Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Benzocaine: A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.EthersHypnosis, Anesthetic: Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Pregnanediones: Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Ethyl EthersMidazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Tiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Malignant Hyperthermia: Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, IntratrachealSodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.CyclobutanesHemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Felypressin: A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedTooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain: Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.Propanidid: An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Thiamylal: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedDrug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Ethyl Chloride: A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Nordefrin: A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Batrachotoxins: Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Operating Room Technicians: Specially trained personnel to assist in routine technical procedures in the operating room.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Postanesthesia Nursing: The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients in the recovery room following surgery and/or anesthesia.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.GABA Modulators: Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Intraoperative Awareness: Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.CyclopropanesAdministration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.

Binding of propofol to blood components: implications for pharmacokinetics and for pharmacodynamics. (1/1639)

AIMS: Propofol is a widely used i.v. anaesthetic agent. However, its binding properties to blood components have not been fully studied. METHODS: We studied the binding of propofol to erythrocytes, to human serum and to isolated serum proteins. Because propofol bound to ultrafiltration and equilibrium dialysis membranes, we used a co-binding technique with dextran coated charcoal and with erythrocytes. RESULTS: Propofol free fraction in blood was 1.2-1.7% at total concentrations ranging from 2.80 to 179 microM (0.5 to 32 microg ml(-1)). Fifty percent was bound to erythrocytes and 48% to serum proteins, almost exclusively to human serum albumin. In the clinical range of concentrations (0.5-16 microg ml(-1)) 40% of the molecules bound to erythrocytes are on the red blood cells membranes. No binding to lipoproteins occurred and binding to alpha1-acid glycoprotein was less than 1.5% CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that hypoalbuminaemia may increase propofol free fraction particularly during prolonged administration. Since propofol is non-restrictively cleared, no change in clearance is expected to occur, and the increase in free fraction will not be compensated by a parallel increase in clearance. It is also noted that many in vitro studies used concentrations 50 to 500 times the concentration expected to be encountered in the immediate cellular environment.  (+info)

Benzodiazepine premedication: can it improve outcome in patients undergoing breast biopsy procedures? (2/1639)

BACKGROUND: Women awaiting needle-guided breast biopsy procedures may experience high anxiety levels. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the ability of midazolam and diazepam (in a lipid emulsion [Dizac]) to improve patient comfort during needle localization and breast biopsy procedures. METHODS: Ninety women received two consecutive doses of a study medication, one before the mammographic needle localization and a second before entering the operating room. Patients were assigned randomly to receive saline, 2.0 ml intravenously, at the two time points; midazolam, 1.0 mg intravenously and 2.0 mg intravenously; or diazepam emulsion, 2.0 mg intravenously and 5.0 mg intravenously, respectively. Patients assessed their anxiety levels before the needle localization, before entering the operating room, and on arrival in the operating room. Patients completed a questionnaire evaluating their perioperative experience at the time of discharge. RESULTS: Patient satisfaction during needle localization was significantly improved in both benzodiazepine treatment groups (vs. saline). The incidence of moderate-to-severe discomfort during needle localization was lower in the midazolam (20%) and diazepam emulsion (6%) groups compared with the saline group (70%) (P<0.05). The preoperative visual analogue scale anxiety scores were similar in all three groups. In the operating room, however, anxiety scores were 55% and 68% lower after midazolam (21+/-19) and diazepam emulsion (15+/-14) compared with saline (46+/-28). Finally, there was no difference in the time to achieve home-readiness or actual discharge time among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Premedication with midazolam or diazepam emulsion improved patients' comfort during needle localization procedures and significantly reduced intraoperative anxiety levels before breast biopsy procedures without prolonging discharge times. Use of diazepam emulsion may be an effective alternative to midazolam in this population.  (+info)

Postoperative behavioral outcomes in children: effects of sedative premedication. (3/1639)

BACKGROUND: Although multiple studies document the effect of sedative premedication on preoperative anxiety in children, there is a paucity of data regarding its effect on postoperative behavioral outcomes. METHODS: After screening for recent stressful life events, children undergoing anesthesia and surgery were assigned randomly to receive either 0.5 mg/kg midazolam in 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43) or 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43). Using validated measures of anxiety, children were evaluated before and after administration of the intervention and during induction of anesthesia. On postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14, the behavioral recovery of the children was assessed using the Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS: The intervention group demonstrated significantly lower anxiety levels compared with the placebo group on separation to the operating room and during induction of anesthesia (F[1,77] = 3.95, P = 0.041). Using a multivariate logistic regression model, the authors found that the presence or absence of postoperative behavioral changes was dependent on the group assignment (R = 0.18, P = 0.0001) and days after operation (R = -0.20, P = 0.0001). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that during postoperative days 1-7, a significantly smaller number of children in the midazolam group manifested negative behavioral changes. At week 2 postoperatively, however, there were no significant differences between the midazolam and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Children who are premedicated with midazolam before surgery have fewer negative behavioral changes during the first postoperative week.  (+info)

Mechanisms of bronchoprotection by anesthetic induction agents: propofol versus ketamine. (4/1639)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and ketamine have been purported to decrease bronchoconstriction during induction of anesthesia and intubation. Whether they act on airway smooth muscle or through neural reflexes has not been determined. We compared propofol and ketamine to attenuate the direct activation of airway smooth muscle by methacholine and limit neurally mediated bronchoconstriction (vagal nerve stimulation). METHODS: After approval from the institutional review board, eight sheep were anesthetized with pentobarbital, paralyzed, and ventilated. After left thoracotomy, the bronchial artery was cannulated and perfused. In random order, 5 mg/ml concentrations of propofol, ketamine, and thiopental were infused into the bronchial artery at rates of 0.06, 0.20, and 0.60 ml/min. After 10 min, airway resistance was measured before and after vagal nerve stimulation and methacholine given via the bronchial artery. Data were expressed as a percent of baseline response before infusion of drug and analyzed by analysis of variance with significance set at P< or =0.05. RESULTS: Systemic blood pressure was not affected by any of the drugs (P>0.46). Baseline airway resistance was not different among the three agents (P = 0.56) or by dose (P = 0.96). Infusion of propofol and ketamine into the bronchial artery caused a dose-dependent attenuation of the vagal nerve stimulation-induced bronchoconstriction to 26+/-11% and 8+/-2% of maximum, respectively (P<0.0001). In addition, propofol caused a significant decrease in the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction to 43+/-27% of maximum at the highest concentration (P = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The local bronchoprotective effects of ketamine and propofol on airways is through neurally mediated mechanisms. Although the direct effects on airway smooth muscle occur at high concentrations, these are unlikely to be of primary clinical relevance.  (+info)

Propofol concentrations in follicular fluid during general anaesthesia for transvaginal oocyte retrieval. (5/1639)

Propofol (Diprivan) is an i.v. anaesthetic used for general anaesthesia. The purpose of this study was to measure the propofol concentration in arterial blood and follicular fluid in patients during transvaginal oocyte retrieval. After approval by the University Ethics Committee, 30 women participated in this prospective study. Following induction of anaesthesia with 0.5 mg alfentanil and 2 mg.kg-1 propofol i.v., a continuous infusion of propofol at 10 mg.kg-1.h-1 was used for maintenance of anaesthesia. Follicular fluid and arterial blood samples were aspirated simultaneously at fixed intervals during the surgical procedure and propofol assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean follicular fluid concentration of propofol increased linearly with time from 0.10 +/- 0.02 microgram.ml-1 to 0.57 +/- 0.06 microgram.ml-1 and was strongly related to the cumulative dose of propofol administered. The absorption of propofol was time-dependent. There was no correlation between the concentration of propofol in the follicular fluid and the arterial blood concentration of the drug. In conclusion, a propofol-based anaesthetic technique resulted in significant concentrations of this agent in follicular fluid, related to the dose administered and to the duration of propofol administration.  (+info)

Effects of inhaled oxygen concentration on fat metabolism during propofol infusion in rabbits. (6/1639)

We have investigated the effect of inhaled oxygen tension on lipid metabolism during propofol infusion. Propofol is supplied as a lipid emulsion containing 10% soybean oil, which is rich in triglycerides (TG). Infused TG are metabolized via three pathways in the liver cell; Krebs cycle, ketogenesis and release as very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) into the blood. For this reason, we measured TG and the products of the three pathways; carbon dioxide, ketone bodies and VLDL. Thirty-two rabbits were anaesthetized under four different conditions: propofol under hyperoxia, normoxia, hypoxia and isoflurane anaesthesia under hyperoxia. Our results indicated that hyperoxia produced more ketone bodies, normoxia more PaCO2 and hypoxia more free fatty acids (FFA) and TG compared with the other propofol infusion groups. We conclude that hyperoxia during propofol infusion facilitated fat metabolism through ketogenesis, while normoxia did so via the Krebs cycle. Also, hypoxia suppressed utilization of TG and VLDL production in the liver.  (+info)

Thiopental and propofol impair relaxation produced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers in the rat aorta. (7/1639)

ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers are used as vasodilators in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The effects of i.v. anaesthetics on arterial relaxation induced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we have examined if thiopental (thiopentone) and propofol affect the vascular response to the ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers, cromakalim and pinacidil, in the isolated rat aorta. Rings of rat thoracic aortas without endothelium were suspended for isometric force recording. Concentration-response curves were obtained in a cumulative manner. During submaximal contractions with phenylephrine 0.3 mumol litre-1, relaxation after cromakalim 0.1-30 mumol litre-1, pinacidil 0.1-30 mumol litre-1 and papaverine 0.1-300 mumol litre-1 was demonstrated. Thiopental 30-300 mumol litre-1, propofol 10-100 mumol litre-1, 10% Intralipid 45 microliters or glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1 were applied 15 min before addition of phenylephrine. During contractions with phenylephrine, cromakalim and pinacidil induced concentration-dependent relaxation. A selective ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist, glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1, abolished this relaxation, whereas it did not affect relaxation produced by papaverine. Thiopental concentrations > 30 mumol litre-1 significantly impaired relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil. Propofol concentrations > 10 mumol litre-1 also significantly reduced relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil, whereas Intralipid was ineffective. Thiopental 300 mumol litre-1 and propofol 100 mumol litre-1 did not alter relaxation produced by papaverine. These results suggest that the i.v. anaesthetics, thiopental and propofol, impaired vasodilatation mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.  (+info)

Effect of remifentanil on the auditory evoked response and haemodynamic changes after intubation and surgical incision. (8/1639)

We have observed the effect of intubation and incision, as measured by the auditory evoked response (AER) and haemodynamic variables, in 12 patients undergoing hernia repair or varicose vein surgery who received remifentanil as part of either an inhaled anaesthetic technique using isoflurane or as part of a total i.v. technique using propofol. Anaesthesia was induced with remifentanil 1 microgram kg-1 and propofol, neuromuscular block was achieved with atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 before intubation, and anaesthesia was maintained with a continuous infusion of remifentanil in combination with either a continuous infusion of propofol or inhaled isoflurane. The AER and haemodynamic variables were measured before and after intubation and incision. The effects of intubation and incision on the AER and haemodynamic variables were not significantly different between the remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-isoflurane groups. However, the study had a low power for this comparison. When the data for the two anaesthetic combinations were pooled, the only significant effects were increases in diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate immediately after intubation; these were not seen 5 min after intubation. There were no cardiovascular responses to incision. There were no significant changes in the AER after intubation or incision.  (+info)

*Prilocaine

... (/ˈpraɪləˌkeɪn/) is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Löfgren. In ... As it has low cardiac toxicity, it is commonly used for intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA). In some patients, ortho- ... People with pseudocholinesterase deficiency may have difficulty metabolizing this anesthetic. It is given as a combination with ... "Topical Anesthesia Use in Children: Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics". Medscape.com. Retrieved 2014-01-07. The United ...

*Local anesthetic nerve block

"The in vitro mechanisms and in vivo efficacy of intravenous lidocaine on the neuroinflammatory response in acute and chronic ... Local anesthetic nerve block (local anesthetic regional nerve blockade, or often simply nerve block) is a short-term nerve ... Most of the local anesthetics target open channels and prevent ion flow. Local anesthetics also act on potassium channels, but ... Since the plexus is located deep, there is an increased risk of local anesthetic toxicity, so less toxic anesthetics like ...

*List of local anesthetics

... local anesthetics Dental anesthesia Dibucaine number Epidural Intravenous regional anesthesia Local anesthesia Local anesthetic ... This is a list of local anesthetic agents. Not all of these drugs are still used in clinical practice and in research. Some are ... 4-Aminobenzoic acid Amino amide Amino esters Anesthesia Anesthetic Brachial plexus block Cocaine analogues: ... with vasoconstrictor Local anesthetic toxicity Methemoglobin Sodium channel blocker Spinal anesthesia Topical anesthesia ...

*Local anesthetic

Cave G, Harvey M; Harvey (September 2009). "Intravenous lipid emulsion as antidote beyond local anesthetic toxicity: a ... Amylocaine Anesthetic General anesthetic List of cocaine analogues List of local anesthetics Brown AR, Weiss R, Greenberg C, ... Local anesthetic solutions for injection typically consist of: The local anesthetic agent itself A vehicle, which is usually ... Zamanian, R., Toxicity, Local Anesthetics (2005) Mulroy, M., Systemic Toxicity and Cardiotoxicity From Local Anesthetics (2002 ...

*Dental anesthesia

A dental syringe is a syringe for the injection of a local anesthetic. It consists of a breech-loading syringe fitted with a ... is often used through intravenous infusion through an IV during general anesthesia after gasses are initiated. Morphine is ... Topical anesthetics benzocaine, eugenol, and forms of xylocaine are used topically to numb various areas before injections or ... Other local anesthetic agents in current use include articaine (also called septocaine or ubistesin), bupivacaine (a long- ...

*Patient-controlled analgesia

These are popular for administration of opioids such as fentanyl, or local anesthetics such as lidocaine. Iontocaine is one ... Intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia for perioperative treatment of neuropathic/ischaemic pain in haemodialysis ... a PCA refers to an electronically controlled infusion pump that delivers an amount of intravenous analgesic when the patient ...

*Fospropofol

Several water-soluble derivatives and prodrugs of the widely used intravenous anesthetic agent propofol have been developed, of ... Fospropofol (INN), often used as the disodium salt (trade name Lusedra) is an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent. It is ... Purported advantages of this water-soluble chemical compound include less pain at the site of intravenous administration, less ... "Water-soluble propofol analogues with intravenous anaesthetic activity". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 11 (7): 927- ...

*Etomidate

Pharmacokinetics of intravenous anesthetics". In Evers, Alex S.; Maze, Mervyn; Kharasch, Evan D. Anesthetic Pharmacology: Basic ... It was developed at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1964 and was introduced as an intravenous agent in 1972 in Europe and in 1983 in ... Continuous intravenous administration of etomidate leads to adrenocortical dysfunction. The mortality of patients exposed to a ... Chiara DC, Dostalova Z, Jayakar SS, Zhou X, Miller KW, Cohen JB (2012). "Mapping general anesthetic binding site(s) in human ...

*Propofol

... has more pronounced hemodynamic effects relative to many intravenous anesthetic agents. Reports of blood pressure ... 1989). "Clinical pharmacology of propofol: an intravenous anesthetic agent [published erratum appears in DICP 1990 Jan; 24: 102 ... Sebel, PS; Lowden, JD (1989). "Propofol: a new intravenous anesthetic". Anesthesiology. 71 (2): 260-77. doi:10.1097/00000542- ... 1305-7 Baudoin Z. General anesthetics and anesthetic gases. In Dukes MNG and Aronson JK (Eds.). Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs ...

*Sepsis

Usually inhalational and intravenous anesthetics are used. Requirements for anesthetics may be reduced in sepsis. Inhalational ... Septic shock is low blood pressure due to sepsis that does not improve after reasonable amounts of intravenous fluids are given ... Low dose hydrocortisone is only used if both intravenous fluids and vasopressors are not able to adequately treat septic shock ... Within the first three hours someone with sepsis should have received antibiotics and, intravenous fluids if there is evidence ...

*Steven Shafer

He specializes in the clinical pharmacology of intravenous anesthetic drugs. Shafer left Stanford in 2007 to go to Columbia ...

*Etoxadrol

... goes into effect 90 seconds after intravenous (IV) administration, and its anesthetic effects typically last for half ... Frederickson, EL; Longnecker, DE; Allen, GW (May-Jun 1976). "Clinical investigation of a new intravenous anesthetic--etoxadrol ... As an anesthetic, etoxadrol is more potent than ketamine, but less potent than PCP. Etoxadrol is also a potent analgesic. ... Traber, DL; Priano, LL; Wilson, RD (November 1970). "Effects of CL 1848C, a new dissociative anesthetic, on the canine ...

*Methitural

IRWIN S, STAGG RD, DUNBAR E, GOVIER WM (March 1956). "Methitural, a new intravenous anesthetic: comparison with thiopental in ... as an ultra-short-acting intravenous anesthetic. A somewhat more complex side chain is incorporated by alkylation of the ...

*History of general anesthesia

Many new intravenous and inhalational anesthetics were developed and brought into clinical use during the second half of the ... Sodium thiopental, the first intravenous anesthetic, was synthesized in 1934 by Ernest H. Volwiler (1893-1992) and Donalee L. ... a potent intravenous anesthetic induction agent. The concept of using a fiberoptic endoscope for tracheal intubation was ... topical application of local anesthetics to the mucosa, rectal anesthesia, or intravenous anesthesia. While otherwise effective ...

*Sodium thiopental

Weber, M; Motin, L; Gaul, S; Beker, F; Fink, RH; Adams, DJ (January 2005). "Intravenous anesthetics inhibit nicotinic acetyl- ... Intravenous administration is the most reliable and rapid way to accomplish euthanasia. A coma is first induced by intravenous ... Inhaled anesthetics are eliminated relatively quickly, so that stopping the inhaled anesthetic will allow rapid return of ... Sodium thiopental would have to be given in large amounts to maintain an anesthetic plane, and because of its 11.5- to 26-hour ...

*Anesthesia

Systemic local anesthetics: local anesthetics are given systemically (orally or intravenous) to relieve neuropathic pain When ... In the 1930s, physicians started to augment inhaled general anesthetics with intravenous general anesthetics. The drugs used in ... Intravenous anesthetic is delivered either by bolus doses or an infusion pump. There are also many smaller instruments used in ... and the type of anesthetic (regional anesthetics are lower risk than general anesthetics). Obstetrical, the very young and the ...

*Halogenated ether

Newer intravenous anesthetics (such as propofol) have increased the options of anesthesiologists, but halogenated ethers remain ... Inhalation anesthetics are vaporized and mixed with other gases prior to their inhalation by the patient before or during ... This is among the most important reasons that diethyl ether has fallen out of favor as a general anesthetic. Diethyl ether is ... All inhalation anesthetics in current clinical use are halogenated ethers, except for halothane (which is a halogenated ...

*Anesthetic

... they are frequently used along with other agents such as intravenous non-opioid anesthetics or inhalational anesthetics. ... Unlike the intravenous anesthetic drugs previously mentioned, ketamine produces profound pain relief, even in doses lower than ... An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic ... Anesthetics are categorized into two classes: general anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of consciousness, and local ...

*Diazirine

... a Photoactive Analogue of the Intravenous General Anesthetic Propofol". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 53 (15): 5667-5675. doi ...

*Guedel's classification

At that time, intravenous anesthetic agents were not yet in common use, and neuromuscular-blocking drugs were not used at all ... Anesthetic overdose-caused medullary paralysis with respiratory arrest and vasomotor collapse. Pupils are widely dilated and ... Since general anesthesia first became widely used in late 1846, assessment of anesthetic depth was a problem. To determine the ... Now, because of the use of intravenous induction agents with muscle relaxants and the discontinuation of ether, elements of ...

*Methoxyflurane

It was found to be necessary to administer an intravenous anesthetic agent such as sodium thiopental to ensure a smooth and ... at anesthetic doses in 1973, and the drug was abandoned as a general anesthetic in the late 1970s. In 1999, the manufacturer ... It is a powerful analgesic agent at well below full anesthetic concentrations. Because of its low volatility and very high ... This landmark study provided a model that would be used for the assessment of the nephrotoxicity of volatile anesthetics for ...

*Ernest H. Volwiler

Pentothal's discovery revolutionized intravenous anesthesia. The anesthetic can quickly put patients to sleep for a short ... In 1934, Volwiler and Tabern synthesized the first intravenous general anesthetic, Sodium thiopental, in 1934. In the mid 1930s ... He was a pioneer in the field of anesthetic pharmacology, assisting in the development of two breakthrough drugs, Nembutal and ... Volwiler was a pioneer in the field of anesthetic pharmacology, assisting in the development of two breakthrough drugs, the ...

*Eugenol

Attempts have been made to develop eugenol derivatives as intravenous anesthetics, as an alternative to propanidid which ... Grush, J.; Noakes, D. L. G.; Moccia, R. D. (February 2004). "The Efficacy of Clove Oil As An Anesthetic for the Zebrafish". ... ISBN 0-7817-2733-2. Right, D. A.; Payne, J. P. (June 1962). "A clinical study of intravenous anaesthesia with a eugenol ...

*Photic sneeze reflex

"Sneezing reflex associated with intravenous sedation and periocular anesthetic injection". American Journal of Ophthalmology. ... the patient often requires injection of a local anesthetic into the eye. In patients who show the photic sneeze reflex, an ... often resulting in the anesthesiologist having to remove the needle before injecting the local anesthetic in order to avoid ...

*ORG-25435

It has been researched for use as an intravenous anesthetic agent, with positive results in initial trials, although negative ... PMID 11606122 Rigby-Jones AE, Sneyd JR, Vijn P, Boen P, Cross M. First administration to man of Org 25435, an intravenous ... novel water-soluble general anesthetic agents which allosterically modulate GABA(A) receptors. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. ...

*Doxepin

Slow intravenous administration of physostigmine may reverse some of the toxic effects of overdose such as anticholinergic ... and as a local anesthetic). The potencies of doxepin in terms of its receptor antagonism specifically are as follows: Extremely ...

*General anaesthetic

As with intravenous anesthetic infusions, prolonged delivery of highly soluble anesthetic gases generally results in longer ... Generally, inhalational anesthetics that are minimally soluble reach equilibrium more quickly. Inhalational anesthetics that ... K2Ps have been found to be affected by general anesthetics (esp. halogenated inhalational anesthetics) and are currently under ... Inhalational anesthetics vary widely with respect to their tissue solubilities and partition coefficients. Anesthetics that are ...
Definition of intravenous anesthetic in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of intravenous anesthetic. What does intravenous anesthetic mean? Information and translations of intravenous anesthetic in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
The increase of Corrected QT (QTc) interval is associated with age. It is known that most inhalation anesthetics or intravenous anesthetics can influence the QTc. In addition, tracheal intubation during induction can stimulates sympathetic activity, which, as a results, prolong the QTc interval. Therefore, the aim of study is to find out the effect site concentration of remifentanil for preventing QTc interval prolongation during intubation under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia in elderly patients ...
The clinical studies demonstrate more powerful analgesic effect among female to both μ- and κ-opioid agonist (Fillingim et al. 2004). The antitussive effect of opioid is mediated predominantly by μ-, κ-opioid receptors (Kamei J. 1996). Therefore, the investigators hypothesized that there are sex differences in the antitussive responses to opioid.. It has been reported that target-controlled infusion (TCI) of remifentanil can reduce cough against endotracheal tube during emergence from general anesthesia. Some studies, reporting the EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI for preventing cough during emergence in different sex and surgeries (B. Lee et al. 2009, E.M.Choi et al. 2012), showed differences in EC50 and EC95.. The purpose of this study was to find out EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI for preventing cough during emergence in each sex and to evaluate whether there were sex differences in EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI or not. ...
Modulation of hECN GABAARs by intravenous anesthetics, SCS, furosemide and zolipidemA, upper panel: example trace showing potentiation of GABA-mediated whole-ce
Principal Investigator:KURODA Toshihisa, Project Period (FY):1992 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:麻酔学
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Eur J Anaesthesiol, May 2015. Kargaran P, Lenglet S, Montecucco F, Mach F, Copin JC, Vutskits L Abstract. BACKGROUND: Recent experimental data indicate that volatile anaesthetics can induce a neuroinflammatory response in the central nervous system. The questions of to what extent this occurs in the developing brain and whether nonvolatile anaesthetics are also involved remain unanswered.. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of propofol anaesthesia on cytokine mRNA expression profiles in the neonatal brain at defined stages of the brain growth spurt.. DESIGN: A randomised placebo-controlled experimental in-vivo study. SETTING: Translational research laboratories at the University of Geneva Medical School. METHODS: Wistar rats received 6-h propofol anaesthesia at postnatal day 10 or 20. A quantitative real-time PCR was used to evaluate the impact of this treatment paradigm on mRNA expression profiles of selected members of the cytokine family in the prefrontal ...
Background: Propofol is a short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent. In rare conditions, a life-threatening complication known as propofol infusion syndrome can occur. The pathophysiologic mechanism is still unknown. Some studies suggested that propofol acts as uncoupling agent, others suggested that it inhibits complex I or complex IV, or causes increased oxidation of cytochrome c and cytochrome aa(3), or inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. Although the exact site of interaction is not known, most hypotheses point to the direction of the mitochondria. Methods: Eight rats were ventilated and sedated with propofol up to 20 h. Sequential biopsy specimens were taken from liver and skeletal muscle and used for determination of respiratory chain activities and propofol concentration. Activities were also measured in skeletal muscle from a patient who died of propofol infusion syndrome. Results: In rats, authors detected a decrease in complex II+III activity starting at low tissue ...
Phaxan™ is an intravenous general anaesthetic and sedative containing alphaxalone as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Alphaxalone is a neuroactive steroid anaesthetic. It is a pregnanedione with no endocrine hormonal activity. This water-insoluble drug was initially formulated using CremophorEL and marketed as Althesin® from 1972 to 1984. It was found to be a safe and versatile intravenous anaesthetic used in clinical practice in anaesthesia and intensive care in many countries until it was withdrawn from clinical practice because of hypersensitivity to the CremophorEL.. Many subsequent attempts to make an aqueous formulations of neuroactive steroids suitable for human use have failed. Drawbridge Pharmaceuticals proprietary and patented formulation, Phaxan™, is a solution of alphaxalone 10mg/ml dissolved in 13% SBECD (7- sulfobutylether β-cyclodextrin); a molecule with a lipophilic cavity that enables drug dispersal in water for human use. The use of SBECD as the excipient preserves ...
Objectives This study evaluated the effects of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on renal function of dogs with naturally acquired chronic renal failure. Materials & Methods The anesthetic procedures included: three hours using sevoflurane (1.5CAM) in O2 flow of 30mL/kg/min, in a semiclosed-circuit, after induction with propofol at 10mg/kg, in bolus (P-S group), or after induction with sevoflurane (S-S group), and for the P group it was used only propofol in the same dose employed for induction. Evaluations were performed in six sessions and included creatinine clearance, serum creatinine and ureia, protein and glucose urinary excretion. The renal function evaluations were performed 30 minutes before anesthesia, two times during anesthesia, and one, two and five days after. Results All anesthetic procedures were well succeeded and animals recovered uneventfully. No renal toxicity were observed in any of the anesthetic protocols. However, during the transanesthetic period it was observed ...
Propofol is a general anesthetic commonly used in pediatric clinical practices. Experimental findings demonstrate that anesthetics induce widespread apoptosis and cognitive decline in a developing brain. Although anesthesia-mediated neurotoxicity is the most prominent during intense period of synaptogenesis, the effects of an early anesthesia exposure on the synapses are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on the expression of key proteins that participate in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and to evaluate long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities in the mature adult brain. Propofol-injected 7-day-old rats were maintained under 2-, 4-, and 6-h-long anesthesia and sacrificed 0, 4, 16, and 24 h after the termination of each exposure. We showed that propofol anesthesia strongly influenced spatiotemporal expression and/or proteolytic processing of crucial presynaptic (GAP-43, synaptophysin, α-synuclein), trans-synaptic ...
Uncertainty exists as to the most suitable pharmacokinetic parameter sets for propofol target-controlled infusions (TCI). The pharmacokinetic parameter sets currently employed are clearly not universally applicable, particularly when patient attributes differ from those of the subjects who participated in the original research from which the models were derived. Increasing evidence indicates that the pharmacokinetic parameters of propofol can be scaled allometrically as well as in direct proportion to lean body mass (LBM). Appraisal of hitherto published studies suggests that an allometrically scaled pharmacokinetic parameter set may be applicable to a wide range of patients ranging from children to obese adults. On the other hand, there is evidence that propofol pharmacokinetic parameters, scaled linearly to LBM, provide improved dosing in normal and obese adults. The Schnider pharmacokinetic parameter set that has been programmed into commercially available TCI pumps cannot be employed at ...
Table of Contents. Chapter One Propofol Industry Overview. 1.1 Propofol Definition. 1.2 Propofol Classification and Application. 1.3 Propofol Industry Chain Structure. 1.4 Propofol Industry Overview. Chapter Two Propofol International and China Market Analysis. 2.1 Propofol Industry International Market Analysis. 2.1.1 Propofol International Market Development History. 2.1.2 Propofol Product and Technology Developments. 2.1.3 Propofol Competitive Landscape Analysis. 2.1.4 Propofol International Key Countries Development Status. 2.1.5 Propofol International Market Development Trend. 2.2 Propofol Industry China Market Analysis. 2.2.1 Propofol China Market Development History. 2.2.2 Propofol Product and Technology Developments. 2.2.3 Propofol Competitive Landscape Analysis. 2.2.4 Propofol China Key Regions Development Status. 2.2.5 Propofol China Market Development Trend. 2.3 Propofol International and China Market Comparison Analysis. ...
Principal Investigator:MASUDA Akira, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Anesthesiology/Resuscitation studies
Previous studies have shown that exposure of the immature brain to drugs that block NMDA glutamate receptors or drugs that potentiate GABA(A) receptors can trigger widespread neuroapoptosis. Almost all currently used general anesthetics have either NMDA receptor blocking or GABA(A) receptor enhancing properties. Propofol, a new intravenous anesthetic, is widely used in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care practice whose neurotoxicity on brain development remains unknown. We investigated the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on neuroapoptosis and long-term spatial learning/memory functions. Propofol was administered to 7 day-old rats either as a single dose or in 7 doses at concentrations sufficient to maintain a surgical plane of anesthesia. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a significant increase in the levels of caspase-3 in the hippocampal CA1 region after propofol administration. At postnatal day 34, light microscopic observations revealed a significant reduction in neuronal ...
Propofol reportedly possesses potential antioxidant properties caused by its chemical structure similar to that of phenol-based free-radical scavengers such as vitamin E.10 Previous in vivo or in vitro studies documented that this intravenous anesthetic reduces oxidative stress toward blood vessels.11,12 These results suggest that this anesthetic may be protective against the vascular dysfunction caused by increased oxidative stress. Indeed, propofol (3 × 10−7to 10−6m) recovered vascular ATP-sensitive K+channel function via reduction of superoxide levels within arterial walls. In addition, 10−6m of this agent completely inhibited protein expression of a Nox2-related NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox. The plasma concentration of propofol during induction of anesthesia in humans has been reported as up to 3 × 10−5m, and burst suppression doses of propofol for cerebral protection are up to 6 × 10−5m.20-22 Effective concentrations of propofol (3 × 10−7to 10−6m) to inhibit NADPH oxidase ...
Dr. Conrad Murray, who has been convicted of killing Michael Jackson by giving him a lethal drug doze, has asked appellate judges to authorize forensic analysis of the bottle of the anesthetic propofol recovered from the bedroom where the pop legend died in 2009.
We describe the use of a closed-loop system to control depth of propofol anaesthesia automatically. We used the auditory evoked potential index (AEPindex) as the input signal of this system to validate it as a true measure of depth of anaesthesia. Au
A popular method of administering intravenous anesthetics is as a continuous infusion. To improve the accuracy of infusion delivery, computerized infusion pumps that use pharmacokinetic models have been developed to quickly achieve and maintain desired target effect-site concentrations. This delivery technique, known as target-controlled infusions (TCI), has become popular worldwide. Unfortunately, neither have models used to drive TCI been validated in obese patients nor has agreement regarding the correct weight to input been identified. Most models were developed with normal-sized patients or volunteers and extrapolated for use in larger patients. The main limitation is that the composition of normal size and obese patients is not the same; hence, kinetic model predictions are likely to be less accurate in the obese. ...
The aim of this work was to establish the correlation between the bispectral index (BIS) and different rates of continuous infusion of propofol. Twenty-four adult dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups (P2, P4, P8). All animals were induced with propofol (10 mg/kg/IV), followed immediately by the continuous infusion of the agent: 0.2 mg/kg/min (P2), 0.4 mg/kg/min (P4) and 0.8 mg/kg/min (P8). The BIS values were measured before any drug administration (M0) and 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes after the start of the continuous infusion of propofol. The Analysis of Variance was used to calculate the correlation between the infusion rates of propofol and the BIS values. BIS demonstrated significant difference between groups at the moment M40, where P8 (72 ± 9,7) was smaller than P2 (84 ± 7,4) and P4 (33 ± 8,5), while in M50 this difference was observed in P8 (69 ± 13,5) that was smaller than P2 (84 ± 6,4).. The effects of induction dose of propofol were not more presented in M40, therefore, the ...
Modeling is a valuable tool in drug development, to support decision making, improving study design, and aid in regulatory approval and labeling. This thesis describes the development of pharmacometric models for drugs used in anesthesia and analgesia.. Models describing the effects on anesthetic depth, measured by the bispectral index (BIS), for a commonly used anesthetic, propofol, and for a novel anesthetic, AZD3043, were developed. The propofol model consisted of two effect-site compartments, and could describe the effects of propofol when the rate of infusion is changed during treatment. AZD3043 had a high clearance and a low volume of distribution, leading to a short half-life. The distribution to the effect site was fast, and together with the short plasma half-life leading to a fast onset and offset of effects. It was also shown that BIS after AZD3043 treatment is related to the probability of unconsciousness similar to propofol.. In analgesia studies dropout due to lack of efficacy is ...
PROPOFOL (injection, emulsion) comes in different strengths and amounts. The appearance of Propofol can differ based on the dosing.
Lee, T.-L.,Adaikan, P.G.,Lau, L.C.,Kumar, A.,Ratnam, S.S. (1997). Effects of propofol on gravid human uterine muscle. Journal of Anesthesia 11 (1) : 71-74. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02480008 ...
Methods All dogs were premedicated with methadone, 0.2 mg kg−1 intramuscularly 30 minutes prior to induction of anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol administered intravenously (IV) to effect, following administration of lidocaine 1 mg kg−1 IV and maintained with a continuous infusion of propofol at ≤0.4 mg kg−1 minute−1 during instrumentation and preparation and during movement of the animals to recovery. During surgery, anaesthesia was maintained using a continuous infusion of propofol at ≤0.4 mg kg−1 minute−1and alfentanil ≤1 μg kg−1 minute−1. Lidocaine was administered at 1 mg kg−1 IV immediately prior to extubation. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded prior to induction and every 5 minutes throughout preparation and surgery. Central venous pressure was recorded every 5 minutes throughout surgery ...
The Dyck parameter set was derived from arterial blood samples and the Marsh set from a modification of a model published by White and Kenny [28] and Gepts et al., [29] in which arterial sampling was performed. The Tackley set was calculated after venous sampling. When comparing predicted and measured concentrations, the sampling site used for modeling and for evaluation and the time of sampling may influence the results. Chiou [30,31] has reviewed the phenomenon of dependence of drug concentration on sampling site and has pointed out that profiles of concentration in blood or plasma from different sampling sites can lead to the calculation of widely differing pharmacokinetic parameters. The significant arteriovenous propofol concentrations occurring during our TCI study differ from the findings of Major et al., [32] who, using the previous propofol formulation in Cremophor-EL found negligible AV differences in concentration after a single propofol dose (2 mg/kg administered over a 60-s period) ...
Diagnosis Code T41.1X5D information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Diagnosis Code T41.1X1A information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
I think every high-profile case has its own problems that are associated with them," Geragos said. "One of them is the media and having to deal with the media and the constant onslaught of being second-guessed. Having all that kind of stuff that floats around the case that has nothing to do with what goes on in the courtroom. You have to filter that out, you have to kind of hunker down and try to just let that water drip off your back ...
The ability of the commonly used stimulant methylphenidate (Ritalin) to speed recovery from general anesthesia appears to apply both to the inhaled gas isoflurane, as previously reported, and to the intravenous drug propofol.
Background and purpose: The aim of this prospective, clinical trial study was to investigate whether the administration of different doses of ketamine before induction with propofol imporves its associated haemodynamic propofol during induction and tracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: One hundered and thirty adult patients ASA I were randomly allocated to ...
The goal of this study is to determine the optimal stimulating and recording protocol for visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during non-cranial surgery using total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). The study will also determine if VEPs remain reliably stable in amplitude and latency during non-cranial surgery using total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), and also determine what factors predict poorly reliable VEPs during non-cranial surgery using TIVA.. ...
4. Kurita TUraoka MMorita KSuzuki MMorishima YSato S: Influence of haemorrhage on the pseudo-steady-state remifentanil concentration in a swine model: a comparison with propofol and the effect of haemorrhagic shock stage. Br J Anaesth 107:719-7252011. ...
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Alfred W Doenicke, Johann Kugler, Eberhard Kochs, Jeus Rau, Haraed Mückter, Rainer Hoernecke, Peter Conzen, Harry Bromber, Gerhard Schneider
The co-author of a study on propofol addiction funded by AEG Live lost his medical license for writing illegal drug prescriptions, according to testimony.
An attorney for the doctor charged in Michael Jacksons death on Wednesday dropped the defense claim that the superstar swallowed a fatal dose of the anesthetic propofol while the physician wasnt looking.
Notes: Production, means the output of Propofol Revenue, means the sales value of Propofol This report studies Propofol in Global market, especially in Nor
A judge on Monday rejected a request for additional tests on a bottle of the anesthetic propofol deemed responsible for Michael Jacksons death.
Propofol - What is propofol? Anesthesia drug. It us a drug that we use to induce anesthesia. It is not for use at home or in patients whose oxygen level is not being monitored.
Propofol abuse and addiction can be very deadly and propofol should only be used by medical professionals and anesthesiologists in a hospital setting for the right reasons.
Could Propofol cause Rash? We studied 17,115 Propofol users who have side effects from FDA and eHealthme. Among them, 509 have Rash. See what we found.
... Get 110% OC. Ill! Will HERB [IF ;. That was good! I laughed for a while at this one! Propofol Get 110% OC Ill! Will HERB [IF ; That was good! I laughed for a while at this one!
Leser om anestesimidler blant annet propofol. Der står det misbruk og avhengighet av propofol (først og fremst hos helsepersonell). Ante ikke at noen ...
Learn more about etomidate. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
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I dont use #Fentanyl to get high. It lets me lets me live without #ChronicPain via The Globe and Mail http://htl.li/XTH030bEay2
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Previously we observed that prolonged exposure to propofol anesthesia causes caspase-3- and calpain-mediated neuronal death in the developing brain. The present study examines the effects of propofol anesthesia on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), pro-nerve growth factor (NGF), and their receptors in the cortex and the thalamus. We also investigated how propofol influences the expression of Akt and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) expression, proteins that promote prosurvival pathways. Seven-day-old rats (P7) were exposed to propofol anesthesia lasting 2, 4, or 6 hr and killed 0, 4, 16, or 24 hr after anesthesia termination. The relative levels of mRNA and protein expression were estimated by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The treatments caused marked activation of TNFα and its receptor TNFR-1 and pro-NGF and p75NTR receptor expression. In parallel with the induction of these prodeath signals, we established that propofol anesthesia promotes increased ...
Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol), an intravenous sedative-hypnotic approved by the FDA for the induction and maintenance of sedation and anesthesia, is one of the most commonly utilized medications in the ICU setting secondary to its anti-epileptic and neuro-protective properties. Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a rare, but potentially fatal, adverse effect of propofol administration. First described in children in 1992, and subsequently named by Bray in 1998, PRIS was classically defined as acute bradycardia progressing to asystole status post propofol administration; occurring in the setting of one of the following: ...
No definitive outcomes study has explored whether administering a total intravenous anesthetic via TCI or with conventional continuous infusion rates impacts emergence. One might hypothesize that if administering a lengthy anesthetic, TCI would provide a more economical anesthetic and avoid unnecessary drug delivery that would perhaps delay emergence. Figure 30-1 presents a simulation of 2 intravenous techniques: one using TCI and the other set infusion rates for 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. Both approaches used a high-dose remifentanil and low dose propofol technique. In fact the TCI target effect-site concentrations were selected to be near the effect-site concentrations that resulted from propofol infusions of 100 mcg/kg/min and remifentanil 0.2 mcg/kg/min. In general, with increasing duration of the anesthetic, the simulation predicted the time to emergence would become longer. Time to emergence was defined as the time required for the model of loss of responsiveness to predict that only 1 out of ...
Background. Numerous animal studies have shown that all commonly used intravenous anaesthetic drugs and volatile agents may cause neuronal apoptosis following exposure in early life. Most studies have focussed on detecting increased apoptosis but their methods are not always readily transferrable to humans.. The lipid formulation of etomidate represents an alternative to the currently established intravenous anaesthetic agents but there is no animal or human data on apoptosis or long-term behavioural changes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of etomidate on cerebral neuronal apoptosis and long-term behavioural effects using an established mouse model that represents the clinically relevant period of anaesthesia during early infancy in humans.. Methods. Six groups of 10 day old mice (P10) were injected with either etomidate 0.3, 3 or 10 mg/kg, propofol 60 mg/kg, ketamine 50 mg/kg or placebo only. Apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was assessed 24 h after treatment ...
The steady-state BIS value was 52.21 ± 9.9. After administration of propofol and remifentanil, BIS decreased significantly: 31.5 ± 15.9 vs 37.64 ± 9.1, respectively. During the first minute after suctioning, a higher increase in BIS level was observed for remifentanil (72 ± 16.28) than for propofol (63.14 ± 30). The mean duration of returning the BIS value to baseline was for propofol 23.5 ± 7 min and for remifentanil 14.2 ± 9 min (P , 0.05). Systolic arterial pressure was initially 125 ± 12.97 mmHg and decreased significantly after administration of propofol and remifentanil: 107.35 ± 22.12 mmHg vs 107.5 ± 20.53 mmHg, respectively. After suctioning SAP increased more for propofol (120 ± 20.45 mmHg) than for remifentanil (113.21 ± 24.33 mmHg). The HR initially was 95.78 ± 14.84 bpm, and changed after administration of drugs: 94.85 ± 17.61 bpm vs 95.78 ± 20.26 bpm for propofol and remifentanil, respectively, and after suctioning: 100.64 ± 16.45 vs 97.43 ± 20.62 bpm, respectively. ...
Clinical Case: You are doing Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a healthy 40 year old woman. Midway through the surgery, the patients heart rate suddenly climbs to 160, and the blood pressure climbs to 190/110. What do you do? Discussion: Your own heart rate hits 170. You check the ABCs of…
To present a case of recall after total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol-alfentanil infusions to point out an uncommon misuse of the Bard InfusOR syringe driver. A healthy patient underwen
2,6‑diisopropylphenol (propofol) is a commonly used intravenous anesthetic drug, which has been reported to serve an antitumor role in human cancers. The current study aimed to assess the effects of propofol on the biological behaviors of human bladder cancer cells and to elucidate its potential molecular mechanism. The results of MTT, wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays demonstrated that propofol significantly inhibited the viability, migration and invasion of bladder cancer T24 cells in vitro. Reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blotting revealed that propofol decreased the expression levels of microRNA (miR)‑10b and increased the expression levels of homeobox D10 (HOXD10) in T24 cells. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that HOXD10 was a direct target of miR‑10b in T24 cells. T24 cells transfected with a miR‑10b mimic significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of HOXD10. In addition, overexpression of miR‑10b partly reversed the inhibitory ...
Thesis, English, Comparative study between the effects of desflurane sevoflurane and propofol on hepatocellular integrity for Hassan Ahmed Mohamed El Sayed
Actavis documents ANDA to advertise Propofol Injection Actavis, Inc. today confirmed that it has filed an Abbreviated New Drug Program with the U priligy online .S. Food and Medication Administration seeking authorization to market Propofol Injection 10mg/mL. Fresenius Kabi USA, On June 6 LLC filed suit against Actavis, 2013, in the U.S. District Courtroom for the District of Delaware seeking to prevent Actavis from commercializing its ANDA item before the expiration of certain U.S. Patents. Related StoriesMylan announces U.S. Release of generic AXERT tabletsMylan announces U.S.S.. It is not recommended to scrub the affected section of the skin as it could aggravate the problem. If nothing seems to work, it is advisable to visit a dermatologist and seek medical assistance. There are numerous medications to cure the nagging problem of acne. The antibiotics as well as retinoids are of help in treating acne on the hands. So far as the medicines are concerned, there are oral and topical formulations ...
This study describes for the first time the identification of low-molecular-weight organic compounds that act as positive allosteric modulators at GABAB receptors in a native environment (rat brain membranes, neuronal cultures) or in recombinant expression systems (stably or transiently transfected mammalian cell lines, X. laevis oocytes).. The compound CGP7930, structurally close to the general anesthetic propofol, and its aldehyde analog CGP13501 potentiated GABA-induced signals in a functional receptor test (GTPγ[35S] binding), using membranes from CHO cells stably expressing the GABAB receptor (Fig.2). The findings that these signals exceeded the response elicited by a maximally active concentration of GABA alone and that these two compounds did not stimulate GTPγ[35S] binding in the absence of GABA to any relevant extent clearly show that they acted as positive modulators, without intrinsic agonistic activity. In GTPγ[35S] experiments, but not in the other assays, a very marginal effect ...
In article ,malbert-1010961718130001 at malbert.rennes.inra.fr, Charles Henri Malbert, malbert at st-gilles.rennes.inra.fr writes: ,Hello, ,We are looking for the receptor type on which propofol is binding to and ,(ultimately) act through. ,Thanks in advance Hi, Propofol can interact, as can most small hydrophobic molecules, with a lot of receptors. Assuming that youre interested in the actions relevant to producing anesthesia, the important criteria is which receptors are affected at clinically relevant concentrations (anywhere from 10-50 !M, probably). The best evidence demonstrates dramatic actions at GABA-A channels at these concentrations, although effects on voltage-gated calcium channels, nicotinic receptors, 5HT-3 receptors, calcium handling systems and potassium channels have also been reported. Of all these, the GABA-A receptor is the most commonly affected target of general anesthetics at relevant concentrations. Propofol both potentiates the channel response to GABA, and directly ...
Intraoperative course. I. Anesthesia. 1. Should she receive intravenous anesthetic for intubation, or should intubation occur first?. 2. What induction agent would you use? Explain.. 3. Would you use muscle relaxant?. 4. Which muscle relaxant would you use, and why?. 5. Describe maternal and fetal effects of muscle relaxant.. 6. Which other adjuncts would you use, and why?. II. Ventilation management. 1. You are asked to hyperventilate the patient immediately, to decrease intracranial pressure. What are the fetal effects?. 2. How would you measure maternal CO2?. III. Maintenance for craniotomy. 1. Fetal heart tones are satisfactory. What is the best drug that preserves maternal cerebral welfare in this case?. 2. Compare and contrast barbiturates vs narcotics vs inhalational agents.. 3. What are your blood pressure goals?. 4. How would you achieve this?. IV. Fluid management. 1. The surgeon requests mannitol. Do you agree? Explain.. 2. What are the maternal and fetal maintenance fluid ...
The Effect of Etomidate on Neuromuscular Junction Etomidate is a clinical intravenous anaesthetic drug that is used for the short term induction of...
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Several lots of Propofol, the powerful sedative thats often been mentioned in the investigation into Michael Jacksons death, have been recalled because a handful of orders of the drug were found to be contaminated, Propublica reports. While Jacksons official cause of death is still pending the results of the toxicology report, the investigation has reportedly centered on Propofol, or Diprivan as its commonly known ...
Washington, DC - A new study finds that propofol, a well-known anesthesia medication, has a low occurrence of adverse events for children undergoing research-driven imaging studies. The study, led by a pediatric anesthesiologist now at Childrens National Medical Center, showed a low incidence of adverse events and no long term complications when propofol was used to sedate children for imaging studies that require them to be still for long periods of time.. Lead author Zena Quezado, MD, director of the Pain Neurobiology Laboratory at the Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, also found, however, that propofol, a commonly used anesthetic, does show an increased risk for respiratory, cardiovascular, and other side effects if anesthesia is administered over a long period of time or if the child has other complicating factors, including some systemic disease or an airway abnormality. It is also the first imaging study to show an increase in risk to the child with each 30 minute ...
Sphere Medical of Cambridge, UK has received the European CE Mark for its Pelorus 1500 point-of-care system for measuring anesthetic propofol in blood samp
If Michael Jackson died from lethal levels of the powerful anesthetic propofol, then he must have been injected with much more of the drug than his personal physician reportedly told police he gave
Synonyms for dibucaine in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for dibucaine. 1 word related to dibucaine: intravenous anesthetic. What are synonyms for dibucaine?
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As details emerge pointing to the possibility that pop legend Michael Jackson may have been injected with the drug Diprivan in the days before his death, some pain specialists say it is unusual that he would request such a drug, which produces only a modest high and is normally only given in a hospital setting due to its health risks.
Ketamine potentiates the sedative effect of propofol, while propofol blunts the emergence terror response to ketamine. Propofol is a non-barbiturate sedative hypnotic with minimal direct analgesic ». ...
Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a rare but often fatal complication as a result of large doses of propofol infusion (4-5 mg/kg/hr) for a prolonged period (,48 h). It has been reported in both children and adults. Besides ...
Bloomberg News reported that Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., plans to carefully control distribution of the anesthetic propofol to prevent the drug from being used in executions of U.S. prisoners, according to a London-based human rights group called Reprieve. - David Sell, Philadelphia Inquirer
Melting point: 17-18°. Boiling point: 254-256°. Flash point: 113°(235°F). Density: 0.962. Refractive Index: 1.5140. Solubility: Very slightly soluble in water.. ...
Changes in heart rate during the study. Data are presented as mean ± SD. T0: before induction, T1: after propofol infusion, T2: after remifentanil infusion, T3
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you dont have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your librarys reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. OK ...
Could Propofol cause Embolism? We studied 17,115 Propofol users who have side effects from FDA and eHealthme. Among them, 21 have Embolism. See what we found.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. propofol ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Medical information for Thiopentone on Pediatric Oncall including Mechanism, Indication, Contraindications, Dosing, Adverse Effect, Interaction.
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The objectives of this investigation were to characterize the disposition of fentanyl and alfentanil in 14 tissues in the rat, and to create physiological pharmacokinetic models for these opioids...
Michael Jackson was not only addicted to powerful drugs 12 years before he died ... at least twice in the late 90s doctors misused a drug similar to…
First, let me say my withdrawal from fentanyl was the the most agonizing & horrible experience of my entire life. At the time I started using fentanyl
Updated 10/9/2013 6:42The Missouri Department of Corrections has announced that it will be returning some of its propofol to its supplier, as the company
The amounts of fentanyl annually seized by U.S. border and immigration authorities are nearly three and five times the amounts previously taken, according to new federal data.
The amounts of fentanyl annually seized by U.S. border and immigration authorities are nearly three and five times the amounts previously taken, according to new federal data.
Pengaruh Pemberian Petidin Dan Fentanyl Sebagai Premedikasi Anestesi Terhadap Perubahan Tekanan Darah Di RSUD Prof. Dr. Margono Soekarjo
title:Comparison Of haemodynamic fluctuation of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous Propofol - Fentanyl combination in short surgical procedure. Author:Madhavi S Mavani, Sudevi Desai. Keywords:Ketamine, Propofol, Fentany, Minor Surgical Procedures, Haemodynamic Fluctuation. Type:Original Article. Abstract:Background: An increasing interest in intravenous anesthetic agent has resulted from the availability of more effective intravenous agents. Objectives: Comparison of intravenous Ketamine with combination of intravenous Propofol and Fentanyl in ASA Gr. 1 patients of middle age in minor surgical procedures, To compare the haemodynamic fluctuation of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous propofol - fentanyl combination in short surgical procedure and to compare recovery and side-effective in postoperative period of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous propofol- Fentanyl combination in short surgical procedures. Methodology: This observational study includes 20 patients of ASA Grade I of either ...
title:Comparison Of haemodynamic fluctuation of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous Propofol - Fentanyl combination in short surgical procedure. Author:Madhavi S Mavani, Sudevi Desai. Keywords:Ketamine, Propofol, Fentany, Minor Surgical Procedures, Haemodynamic Fluctuation. Type:Original Article. Abstract:Background: An increasing interest in intravenous anesthetic agent has resulted from the availability of more effective intravenous agents. Objectives: Comparison of intravenous Ketamine with combination of intravenous Propofol and Fentanyl in ASA Gr. 1 patients of middle age in minor surgical procedures, To compare the haemodynamic fluctuation of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous propofol - fentanyl combination in short surgical procedure and to compare recovery and side-effective in postoperative period of intravenous Ketamine with intravenous propofol- Fentanyl combination in short surgical procedures. Methodology: This observational study includes 20 patients of ASA Grade I of either ...
Some types of anaesthetics cause an increase in the level of lactate production in unconscious childrens brains, causing delirium.. Two commonly used anaesthetics produce different metabolic patterns in the brains of children, according to a study from Anesthesiology. Researchers from Stony Brook University, New York, found the inhalant gas anaesthetic sevoflurane produced more lactate, a marker for enhanced or changed brain metabolism, compared to the intravenous anaesthetic propofol.. While past paediatric literature has reported that sevoflurane may be associated with emergence delirium, a state of consciousness in which a child is inconsolable, irritable or uncooperative, the study explored the potential association between emergence delirium and specific brain metabolites like lactate.. Applied proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) was used to investigate the metabolic consequences of general anaesthesia in the brains of rodents. Findings revealed inhalant gas anaesthetic was ...
Etomidate (USAN, INN, BAN) (marketed as Amidate) is a short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agent used for the induction of general anaesthesia and sedation for short procedures such as reduction of dislocated joints, tracheal intubation, and cardioversion. It was developed at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1964 and was introduced as an intravenous agent in 1972 in Europe and in 1983 in the United States. In emergency settings, etomidate is one of the most frequently used sedative hypnotic agents. It is used for conscious sedation and as a part of a rapid sequence induction to induce anaesthesia. It is used as an anaesthetic agent since it has a rapid onset of action and a safe cardiovascular risk profile, and therefore is less likely to cause a significant drop in blood pressure than other induction agents. In addition, etomidate is often used because of its easy dosing profile, limited suppression of ventilation, lack of histamine liberation and protection from myocardial and cerebral ischemia. Thus, ...
en] BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the A-Line Autoregressive Index (AAI) response to surgical stimulation during lumbar arthrodesis, as an estimate of the anti-nociceptive component of a Bispectral Index (BIS) guided anaesthesia combined with epidural analgesia. METHODS: An epidural catheter was inserted in 23 patients allocated randomly to receive ropivacaine plus clonidine (Group R) or normal saline (Group S) epidurally. General anaesthesia was induced with propofol, cis-atracurium and a remifentanil infusion that was stopped 3 min after tracheal intubation, and maintained using sevoflurane to keep BIS at 50 (range 40-60). Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal sevoflurane, BIS and AAI were analysed from 2 min before to 17 min after surgical incision. RESULTS: While BIS was maintained at 50, AAI significantly increased from a 2 min averaged value of 12 (4) to 21 (7) in Group S within the first 5 min after surgical incision, but did not change in Group R. Maximum AAI values reached ...
in British Journal of Anaesthesia (2006), 97(6), 842-847. Background. The spectral entropy of the electroencephalogram has been proposed to monitor the depth of anaesthesia. State Entropy (SE) reflects the level of hypnosis. Response Entropy (RE), computed from ... [more ▼]. Background. The spectral entropy of the electroencephalogram has been proposed to monitor the depth of anaesthesia. State Entropy (SE) reflects the level of hypnosis. Response Entropy (RE), computed from electroencephalogram and facial muscle activity, reflects the response to nociceptive stimulation. We evaluated the effect of rocuronium on Bispectral Index (TM) (BIS) and entropy responses to laryngoscopy. Methods. A total of 25 patients were anaesthetized with propofol using a target-controlled infusion. At steady state, they randomly received 0.6 mg kg(-1) rocuronium (R) or saline (S). After 3 min, a 20 s laryngoscopy was applied. BIS, RE and SE were recorded continuously and averaged over 1 min during baseline, at ...
Extracted from text ... Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia ? March 2006 21 Spectral entropy and haemodynamic response to surgery during sevoflurane anaesthesia Introduction Apart from somatic responses, surgery also evokes autonomic responses, including haemodynamic responses. Spectral entropy has been validated as a means to monitor the hypnotic state during sevoflurane anaesthesia. Aim To investigate the relationship between spectral entropy, heart rate, and blood pressure during sevoflurane anaesthesia. FJ Smith, E Dannhauser Patients and methods The sample consisted of 43 patients scheduled for elective abdominal surgery. Patients were premedicated with oral midazolam. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved with alfentanil 15 mg/kg, ..
Midazolam and propofol were compared in an open randomized study for postoperative sedation during 12 h of mechanical ventilation in 40 patients following coronary artery bypass grafting. After an intravenous loading dose of midazolam (50 micrograms.kg-1) or propofol (500 micrograms.kg-1), a titrated continuous infusion was administered of midazolam (mean dose 38.1 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 (SEM 2.6)) or propofol (mean dose 909 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 (SEM 100)) together with a narcotic analgesic infusion. During mechanical ventilation midazolam and propofol produced a similar quality of sedation, but recovery (midazolam 66 min (SEM 16); propofol 24 min (SEM 7)) and weaning from the ventilator (midazolam 243 min (SEM 44); propofol 154 min (SEM 33)) where faster with propofol. In the 2 groups administration of an intravenous loading dose caused a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure but hemodynamic tolerance during maintenance infusion was good ...
Methods In a blinded clinical trial, 92 patients scheduled for supratentorial craniotomy under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into either a multipoint TEAS (n=46) or a sham TEAS group (n=46). All patients received total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and sufentanil. The target concentration of sufentanil was adjusted and recorded according to mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and bispectral index (BIS). Patients in the TEAS group received TEAS 30 min before anaesthesia induction and this was maintained throughout the operation at four pairs of acupuncture points. Postoperative pain, recovery and side effects were evaluated. ...
Anaesthetic care : Use short-acting anaesthetic agents whenever possible.Fentanyl and propofol are chosen for intravenous induction and for maintenance desflurane or sevoflurane may be used.Midazolam may be avoided.Remifentanyl based total intravenous anaesthesia is found to be useful.For abdominal and colorectal surgeries epidural anaesthesia is preferred.They are also helpful to reduce stress response to surgery or may be beneficial to combine with General anaesthesia to reduce the dose of intravenous or inhalational agents.Epidurals also help to prevent post operative paralytic ileus by blocking sympathetic discharge.Excellent post op analgesia by epidural LAs without sedative effects helps early mobilisation or ambulation of post operative patients.Intraoperative use of ondansetron, droperidol or dexamethasone help to prevent PONV during emergence or in the post op period.Risk stratification of PONV using apfel scoring system and aggressive prophylaxis and treatment of PONV are ...

ethyl chloride bp list - Hubei  ethyl chloride bp for saleethyl chloride bp list - Hubei ethyl chloride bp for sale

Anesthetic Drugs Ethyl 4-Aminobenzoate Used in Anodyne Product Details: Product name benzocaine hydrochloride Ethyl P- ... nonpyrogenic solution suitable for intravenous infusion following dilution. Precedex (dexmedetomidine hydrochloride) in 0.9% ... Anesthetic Drugs Ethyl 4-Aminobenzoate Used in Anodyne Product Details: Product name benzocaine hydrochloride Ethyl P- ... Relieve Pain Benzocaine Local Anesthetic Drugs Ethyl 4-Aminobenzoate Used in Anodyne ...
more infohttp://www.chinacsw.com/ethyl-chloride-bp-wholesale/province-26000000.html

The Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Ischemia-Reperfusion InjuryThe Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

... Ahmet Eroglu Karadeniz Technical University, ... The effects of intravenous anesthetics on ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) have been investigated in both animals and clinical ... The protective effects and the dosages of the intravenous anesthetics on IRI were discussed in this paper. The prevention of ... the tissue injury after the IRI was demonstrated with intravenous anesthetics in some studies. In the future, the studies ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/821513/abs/

What does intravenous anesthetic mean?What does intravenous anesthetic mean?

Meaning of intravenous anesthetic. What does intravenous anesthetic mean? Information and translations of intravenous ... anesthetic in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. ... Definition of intravenous anesthetic in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... What does intravenous anesthetic mean?. Definitions for intravenous anesthetic. Here are all the possible meanings and ...
more infohttp://www.definitions.net/definition/intravenous%20anesthetic

Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Leukocyte Migration | Anesthesiology | ASA PublicationsEffect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Leukocyte Migration | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications

Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Leukocyte Migration You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated ... Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Leukocyte Migration. Anesthesiology 9 1980, Vol.53, S30. doi: ... Diana Mathieu, Alix Mathieu; Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Leukocyte Migration. Anesthesiology 1980;53(3 Suppl):S30. ...
more infohttp://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1958909

Anesthetics, Intravenous - Semantic ScholarAnesthetics, Intravenous - Semantic Scholar

Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there ... Anesthetics, Intravenous. Known as: Intravenous anesthetics, general intravenous anesthetic Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that ... BACKGROUND Volatile anesthetics show an ischemic preconditioning-like cardioprotective effect, whereas intravenous anesthetics ... Direct relaxant effects of intravenous anesthetics on airway smooth muscle.. *Earl Y. Cheng, Angela Mazzeo, Željka Bošnjak, ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/Anesthetics%2C-Intravenous/445395

First Administration to Man Of Org 25435 a New Intravenous Anesthetic - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govFirst Administration to Man Of Org 25435 a New Intravenous Anesthetic - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anesthetics. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anesthetics, General ... First Administration to Man Of Org 25435 a New Intravenous Anesthetic. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Infusion of intravenous anaesthetic agent to induce anaesthesia. Drug: ORG25435 Intended doses: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, ... Study Drug: Org 25435, a water soluble intravenous anaesthetic.. Subjects: Up to 47 healthy male volunteers, aged 18-40 years. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01062867

Comparison of Intravenous Anesthetics to Volatile Anesthetics on Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction | Clinical Research Trial...Comparison of Intravenous Anesthetics to Volatile Anesthetics on Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction | Clinical Research Trial...

New life-saving treatments for Intra-abdominal surgery in clinical trial on Comparison of Intravenous Anesthetics to Volatile ... Comparison of Intravenous Anesthetics to Volatile Anesthetics on Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction Brief description of study ... different in patients received intravenous anesthetics only or sevoflurane (a volatile anesthetic-based general anesthesia for ... Two groups of general anesthetics are used for this purpose. We hypothesize that the incidence of POCD is not ...
more infohttp://www.centerwatch.com/clinical-trials/listings/56512/intra-abdominal-surgery-comparison-intravenous-anesthetics-volatile/?&radius=50

Intravenous Anesthetic Propofol Inhibits Multiple Human Cardiac Potassium Channels | Anesthesiology | ASA PublicationsIntravenous Anesthetic Propofol Inhibits Multiple Human Cardiac Potassium Channels | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications

Intravenous Anesthetic Propofol Inhibits Multiple Human Cardiac Potassium Channels Lei Yang, M.D.; Hui Liu, M.D., Ph.D.; Hai- ... Intravenous Anesthetic Propofol Inhibits Multiple Human Cardiac Potassium Channels You will receive an email whenever this ... The current study demonstrates that the intravenous anesthetic propofol blocks human atrial native Ito, IKur, hERG, and hKCNQ1/ ... Intravenous Anesthetic Propofol Inhibits Multiple Human Cardiac Potassium Channels. Anesthesiology 03 2015, Vol.122, 571-584. ...
more infohttps://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=2091591

KAKEN - Research Projects | Study on mechanisms of intravenous anesthetic agents by ^1H-NMR (KAKENHI-PROJECT-04670943)KAKEN - Research Projects | Study on mechanisms of intravenous anesthetic agents by ^1H-NMR (KAKENHI-PROJECT-04670943)

intravenous anesthetic agents / water structure / ^1H-NMR / spin lattice relaxation times (T_1) / intermolecular cross- ... Study on mechanisms of intravenous anesthetic agents by ^1H-NMR. Research Project ... as a result of making clear for mechanisms of intravenous anesthetic agents. This is very important that the major parts of ^1H ... We studied on water structure in the tissues for anesthetic agents by measuring spin-lattice relaxation times (T_1) and ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-04670943/

Propofol and Other Intravenous Anesthetics Have Sites of Action on the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Distinct from That...Propofol and Other Intravenous Anesthetics Have Sites of Action on the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Distinct from That...

In addition, intravenous and volatile anesthetics can activate the GABAA receptor directly in the absence of GABA (Barker and ... Propofol and Other Intravenous Anesthetics Have Sites of Action on the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Distinct from That ... Propofol and Other Intravenous Anesthetics Have Sites of Action on the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Distinct from That ... Propofol and Other Intravenous Anesthetics Have Sites of Action on the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Distinct from That ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/53/3/530

Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing the Effectiveness of Continuous Paravertebral Infusion of Local Anesthetics Versus...Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing the Effectiveness of Continuous Paravertebral Infusion of Local Anesthetics Versus...

Since mid-2000, thoracoscopic lobectomy has been replaced with conventional open lobectomy and it has reduced the operative morbidities and mortalities.
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT01703351/

Modulation of hECN GABAARs by intravenous anesthetics,  | Open-iModulation of hECN GABAARs by intravenous anesthetics, | Open-i

Modulation of hECN GABAARs by intravenous anesthetics, SCS, furosemide and zolipidemA, upper panel: example trace showing ... fig03: Modulation of hECN GABAARs by intravenous anesthetics, SCS, furosemide and zolipidemA, upper panel: example trace ... fig03: Modulation of hECN GABAARs by intravenous anesthetics, SCS, furosemide and zolipidemA, upper panel: example trace ... Mentions: The presence of β subunits in hECN GABAARs was confirmed by the potentiation by the intravenous anaesthetic propofol ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4215781_tjp0592-4353-f3&req=4

ICD-10 Code T41.1X4 - Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, undeterminedICD-10 Code T41.1X4 - Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, undetermined

... consider using a code with a higher level of specificity for a diagnosis of poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, undetermined. ... T41.1X4 - Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, undetermined. ICD-10 Code T41.1X4. Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, ... Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, undetermined, initial encounter. *T41.1X4D - Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, ... T41.1X4S - Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, undetermined, sequela. Deleted Code. This code was deleted in the 2019 ICD-10 ...
more infohttps://icdlist.com/icd-10/T41.1X4

ICD-10 Code T41.1X1 - Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, accidental (unintentional)ICD-10 Code T41.1X1 - Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, accidental (unintentional)

... consider using a code with a higher level of specificity for a diagnosis of poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, accidental ( ... T41.1X1 - Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, accidental. ICD-10 Code T41.1X1. Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, ... Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, accidental. Long Description:. Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, accidental ( ... Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics, accidental (unintentional), initial encounter. *T41.1X1D - Poisoning by intravenous ...
more infohttps://icdlist.com/icd-10/T41.1X1

Sulfentanil Citrate
        -
        Anesthetics, Intravenous,  Narcotics,  Adjuvants, Anesthesia,  Analgesics, Opioid, ...Sulfentanil Citrate - Anesthetics, Intravenous, Narcotics, Adjuvants, Anesthesia, Analgesics, Opioid, ...

Used as an analgesic adjunct in anesthesia and as a primary anesthetic drug in procedures requiring assisted ventilation and in ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Sulfentanil_Citrate.html

Intravenous or Intra-abdominal Local Anesthetics for Postoperative Pain Management. - No Study Results Posted - ClinicalTrials...Intravenous or Intra-abdominal Local Anesthetics for Postoperative Pain Management. - No Study Results Posted - ClinicalTrials...

Intravenous or Intra-abdominal Local Anesthetics for Postoperative Pain Management. (PoPuLAR). This study has been completed. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT01492179

The effects of intravenous anesthetics on QT interval during anesthetic induction with desflurane | JA Clinical Reports | Full...The effects of intravenous anesthetics on QT interval during anesthetic induction with desflurane | JA Clinical Reports | Full...

This study aimed to determine the effects of the interaction between intravenous anesthetics and desflurane on the QT interval ... The effects of intravenous anesthetics on QT interval during anesthetic induction with desflurane. ... The effects of intravenous anesthetics on QT interval during anesthetic induction with sevoflurane. J Anesth. 2016;30:929-34. ... This study aimed to determine the effects of the interaction between intravenous anesthetics and desflurane on the QT interval. ...
more infohttps://jaclinicalreports.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40981-018-0195-9

Noan
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        Adjuvants, Anesthesia,  Anesthetics, Intravenous,  Anti-Anxiety Agents,  Anticonvulsants,  Antiemetics, ...Noan - Adjuvants, Anesthesia, Anesthetics, Intravenous, Anti-Anxiety Agents, Anticonvulsants, Antiemetics, ...

... animals have produced localized irritation of tissue surrounding injection sites and some thickening of veins after intravenous ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Noan.html

Intravenous lipid emulsion for treatment of local anesthetic toxicity | TCRMIntravenous lipid emulsion for treatment of local anesthetic toxicity | TCRM

Is intravenous lipid emulsion a safe and effective therapy for the reversal and treatment of local anesthetic toxicity?Results ... Intravenous lipid emulsion 20% should be available whenever patients receive large doses of local anesthetics in operating ... There are fewer data to support treatment of neurologic toxicities associated with local anesthetics.Implementation: ... Systematic reviews, human case reports, and experimental animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intravenous lipid ...
more infohttps://www.dovepress.com/intravenous-lipid-emulsion-for-treatment-of-local-anesthetic-toxicity-peer-reviewed-article-TCRM

Impact of timing of continuous intravenous anesthetic drug treatment on outcome in refractory status epilepticus - Critical...Impact of timing of continuous intravenous anesthetic drug treatment on outcome in refractory status epilepticus - Critical...

... treated with continuous intravenous anesthetic drugs (cIVADs) may benefit from early initiation of such therapy. wWhen cIVADs ... Impact of timing of continuous intravenous anesthetic drug treatment on outcome in refractory status epilepticus Impact of ... Patients with refractory status epilepticus (RSE) treated with continuous intravenous anesthetic drugs (cIVADs) may benefit ... timing of continuous intravenous anesthetic drug treatment on outcome in refractory status epilepticus ccforum.biomedcentral. ...
more infohttp://criticalcare.news/story/impact-of-timing-of-continuous-intravenous-anesthetic-drug-treatment-on-outcome-in-refractory-status-epilepticus/

Intravenous and inhalational anesthetics, MCQs for test review | CME at Pharmacology CornerIntravenous and inhalational anesthetics, MCQs for test review | CME at Pharmacology Corner

... inhalational and intravenous anesthetics, muscle relaxants. Developed by UMKC School of Medicine. ... Item Number: correct answer: 4 category: Anesthetics. 10. The intravenous anesthetic with excitatory effects on the central ... anesthetics.. Item Number: correct answer: 2 category: Anesthetics. 11. Anesthetic that must be administered in a lipid diluent ... Which anesthetic is most potent by this measure?. Item Number: correct answer: 3 category: Anesthetics. 4. A good analgesic at ...
more infohttp://pharmacologycorner.com/intravenous-and-inhalational-anesthetics-mcqs-for-test-review/

Effect of an Intravenous Dexamethasone Added to Caudal Local Anesthetics to Improve Postoperative Pain:  A Systematic Review...Effect of an Intravenous Dexamethasone Added to Caudal Local Anesthetics to Improve Postoperative Pain: A Systematic Review...

Effect of an Intravenous Dexamethasone Added to Caudal Local Anesthetics to Improve Postoperative Pain: A Systematic Review and ... Intravenous steroids have been shown to be effective for postsurgical pain management after certain surgeries. The aim of this ... Intravenous dexamethasone prolongs the analgesic duration of caudal anesthesia. Trials to investigate the effectiveness of a ... Randomized controlled trials that compared intravenous steroids with a placebo in pediatric patients who had received caudal ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/asag/201712000/00000539-201712000-00037
  • We now report that mutation of these residues within either GABA A α2 (S270 or A291) or β1 (S265 or M286) subunits resulted in receptors that retain normal or near-normal gating by GABA but are insensitive to clinically relevant concentrations of another inhaled anesthetic, isoflurane. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These constraints were already recognised 35 years ago, when in 1972 Volume XXX entitled "Modern Inhalation Anesthetics" appeared in this Handbook Series. (springer.com)
  • It was developed at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1964 and was introduced as an intravenous agent in 1972 in Europe and in 1983 in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • These anesthetics have poor water-solubility and their i.v. administration using conventional formulation is not well tolerated, resulting in severe local reactions. (justia.com)
  • Injections into animals have produced localized irritation of tissue surrounding injection sites and some thickening of veins after intravenous use. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Regional block resulting from an injection of a large volume of local anesthetic into the epidural space . (wikidoc.org)
  • In one preferred embodiment, the method is conducted with a formulation that includes an emulsification adjuvant and an emulsifier in addition to the halogenated volatile anesthetic. (justia.com)
  • To provide a wider patient population wherein these anesthetics can be more conveniently administered, a method of administering HVAs in other areas of the hospital as well as outside the hospital would be highly desirable. (justia.com)