Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Benzocaine: A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.EthersHypnosis, Anesthetic: Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Pregnanediones: Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Ethyl EthersMidazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Tiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Malignant Hyperthermia: Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, IntratrachealSodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.CyclobutanesHemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Felypressin: A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedTooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain: Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.Propanidid: An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Thiamylal: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedDrug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Ethyl Chloride: A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Nordefrin: A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Batrachotoxins: Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Operating Room Technicians: Specially trained personnel to assist in routine technical procedures in the operating room.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Postanesthesia Nursing: The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients in the recovery room following surgery and/or anesthesia.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.GABA Modulators: Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Intraoperative Awareness: Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.CyclopropanesAdministration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.

Binding of propofol to blood components: implications for pharmacokinetics and for pharmacodynamics. (1/1639)

AIMS: Propofol is a widely used i.v. anaesthetic agent. However, its binding properties to blood components have not been fully studied. METHODS: We studied the binding of propofol to erythrocytes, to human serum and to isolated serum proteins. Because propofol bound to ultrafiltration and equilibrium dialysis membranes, we used a co-binding technique with dextran coated charcoal and with erythrocytes. RESULTS: Propofol free fraction in blood was 1.2-1.7% at total concentrations ranging from 2.80 to 179 microM (0.5 to 32 microg ml(-1)). Fifty percent was bound to erythrocytes and 48% to serum proteins, almost exclusively to human serum albumin. In the clinical range of concentrations (0.5-16 microg ml(-1)) 40% of the molecules bound to erythrocytes are on the red blood cells membranes. No binding to lipoproteins occurred and binding to alpha1-acid glycoprotein was less than 1.5% CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that hypoalbuminaemia may increase propofol free fraction particularly during prolonged administration. Since propofol is non-restrictively cleared, no change in clearance is expected to occur, and the increase in free fraction will not be compensated by a parallel increase in clearance. It is also noted that many in vitro studies used concentrations 50 to 500 times the concentration expected to be encountered in the immediate cellular environment.  (+info)

Benzodiazepine premedication: can it improve outcome in patients undergoing breast biopsy procedures? (2/1639)

BACKGROUND: Women awaiting needle-guided breast biopsy procedures may experience high anxiety levels. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the ability of midazolam and diazepam (in a lipid emulsion [Dizac]) to improve patient comfort during needle localization and breast biopsy procedures. METHODS: Ninety women received two consecutive doses of a study medication, one before the mammographic needle localization and a second before entering the operating room. Patients were assigned randomly to receive saline, 2.0 ml intravenously, at the two time points; midazolam, 1.0 mg intravenously and 2.0 mg intravenously; or diazepam emulsion, 2.0 mg intravenously and 5.0 mg intravenously, respectively. Patients assessed their anxiety levels before the needle localization, before entering the operating room, and on arrival in the operating room. Patients completed a questionnaire evaluating their perioperative experience at the time of discharge. RESULTS: Patient satisfaction during needle localization was significantly improved in both benzodiazepine treatment groups (vs. saline). The incidence of moderate-to-severe discomfort during needle localization was lower in the midazolam (20%) and diazepam emulsion (6%) groups compared with the saline group (70%) (P<0.05). The preoperative visual analogue scale anxiety scores were similar in all three groups. In the operating room, however, anxiety scores were 55% and 68% lower after midazolam (21+/-19) and diazepam emulsion (15+/-14) compared with saline (46+/-28). Finally, there was no difference in the time to achieve home-readiness or actual discharge time among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Premedication with midazolam or diazepam emulsion improved patients' comfort during needle localization procedures and significantly reduced intraoperative anxiety levels before breast biopsy procedures without prolonging discharge times. Use of diazepam emulsion may be an effective alternative to midazolam in this population.  (+info)

Postoperative behavioral outcomes in children: effects of sedative premedication. (3/1639)

BACKGROUND: Although multiple studies document the effect of sedative premedication on preoperative anxiety in children, there is a paucity of data regarding its effect on postoperative behavioral outcomes. METHODS: After screening for recent stressful life events, children undergoing anesthesia and surgery were assigned randomly to receive either 0.5 mg/kg midazolam in 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43) or 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43). Using validated measures of anxiety, children were evaluated before and after administration of the intervention and during induction of anesthesia. On postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14, the behavioral recovery of the children was assessed using the Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS: The intervention group demonstrated significantly lower anxiety levels compared with the placebo group on separation to the operating room and during induction of anesthesia (F[1,77] = 3.95, P = 0.041). Using a multivariate logistic regression model, the authors found that the presence or absence of postoperative behavioral changes was dependent on the group assignment (R = 0.18, P = 0.0001) and days after operation (R = -0.20, P = 0.0001). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that during postoperative days 1-7, a significantly smaller number of children in the midazolam group manifested negative behavioral changes. At week 2 postoperatively, however, there were no significant differences between the midazolam and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Children who are premedicated with midazolam before surgery have fewer negative behavioral changes during the first postoperative week.  (+info)

Mechanisms of bronchoprotection by anesthetic induction agents: propofol versus ketamine. (4/1639)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and ketamine have been purported to decrease bronchoconstriction during induction of anesthesia and intubation. Whether they act on airway smooth muscle or through neural reflexes has not been determined. We compared propofol and ketamine to attenuate the direct activation of airway smooth muscle by methacholine and limit neurally mediated bronchoconstriction (vagal nerve stimulation). METHODS: After approval from the institutional review board, eight sheep were anesthetized with pentobarbital, paralyzed, and ventilated. After left thoracotomy, the bronchial artery was cannulated and perfused. In random order, 5 mg/ml concentrations of propofol, ketamine, and thiopental were infused into the bronchial artery at rates of 0.06, 0.20, and 0.60 ml/min. After 10 min, airway resistance was measured before and after vagal nerve stimulation and methacholine given via the bronchial artery. Data were expressed as a percent of baseline response before infusion of drug and analyzed by analysis of variance with significance set at P< or =0.05. RESULTS: Systemic blood pressure was not affected by any of the drugs (P>0.46). Baseline airway resistance was not different among the three agents (P = 0.56) or by dose (P = 0.96). Infusion of propofol and ketamine into the bronchial artery caused a dose-dependent attenuation of the vagal nerve stimulation-induced bronchoconstriction to 26+/-11% and 8+/-2% of maximum, respectively (P<0.0001). In addition, propofol caused a significant decrease in the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction to 43+/-27% of maximum at the highest concentration (P = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The local bronchoprotective effects of ketamine and propofol on airways is through neurally mediated mechanisms. Although the direct effects on airway smooth muscle occur at high concentrations, these are unlikely to be of primary clinical relevance.  (+info)

Propofol concentrations in follicular fluid during general anaesthesia for transvaginal oocyte retrieval. (5/1639)

Propofol (Diprivan) is an i.v. anaesthetic used for general anaesthesia. The purpose of this study was to measure the propofol concentration in arterial blood and follicular fluid in patients during transvaginal oocyte retrieval. After approval by the University Ethics Committee, 30 women participated in this prospective study. Following induction of anaesthesia with 0.5 mg alfentanil and 2 mg.kg-1 propofol i.v., a continuous infusion of propofol at 10 mg.kg-1.h-1 was used for maintenance of anaesthesia. Follicular fluid and arterial blood samples were aspirated simultaneously at fixed intervals during the surgical procedure and propofol assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean follicular fluid concentration of propofol increased linearly with time from 0.10 +/- 0.02 microgram.ml-1 to 0.57 +/- 0.06 microgram.ml-1 and was strongly related to the cumulative dose of propofol administered. The absorption of propofol was time-dependent. There was no correlation between the concentration of propofol in the follicular fluid and the arterial blood concentration of the drug. In conclusion, a propofol-based anaesthetic technique resulted in significant concentrations of this agent in follicular fluid, related to the dose administered and to the duration of propofol administration.  (+info)

Effects of inhaled oxygen concentration on fat metabolism during propofol infusion in rabbits. (6/1639)

We have investigated the effect of inhaled oxygen tension on lipid metabolism during propofol infusion. Propofol is supplied as a lipid emulsion containing 10% soybean oil, which is rich in triglycerides (TG). Infused TG are metabolized via three pathways in the liver cell; Krebs cycle, ketogenesis and release as very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) into the blood. For this reason, we measured TG and the products of the three pathways; carbon dioxide, ketone bodies and VLDL. Thirty-two rabbits were anaesthetized under four different conditions: propofol under hyperoxia, normoxia, hypoxia and isoflurane anaesthesia under hyperoxia. Our results indicated that hyperoxia produced more ketone bodies, normoxia more PaCO2 and hypoxia more free fatty acids (FFA) and TG compared with the other propofol infusion groups. We conclude that hyperoxia during propofol infusion facilitated fat metabolism through ketogenesis, while normoxia did so via the Krebs cycle. Also, hypoxia suppressed utilization of TG and VLDL production in the liver.  (+info)

Thiopental and propofol impair relaxation produced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers in the rat aorta. (7/1639)

ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers are used as vasodilators in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The effects of i.v. anaesthetics on arterial relaxation induced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we have examined if thiopental (thiopentone) and propofol affect the vascular response to the ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers, cromakalim and pinacidil, in the isolated rat aorta. Rings of rat thoracic aortas without endothelium were suspended for isometric force recording. Concentration-response curves were obtained in a cumulative manner. During submaximal contractions with phenylephrine 0.3 mumol litre-1, relaxation after cromakalim 0.1-30 mumol litre-1, pinacidil 0.1-30 mumol litre-1 and papaverine 0.1-300 mumol litre-1 was demonstrated. Thiopental 30-300 mumol litre-1, propofol 10-100 mumol litre-1, 10% Intralipid 45 microliters or glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1 were applied 15 min before addition of phenylephrine. During contractions with phenylephrine, cromakalim and pinacidil induced concentration-dependent relaxation. A selective ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist, glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1, abolished this relaxation, whereas it did not affect relaxation produced by papaverine. Thiopental concentrations > 30 mumol litre-1 significantly impaired relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil. Propofol concentrations > 10 mumol litre-1 also significantly reduced relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil, whereas Intralipid was ineffective. Thiopental 300 mumol litre-1 and propofol 100 mumol litre-1 did not alter relaxation produced by papaverine. These results suggest that the i.v. anaesthetics, thiopental and propofol, impaired vasodilatation mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.  (+info)

Effect of remifentanil on the auditory evoked response and haemodynamic changes after intubation and surgical incision. (8/1639)

We have observed the effect of intubation and incision, as measured by the auditory evoked response (AER) and haemodynamic variables, in 12 patients undergoing hernia repair or varicose vein surgery who received remifentanil as part of either an inhaled anaesthetic technique using isoflurane or as part of a total i.v. technique using propofol. Anaesthesia was induced with remifentanil 1 microgram kg-1 and propofol, neuromuscular block was achieved with atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 before intubation, and anaesthesia was maintained with a continuous infusion of remifentanil in combination with either a continuous infusion of propofol or inhaled isoflurane. The AER and haemodynamic variables were measured before and after intubation and incision. The effects of intubation and incision on the AER and haemodynamic variables were not significantly different between the remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-isoflurane groups. However, the study had a low power for this comparison. When the data for the two anaesthetic combinations were pooled, the only significant effects were increases in diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate immediately after intubation; these were not seen 5 min after intubation. There were no cardiovascular responses to incision. There were no significant changes in the AER after intubation or incision.  (+info)

Definition of intravenous anesthetic in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of intravenous anesthetic. What does intravenous anesthetic mean? Information and translations of intravenous anesthetic in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
The increase of Corrected QT (QTc) interval is associated with age. It is known that most inhalation anesthetics or intravenous anesthetics can influence the QTc. In addition, tracheal intubation during induction can stimulates sympathetic activity, which, as a results, prolong the QTc interval. Therefore, the aim of study is to find out the effect site concentration of remifentanil for preventing QTc interval prolongation during intubation under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia in elderly patients ...
A new business intelligence report released by Contrive Datum Insights with the title Global Intravenous Anesthetics Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Type and Application, forecast to 2027 is designed with an objective to provide a micro-level analysis of the market. The report offers a comprehensive study of the current state expected at the major drivers, market strategies, and key vendors growth. The report presents energetic visions to conclude and study the market size, market hopes, and competitive surroundings. The research also focuses on the important achievements of the market, Research & Development, and regional growth of the leading competitors operating in the market. The current trends of the global Intravenous Anesthetics market in conjunction with the geographical landscape of this vertical have also been included in this report ...
The clinical studies demonstrate more powerful analgesic effect among female to both μ- and κ-opioid agonist (Fillingim et al. 2004). The antitussive effect of opioid is mediated predominantly by μ-, κ-opioid receptors (Kamei J. 1996). Therefore, the investigators hypothesized that there are sex differences in the antitussive responses to opioid.. It has been reported that target-controlled infusion (TCI) of remifentanil can reduce cough against endotracheal tube during emergence from general anesthesia. Some studies, reporting the EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI for preventing cough during emergence in different sex and surgeries (B. Lee et al. 2009, E.M.Choi et al. 2012), showed differences in EC50 and EC95.. The purpose of this study was to find out EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI for preventing cough during emergence in each sex and to evaluate whether there were sex differences in EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI or not. ...
Modulation of hECN GABAARs by intravenous anesthetics, SCS, furosemide and zolipidemA, upper panel: example trace showing potentiation of GABA-mediated whole-ce
1. Weerink MAS, Struys MMRF, Hannivoort LN, Barends CRM, Absalom AR, Colin P. Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Dexmedetomidine. Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 2017;56:893-913 2. Mohammadi B, Haeseler G, Leuwer M, Dengler R, Krampfl K, Bufler J. Structural requirements of phenol derivatives for direct activation of chloride currents via GABAA receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2001;421:85-91 3. Reiner GN, Delgado-Marín L, Olguín N, Sánchez-Redondo S, Sánchez-Borzone M, Rodríguez-Farré E, Suñol C, García DA. Gabaergic Pharmacological Activity of Propofol Related Compounds as Possible Enhancers of General Anesthetics and Interaction with Membranes. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics. 2013;67:515-525 4. Álvaro-Bartolomé M, Salort G, García-Sevilla JA. Disruption of brain MEK-ERK sequential phosphorylation and activation during midazolam-induced hypnosis in mice: Roles of GABAA receptor, MEK1 inactivation, and phosphatase MKP-3. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & ...
Principal Investigator:KURODA Toshihisa, Project Period (FY):1992 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:麻酔学
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Emergent or elective surgical procedures under general anesthesia may be required during pregnancy for some patients. For this reason, effects of anesthetics on uterine contractions are important. General anesthesia is not limited to the administration of inhalation agents, since induction and maintenance of anesthesia usually involve intravenous administration of different anesthetic agents. The effects of these agents on uterine contractions and blood flow are very important. The unexpected relaxation or contraction of myometrium can be harmful to fetus and continuing pregnancy. Our aim in this study is to investigate the effects of intravenous anesthetic agents on uterine contractions. ...
Background and study aims : In endoscopic procedures, propofol can be safely administered either alone or in conjunction with remifentanil. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of the administration of propofol alone and the administration of remifentanil in addition to propofol on patient and endoscopist satisfaction, preoperative hemodynamic response, and propofol consumption. ...
Background: Propofol is a short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent. In rare conditions, a life-threatening complication known as propofol infusion syndrome can occur. The pathophysiologic mechanism is still unknown. Some studies suggested that propofol acts as uncoupling agent, others suggested that it inhibits complex I or complex IV, or causes increased oxidation of cytochrome c and cytochrome aa(3), or inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. Although the exact site of interaction is not known, most hypotheses point to the direction of the mitochondria. Methods: Eight rats were ventilated and sedated with propofol up to 20 h. Sequential biopsy specimens were taken from liver and skeletal muscle and used for determination of respiratory chain activities and propofol concentration. Activities were also measured in skeletal muscle from a patient who died of propofol infusion syndrome. Results: In rats, authors detected a decrease in complex II+III activity starting at low tissue ...
Phaxan™ is an intravenous general anaesthetic and sedative containing alphaxalone as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Alphaxalone is a neuroactive steroid anaesthetic. It is a pregnanedione with no endocrine hormonal activity. This water-insoluble drug was initially formulated using CremophorEL and marketed as Althesin® from 1972 to 1984. It was found to be a safe and versatile intravenous anaesthetic used in clinical practice in anaesthesia and intensive care in many countries until it was withdrawn from clinical practice because of hypersensitivity to the CremophorEL.. Many subsequent attempts to make an aqueous formulations of neuroactive steroids suitable for human use have failed. Drawbridge Pharmaceuticals proprietary and patented formulation, Phaxan™, is a solution of alphaxalone 10mg/ml dissolved in 13% SBECD (7- sulfobutylether β-cyclodextrin); a molecule with a lipophilic cavity that enables drug dispersal in water for human use. The use of SBECD as the excipient preserves ...
Objectives This study evaluated the effects of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on renal function of dogs with naturally acquired chronic renal failure. Materials & Methods The anesthetic procedures included: three hours using sevoflurane (1.5CAM) in O2 flow of 30mL/kg/min, in a semiclosed-circuit, after induction with propofol at 10mg/kg, in bolus (P-S group), or after induction with sevoflurane (S-S group), and for the P group it was used only propofol in the same dose employed for induction. Evaluations were performed in six sessions and included creatinine clearance, serum creatinine and ureia, protein and glucose urinary excretion. The renal function evaluations were performed 30 minutes before anesthesia, two times during anesthesia, and one, two and five days after. Results All anesthetic procedures were well succeeded and animals recovered uneventfully. No renal toxicity were observed in any of the anesthetic protocols. However, during the transanesthetic period it was observed ...
Propofol is a general anesthetic commonly used in pediatric clinical practices. Experimental findings demonstrate that anesthetics induce widespread apoptosis and cognitive decline in a developing brain. Although anesthesia-mediated neurotoxicity is the most prominent during intense period of synaptogenesis, the effects of an early anesthesia exposure on the synapses are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on the expression of key proteins that participate in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and to evaluate long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities in the mature adult brain. Propofol-injected 7-day-old rats were maintained under 2-, 4-, and 6-h-long anesthesia and sacrificed 0, 4, 16, and 24 h after the termination of each exposure. We showed that propofol anesthesia strongly influenced spatiotemporal expression and/or proteolytic processing of crucial presynaptic (GAP-43, synaptophysin, α-synuclein), trans-synaptic ...
Uncertainty exists as to the most suitable pharmacokinetic parameter sets for propofol target-controlled infusions (TCI). The pharmacokinetic parameter sets currently employed are clearly not universally applicable, particularly when patient attributes differ from those of the subjects who participated in the original research from which the models were derived. Increasing evidence indicates that the pharmacokinetic parameters of propofol can be scaled allometrically as well as in direct proportion to lean body mass (LBM). Appraisal of hitherto published studies suggests that an allometrically scaled pharmacokinetic parameter set may be applicable to a wide range of patients ranging from children to obese adults. On the other hand, there is evidence that propofol pharmacokinetic parameters, scaled linearly to LBM, provide improved dosing in normal and obese adults. The Schnider pharmacokinetic parameter set that has been programmed into commercially available TCI pumps cannot be employed at ...
Principal Investigator:MASUDA Akira, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Anesthesiology/Resuscitation studies
In humans, prolonged sedations with propofol or using high doses have been associated with propofol infusion syndrome. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of prolonged high-dose administration of a specific propofol emulsion (Propofol Lipuro) and an improved lipid formulation (SMOFlipid) in liver mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress of rabbits, comparatively to a saline control. Twenty-one male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly allocated in three groups that were continuously treated for 20 h. Each group of seven animals received separately: NaCl 0.9 % (saline), SMOFlipid (lipid-based emulsion without propofol) and Lipuro 2 % (propofol lipid emulsion). An intravenous propofol bolus of 20 mg kg−1 was given to the propofol Lipuro group to allow blind orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Anesthesia was maintained using infusion rates of: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg kg−1 h−1, according to the clinical scale of anesthetic depth and the index of
Propofol reportedly possesses potential antioxidant properties caused by its chemical structure similar to that of phenol-based free-radical scavengers such as vitamin E.10 Previous in vivo or in vitro studies documented that this intravenous anesthetic reduces oxidative stress toward blood vessels.11,12 These results suggest that this anesthetic may be protective against the vascular dysfunction caused by increased oxidative stress. Indeed, propofol (3 × 10−7to 10−6m) recovered vascular ATP-sensitive K+channel function via reduction of superoxide levels within arterial walls. In addition, 10−6m of this agent completely inhibited protein expression of a Nox2-related NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox. The plasma concentration of propofol during induction of anesthesia in humans has been reported as up to 3 × 10−5m, and burst suppression doses of propofol for cerebral protection are up to 6 × 10−5m.20-22 Effective concentrations of propofol (3 × 10−7to 10−6m) to inhibit NADPH oxidase ...
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Author: Driscoll David F, Deaconess Beth Israel, Lawrence Kenneth R, Lewis Keith, Bistrian Bruce R, Year: 1997, Abstract: The Centers for Disease Control has identified intravenous propofol, a lipid-based medication, as a cause of postoperative infections in hospitalized patients. It appears the increased risk results from poor aseptic technique in the preparation, storage and administration of extemporaneously prepared propofol infusions. An additional risk of preparing propofol injection includes glass particulate contamination when the ampule dosage form is used. The current study, therefore, examines th
Dr. Conrad Murray, who has been convicted of killing Michael Jackson by giving him a lethal drug doze, has asked appellate judges to authorize forensic analysis of the bottle of the anesthetic propofol recovered from the bedroom where the pop legend died in 2009.
A popular method of administering intravenous anesthetics is as a continuous infusion. To improve the accuracy of infusion delivery, computerized infusion pumps that use pharmacokinetic models have been developed to quickly achieve and maintain desired target effect-site concentrations. This delivery technique, known as target-controlled infusions (TCI), has become popular worldwide. Unfortunately, neither have models used to drive TCI been validated in obese patients nor has agreement regarding the correct weight to input been identified. Most models were developed with normal-sized patients or volunteers and extrapolated for use in larger patients. The main limitation is that the composition of normal size and obese patients is not the same; hence, kinetic model predictions are likely to be less accurate in the obese. ...
The aim of this work was to establish the correlation between the bispectral index (BIS) and different rates of continuous infusion of propofol. Twenty-four adult dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups (P2, P4, P8). All animals were induced with propofol (10 mg/kg/IV), followed immediately by the continuous infusion of the agent: 0.2 mg/kg/min (P2), 0.4 mg/kg/min (P4) and 0.8 mg/kg/min (P8). The BIS values were measured before any drug administration (M0) and 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes after the start of the continuous infusion of propofol. The Analysis of Variance was used to calculate the correlation between the infusion rates of propofol and the BIS values. BIS demonstrated significant difference between groups at the moment M40, where P8 (72 ± 9,7) was smaller than P2 (84 ± 7,4) and P4 (33 ± 8,5), while in M50 this difference was observed in P8 (69 ± 13,5) that was smaller than P2 (84 ± 6,4).. The effects of induction dose of propofol were not more presented in M40, therefore, the ...
Modeling is a valuable tool in drug development, to support decision making, improving study design, and aid in regulatory approval and labeling. This thesis describes the development of pharmacometric models for drugs used in anesthesia and analgesia.. Models describing the effects on anesthetic depth, measured by the bispectral index (BIS), for a commonly used anesthetic, propofol, and for a novel anesthetic, AZD3043, were developed. The propofol model consisted of two effect-site compartments, and could describe the effects of propofol when the rate of infusion is changed during treatment. AZD3043 had a high clearance and a low volume of distribution, leading to a short half-life. The distribution to the effect site was fast, and together with the short plasma half-life leading to a fast onset and offset of effects. It was also shown that BIS after AZD3043 treatment is related to the probability of unconsciousness similar to propofol.. In analgesia studies dropout due to lack of efficacy is ...
The brain is possibly the most complex system known to mankind, and its complexity has been called upon to explain the emergence of consciousness. However, complexity has been defined in many ways by multiple different fields: here, we investigate measures of algorithmic and process complexity in both the temporal and topological domains, testing them on functional MRI BOLD signal data obtained from individuals undergoing various levels of sedation with the anaesthetic agent propofol, replicating our results in two separate datasets. We demonstrate that the various measures are differently able to discriminate between levels of sedation, with temporal measures showing higher sensitivity. Further, we show that all measures are strongly related to a single underlying construct explaining most of the variance, as assessed by Principal Component Analysis, which we interpret as a measure of
Title: Propofol in Anesthesia. Mechanism of Action, Structure-Activity Relationships, and Drug Delivery. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Giuseppe M. Trapani, Cosimo Altomare, Enrico Sanna, Giovanni Biggio and Gaetano Liso. Affiliation:CHUL Research Center,2705 Laurier Blvd, Quebec (Quebec) G1V 4G2, Canada. Keywords:propofol, 2 diisoprovpylphenol, drug delivery, aminobutyric acid GABA, GABAa receptor, site specific chemical delivery system CDS, cloned GABA A Receptor, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic effects, alkylphenols, hypnotic activity, STERIMOL Descriptors, pharmacokinetic, drug monitoring, metabolism, toxicology, salmonella mutation, lipid formulations, saccharomices cerevisiae, prodrugs, chemical delivery systems CDS, target controlled infusion TCI, CLINICAL USE, Anesthesia, tomidate. Abstract: Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is becoming the intravenous anesthetic of choice for ambulatory surgery in outpatients. It is extensively metabolized, with most of the administered dose appearing in the ...
Methods: Preparation of propofol nanoemulsion using NEMS™ technology has been performed for propofol 1% in NEMS™ (P1%), and propofol 2% in NEMS™ (P2%). Determination of free propofol concentration in aqueous phase was conducted using HPLC and rat paw lick test was evaluated as in vivo test to assay the intensity of pain on injection site. The sleep recovery test was conducted to evaluate the pharmacological effect and erythrocyte hemolysis test also conducted to ensure the safety of propofol in NEMS™. All of the test results were compared with Diprivan®1% as a positive standard. ...
Consciousness is regained in 5-15 min due to the concept of redistribution of the drug into highly perfused organs first and then to the low perfused organs like fat and muscles ...
PROPOFOL (injection, emulsion) comes in different strengths and amounts. The appearance of Propofol can differ based on the dosing.
Lee, T.-L.,Adaikan, P.G.,Lau, L.C.,Kumar, A.,Ratnam, S.S. (1997). Effects of propofol on gravid human uterine muscle. Journal of Anesthesia 11 (1) : 71-74. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02480008 ...
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Methods All dogs were premedicated with methadone, 0.2 mg kg−1 intramuscularly 30 minutes prior to induction of anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol administered intravenously (IV) to effect, following administration of lidocaine 1 mg kg−1 IV and maintained with a continuous infusion of propofol at ≤0.4 mg kg−1 minute−1 during instrumentation and preparation and during movement of the animals to recovery. During surgery, anaesthesia was maintained using a continuous infusion of propofol at ≤0.4 mg kg−1 minute−1and alfentanil ≤1 μg kg−1 minute−1. Lidocaine was administered at 1 mg kg−1 IV immediately prior to extubation. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded prior to induction and every 5 minutes throughout preparation and surgery. Central venous pressure was recorded every 5 minutes throughout surgery ...
The Dyck parameter set was derived from arterial blood samples and the Marsh set from a modification of a model published by White and Kenny [28] and Gepts et al., [29] in which arterial sampling was performed. The Tackley set was calculated after venous sampling. When comparing predicted and measured concentrations, the sampling site used for modeling and for evaluation and the time of sampling may influence the results. Chiou [30,31] has reviewed the phenomenon of dependence of drug concentration on sampling site and has pointed out that profiles of concentration in blood or plasma from different sampling sites can lead to the calculation of widely differing pharmacokinetic parameters. The significant arteriovenous propofol concentrations occurring during our TCI study differ from the findings of Major et al., [32] who, using the previous propofol formulation in Cremophor-EL found negligible AV differences in concentration after a single propofol dose (2 mg/kg administered over a 60-s period) ...
Diagnosis Code T41.1X1A information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
A novel strategy of propofol anesthesia is proposed to improve clinical propofol anesthesia for hypothermic decompression. Theoretical analysis is...
I think every high-profile case has its own problems that are associated with them," Geragos said. "One of them is the media and having to deal with the media and the constant onslaught of being second-guessed. Having all that kind of stuff that floats around the case that has nothing to do with what goes on in the courtroom. You have to filter that out, you have to kind of hunker down and try to just let that water drip off your back ...
Background and purpose: The aim of this prospective, clinical trial study was to investigate whether the administration of different doses of ketamine before induction with propofol imporves its associated haemodynamic propofol during induction and tracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: One hundered and thirty adult patients ASA I were randomly allocated to ...
4. Kurita TUraoka MMorita KSuzuki MMorishima YSato S: Influence of haemorrhage on the pseudo-steady-state remifentanil concentration in a swine model: a comparison with propofol and the effect of haemorrhagic shock stage. Br J Anaesth 107:719-7252011. ...
MATA, Lukiya Birungi Silva Campos et al. Anestesia por infusão contínua de propofol associado ao remifentanil em gatos pré-tratados com acepromazina. Rev. Ceres [online]. 2010, vol.57, n.2, pp.198-204. ISSN 0034-737X. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-737X2010000200010.. O presente trabalho avaliou a associação anestésica do propofol, um anestésico geral de ação ultracurta e metabolismo rápido, ao remifentanil, opioide de grande poder analgésico, que potencializa os anestésicos gerais. O objetivo principal foi desenvolver um protocolo anestésico de uso intravenoso, por infusão contínua, que proporcione conforto ao paciente, segurança, com grande relaxamento muscular e analgesia em gatos submetidos a cirurgias eletivas como a ovariosalpingoisterectomia e orquiectomia. Foram utilizados 30 gatos, aleatoriamente distribuídos em 3 grupos de 10 animais. Em todos eles realizou-se a tranquilização com acepromazina (0,1 mg/kg, IM) e indução anestésica com propofol (6 mg/kg, IV). No ...
연구 방법 : 이전 연구에서 140명의 환자들을 무작위로2군으로 나누었다. 두 군 모두 2단계의 중심 효과처 목표 농도 증가를 이용하여 remifentanil을 투여받았는데, 한 군은 1.0에서 4.0ng/ml로, 한 군은 2.0에서 4.0ng/ml로 증가시켰다. 이 연구 결과를 바탕으로 본 연구에서는 3단계의 목표농도주입을 시행하였고(1.0에서 2.0, 그리고 4.0ng/ml), 처음부터 4.0ng/ml로 즉시 목표농도주입을 시작한 군과 비교하기 위해 새로운 140명의 환자를 무작위로 두 군으로 나누어 연구를 진행하였다. 기침이 발생했을 경우를 기록하였고, 그 정도를 약함(1-2), 중간(3-4), 심함(5회 이상)으로 분류하여 기록하였다 ...
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Propofol at common clinical concentrations-is potent ventilatory depressant and therefore it is sometimes common with the name propofol respiratory depressi
The aim of our study is to see if a new combination of anaesthetic drugs results in a better long-term developmental outcome than the current standard of care
Very interesting. I have some caveats, though. The deficiency observed in the GABA-A alpha-1 receptors of ALS patients is a logical target for therapeutic drugs. However, there are good reasons to suppose that GABA-A deficiency is not common to all ALS patients. This is why propofol works for some but not others. Still, I disagree with the claim that the effect of propofol is as short lasting as they make it out to be. Various reports from those who have tried it point to a beneficial effect (e.g., a recovery of a lost function) lasting up to a month or more. So, its certain that propofol can continue to cause the potentiation of GABA-A receptors long after the hypnotic effect is gone. What this research is showing is that it should be possible to make the potentiation permanent, which would be an enormous breakthrough ...
Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a rare but often fatal complication as a result of large doses of propofol infusion (4-5 mg/kg/hr) for a prolonged period (,48 h). It has been reported in both children and adults. Besides large doses of propofol infusion, the risk factors include young age, acute neurological injury, low ...
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Pharmacokinetics of intravenous anesthetics". In Evers, Alex S.; Maze, Mervyn; Kharasch, Evan D. Anesthetic Pharmacology: Basic ... It was developed at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1964 and was introduced as an intravenous agent in 1972 in Europe and in 1983 in ... Continuous intravenous administration of etomidate leads to adrenocortical dysfunction. The mortality of patients exposed to a ... Chiara DC, Dostalova Z, Jayakar SS, Zhou X, Miller KW, Cohen JB (2012). "Mapping general anesthetic binding site(s) in human ...
Usually inhalational and intravenous anesthetics are used. Requirements for anesthetics may be reduced in sepsis. Inhalational ... Septic shock is low blood pressure due to sepsis that does not improve after reasonable amounts of intravenous fluids are given ... Low dose hydrocortisone is only used if both intravenous fluids and vasopressors are not able to adequately treat septic shock ... Within the first three hours someone with sepsis should have received antibiotics and, intravenous fluids if there is evidence ...
... has more pronounced hemodynamic effects relative to many intravenous anesthetic agents. Reports of blood pressure ... 1989). "Clinical pharmacology of propofol: an intravenous anesthetic agent [published erratum appears in DICP 1990 Jan; 24: 102 ... Sebel, PS; Lowden, JD (1989). "Propofol: a new intravenous anesthetic". Anesthesiology. 71 (2): 260-77. doi:10.1097/00000542- ... 1305-7 Baudoin Z. General anesthetics and anesthetic gases. In Dukes MNG and Aronson JK (Eds.). Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs ...
"Sneezing reflex associated with intravenous sedation and periocular anesthetic injection". American Journal of Ophthalmology. ... the patient often requires injection of a local anesthetic into the eye. In patients who show the photic sneeze reflex, an ... often resulting in the anesthesiologist having to remove the needle before injecting the local anesthetic in order to avoid ...
... anesthetic, and anticonvulsant effects.[1][2][3] It was investigated for clinical use as a general anesthetic, but produced ... October 1994). "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of eltanolone (pregnanolone), a new steroid intravenous anaesthetic, in ... the fetus is sedated by the low oxygen tension of the fetal blood and the neurosteroid anesthetics pregnanolone and the sleep- ... Jürgen Schüttler; Helmut Schwilden (8 January 2008). Modern Anesthetics. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 278-. ISBN 978- ...
He specializes in the clinical pharmacology of intravenous anesthetic drugs. Shafer left Stanford in 2007 to go to Columbia ...
Local anesthetic receptor site binds local anesthetics, antiarrhythmic drugs and antiepileptic drugs NSTX and other site 1 ... Guay J (December 2009). "Adverse events associated with intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier block): a systematic review of ... The medical use of the NSTX anesthetic effect is supported by three reasons: NSTX anesthetic duration: Any current available ... well over all the current available local anesthetics. Some investigations demonstrated anesthetic effect lasting over one week ...
... goes into effect 90 seconds after intravenous (IV) administration, and its anesthetic effects typically last for half ... Frederickson, EL; Longnecker, DE; Allen, GW (May-Jun 1976). "Clinical investigation of a new intravenous anesthetic--etoxadrol ... As an anesthetic, etoxadrol is more potent than ketamine, but less potent than PCP. Etoxadrol is also a potent analgesic. ... Traber, DL; Priano, LL; Wilson, RD (November 1970). "Effects of CL 1848C, a new dissociative anesthetic, on the canine ...
... a Photoactive Analogue of the Intravenous General Anesthetic Propofol". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 53 (15): 5667-5675. doi ...
Propofol-based anesthetic techniques result in significant concentrations of propofol in follicular fluid. As propofol has been ... Bumen S, Gunusen I, Firat V, Karaman S, Akdogan A, Tavmergen Goker EN (2011). "A comparison of intravenous general anesthesia ... Local anesthesia is not typically used because local anesthetic agents interfere with follicular cleavage and the technique ... Viscomi CM, Hill K, Johnson J, Sites C (1997). "Spinal anesthesia versus intravenous sedation for transvaginal oocyte retrieval ...
Weber, M; Motin, L; Gaul, S; Beker, F; Fink, RH; Adams, DJ (January 2005). "Intravenous anesthetics inhibit nicotinic acetyl- ... Intravenous administration is the most reliable and rapid way to accomplish euthanasia. A coma is first induced by intravenous ... Inhaled anesthetics are eliminated relatively quickly, so that stopping the inhaled anesthetic will allow rapid return of ... Sodium thiopental would have to be given in large amounts to maintain an anesthetic plane, and because of its 11.5- to 26-hour ...
IRWIN S, STAGG RD, DUNBAR E, GOVIER WM (March 1956). "Methitural, a new intravenous anesthetic: comparison with thiopental in ... as an ultra-short-acting intravenous anesthetic. A somewhat more complex side chain is incorporated by alkylation of the ...
Many new intravenous and inhalational anesthetics were developed and brought into clinical use during the second half of the ... Sodium thiopental, the first intravenous anesthetic, was synthesized in 1934 by Ernest H. Volwiler (1893-1992) and Donalee L. ... a potent intravenous anesthetic induction agent. The concept of using a fiberoptic endoscope for tracheal intubation was ... topical application of local anesthetics to the mucosa, rectal anesthesia, or intravenous anesthesia. While otherwise effective ...
For this reason, an anesthetic utilizing less halogenated agent and more intravenous hypnotic and narcotic is typically used. ... During surgery, the large amounts of anesthetic gases used can affect the amplitude and latencies of SSEPs. Any of the ...
It is an α2 adrenergic agonist that can be administered as an intravenous drug solution with sterile water. The drug has been ... Medetomidine is a synthetic drug used as both a surgical anesthetic and analgesic. It is often used as the hydrochloride salt, ... It is often used in combinations with opioids (butorphanol, buprenorphine etc.) as premedication (before a general anesthetic) ... It can be given by intramuscular injection (IM), subcutaneous injection (SC) or intravenous injection (IV). When delivered ...
Pentothal's discovery revolutionized intravenous anesthesia. The anesthetic can quickly put patients to sleep for a short ... In 1934, Volwiler and Tabern synthesized the first intravenous general anesthetic, Sodium thiopental, in 1934. In the mid 1930s ... He was a pioneer in the field of anesthetic pharmacology, assisting in the development of two breakthrough drugs, Nembutal and ... Volwiler was a pioneer in the field of anesthetic pharmacology, assisting in the development of two breakthrough drugs, the ...
... (/ˈpraɪləˌkeɪn/) is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Löfgren. In ... As it has low cardiac toxicity, it is commonly used for intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA). In some patients, ortho- ... People with pseudocholinesterase deficiency may have difficulty metabolizing this anesthetic. It is given as a combination with ... "Topical Anesthesia Use in Children: Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics". Medscape.com. Retrieved 2014-01-07. The United ...
Usually inhalational and intravenous anesthetics are used. Requirements for anesthetics may be reduced in sepsis. Inhalational ... Intravenous fluidsEdit. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign has recommended 30 ml/kg of fluid to be given in adults in the first ... Sepsis is usually treated with intravenous fluids and antibiotics.[1][5] Typically, antibiotics are given as soon as possible.[ ... Septic shock is severe sepsis plus persistently low blood pressure, despite the administration of intravenous fluids.[8] ...
Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment has shown some promise in reducing the length of the reaction and improving symptoms. ... Other common supportive measures include the use of topical pain anesthetics and antiseptics, maintaining a warm environment, ... Efforts may include stopping the cause, pain medication, antihistamines, antibiotics, intravenous immunoglobulins, or ... intravenous fluids and nasogastric or parenteral feeding) and symptomatic (e.g., analgesic mouth rinse for mouth ulcer). ...
Intravenous nerve block (Bier block) using guanethidine has been used to treat chronic pain caused by complex regional pain ... Joyce PI, Rizzi D, Caló G, Rowbotham DJ, Lambert DG (November 2002). "The effect of guanethidine and local anesthetics on the ...
It may also be used before starting an intravenous to decrease pain from the procedure. Typically it is applied as a liquid to ... Tetracaine is in the ester-type local anesthetic family of medications. It works by blocking the sending of nerve impulses. ... Tetracaine, also known as amethocaine, is a local anesthetic used to numb the eyes, nose, or throat. ... A systematic review investigated tetracaine for use in emergency departments, especially for starting intravenous lines in ...
Newer intravenous anesthetics (such as propofol) have increased the options of anesthesiologists, but halogenated ethers remain ... Inhalation anesthetics are vaporized and mixed with other gases prior to their inhalation by the patient before or during ... This is among the most important reasons that diethyl ether has fallen out of favor as a general anesthetic. Diethyl ether is ... All inhalation anesthetics in current clinical use are halogenated ethers, except for halothane (which is a halogenated ...
a short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent. Chemical propertiesEdit. Phenol-phenolate equilibrium, and resonance structures ...
... has been reported to occur with many different drug injections, including: penicillins, local anesthetics ( ... intravenous, and intraarticular injections. ...
Include T1-T2 if block is anesthetic 3. Include C3-C4 if block is anesthetic The interscalene block is performed by injecting ... Complications associated with brachial plexus block include intra-arterial or intravenous injection, which can lead to local ... Observation of local anesthetic surrounding the nerves during ultrasound-guided injection is predictive of a successful block. ... These techniques are classified by the level at which the needle or catheter is inserted for injecting the local anesthetic - ...
... (IVRA) or Bier's block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique on the body's extremities where a ... Intravenous regional anesthesia. Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) using older tourniquet equipment. Modern electronic ... The veins are filled with the anesthetic, with the anesthetic setting into local tissue after approximately 6-8 minutes, after ... Matt, Corinna (2007). "Intravenous regional anaesthesia". Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine. 8 (4): 137-9. doi:10.1016/j. ...
CAUTION! Sedative and anesthetic drug dosages for African elephants often vary from those for Asian elephants. Do not assume ... Intravenous injections should be made slowly. Do not administer intra-arterially in horses; may cause severe CNS excitement/ ... Other CNS depressant agents (barbiturates, narcotics, anesthetics, etc.) may cause additive CNS depression if used with ... Contraindications/Precautions - Animals may require lower dosages of general anesthetics following acepromazine. Cautious use ...
Anesthetic Drugs Ethyl 4-Aminobenzoate Used in Anodyne Product Details: Product name benzocaine hydrochloride Ethyl P- ... nonpyrogenic solution suitable for intravenous infusion following dilution. Precedex (dexmedetomidine hydrochloride) in 0.9% ... Anesthetic Drugs Ethyl 4-Aminobenzoate Used in Anodyne Product Details: Product name benzocaine hydrochloride Ethyl P- ... Relieve Pain Benzocaine Local Anesthetic Drugs Ethyl 4-Aminobenzoate Used in Anodyne ...
intravenous administration of vasopressin: evidence for a direct nose-brain pathway for peptide effects in humans. Biol ... In addition, given the concerns regarding anesthetic neurotoxicity and neuroapoptosis, dexmedetomidine sedation regimens, where ... This outcome would be well within the reported safe range when using intravenous dexmedetomidine as a sole agent for MRI ... This finding differs from reports of patients receiving high-dose intravenous dexmedetomidine that used decreases from baseline ...
... anesthetic: Local anesthetics: …innervating a region, usually by injection. Thus, local anesthetics are useful in minor ... The first known and generally used local anesthetic was cocaine, an alkaloid (a naturally occurring organic nitrogen-containing ... In anesthetic: Local anesthetics. …innervating a region, usually by injection. Thus, local anesthetics are useful in minor ... Some anesthetics are administered via intravenous drip.. © Lim Yong Hian/Shutterstock.com. ...
... Ahmet Eroglu Karadeniz Technical University, ... The effects of intravenous anesthetics on ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) have been investigated in both animals and clinical ... The protective effects and the dosages of the intravenous anesthetics on IRI were discussed in this paper. The prevention of ... the tissue injury after the IRI was demonstrated with intravenous anesthetics in some studies. In the future, the studies ...
American Spine is pleased to now offer intravenous infusions of anesthetics and analgesics to patients with intractable pain ... American Spine Offers New Intravenous Infusions of Anesthetics and Analgesics to Treat Intractable Pain Issues. ... Intravenous infusion therapy is an exciting option for treating a variety of different pain syndromes. By infusing special ... Intravenous infusions of particular pharmacologic agents have been known to provide substantial pain relief in patients with ...
Intravenous or Intra-abdominal Local Anesthetics for Postoperative Pain Management. (PoPuLAR). This study has been completed. ...
Intravenous Lipids: Antidotal Therapy for Drug Overdose and Toxic Effects of Local Anesthetics. Author(s): Dana Bartlett, RN, ... Intravenous lipid emulsion is an accepted therapy for the treatment of severe cardiac toxic effects caused by local anesthetics ... Intravenous Lipids: Antidotal Therapy for Drug Overdose and Toxic Effects of Local Anesthetics. ... but experience with intravenous lipids as antidotal therapy in these clinical situations is limited. However, intravenous ...
New life-saving treatments for Intra-abdominal surgery in clinical trial on Comparison of Intravenous Anesthetics to Volatile ... Comparison of Intravenous Anesthetics to Volatile Anesthetics on Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction Brief description of study ... different in patients received intravenous anesthetics only or sevoflurane (a volatile anesthetic-based general anesthesia for ... Two groups of general anesthetics are used for this purpose. We hypothesize that the incidence of POCD is not ...
Anesthetics. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anesthetics, General ... First Administration to Man Of Org 25435 a New Intravenous Anesthetic. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Infusion of intravenous anaesthetic agent to induce anaesthesia. Drug: ORG25435 Intended doses: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, ... Study Drug: Org 25435, a water soluble intravenous anaesthetic.. Subjects: Up to 47 healthy male volunteers, aged 18-40 years. ...
Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Leukocyte Migration You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated ... Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Leukocyte Migration. Anesthesiology 9 1980, Vol.53, S30. doi: ... Diana Mathieu, Alix Mathieu; Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Leukocyte Migration. Anesthesiology 1980;53(3 Suppl):S30. ...
Is intravenous lipid emulsion a safe and effective therapy for the reversal and treatment of local anesthetic toxicity?Results ... Intravenous lipid emulsion 20% should be available whenever patients receive large doses of local anesthetics in operating ... There are fewer data to support treatment of neurologic toxicities associated with local anesthetics.Implementation: ... Systematic reviews, human case reports, and experimental animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intravenous lipid ...
Meaning of intravenous anesthetic. What does intravenous anesthetic mean? Information and translations of intravenous ... anesthetic in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. ... Definition of intravenous anesthetic in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... What does intravenous anesthetic mean?. Definitions for intravenous anesthetic. Here are all the possible meanings and ...
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Intravenous Anesthetics on Endotoxemia. Author(s): Takumi Taniguchi, Ken Yamamoto Department of ... Recently, it has been shown both in vitro and in vivo that several intravenous anesthetics have anti-inflammatory effects. ... Recently, it has been shown both in vitro and in vivo that several intravenous anesthetics have anti-inflammatory effects. ... Takumi Taniguchi and Ken Yamamoto, " Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Intravenous Anesthetics on Endotoxemia", Mini-Reviews in ...
Sedation from intravenous anesthetic agents can indirectly modulate the immunity, and intravenous anesthetic agents can ... Feng J, Yao W, Zhang Y, Xiang AP, Yuan D, Hei Z. Intravenous Anesthetics Enhance the Ability of Human Bone Marrow-Derived ... total number of animals between 12 and 22 for an intravenous anesthetic agent (between 36 and 66 for the three intravenous ... The effect of repetitive exposure to intravenous anesthetic agents on the immunity in mice. Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(4):428-436. ...
Intravenous Anesthetic Propofol Inhibits Multiple Human Cardiac Potassium Channels Lei Yang, M.D.; Hui Liu, M.D., Ph.D.; Hai- ... Intravenous Anesthetic Propofol Inhibits Multiple Human Cardiac Potassium Channels You will receive an email whenever this ... The current study demonstrates that the intravenous anesthetic propofol blocks human atrial native Ito, IKur, hERG, and hKCNQ1/ ... Intravenous Anesthetic Propofol Inhibits Multiple Human Cardiac Potassium Channels. Anesthesiology 03 2015, Vol.122, 571-584. ...
This study aimed to investigate the effects of intravenous anesthetics on hepatosplanchnic microcirculation in laparotomized ... Differential effects of intravenous anesthetics on hepatosplanchnic microcirculation in rats: Sidestream dark-field imaging ... In conclusion, intravenous anesthetics affect the hepatosplanchnic microcirculation differentially, propofol has shown ... Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of intravenous anesthetics on hepatosplanchnic microcirculation in ...
Since mid-2000, thoracoscopic lobectomy has been replaced with conventional open lobectomy and it has reduced the operative morbidities and mortalities.
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there ... Anesthetics, Intravenous. Known as: Intravenous anesthetics, general intravenous anesthetic Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that ... BACKGROUND Volatile anesthetics show an ischemic preconditioning-like cardioprotective effect, whereas intravenous anesthetics ... Direct relaxant effects of intravenous anesthetics on airway smooth muscle.. *Earl Y. Cheng, Angela Mazzeo, Željka Bošnjak, ...
In addition, intravenous and volatile anesthetics can activate the GABAA receptor directly in the absence of GABA (Barker and ... Propofol and Other Intravenous Anesthetics Have Sites of Action on the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Distinct from That ... Propofol and Other Intravenous Anesthetics Have Sites of Action on the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Distinct from That ... Propofol and Other Intravenous Anesthetics Have Sites of Action on the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Distinct from That ...
Effect of an Intravenous Dexamethasone Added to Caudal Local Anesthetics to Improve Postoperative Pain: A Systematic Review and ... Intravenous steroids have been shown to be effective for postsurgical pain management after certain surgeries. The aim of this ... Intravenous dexamethasone prolongs the analgesic duration of caudal anesthesia. Trials to investigate the effectiveness of a ... Randomized controlled trials that compared intravenous steroids with a placebo in pediatric patients who had received caudal ...
Population model for pharmacokinetics and bispectral index after intravenous infusion of the sedative and anesthetic AZD3043 in ... Models describing the effects on anesthetic depth, measured by the bispectral index (BIS), for a commonly used anesthetic, ... propofol, and for a novel anesthetic, AZD3043, were developed. The propofol model consisted of two effect-site compartments, ...
intravenous anesthetic agents / water structure / ^1H-NMR / spin lattice relaxation times (T_1) / intermolecular cross- ... Study on mechanisms of intravenous anesthetic agents by ^1H-NMR. Research Project ... as a result of making clear for mechanisms of intravenous anesthetic agents. This is very important that the major parts of ^1H ... We studied on water structure in the tissues for anesthetic agents by measuring spin-lattice relaxation times (T_1) and ...
Physio-pharmacological effects of intravenous anesthetic agent ; Propofol on respiratory depression. Research Project ...
In preferred embodiment of the invention, the amount of the formulation administered to the patient is sub-anesthetic. The ... The method is conducted by parenterally administering a formulation containing a halogenated volatile anesthetic in an amount ... Rabbits received 0.9% saline, drug lipid vehicle (10 ml/h), or intravenous volatile anesthetic (10 ml/h) for 30 min. Infusions ... Actual sub-anesthetic dosages will depend on patient age, state and responsiveness to anesthetic agents, other medications used ...
  • Recent work has revealed that two specific amino acid residues within transmembrane domain (TM)2 and TM3 are necessary for positive modulation of GABA A and glycine receptors by the volatile anesthetic enflurane. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The method is conducted by parenterally administering a formulation containing a halogenated volatile anesthetic in an amount effective to improve the tissue's resistance to or tolerance of the ischemic event. (justia.com)
  • The present invention relates to a method for improving tissue tolerance of and resistance to an ischemic event in a patient, preferably a human, by administering an intravenous formulation containing an effective amount of a halogenated volatile anesthetic (HVA) to the patient. (justia.com)
  • In one preferred embodiment, the method is conducted with a formulation that includes an emulsification adjuvant and an emulsifier in addition to the halogenated volatile anesthetic. (justia.com)
  • All other anesthetic agents not in the above categories of volatile anesthetic agents and depolarizing muscle relaxants are considered safe. (mhaus.org)
  • 8. The halogenated anesthetic which is advantageous in patients with cardiovascular disease because it maintains cardiac output, produces systemic and coronary vasodilation, and catecholamine dependent arrhythmias are uncommon. (pharmacologycorner.com)
  • In fact, most nonanesthesiologists lack knowledge of toxic doses of local anesthetics or the treatments for LAST, with one survey finding that only 7% of nonanesthesiologists are aware of the role of lipid therapy. (asra.com)
  • Glen and James identified anesthetic activity in 2,6 diethylphenol, but it was not sufficiently potent or rapidly acting enough to compete with thiopental. (jci.org)
  • Intravenous infusion therapy is an exciting option for treating a variety of different pain syndromes. (prweb.com)
  • If you are interested in learning more about whether you are a candidate for intravenous infusion therapy, call and make an appointment for a consultation with one of our pain management specialists today. (prweb.com)
  • To investigate the potential for pediatric emergency department (ED) triage nurses to apply a topical anesthetic (ie, eutectic mixture of local anesthetic) for intravenous catheter (IV) insertion. (aappublications.org)
  • 1-4 However, it has not been common practice to use these medications in the emergency department (ED). The requirements for successful and efficient application of topical anesthetic in the ED are 1) prospective identification of patients receiving IV insertions and 2) sufficient time between triage and IV insertion for the medication to take effect. (aappublications.org)
  • A critical analysis on data recorded from randomized control trials (RCTs) is essential in identifying patients who may benefit or be harmed by a particular anesthetic. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Instead, specific defined stimuli and specific responses are needed to assess the particular anesthetic state ( Stanski, 1990 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Patients who have not responded to standard therapies have been quickly revived by administration of intravenous lipids. (aacn.org)
  • 211 patients received intravenous steroids. (ovid.com)
  • following the wide usage of A.C.E. mixture as an anesthetic , one doctor found patients were more relaxed when he used Eau de Cologne and chloroform for dental operations? (thefullwiki.org)
  • The timing of IV insertion in our ED would allow for full medication effect of the currently marketed topical anesthetics in the majority of ED patients. (aappublications.org)
  • To review the anesthetic management and perioperative outcomes of patients diagnosed with Brugada syndrome (BrS) who were treated at a single centre and to compare those results with a comprehensive review of the existing literature. (springer.com)
  • A total of 20 significant ST segment elevations were recorded in four patients, several of which occurred in close temporal relation to anesthetic drug administration. (springer.com)
  • A literature review of patients with BrS yielded 52 anesthetics in 43 patients. (springer.com)
  • Propofol and local anesthetics carry a theoretical risk of arrhythmogenic potential in BrS patients, but clear evidence is lacking. (springer.com)
  • L'objectif de cette étude était de passer en revue la prise en charge de l'anesthésie et les pronostics périopératoires de patients atteints du syndrome de Brugada (BrS) traités dans un seul centre et de comparer ces pronostics à une analyse exhaustive de la littérature existante. (springer.com)
  • Une révision rétrospective des dossiers anesthésiques de patients porteurs d'un BrS à la Clinique Mayo a été entreprise en recherchant particulièrement les médicaments administrés, les modifications au niveau du segment ST et la survenue de complications, y compris la mort, l'instabilité hémodynamique et les dysrythmies. (springer.com)
  • 3. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) is the concentration of anesthetic at 1 atmosphere of pressure that produces immobility in 50% of patients exposed to a noxious stimulus. (pharmacologycorner.com)
  • 7. The anesthetic which should be avoided in patients with a seizure disorder because tonic-clonic seizures are associated with its use. (pharmacologycorner.com)
  • Other research interests include obstructive sleep apnea in surgical patients and anesthetic protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury in young, human volunteers. (mcw.edu)
  • The optimal anesthetic management of acute ischemic stroke patients during mechanical thrombectomy (MT) remains controversial. (frontiersin.org)
  • Perform physical examinations, make tentative diagnoses, and treat patients en route to hospitals or at disaster site triage centers. (onetonline.org)
  • Although ICI's chemists were producing new compounds with structures that resembled known anesthetics, Glen was paired with chemist Roger James, who thought it was worthwhile to revisit ICI's existing compound collection. (jci.org)
  • Includes new guidelines and protocols for anesthetic practice and patient safety as well as new techniques such as TEE and other monitoring procedures. (indigo.ca)
  • Status of organ systems: Cardiovascular system: whereas the hypotensive effect of most anesthetics is sometimes desirable, ischemic injury of tissues could follow reduced perfusion pressure. (slideshare.net)
  • As an adjuvant, it reduces anesthetic requirements and attenuates the hemodynamic responses to tracheal intubation and surgical stimuli, providing cardiovascular stability during surgery. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These constraints were already recognised 35 years ago, when in 1972 Volume XXX entitled "Modern Inhalation Anesthetics" appeared in this Handbook Series. (springer.com)
  • It was developed at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1964 and was introduced as an intravenous agent in 1972 in Europe and in 1983 in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1972, Glen joined ICI Pharmaceuticals' anesthetics research team, which sought to identify a compound that matched thiopental's induction speed but improved upon its slow metabolism. (jci.org)
  • Anesthetic pre-conditioning attenuates inflammatory response during ischemia-reperfusion lung injury. (scielo.br)