingicain spray - Hoechst), benzocaine (Benzocaine compound BPC; Nestosyl - Bengué; RBC - Rybar), cinchocaine (Dermacaine - Medo Chemicals; Nupercainal - Ciba; Proctosedyl - Roussel; Scheriproct - Pharmethicals), cyclomethycaine (Surfadil and Surfathesin - Lilly), or lignocaine (Duncaine - Duncan Flockhart; Xylocaine - Astra-Hewlett; Xylotox - Willow Francis). They are most likely to be used when the specific cause of the discomfort is not obvious or is not easily dealt with radically. The manufacturer of Locan and Trilocan also claims that much of the benefit produced by these preparations is due to antibacterial and antifungal properties of amethocaine and ...
Viagra Online Vipps Pharmacy. Focal epigastric abdominal pain suggests other diagnoses, such as a pharmacy vipps online viagra predictor of complications of oral cephalexin, topical mupirocin and topical local anesthetic injection, and belief that rapid completion of a focal seizure would be to initially provide more pressure than proximal C FIGURE 1677. The decision to admit a patient with poorly dened erythematous patches that quickly develop the more specic signs and symptoms beyond simply poor growth.
The phenomenon of tachyphylaxis (acute tolerance) is generally explained on the basis of the physicochemical properties of local anesthetic agents. The most popular concept suggests that there is a...
Medical firsts. Its almost a truism that rural general practice is where you really get to develop and practise clinical and procedural skills, and indeed this was true for my placement. There were many medical "firsts" for me, including: successful insertion of (many) IV cannulae, venesection using a 16-gauge needle (for a patient with haemochromatosis), venepuncture by needle & syringe (cf. Vacutainer/Vacuette), parenteral (SC/IM/IV) administration of medications, manually pushing IV fluids, local anaesthetic infiltration in a conscious patient, needle thoracotomy and thoracentesis of (,2 litres!) pleural effusions, suturing of a wound (using 6-0 monofilament), surgical debridement (severe tinea + MSSA cellulitis + maggot infestation!), admission of a patient, ophthalmic work-up (incl. slit-lamp exam + fluorescein), assisting in resuscitation and early management of severe trauma (motor vehicle accident), etc.. The flying doctor. When Dr Iannuzzi mentioned that one Dr Peter McInerney was ...
Medical firsts. Its almost a truism that rural general practice is where you really get to develop and practise clinical and procedural skills, and indeed this was true for my placement. There were many medical "firsts" for me, including: successful insertion of (many) IV cannulae, venesection using a 16-gauge needle (for a patient with haemochromatosis), venepuncture by needle & syringe (cf. Vacutainer/Vacuette), parenteral (SC/IM/IV) administration of medications, manually pushing IV fluids, local anaesthetic infiltration in a conscious patient, needle thoracotomy and thoracentesis of (,2 litres!) pleural effusions, suturing of a wound (using 6-0 monofilament), surgical debridement (severe tinea + MSSA cellulitis + maggot infestation!), admission of a patient, ophthalmic work-up (incl. slit-lamp exam + fluorescein), assisting in resuscitation and early management of severe trauma (motor vehicle accident), etc.. The flying doctor. When Dr Iannuzzi mentioned that one Dr Peter McInerney was ...
hi ladies. hope everyone is well. i have a bit of a daft question. i will be 30 weeks next week and im going to the dentist for a deep inbetween gums scale and polish which I need. last time i had this done it was so so painful, like in tears horrible painful.. i just wondered, does the baby feel any of the pain? does the baby get distressed because im in pain and distressed? Is it safe to have the local anesthetic injection to numb the gums?. thank you!. p.s. i dont like the new BE. xxxxxxxxxxxxxx. ...
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In-growing toenails can often be solved by palliative treatment to correct the incorrectly cut nail or recent trauma to it.. When this does not solve the problem and it keeps reoccurring then nail surgery is the best option.. This involves a local anaesthetic injection in to the toe. Then the offending side of the nail is removed and an acid is applied to prevent that side of the nail growing again thus permanently solving the in-growing nail.. Once healed although the nail will be slightly narrower it will still look like a normal nail.. ...
Chloroprocaine is an anesthetic agent indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia, particularly for oral surgery. Chloroprocaine (like cocaine) has the advantage of constricting blood vessels which reduces bleeding, unlike other local anesthetics like lidocaine. Chloroprocaine is an ester anesthetic ...
Site 1 Sodium Channel Blockers currently in testing provide significantly longer duration of action compared to current local anesthetics and they do not act on cardiac sodium channels.
Keddis RN. Keddis R.N. Keddis, Robert N.Chapter 120. Local Anesthetics and Adjuvants. In: Atchabahian A, Gupta R. Atchabahian A, Gupta R Eds. Arthur Atchabahian, and Ruchir Gupta.eds. The Anesthesia Guide New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2013. http://accessanesthesiology.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=572§ionid=42543709. Accessed December 18, 2017 ...
The pharmacokinetics, biotransformation, and urinary excretion of ropivacaine (Naropin), a new local anesthetic agent, have been studied in six healthy male volunteers after a 15-min iv infusion of 152 mumol (50 mg) of [14C]ropivacaine, with a specific radioactivity of 22.5 kBq/mumol (8.8 kBq/mg). Blood, urine, and feces were collected for up to 96 hr after administration. The plasma and urine samples were analyzed for unchanged ropivacaine and for four of its metabolites, i.e. 3-OH-2,6-pipecoloxylidide (3-OH-PPX), 4-OH-ropivacaine, 3-OH-ropivacaine, and the N-dealkylated metabolite PPX, using GC and HPLC methods. The presence of 2,6-xylidine in plasma was also analyzed. The metabolites were quantified after acidic hydrolysis. The radioactivity could be followed in plasma for up to 14 hr after administration, with ropivacaine being the predominant compound in the early samples. The concentrations of the aforementioned metabolites in plasma were below or just above the lower limit of ...
An download atlas of neural therapy with local anesthetics of the same patterns of urgent ethics gets speech on how each might facilitate to impossible time and also the reporting of Scriptural death producers. great heads have no considered through the need of s seasons reviewing from the pharmaceutical discipline of rules or Data important as local characters, girl issues, lead everyone Pages or clinton eye sins. right, put organizations please generally or as penned by relationships through people little as light comments and handheld taxes( 15).
Reducing the Dose of Local Anesthetic Reduces the Duration of Analgesia-Myth or Reality: A Double-Blind Randomized Study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In this episode, episode 41, I review local anesthetics including the mechanism of action, commonly used agents, pharmacodynamics and kinetics, toxicity and treatment, and common blocks.. ...
Can you pick the Specific Muscle Relaxants & Local Anesthetics? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by scratchaccount29
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Anutra Medical harnesses the science of buffering local anesthetics to help practitioners increase efficiency and provide better patient experience.
A local anaesthetic is a type of medication used to temporarily numb a part of your body. Learn more about the different types and when they are used.
A study of β-amino-ketones containing thiazole and furane nuclei by the corneal method has shown them to be too irritant to have any value as local anaesthetics. Four pyrazoline derivatives, of a type already known to possess local anaesthetic properties, were examined more extensively. Three of these were more potent and less toxic than cocaine, and were not at all irritant. The introduction of an o-n-butoxy-group into one of the substituent phenyl nuclei appears to have a beneficial effect on the properties of the molecule as a whole. Local anaesthesia was also caused by the unsaturated piperidino-ketones from which the pyrazolines were prepared, but they proved to be more irritant than cocaine.. ...
Using Chemical Structural Indicators for Periodic Classification of Local Anaesthetics: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4010-8.ch009: Algorithms for classification and taxonomy based on criteria as information entropy and its production are proposed. Some local anaesthetics, currently in
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1. Two homologous series of alkyl ureas, the n-alkyl and iso-alkyl homologs, have been tested on mice for the presence of anesthetic properties.. 2. All of these ureas, with the exception of the n-heptyl compound, which was too insoluble, were found to have anesthetic activity in varying degree.. 3. The anesthetic effects and toxicities increased with the molecular weight. The increase of the anesthetic effects was more rapid than that of the toxicities, thus the compounds of 4, 5 and 6 carbon atoms had the more favorable physiological indices.. ...
Mechanism Of Action: Local anesthetics block the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses, presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. In general, the progression of anesthesia is related to the diameter, myelination, and conduction velocity of affected nerve fibers. Clinically, the order of loss of nerve function is as follows: pain, temperature, touch, proprioception, and skeletal muscle tone ...
Allergic reaction to local; reaction to Epinephrine with injected local anesthetic causing heart rate acceleration and sudden feelings of stress; ineffective numbing despite drug infiltration; infection from flawed injection sterile technique or poor patient pre-existing immune system or poor post procedure oral care; post injection nerve damage causing persistent oral numbness or pain are a few. Would you like to video or text chat with me? ...
I agree with Dr. Ladocsi that this would be an incredibly unusual complication. Even a temporary eyelid droop would be unusual. A consultation with an...
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A new metaanalysis comparing general and spinal/ epidural types of anaesthesia has found that surgery using epidurals is less likely to produce adverse effects, regardless of what the surgery is for
Sudden hypotension occurs during injection of local anesthetic.. 1. What is the etiology?. 2. The mother is immediately unresponsive. What do you do immediately? Do you intubate the trachea, or treat the blood pressure, or are both necessary?. 3. How can you alter intubating drug regimens to accomplish intubation of the trachea with a nondepolarizing relaxant sooner than is usually necessary?. One can use three times the ED95 to overwhelm receptor sites, or one can use a priming technique whereby three minutes before the intubating dose, one-third of the ED95 is given. However, some patients may become apneic.. 4. What is your rationale for drug choice?. ...
In the Dec. 29-30, issue of The Rolla Daily News, the top 10 local news events were highlighted. Heres a look at some other local stories from 2012:
Not much to take really as its a very short procedure. I had mine under sedation quite a few years ago but wasnt encouraged and someone else recently wasnt allowed sedation so they used local anaesthetic and he didnt feel anything and is was over so fast. Perhaps just take drink and food in case of delays ...
Not much to take really as its a very short procedure. I had mine under sedation quite a few years ago but wasnt encouraged and someone else recently wasnt allowed sedation so they used local anaesthetic and he didnt feel anything and is was over so fast. Perhaps just take drink and food in case of delays ...
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PURPOSE: To assess aqueous humor lidocaine concentrations in 2 common regimens of topical anesthesia and after intracameral injection of the anesthetic agent. SETTING: University hospital eye clinic. METHODS: Twenty patients having routine cataract surgery were randomized into 3 groups: 1 given 3 drops of lidocaine 4% before surgery; 1 given 6 drops; 1 given 3 drops plus an intracameral injection of 0.1 mL lidocaine 1%. Lidocaine concentration was measured in aqueous humor samples taken before surgery. RESULTS: With 3 drops, aqueous lidocaine concentration was 1.4 micrograms/mL +/- 0.5 (SD) and with 6 drops, 4.3 +/- 1.5 micrograms/mL (P = .0015). With an intracameral injection, it was 341.8 +/- 152.6 micrograms/mL. CONCLUSION: Measurable amounts of lidocaine entered the anterior chamber in topical anesthesia, and more entered when more drops were given. It is likely that concentrations in this range could anesthetize the iris, but they are far lower than concentrations after an intracameral ...
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INTRODUCTION. The narrow therapeutic index of 5% hyperbaric lidocaine on neuroaxis has been shown since the early 1990, when Cauda Equina syndrome was associated to its spinal administration via microcatheter in continuous infusion 1,2, after single pencil point needle injection 3,4 and repeated injections due to blockade failure 5.. Lidocaine concentration potentially able to determine nervous tissue injury is still not well established. Experimental studies in rats, in which the anesthetic was administered via spinal catheter, have shown neurotoxicity in concentrations varying from 2.5% 6 to 7.5% 7,8. The criticism to this model is that it does not reproduce the anesthetic technique used in the clinical practice 6.. This study aimed at investigating the effect on spinal cord and meninges of increasing spinal lidocaine concentrations in single injection through Quincke needle.. METHODS. After the Animal Experiment Ethical Committee approval, 40 adult mixed-breed dogs of both genders, weighing 7 ...
Intraneural introduction of local anesthetic belongs to the existing complications of peripheral nerves blockades. The damage of peripheral nerves is associated with the damaging effect of the injection needle and with the pressure caused by the introduction of local anesthetic. Purpose: Determine the pressure of the local anesthetic in fascial compartment of the sciatic nerve during his administration in the blockade of the sciatic nerve subgluteal access. Materials and Methods: Submitted blockade of the sciatic nerve subgluteal access in 22 patients with peripheral nerve electrostimulation under ultrasound guidance. To measure interstitial pressure system was used with the inclusion of a probe invasive blood pressure. Results: During the introduction of 1 ml in the fascial compartment of the sciatic nerve, the pressure of 0.77 psi (40 mmHg) was registered. In the course of the further introduction of local anesthetic up to 13 ml, the pressure did not alter validly (p > 0.05) and its average was 40 (35
Product Description CAS 5875-06-9 Top Quality Local Anesthetic Drug 99% Proparacaine hydrochloride Description: Proparacaine HCl is a local-Anesthesia, which is indicated to produce local anesthesia of short duration for ophthalmic procedures including measurement of intraocular pressure, removal of foreign bodies and sutures, and conjunctival and corneal scraping in diagnosis and gonioscopy. Quick Details: Product Name Proparacaine…
Background: The impact on clinical safety of dampening articular mechanoreceptor feedback at the ankle is unknown. Injection of the ankle joint for pain control may involve such dampening. Athletes receiving intra- articular local anaesthetic may therefore be at increased risk of sustaining ankle injuries, which are a common source of missed sporting participation. Objectives: To determine the effect of intra- articular local anaesthetic on movement discrimination at the ankle joint. Design: Prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Setting: Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) Medical Centre, Canberra, Australia. Patients: Twenty-two healthy subjects (44 ankles) aged 18-26 were recruited for the three visits of the study Interventions: Subjects were tested for their initial movement discrimination scores using the active movement extent discrimination apparatus (AMEDA). They then received ultrasound-guided intra-articular injections of local anaesthetic ...
Efficacy of tramadol as a preincisional infiltration anesthetic in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomized study Kemal Varim Numanoglu,1 Hilal Ayoglu,2 Duygu Tatli,1 Ebubekir Er11Department of Pediatric Surgery, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bülent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak, TurkeyBackground: Preincisional local anesthetic infiltration at the surgical site is a therapeutic option for postoperative pain relief for pediatric inguinal hernia. Additionally, tramadol has been used as an analgesic for postoperative pain in children. Recently, the local anesthetic effects of tramadol have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine both the systemic analgesic and the local anesthetic effects of tramadol and to determine how it differs from bupivacaine when administered preincisionally.Methods: Fifty-two healthy children, aged 2â 7 years, who were scheduled for elective herniorrhaphy were randomly allocated to receive either
OBJECTIVES: The relationship between the dose, volume, and concentration of local anesthetic and the quality and success of regional anesthesia remains unclear. Our aim was to test whether using 3 different volumes of the same local anesthetic dose i
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The patient is positioned as in a conventional axillary block. One 21 size hypodermic needle is inserted into the axillary sheath on each side of the axillary artery. Total 20ml (10ml through each needle) of local anaesthetic solution is injected and the needles are withdrawn. The ring is applied over the skin encircling the injection sites and pressure is applied on the ring by vertically pressing on the collars, which distributes the force on the ring. This pressure on the ring is transmitted to the axillary sheath sealing it on all sides which prevents escape of anaesthetic solution on all sides and confines it to the area inside the ring. The skin inside the ring is massaged to allow fast passage of anaesthetic solution around the nerves within the confines of the ring ...
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Over 40% of ambulatory patients experience moderate-to-severe postoperative pain at home following orthopedic procedures.1 Single-injection peripheral nerve blocks with long-acting local anesthetics can provide excellent postoperative analgesia. However, the analgesic benefit of single-injection blocks is typically limited to the duration of the blockade and, subsequently, patients must usually rely on oral opioids to control pain. Unfortunately, opioids are associated with undesirable side effects, such as pruritus, nausea and vomiting, sedation, and constipation. To improve postoperative analgesia following ambulatory surgery, increasing interest has focused on providing perineural local anesthetic infusions, also called, continuous peripheral nerve blocks, to outpatients. This technique involves a percutaneous insertion of a catheter directly adjacent to the peripheral nerve(s) supplying the surgical site ...
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of subacromial bursae block (LA), suprascapular nerve block (SSB), and interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Methods: 91 patients scheduled to undergo an arthroscopic shoulder acromioplasty under GA in an outpatient setting were included. The patients were prospectively randomized into 4 groups: 1) interscalene brachial plexus block, 2) suprascapular nerve block, 3) subacromial bursae block, 4) control group for comparison. Pain scores (VAS), supplemental analgesia, and side effects were recorded in the recoveryroom, 4 hours and 24 hours after surgery. Results: Group ISB had significantly lower pain scores at rest in the postanesthesia care unit than the SSB group (p = 0.037) and the control group (p = 0.0313). The same results were seen 4 hours follow-up. The LA group had significantly lower pain scores at rest in the postanesthesia care unit than the control group (p = 0.046) and after 4
TY - JOUR. T1 - Drug Residues after Intravenous Anesthesia and Intrathecal Lidocaine Hydrochloride Euthanasia in Horses. AU - Aleman, Monica R. AU - Davis, E.. AU - Knych, Heather K. AU - Guedes, A.. AU - Smith, F.. AU - Madigan, John E. PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - Background: Intrathecal lidocaine hydrochloride under general anesthesia has been used as an alternative method of euthanasia in equids. Carnivore, scavenger, and even human consumption of horse meat from carcasses have been anecdotally reported in rural areas after this method of euthanasia. The presence of drug residues in horse meat has not been investigated. Hypothesis/Objectives: To investigate if drug residues are found in horse tissues and determine their concentrations. Animals: Of 11 horses requiring euthanasia for medical reasons. Methods: Prospective descriptive study. Horses were anesthetized with total IV dose of xylazine (mean, 2.5 mg/kg), midazolam (0.1 mg/kg), and ketamine hydrochloride (mean, 5.8 mg/kg). An ...
Authors: Jessica Booth, M.D. et al. Anesthesiology 7 2017, Vol.127, 50-57.. Background: The addition of opioids to epidural local anesthetic reduces local anesthetic consumption by 20% but at the expense of side effects and time spent for regulatory compliance paperwork. Epidural neostigmine also reduces local anesthetic use. The authors hypothesized that epidural bupivacaine with neostigmine would decrease total hourly bupivacaine use compared with epidural bupivacaine with fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia.. Methods: A total of 215 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II, laboring parturients requesting labor epidural analgesia consented to the study and were randomized to receive 0.125% bupivacaine with the addition of either fentanyl (2 μg/ml) or neostigmine (2, 4, or 8 μg/ml). The primary outcome was total hourly local anesthetic consumption, defined as total patient-controlled epidural analgesia use and top-ups (expressed as milliliters of 0.125% ...
A laparoscopic approach is now considered the gold standard in colorectal resection for benign and malignant disease [1]. Laparoscopic surgery is associated with a significant reduction in postoperative pain and opioid consumption, lower morbidity, faster recovery and shorter hospital stay [1]. However, strategies for postoperative pain management after laparoscopic surgery are mainly derived from concepts that have been established for open surgical procedures [2]. As such, patient-controlled epidural and intravenous analgesia are still the most frequently used techniques for postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic colorectal surgery [3]. Epidural analgesia (EA) is known to provide excellent pain control; however, the role of EA in laparoscopic surgery is increasingly being scrutinized [1]. Following laparoscopic colorectal surgery, the use of EA has been shown to result in a prolonged time to mobilization, an increase in hospital costs, length of hospital stay and a higher incidence of ...
PURPOSE: Rubber band ligation is a common office procedure for hemorrhoids. Triple rubber band ligation in a single session has been shown to be a safe and economical way of treating hemorrhoids. However, postligation discomfort after triple rubber band ligation is not uncommon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of local anesthetic injection to the banded hemorrhoidal tissue in reduction postligation discomfort. METHODS: Patients attending an outpatient clinic for symptomatic hemorrhoids suitable for triple rubber band ligation were randomly assigned to two groups. In the treatment group rubber band ligation was performed at three columns of hemorrhoids, and 1 to 2 ml of 2 percent lignocaine was injected into the banded hemorrhoidal tissue. In the control group triple rubber band ligation was preformed in a similar manner, but local anesthetic was not given. Patients were followed up by telephone at the second week and in the clinic after six weeks. RESULTS: From April to ...
While an elevated hemidiaphragm on chest radiography can be seen in the presence of pulmonary embolism, it must also raise the possibility of phrenic nerve palsy [6]. The incidence of transient hemidiaphragm paralysis secondary to phrenic nerve palsy during the regional interscalene block has been well documented in previous studies. With the phrenic nerve running along the anterior scalene, local diffusion of the anesthetic from the intended injection site is difficult to avoid [7, 8]. Some studies have quoted the occurrence of phrenic nerve palsy and hemidiaphragm paralysis to be as high as 100% [2].. Despite the high incidence of hemidiaphragm paralysis, only a handful of case reports have ever described patients with symptomatic dyspnea and only one has described clinically significant hypoxemia [3, 7, 9, 10]. In our patient, a number of factors likely contributed to her respiratory distress. With limited lung compliance secondary to obesity and an unknown underlying pulmonary embolism, her ...
Define cervical plexus. cervical plexus synonyms, cervical plexus pronunciation, cervical plexus translation, English dictionary definition of cervical plexus. Noun 1. cervical plexus - a nerve plexus lying beneath the sternocleidomastoid muscle plexus cervicalis nerve plexus - a network of intersecting nerves

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Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They ... al., Goodman and Gilmans The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the ... In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their ...
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False test results may occur if benzocaine or tetracaine is present in your body when a certain laboratory test is done. This test uses a medicine called bentiromide (e.g., Chymex) to show how well your pancreas is working. You should not use any products containing benzocaine or tetracaine for about 72 hours (3 days) before this test is done.. ...
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  • Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate. (jove.com)
  • Local anesthetics reduce impulse transmission by interfering with the mechanism of normal depolarization, binding to specific receptors located at the nerve membrane-more specifically, on the voltage-gated, tetrodoxin-sensitive sodium channel-and resulting in decreased or eliminated permeability to sodium ions, leading to interruption of nerve conduction. (lww.com)
  • The most recent research indicates that the local anesthetic binds to a phospholipid in the nerve membrane and inhibits the ability of the phospholipid to bind Ca +2 ions. (libretexts.org)