Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
The period during a surgical operation.
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.
The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Specially trained personnel to assist in routine technical procedures in the operating room.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients in the recovery room following surgery and/or anesthesia.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.
The functions of the professional nurse in the operating room.

Binding of propofol to blood components: implications for pharmacokinetics and for pharmacodynamics. (1/1639)

AIMS: Propofol is a widely used i.v. anaesthetic agent. However, its binding properties to blood components have not been fully studied. METHODS: We studied the binding of propofol to erythrocytes, to human serum and to isolated serum proteins. Because propofol bound to ultrafiltration and equilibrium dialysis membranes, we used a co-binding technique with dextran coated charcoal and with erythrocytes. RESULTS: Propofol free fraction in blood was 1.2-1.7% at total concentrations ranging from 2.80 to 179 microM (0.5 to 32 microg ml(-1)). Fifty percent was bound to erythrocytes and 48% to serum proteins, almost exclusively to human serum albumin. In the clinical range of concentrations (0.5-16 microg ml(-1)) 40% of the molecules bound to erythrocytes are on the red blood cells membranes. No binding to lipoproteins occurred and binding to alpha1-acid glycoprotein was less than 1.5% CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that hypoalbuminaemia may increase propofol free fraction particularly during prolonged administration. Since propofol is non-restrictively cleared, no change in clearance is expected to occur, and the increase in free fraction will not be compensated by a parallel increase in clearance. It is also noted that many in vitro studies used concentrations 50 to 500 times the concentration expected to be encountered in the immediate cellular environment.  (+info)

Benzodiazepine premedication: can it improve outcome in patients undergoing breast biopsy procedures? (2/1639)

BACKGROUND: Women awaiting needle-guided breast biopsy procedures may experience high anxiety levels. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the ability of midazolam and diazepam (in a lipid emulsion [Dizac]) to improve patient comfort during needle localization and breast biopsy procedures. METHODS: Ninety women received two consecutive doses of a study medication, one before the mammographic needle localization and a second before entering the operating room. Patients were assigned randomly to receive saline, 2.0 ml intravenously, at the two time points; midazolam, 1.0 mg intravenously and 2.0 mg intravenously; or diazepam emulsion, 2.0 mg intravenously and 5.0 mg intravenously, respectively. Patients assessed their anxiety levels before the needle localization, before entering the operating room, and on arrival in the operating room. Patients completed a questionnaire evaluating their perioperative experience at the time of discharge. RESULTS: Patient satisfaction during needle localization was significantly improved in both benzodiazepine treatment groups (vs. saline). The incidence of moderate-to-severe discomfort during needle localization was lower in the midazolam (20%) and diazepam emulsion (6%) groups compared with the saline group (70%) (P<0.05). The preoperative visual analogue scale anxiety scores were similar in all three groups. In the operating room, however, anxiety scores were 55% and 68% lower after midazolam (21+/-19) and diazepam emulsion (15+/-14) compared with saline (46+/-28). Finally, there was no difference in the time to achieve home-readiness or actual discharge time among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Premedication with midazolam or diazepam emulsion improved patients' comfort during needle localization procedures and significantly reduced intraoperative anxiety levels before breast biopsy procedures without prolonging discharge times. Use of diazepam emulsion may be an effective alternative to midazolam in this population.  (+info)

Postoperative behavioral outcomes in children: effects of sedative premedication. (3/1639)

BACKGROUND: Although multiple studies document the effect of sedative premedication on preoperative anxiety in children, there is a paucity of data regarding its effect on postoperative behavioral outcomes. METHODS: After screening for recent stressful life events, children undergoing anesthesia and surgery were assigned randomly to receive either 0.5 mg/kg midazolam in 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43) or 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43). Using validated measures of anxiety, children were evaluated before and after administration of the intervention and during induction of anesthesia. On postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14, the behavioral recovery of the children was assessed using the Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS: The intervention group demonstrated significantly lower anxiety levels compared with the placebo group on separation to the operating room and during induction of anesthesia (F[1,77] = 3.95, P = 0.041). Using a multivariate logistic regression model, the authors found that the presence or absence of postoperative behavioral changes was dependent on the group assignment (R = 0.18, P = 0.0001) and days after operation (R = -0.20, P = 0.0001). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that during postoperative days 1-7, a significantly smaller number of children in the midazolam group manifested negative behavioral changes. At week 2 postoperatively, however, there were no significant differences between the midazolam and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Children who are premedicated with midazolam before surgery have fewer negative behavioral changes during the first postoperative week.  (+info)

Mechanisms of bronchoprotection by anesthetic induction agents: propofol versus ketamine. (4/1639)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and ketamine have been purported to decrease bronchoconstriction during induction of anesthesia and intubation. Whether they act on airway smooth muscle or through neural reflexes has not been determined. We compared propofol and ketamine to attenuate the direct activation of airway smooth muscle by methacholine and limit neurally mediated bronchoconstriction (vagal nerve stimulation). METHODS: After approval from the institutional review board, eight sheep were anesthetized with pentobarbital, paralyzed, and ventilated. After left thoracotomy, the bronchial artery was cannulated and perfused. In random order, 5 mg/ml concentrations of propofol, ketamine, and thiopental were infused into the bronchial artery at rates of 0.06, 0.20, and 0.60 ml/min. After 10 min, airway resistance was measured before and after vagal nerve stimulation and methacholine given via the bronchial artery. Data were expressed as a percent of baseline response before infusion of drug and analyzed by analysis of variance with significance set at P< or =0.05. RESULTS: Systemic blood pressure was not affected by any of the drugs (P>0.46). Baseline airway resistance was not different among the three agents (P = 0.56) or by dose (P = 0.96). Infusion of propofol and ketamine into the bronchial artery caused a dose-dependent attenuation of the vagal nerve stimulation-induced bronchoconstriction to 26+/-11% and 8+/-2% of maximum, respectively (P<0.0001). In addition, propofol caused a significant decrease in the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction to 43+/-27% of maximum at the highest concentration (P = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The local bronchoprotective effects of ketamine and propofol on airways is through neurally mediated mechanisms. Although the direct effects on airway smooth muscle occur at high concentrations, these are unlikely to be of primary clinical relevance.  (+info)

Propofol concentrations in follicular fluid during general anaesthesia for transvaginal oocyte retrieval. (5/1639)

Propofol (Diprivan) is an i.v. anaesthetic used for general anaesthesia. The purpose of this study was to measure the propofol concentration in arterial blood and follicular fluid in patients during transvaginal oocyte retrieval. After approval by the University Ethics Committee, 30 women participated in this prospective study. Following induction of anaesthesia with 0.5 mg alfentanil and 2 mg.kg-1 propofol i.v., a continuous infusion of propofol at 10 mg.kg-1.h-1 was used for maintenance of anaesthesia. Follicular fluid and arterial blood samples were aspirated simultaneously at fixed intervals during the surgical procedure and propofol assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean follicular fluid concentration of propofol increased linearly with time from 0.10 +/- 0.02 microgram.ml-1 to 0.57 +/- 0.06 microgram.ml-1 and was strongly related to the cumulative dose of propofol administered. The absorption of propofol was time-dependent. There was no correlation between the concentration of propofol in the follicular fluid and the arterial blood concentration of the drug. In conclusion, a propofol-based anaesthetic technique resulted in significant concentrations of this agent in follicular fluid, related to the dose administered and to the duration of propofol administration.  (+info)

Effects of inhaled oxygen concentration on fat metabolism during propofol infusion in rabbits. (6/1639)

We have investigated the effect of inhaled oxygen tension on lipid metabolism during propofol infusion. Propofol is supplied as a lipid emulsion containing 10% soybean oil, which is rich in triglycerides (TG). Infused TG are metabolized via three pathways in the liver cell; Krebs cycle, ketogenesis and release as very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) into the blood. For this reason, we measured TG and the products of the three pathways; carbon dioxide, ketone bodies and VLDL. Thirty-two rabbits were anaesthetized under four different conditions: propofol under hyperoxia, normoxia, hypoxia and isoflurane anaesthesia under hyperoxia. Our results indicated that hyperoxia produced more ketone bodies, normoxia more PaCO2 and hypoxia more free fatty acids (FFA) and TG compared with the other propofol infusion groups. We conclude that hyperoxia during propofol infusion facilitated fat metabolism through ketogenesis, while normoxia did so via the Krebs cycle. Also, hypoxia suppressed utilization of TG and VLDL production in the liver.  (+info)

Thiopental and propofol impair relaxation produced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers in the rat aorta. (7/1639)

ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers are used as vasodilators in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The effects of i.v. anaesthetics on arterial relaxation induced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we have examined if thiopental (thiopentone) and propofol affect the vascular response to the ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers, cromakalim and pinacidil, in the isolated rat aorta. Rings of rat thoracic aortas without endothelium were suspended for isometric force recording. Concentration-response curves were obtained in a cumulative manner. During submaximal contractions with phenylephrine 0.3 mumol litre-1, relaxation after cromakalim 0.1-30 mumol litre-1, pinacidil 0.1-30 mumol litre-1 and papaverine 0.1-300 mumol litre-1 was demonstrated. Thiopental 30-300 mumol litre-1, propofol 10-100 mumol litre-1, 10% Intralipid 45 microliters or glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1 were applied 15 min before addition of phenylephrine. During contractions with phenylephrine, cromakalim and pinacidil induced concentration-dependent relaxation. A selective ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist, glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1, abolished this relaxation, whereas it did not affect relaxation produced by papaverine. Thiopental concentrations > 30 mumol litre-1 significantly impaired relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil. Propofol concentrations > 10 mumol litre-1 also significantly reduced relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil, whereas Intralipid was ineffective. Thiopental 300 mumol litre-1 and propofol 100 mumol litre-1 did not alter relaxation produced by papaverine. These results suggest that the i.v. anaesthetics, thiopental and propofol, impaired vasodilatation mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.  (+info)

Effect of remifentanil on the auditory evoked response and haemodynamic changes after intubation and surgical incision. (8/1639)

We have observed the effect of intubation and incision, as measured by the auditory evoked response (AER) and haemodynamic variables, in 12 patients undergoing hernia repair or varicose vein surgery who received remifentanil as part of either an inhaled anaesthetic technique using isoflurane or as part of a total i.v. technique using propofol. Anaesthesia was induced with remifentanil 1 microgram kg-1 and propofol, neuromuscular block was achieved with atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 before intubation, and anaesthesia was maintained with a continuous infusion of remifentanil in combination with either a continuous infusion of propofol or inhaled isoflurane. The AER and haemodynamic variables were measured before and after intubation and incision. The effects of intubation and incision on the AER and haemodynamic variables were not significantly different between the remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-isoflurane groups. However, the study had a low power for this comparison. When the data for the two anaesthetic combinations were pooled, the only significant effects were increases in diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate immediately after intubation; these were not seen 5 min after intubation. There were no cardiovascular responses to incision. There were no significant changes in the AER after intubation or incision.  (+info)

Definition of intravenous anesthetic in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of intravenous anesthetic. What does intravenous anesthetic mean? Information and translations of intravenous anesthetic in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
The increase of Corrected QT (QTc) interval is associated with age. It is known that most inhalation anesthetics or intravenous anesthetics can influence the QTc. In addition, tracheal intubation during induction can stimulates sympathetic activity, which, as a results, prolong the QTc interval. Therefore, the aim of study is to find out the effect site concentration of remifentanil for preventing QTc interval prolongation during intubation under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia in elderly patients ...
A new business intelligence report released by Contrive Datum Insights with the title Global Intravenous Anesthetics Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Type and Application, forecast to 2027 is designed with an objective to provide a micro-level analysis of the market. The report offers a comprehensive study of the current state expected at the major drivers, market strategies, and key vendors growth. The report presents energetic visions to conclude and study the market size, market hopes, and competitive surroundings. The research also focuses on the important achievements of the market, Research & Development, and regional growth of the leading competitors operating in the market. The current trends of the global Intravenous Anesthetics market in conjunction with the geographical landscape of this vertical have also been included in this report ...
The clinical studies demonstrate more powerful analgesic effect among female to both μ- and κ-opioid agonist (Fillingim et al. 2004). The antitussive effect of opioid is mediated predominantly by μ-, κ-opioid receptors (Kamei J. 1996). Therefore, the investigators hypothesized that there are sex differences in the antitussive responses to opioid.. It has been reported that target-controlled infusion (TCI) of remifentanil can reduce cough against endotracheal tube during emergence from general anesthesia. Some studies, reporting the EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI for preventing cough during emergence in different sex and surgeries (B. Lee et al. 2009, E.M.Choi et al. 2012), showed differences in EC50 and EC95.. The purpose of this study was to find out EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI for preventing cough during emergence in each sex and to evaluate whether there were sex differences in EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI or not. ...
Modulation of hECN GABAARs by intravenous anesthetics, SCS, furosemide and zolipidemA, upper panel: example trace showing potentiation of GABA-mediated whole-ce
1. Weerink MAS, Struys MMRF, Hannivoort LN, Barends CRM, Absalom AR, Colin P. Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Dexmedetomidine. Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 2017;56:893-913 2. Mohammadi B, Haeseler G, Leuwer M, Dengler R, Krampfl K, Bufler J. Structural requirements of phenol derivatives for direct activation of chloride currents via GABAA receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2001;421:85-91 3. Reiner GN, Delgado-Marín L, Olguín N, Sánchez-Redondo S, Sánchez-Borzone M, Rodríguez-Farré E, Suñol C, García DA. Gabaergic Pharmacological Activity of Propofol Related Compounds as Possible Enhancers of General Anesthetics and Interaction with Membranes. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics. 2013;67:515-525 4. Álvaro-Bartolomé M, Salort G, García-Sevilla JA. Disruption of brain MEK-ERK sequential phosphorylation and activation during midazolam-induced hypnosis in mice: Roles of GABAA receptor, MEK1 inactivation, and phosphatase MKP-3. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & ...
Principal Investigator:KURODA Toshihisa, Project Period (FY):1992 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:麻酔学
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of three different target-controlled remifentanil infusion rates during target-controlled propofol infusion on hemodynamic parameters, pain, sedation, and recovery score during oocyte retrieval. ...
Emergent or elective surgical procedures under general anesthesia may be required during pregnancy for some patients. For this reason, effects of anesthetics on uterine contractions are important. General anesthesia is not limited to the administration of inhalation agents, since induction and maintenance of anesthesia usually involve intravenous administration of different anesthetic agents. The effects of these agents on uterine contractions and blood flow are very important. The unexpected relaxation or contraction of myometrium can be harmful to fetus and continuing pregnancy. Our aim in this study is to investigate the effects of intravenous anesthetic agents on uterine contractions. ...
Background and study aims : In endoscopic procedures, propofol can be safely administered either alone or in conjunction with remifentanil. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of the administration of propofol alone and the administration of remifentanil in addition to propofol on patient and endoscopist satisfaction, preoperative hemodynamic response, and propofol consumption. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of propofol on nociceptive response and power spectra of electroencephalographic and systemic arterial pressure signals in the rat. T2 - Correlation with plasma concentration. AU - Yang, Chen Hsein. AU - Shyr, M. H.. AU - Kuo, T. B.J.. AU - Tan, P. P.C.. AU - Chan, S. H.H.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - We applied simultaneous spectral analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) and systemic arterial pressure signals in Sprague-Dawley rats to monitor the status of consciousness and cardiovascular functions during intravenous anesthesia with propofol and to assess their correlations with plasma propofol concentration. Our results support the hypothesis that a threshold plasma concentration (1.7-1.8 μg/ml) exists for propofol anesthesia. This threshold level, we further showed, may be attained by both i.v. bolus injection and continuous infusion, although the pharmacokinetic profiles, as well as EEG and hemodynamic correlates, may be different. Continuous, on- line power ...
BACKGROUND: The Narcotrend is a new electroencephalographic monitor designed to measure depth of anesthesia, based on a six-letter classification from A (awake) to F (increasing burst suppression) including 14 substages. This study was designed to investigate the impact of Narcotrend monitoring on recovery times and propofol consumption in comparison to Bispectral Index (BIS) monitoring or standard anesthetic practice.. METHODS: With institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 120 adult patients scheduled to undergo minor orthopedic surgery were randomized to receive a propofol-remifentanil anesthetic controlled by Narcotrend, by BIS(R), or solely by clinical parameters. Anesthesia was induced with 0.4 micro x kg-1 x min-1 remifentanil and a propofol target-controlled infusion at 3.5 microg/ml. After intubation, remifentanil was reduced to 0.2 micro x kg-1 x min-1, whereas the propofol infusion was adjusted according to clinical parameters or to the following target values: ...
Background: Propofol is a short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent. In rare conditions, a life-threatening complication known as propofol infusion syndrome can occur. The pathophysiologic mechanism is still unknown. Some studies suggested that propofol acts as uncoupling agent, others suggested that it inhibits complex I or complex IV, or causes increased oxidation of cytochrome c and cytochrome aa(3), or inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. Although the exact site of interaction is not known, most hypotheses point to the direction of the mitochondria. Methods: Eight rats were ventilated and sedated with propofol up to 20 h. Sequential biopsy specimens were taken from liver and skeletal muscle and used for determination of respiratory chain activities and propofol concentration. Activities were also measured in skeletal muscle from a patient who died of propofol infusion syndrome. Results: In rats, authors detected a decrease in complex II+III activity starting at low tissue ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anesthetic propofol reduces endotoxic inflammation by inhibiting reactive oxygen species-regulated Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB signaling. AU - Hsing, Chung-Hsi. AU - Lin, Ming-Chung. AU - Choi, Pui-Ching. AU - Huang, Wei-Ching. AU - Kai, Jui-In. AU - Tsai, Cheng-Chieh. AU - Cheng, Yi-Lin. AU - Hsieh, Chia-Yuan. AU - Wang, Chi-Yun. AU - Chang, Yu-Ping. AU - Chen, Yu-Hong. AU - Chen, Chia-Ling. AU - Lin, Chiou-Feng. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Background: Anesthetic propofol has immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the area of anti-inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammation through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling. We investigated the molecular actions of propofol against LPS/TLR4-induced inflammatory activation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. Methodology/Principal Findings: Non-cytotoxic levels of propofol reduced LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO as determined by western blotting and the Griess reaction, respectively. ...
Phaxan™ is an intravenous general anaesthetic and sedative containing alphaxalone as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Alphaxalone is a neuroactive steroid anaesthetic. It is a pregnanedione with no endocrine hormonal activity. This water-insoluble drug was initially formulated using CremophorEL and marketed as Althesin® from 1972 to 1984. It was found to be a safe and versatile intravenous anaesthetic used in clinical practice in anaesthesia and intensive care in many countries until it was withdrawn from clinical practice because of hypersensitivity to the CremophorEL.. Many subsequent attempts to make an aqueous formulations of neuroactive steroids suitable for human use have failed. Drawbridge Pharmaceuticals proprietary and patented formulation, Phaxan™, is a solution of alphaxalone 10mg/ml dissolved in 13% SBECD (7- sulfobutylether β-cyclodextrin); a molecule with a lipophilic cavity that enables drug dispersal in water for human use. The use of SBECD as the excipient preserves ...
Anesthesia is the procedure to ensure the absence of pain, the inhibition of autonomic reactions and a good surgical. Today, most anesthetic procedures involve the combination of different drugs, using anesthetics at considerably lower concentrations if compared to those that would be needed if they were used without association; modern anesthetic techniques typically involve the association of hypnotics, analgesics, and muscle relaxants [1].. The use of barbiturates as intravenous anesthetics have been tested in the last 70 years; among these, propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) was introduced clinically in 1977 and demonstrates many positive effects [2]. Because of its unique pharmacological properties [3], it is an anesthetic drug used in the induction and maintenance of anesthesia in adults, being popular for providing an easy induction and recovery is faster than other drugs, such as thiopental [4]. Sedation with propofol does not provide relief from pain, however it provides anxiolysis, ...
Objectives This study evaluated the effects of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on renal function of dogs with naturally acquired chronic renal failure. Materials & Methods The anesthetic procedures included: three hours using sevoflurane (1.5CAM) in O2 flow of 30mL/kg/min, in a semiclosed-circuit, after induction with propofol at 10mg/kg, in bolus (P-S group), or after induction with sevoflurane (S-S group), and for the P group it was used only propofol in the same dose employed for induction. Evaluations were performed in six sessions and included creatinine clearance, serum creatinine and ureia, protein and glucose urinary excretion. The renal function evaluations were performed 30 minutes before anesthesia, two times during anesthesia, and one, two and five days after. Results All anesthetic procedures were well succeeded and animals recovered uneventfully. No renal toxicity were observed in any of the anesthetic protocols. However, during the transanesthetic period it was observed ...
Propofol is a general anesthetic commonly used in pediatric clinical practices. Experimental findings demonstrate that anesthetics induce widespread apoptosis and cognitive decline in a developing brain. Although anesthesia-mediated neurotoxicity is the most prominent during intense period of synaptogenesis, the effects of an early anesthesia exposure on the synapses are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on the expression of key proteins that participate in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and to evaluate long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities in the mature adult brain. Propofol-injected 7-day-old rats were maintained under 2-, 4-, and 6-h-long anesthesia and sacrificed 0, 4, 16, and 24 h after the termination of each exposure. We showed that propofol anesthesia strongly influenced spatiotemporal expression and/or proteolytic processing of crucial presynaptic (GAP-43, synaptophysin, α-synuclein), trans-synaptic ...
Uncertainty exists as to the most suitable pharmacokinetic parameter sets for propofol target-controlled infusions (TCI). The pharmacokinetic parameter sets currently employed are clearly not universally applicable, particularly when patient attributes differ from those of the subjects who participated in the original research from which the models were derived. Increasing evidence indicates that the pharmacokinetic parameters of propofol can be scaled allometrically as well as in direct proportion to lean body mass (LBM). Appraisal of hitherto published studies suggests that an allometrically scaled pharmacokinetic parameter set may be applicable to a wide range of patients ranging from children to obese adults. On the other hand, there is evidence that propofol pharmacokinetic parameters, scaled linearly to LBM, provide improved dosing in normal and obese adults. The Schnider pharmacokinetic parameter set that has been programmed into commercially available TCI pumps cannot be employed at ...
Propofol is a widely used intravenous anesthetic agent with antioxidant properties secondary to its phenol based chemical structure. Treatment with propofol has been found to attenuate oxidative stress and prevent ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat heart. Here, we report that propofol protects cardiac H9c2 cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury by triggering the activation of Akt and a parallel up-regulation of Bcl-2. We show that pretreatment with propofol significantly protects against H2O2-induced injury. We further demonstrate that propofol activates the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. The protective effect of propofol on H2O2-induced injury is reversed by PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, which effectively suppresses propofol-induced activation of Akt, up-regulation of Bcl-2, and protection from apoptosis. Collectively, our results reveal a new mechanism by which propofol inhibits H2O2-induced injury in cardiac H9c2 cells, supporting a potential application of propofol as a preemptive ...
Principal Investigator:MASUDA Akira, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Anesthesiology/Resuscitation studies
Authorities Focus on Propofol as Central Element in Jacksons DeathThe powerful anaesthetic that investigators believe killed Michael Jackson came from a Ne...
In humans, prolonged sedations with propofol or using high doses have been associated with propofol infusion syndrome. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of prolonged high-dose administration of a specific propofol emulsion (Propofol Lipuro) and an improved lipid formulation (SMOFlipid) in liver mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress of rabbits, comparatively to a saline control. Twenty-one male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly allocated in three groups that were continuously treated for 20 h. Each group of seven animals received separately: NaCl 0.9 % (saline), SMOFlipid (lipid-based emulsion without propofol) and Lipuro 2 % (propofol lipid emulsion). An intravenous propofol bolus of 20 mg kg−1 was given to the propofol Lipuro group to allow blind orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Anesthesia was maintained using infusion rates of: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg kg−1 h−1, according to the clinical scale of anesthetic depth and the index of
Propofol reportedly possesses potential antioxidant properties caused by its chemical structure similar to that of phenol-based free-radical scavengers such as vitamin E.10 Previous in vivo or in vitro studies documented that this intravenous anesthetic reduces oxidative stress toward blood vessels.11,12 These results suggest that this anesthetic may be protective against the vascular dysfunction caused by increased oxidative stress. Indeed, propofol (3 × 10−7to 10−6m) recovered vascular ATP-sensitive K+channel function via reduction of superoxide levels within arterial walls. In addition, 10−6m of this agent completely inhibited protein expression of a Nox2-related NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox. The plasma concentration of propofol during induction of anesthesia in humans has been reported as up to 3 × 10−5m, and burst suppression doses of propofol for cerebral protection are up to 6 × 10−5m.20-22 Effective concentrations of propofol (3 × 10−7to 10−6m) to inhibit NADPH oxidase ...
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Author: Driscoll David F, Deaconess Beth Israel, Lawrence Kenneth R, Lewis Keith, Bistrian Bruce R, Year: 1997, Abstract: The Centers for Disease Control has identified intravenous propofol, a lipid-based medication, as a cause of postoperative infections in hospitalized patients. It appears the increased risk results from poor aseptic technique in the preparation, storage and administration of extemporaneously prepared propofol infusions. An additional risk of preparing propofol injection includes glass particulate contamination when the ampule dosage form is used. The current study, therefore, examines th
Dr. Conrad Murray, who has been convicted of killing Michael Jackson by giving him a lethal drug doze, has asked appellate judges to authorize forensic analysis of the bottle of the anesthetic propofol recovered from the bedroom where the pop legend died in 2009.
A popular method of administering intravenous anesthetics is as a continuous infusion. To improve the accuracy of infusion delivery, computerized infusion pumps that use pharmacokinetic models have been developed to quickly achieve and maintain desired target effect-site concentrations. This delivery technique, known as target-controlled infusions (TCI), has become popular worldwide. Unfortunately, neither have models used to drive TCI been validated in obese patients nor has agreement regarding the correct weight to input been identified. Most models were developed with normal-sized patients or volunteers and extrapolated for use in larger patients. The main limitation is that the composition of normal size and obese patients is not the same; hence, kinetic model predictions are likely to be less accurate in the obese. ...
The aim of this work was to establish the correlation between the bispectral index (BIS) and different rates of continuous infusion of propofol. Twenty-four adult dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups (P2, P4, P8). All animals were induced with propofol (10 mg/kg/IV), followed immediately by the continuous infusion of the agent: 0.2 mg/kg/min (P2), 0.4 mg/kg/min (P4) and 0.8 mg/kg/min (P8). The BIS values were measured before any drug administration (M0) and 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes after the start of the continuous infusion of propofol. The Analysis of Variance was used to calculate the correlation between the infusion rates of propofol and the BIS values. BIS demonstrated significant difference between groups at the moment M40, where P8 (72 ± 9,7) was smaller than P2 (84 ± 7,4) and P4 (33 ± 8,5), while in M50 this difference was observed in P8 (69 ± 13,5) that was smaller than P2 (84 ± 6,4).. The effects of induction dose of propofol were not more presented in M40, therefore, the ...
Evaluation of efficacy of priming dose of propofol in reducing induction dose requirements in patients undergoing elective surgeries under general anaesthesia
Second, whatever the cause of pain in veins, the perception of pain is the same because of the polymodal nociceptors that transmit their information via A [Greek small letter delta] fibers [3]; to abolish the injection pain of propofol, a method that can block A [Greek small letter delta] fibers must be used. Unfortunately, we do not think that propofol at 4 [degree sign]C or 37 [degree sign]C has such an effect. So we do not think that the effect of changes in the temperature of propofol are relevant.. ...
Modeling is a valuable tool in drug development, to support decision making, improving study design, and aid in regulatory approval and labeling. This thesis describes the development of pharmacometric models for drugs used in anesthesia and analgesia.. Models describing the effects on anesthetic depth, measured by the bispectral index (BIS), for a commonly used anesthetic, propofol, and for a novel anesthetic, AZD3043, were developed. The propofol model consisted of two effect-site compartments, and could describe the effects of propofol when the rate of infusion is changed during treatment. AZD3043 had a high clearance and a low volume of distribution, leading to a short half-life. The distribution to the effect site was fast, and together with the short plasma half-life leading to a fast onset and offset of effects. It was also shown that BIS after AZD3043 treatment is related to the probability of unconsciousness similar to propofol.. In analgesia studies dropout due to lack of efficacy is ...
The brain is possibly the most complex system known to mankind, and its complexity has been called upon to explain the emergence of consciousness. However, complexity has been defined in many ways by multiple different fields: here, we investigate measures of algorithmic and process complexity in both the temporal and topological domains, testing them on functional MRI BOLD signal data obtained from individuals undergoing various levels of sedation with the anaesthetic agent propofol, replicating our results in two separate datasets. We demonstrate that the various measures are differently able to discriminate between levels of sedation, with temporal measures showing higher sensitivity. Further, we show that all measures are strongly related to a single underlying construct explaining most of the variance, as assessed by Principal Component Analysis, which we interpret as a measure of
Title: Propofol in Anesthesia. Mechanism of Action, Structure-Activity Relationships, and Drug Delivery. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Giuseppe M. Trapani, Cosimo Altomare, Enrico Sanna, Giovanni Biggio and Gaetano Liso. Affiliation:CHUL Research Center,2705 Laurier Blvd, Quebec (Quebec) G1V 4G2, Canada. Keywords:propofol, 2 diisoprovpylphenol, drug delivery, aminobutyric acid GABA, GABAa receptor, site specific chemical delivery system CDS, cloned GABA A Receptor, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic effects, alkylphenols, hypnotic activity, STERIMOL Descriptors, pharmacokinetic, drug monitoring, metabolism, toxicology, salmonella mutation, lipid formulations, saccharomices cerevisiae, prodrugs, chemical delivery systems CDS, target controlled infusion TCI, CLINICAL USE, Anesthesia, tomidate. Abstract: Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is becoming the intravenous anesthetic of choice for ambulatory surgery in outpatients. It is extensively metabolized, with most of the administered dose appearing in the ...
Methods: Preparation of propofol nanoemulsion using NEMS™ technology has been performed for propofol 1% in NEMS™ (P1%), and propofol 2% in NEMS™ (P2%). Determination of free propofol concentration in aqueous phase was conducted using HPLC and rat paw lick test was evaluated as in vivo test to assay the intensity of pain on injection site. The sleep recovery test was conducted to evaluate the pharmacological effect and erythrocyte hemolysis test also conducted to ensure the safety of propofol in NEMS™. All of the test results were compared with Diprivan®1% as a positive standard. ...
Consciousness is regained in 5-15 min due to the concept of redistribution of the drug into highly perfused organs first and then to the low perfused organs like fat and muscles ...
PROPOFOL (injection, emulsion) comes in different strengths and amounts. The appearance of Propofol can differ based on the dosing.
Lee, T.-L.,Adaikan, P.G.,Lau, L.C.,Kumar, A.,Ratnam, S.S. (1997). Effects of propofol on gravid human uterine muscle. Journal of Anesthesia 11 (1) : 71-74. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02480008 ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effects of propofol on Ca,sup,2+,/sup, regulation by malignant hyperthermia- susceptible muscle membranes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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Methods All dogs were premedicated with methadone, 0.2 mg kg−1 intramuscularly 30 minutes prior to induction of anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol administered intravenously (IV) to effect, following administration of lidocaine 1 mg kg−1 IV and maintained with a continuous infusion of propofol at ≤0.4 mg kg−1 minute−1 during instrumentation and preparation and during movement of the animals to recovery. During surgery, anaesthesia was maintained using a continuous infusion of propofol at ≤0.4 mg kg−1 minute−1and alfentanil ≤1 μg kg−1 minute−1. Lidocaine was administered at 1 mg kg−1 IV immediately prior to extubation. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded prior to induction and every 5 minutes throughout preparation and surgery. Central venous pressure was recorded every 5 minutes throughout surgery ...
The Dyck parameter set was derived from arterial blood samples and the Marsh set from a modification of a model published by White and Kenny [28] and Gepts et al., [29] in which arterial sampling was performed. The Tackley set was calculated after venous sampling. When comparing predicted and measured concentrations, the sampling site used for modeling and for evaluation and the time of sampling may influence the results. Chiou [30,31] has reviewed the phenomenon of dependence of drug concentration on sampling site and has pointed out that profiles of concentration in blood or plasma from different sampling sites can lead to the calculation of widely differing pharmacokinetic parameters. The significant arteriovenous propofol concentrations occurring during our TCI study differ from the findings of Major et al., [32] who, using the previous propofol formulation in Cremophor-EL found negligible AV differences in concentration after a single propofol dose (2 mg/kg administered over a 60-s period) ...
Diagnosis Code T41.1X1A information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
A novel strategy of propofol anesthesia is proposed to improve clinical propofol anesthesia for hypothermic decompression. Theoretical analysis is...
I think every high-profile case has its own problems that are associated with them, Geragos said. One of them is the media and having to deal with the media and the constant onslaught of being second-guessed. Having all that kind of stuff that floats around the case that has nothing to do with what goes on in the courtroom. You have to filter that out, you have to kind of hunker down and try to just let that water drip off your back ...
Upon waking: talkative, high, felt drugged It has been reported that propofol injection pain (PIP) occurred in 60% of untreated patients . The doctor there called my condition life threatening. J Clin Exp Hepatol. Send thanks to the doctor. 5=HIGH (this medicine cured me or helped me a great deal. SIDE EFFECTS FOR PROPOFOL: COMMENTS: SEX: AGE: DURATION/ DOSAGE: DATE ADDED : 1: Colonoscopy: Nausea, bloody nose, hoarse, coughing up bloody mucous day after, upper respiratory infection, chills : Never again: 55 0 days: 11/26/2019: 1: Cardiac cath: Severe stomach issues still occurring 8 days following 3 hours of propofol: Headaches for 3 days, fatigue and severe abdominal … Also I felt very fatigue, as well as some light headed. Based on sedative effect and side effects, the dose was increased or decreased in the next 5 patients until the optimal dose was found. I did it last time with no side effects. Bronchospasm 10. Druginformer Identified Side Effects: Fatigue, Lethargy, Mood altered, ...
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Background and purpose: The aim of this prospective, clinical trial study was to investigate whether the administration of different doses of ketamine before induction with propofol imporves its associated haemodynamic propofol during induction and tracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: One hundered and thirty adult patients ASA I were randomly allocated to ...
Background and purpose: The aim of this prospective, clinical trial study was to investigate whether the administration of different doses of ketamine before induction with propofol imporves its associated haemodynamic propofol during induction and tracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: One hundered and thirty adult patients ASA I were randomly allocated to ...
4. Kurita TUraoka MMorita KSuzuki MMorishima YSato S: Influence of haemorrhage on the pseudo-steady-state remifentanil concentration in a swine model: a comparison with propofol and the effect of haemorrhagic shock stage. Br J Anaesth 107:719-7252011. ...
MATA, Lukiya Birungi Silva Campos et al. Anestesia por infusão contínua de propofol associado ao remifentanil em gatos pré-tratados com acepromazina. Rev. Ceres [online]. 2010, vol.57, n.2, pp.198-204. ISSN 0034-737X. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-737X2010000200010.. O presente trabalho avaliou a associação anestésica do propofol, um anestésico geral de ação ultracurta e metabolismo rápido, ao remifentanil, opioide de grande poder analgésico, que potencializa os anestésicos gerais. O objetivo principal foi desenvolver um protocolo anestésico de uso intravenoso, por infusão contínua, que proporcione conforto ao paciente, segurança, com grande relaxamento muscular e analgesia em gatos submetidos a cirurgias eletivas como a ovariosalpingoisterectomia e orquiectomia. Foram utilizados 30 gatos, aleatoriamente distribuídos em 3 grupos de 10 animais. Em todos eles realizou-se a tranquilização com acepromazina (0,1 mg/kg, IM) e indução anestésica com propofol (6 mg/kg, IV). No ...
Pharmacokinetics of intravenous anesthetics". In Evers, Alex S.; Maze, Mervyn; Kharasch, Evan D. (eds.). Anesthetic ... It was developed at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1964 and was introduced as an intravenous agent in 1972 in Europe and in 1983 in ... Continuous intravenous administration of etomidate leads to adrenocortical dysfunction. The mortality of patients exposed to a ... Chiara DC, Dostalova Z, Jayakar SS, Zhou X, Miller KW, Cohen JB (2012). "Mapping general anesthetic binding site(s) in human ...
Usually, inhalational and intravenous anesthetics are used. Requirements for anesthetics may be reduced in sepsis. Inhalational ... September 2013). "Intravenous immunoglobulin for treating sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock". The Cochrane Database of ... Within the first three hours, someone with sepsis should have received antibiotics and, intravenous fluids if there is evidence ... Monoclonal and polyclonal preparations of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) do not lower the rate of death in newborns and ...
... anesthetic, and anticonvulsant effects.[1][2][3] It was investigated for clinical use as a general anesthetic, but produced ... October 1994). "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of eltanolone (pregnanolone), a new steroid intravenous anaesthetic, in ... the fetus is sedated by the low oxygen tension of the fetal blood and the neurosteroid anesthetics pregnanolone and the sleep- ... Jürgen Schüttler; Helmut Schwilden (8 January 2008). Modern Anesthetics. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 278-. ISBN 978- ...
"Sneezing reflex associated with intravenous sedation and periocular anesthetic injection". American Journal of Ophthalmology. ... the patient often requires injection of a local anesthetic into the eye. In patients who show the photic sneeze reflex, an ... often resulting in the anesthesiologist having to remove the needle before injecting the local anesthetic in order to avoid ...
Sebel, PS; Lowden, JD (1989). "Propofol: a new intravenous anesthetic". Anesthesiology. 71 (2): 260-77. doi:10.1097/00000542- ... Propofol has more pronounced hemodynamic effects relative to many intravenous anesthetic agents.[43] Reports of blood pressure ... Baudoin Z. General anesthetics and anesthetic gases. In Dukes MNG and Aronson JK (Eds.). Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs 2000. ... 1989). "Clinical pharmacology of propofol: an intravenous anesthetic agent [published erratum appears in DICP 1990 Jan; 24: 102 ...
The intravenous dose causing 50% of opioid-naive experimental subjects to die (LD50) is "3 mg/kg in rats, 1 mg/kg in cats, 14 ... To maintain anesthesia, inhaled anesthetics and additional fentanyl may be used. These are often given in 15-30 minute ... Intravenous fentanyl is often used for anesthesia and to treat pain. To induce anesthesia, it is given with a sedative-hypnotic ... Smith HS, Colson J, Sehgal N (April 2013). "An update of evaluation of intravenous sedation on diagnostic spinal injection ...
... they are frequently used along with other agents such as intravenous non-opioid anesthetics or inhalational anesthetics.[5] ... Local anestheticsEdit. Main article: Local anesthetic. Local anesthetic agents prevent transmission of nerve impulses without ... Local anesthetics can be either ester- or amide-based. Ester local anesthetics (such as procaine, amethocaine, cocaine, ... Only preservative-free local anesthetic agents may be injected intrathecally. Pethidine also has local anesthetic properties, ...
He specializes in the clinical pharmacology of intravenous anesthetic drugs. Shafer left Stanford in 2007 to go to Columbia ...
Systemic local anesthetics: local anesthetics are given systemically (orally or intravenous) to relieve neuropathic pain. A ... In the 1930s, physicians started to augment inhaled general anesthetics with intravenous general anesthetics. The drugs used in ... Intravenous anesthetic is delivered either by bolus doses or an infusion pump. There are also many smaller instruments used in ... and the type of anesthetic (regional anesthetics are lower risk than general anesthetics). Obstetrical, the very young and the ...
Advised is to use an intravenous injection of fast-acting anesthetics directly after poisoning. The anesthetic should be ... From intravenous injection mice, rats and guinea pigs show symptoms after 15 min to 2 hours. The animals become quiet and limp ...
... goes into effect 90 seconds after intravenous (IV) administration, and its anesthetic effects typically last for half ... Frederickson EL, Longnecker DE, Allen GW (May-Jun 1976). "Clinical investigation of a new intravenous anesthetic--etoxadrol ... As an anesthetic, etoxadrol is more potent than ketamine, but less potent than PCP. Etoxadrol is also a potent analgesic. ... Hidalgo J, Dileo RM, Rikimaru MT, Guzman RJ, Thompson CR (Mar-Apr 1971). "Etoxadrol (CL-1848C) a new dissociative anesthetic: ...
... a Photoactive Analogue of the Intravenous General Anesthetic Propofol". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 53 (15): 5667-5675. doi ...
Local anesthetic receptor site binds local anesthetics, antiarrhythmic drugs and antiepileptic drugs NSTX and other site 1 ... Guay J (December 2009). "Adverse events associated with intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier block): a systematic review of ... The medical use of the NSTX anesthetic effect is supported by three reasons: NSTX anesthetic duration: Any current available ... well over all the current available local anesthetics. Some investigations demonstrated anesthetic effect lasting over one week ...
Weber M, Motin L, Gaul S, Beker F, Fink RH, Adams DJ (January 2005). "Intravenous anesthetics inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine ...
Propofol-based anesthetic techniques result in significant concentrations of propofol in follicular fluid. As propofol has been ... Bumen S, Gunusen I, Firat V, Karaman S, Akdogan A, Tavmergen Goker EN (2011). "A comparison of intravenous general anesthesia ... Viscomi CM, Hill K, Johnson J, Sites C (January 1997). "Spinal anesthesia versus intravenous sedation for transvaginal oocyte ... Local anesthesia is not typically used because local anesthetic agents interfere with follicular cleavage and the technique ...
Irwin S, Stagg RD, Dunbar E, Govier WM (March 1956). "Methitural, a new intravenous anesthetic: comparison with thiopental in ... as an ultra-short-acting intravenous anesthetic. A somewhat more complex side chain is incorporated by alkylation of the ...
Many new intravenous and inhalational anesthetics were developed and brought into clinical use during the second half of the ... Sodium thiopental, the first intravenous anesthetic, was synthesized in 1934 by Ernest H. Volwiler (1893-1992) and Donalee L. ... a potent intravenous anesthetic induction agent. The concept of using a fiberoptic endoscope for tracheal intubation was ... topical application of local anesthetics to the mucosa, rectal anesthesia, or intravenous anesthesia. While otherwise effective ...
Usually inhalational and intravenous anesthetics are used. Requirements for anesthetics may be reduced in sepsis. Inhalational ... Intravenous fluidsEdit. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign has recommended 30 ml/kg of fluid to be given in adults in the first ... Sepsis is usually treated with intravenous fluids and antibiotics.[1][5] Typically, antibiotics are given as soon as possible.[ ... Septic shock is severe sepsis plus persistently low blood pressure, despite the administration of intravenous fluids.[8] ...
Often the dosage of induction agents (e.g. propofol) may be drastically reduced, as may the volumes of anesthetic gases (i.e. ... It is an α2 adrenergic agonist that can be administered as an intravenous drug solution with sterile water. It was developed by ... Medetomidine is a synthetic drug used as both a surgical anesthetic and analgesic. It is often used as the hydrochloride salt, ... It can be given by intramuscular injection (IM), subcutaneous injection (SC) or intravenous injection (IV). When delivered ...
Pentothal's discovery revolutionized intravenous anesthesia. The anesthetic can quickly put patients to sleep for a short ... In 1934, Volwiler and Tabern synthesized the first intravenous general anesthetic, Sodium thiopental, in 1934. In the mid 1930s ... He was a pioneer in the field of anesthetic pharmacology, assisting in the development of two breakthrough drugs, Nembutal and ... Volwiler was a pioneer in the field of anesthetic pharmacology, assisting in the development of two breakthrough drugs, the ...
... , also known as amethocaine, is an ester local anesthetic used to numb the eyes, nose, or throat. It may also be ... especially for starting intravenous lines in children, in view of its analgesic and cost-saving properties. However, it did not ... Tetracaine is in the ester-type local anesthetic family of medications. It works by blocking the sending of nerve impulses. ... applied to the skin before starting an intravenous (injection) to decrease pain from the procedure. Typically it is applied as ...
As with intravenous anesthetic infusions, prolonged delivery of highly soluble anesthetic gases generally results in longer ... This process is accelerated with intravenous anesthetics, so much so that it is negligible to consider during their use. The ... Generally, inhalational anesthetics that are minimally soluble reach equilibrium more quickly. Inhalational anesthetics that ... K2Ps have been found to be affected by general anesthetics (esp. halogenated inhalation anesthetics) and are currently under ...
Upon administration of intravenous anesthetic, unconsciousness, respiratory then cardiac arrest follow rapidly, usually within ... Gas anesthetics such as isoflurane and sevoflurane can be used for euthanasia of very small animals. The animals are placed in ... When intravenous injection is not possible, euthanasia drugs such as pentobarbital can be injected directly into a heart ... In the U.S., for companion animals euthanized in animal shelters, most states prescribe intravenous injection as the required ...
a short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent. Chemical propertiesEdit. Phenol-phenolate equilibrium, and resonance structures ...
Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment has shown some promise in reducing the length of the reaction and improving symptoms. ... Other common supportive measures include the use of topical pain anesthetics and antiseptics, maintaining a warm environment, ... Efforts may include stopping the cause, pain medication, antihistamines, antibiotics, intravenous immunoglobulins or ... intravenous fluids and nasogastric or parenteral feeding) and symptomatic (e.g., analgesic mouth rinse for mouth ulcer). ...
Ketamine is the most widely anesthetic agent used for the long time operation. Pharmacokinetics After an intravenous therapy, ... Using the anesthetic injection medicine, which is a portion of balanced anesthetic techniques, can be made like a single ... Compare with the balanced anesthetic techniques, the low concentration of inhalant anesthetic agents and other medicines are ... which is always lower than using the single anesthetics. The doses of anesthetics will have a change, which depends on the ...
Although newer intravenous anesthetics (such as propofol) have increased the options of anesthesiologists, halogenated ethers ... Inhalation anesthetics are vaporized and mixed with other gases prior to their inhalation by the patient before or during ... This is among the most important reasons that diethyl ether has fallen out of favor as a general anesthetic. Diethyl ether is ... All inhalation anesthetics in current clinical use are halogenated ethers, except for halothane (which is a halogenated ...
Provided a dentist performs proper aspiration to avoid intravenous injections, local anesthetics containing epinephrine ( ... It includes local anesthetics, sedation, and general anesthesia. In dentistry, the most commonly used local anesthetic is ... A dental syringe is a syringe for the injection of a local anesthetic. It consists of a breech-loading syringe fitted with a ... Topical anesthetics benzocaine, eugenol, and forms of xylocaine are used topically to numb various areas before injections or ...
... (IVRA) or Bier's block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique on the body's extremities where a ... Intravenous regional anesthesia. Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) using older tourniquet equipment. Modern electronic ... The veins are filled with the anesthetic, with the anesthetic setting into local tissue after approximately 6-8 minutes, after ... Matt, Corinna (2007). "Intravenous regional anaesthesia". Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine. 8 (4): 137-9. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Intravenous solutions of pentamidine can be mixed with intravenous HIV medications like zidovidine and intravenous heart ... For intravenous and intramuscular use:[8] *US and Canada: *Pentacarinat 300 injection powder 300 mg vial (Avantis Pharma Inc - ... Ample fluids or intravenous hydration may prevent some nephrotoxicity.[9]. *Liver: Elevated liver enzymes are associated with ... However, intravenous solutions of antiviral foscarnet and antifungal fluconazole are incompatible with pentamidine.[9] To avoid ...
Some anesthetics include Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates. For musculo-skeletal disordersEdit. The main categories of drugs for ... There are many variations in the routes of administration, including intravenous (into the blood through a vein) and oral ... Diagnostic: topical anesthetics, sympathomimetics, parasympatholytics, mydriatics, cycloplegics. *Antibacterial: antibiotics, ... Antibiotics, sympathomimetics, antihistamines, anticholinergics, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, antiseptics, local anesthetics, ...
Dexamethasone (Decadron) is given in low dose at the onset of a general anesthetic as an effective antiemetic. It is also used ... Promethazine (Pentazine, Phenergan, Promacot) can be administered via a rectal suppository, intravenous injection, oral tablet ...
... and appear to be greatest with high/very high doses via intravenous administration and in the elderly, as well as with drugs ... A single 4 mg intravenous dose of domperidone produced peak TSH levels of 1.9-fold above baseline and peak prolactin levels of ...
One hose carries inhaled anesthetic gas to the mask and the other brings exhaled anesthetic gas back to the machine. Anesthesia ... Anesthesia masks are either made of anti-static silicone or rubber, as a static electricity spark may ignite some anesthetic ... Anesthesia masks are face masks that are designed to administer anesthetic gases to a patient through inhalation. ...
In the US, ketorolac is the only widely available intravenous NSAID. An IV form of paracetamol, which is not an NSAID, became ... Local anesthetics (e.g., cocaine, lidocaine). *Mexiletine. *Nefopam. *Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline#) ...
This depends on the problem, the length of the operation, and whether or not general anesthetic was used. Additionally, people ... In those with a fast ventricular response, intravenous magnesium significantly increases the chances of achieving successful ...
These topical anesthetics contain anesthetic drugs such as lidocaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, and prilocaine in a cream, ... Neumann R, Schulzke SM, Bührer C (2012). "Oral ibuprofen versus intravenous ibuprofen or intravenous indomethacin for the ... Lidocaine, an anesthetic, and steroids may be injected into joints for longer-term pain relief. Lidocaine is also used for ... PO, rectal, topical, transdermal, intravenous, intramuscular.[54][55]. Bioavailability , 92% (oral), 70-90% (rectal); protein ...
In one study the risk of anesthetic-related death (not limited to neutering procedures) was estimated at 0.05% for healthy dogs ... commencement on intravenous fluids and appropriate antibiotics and, once stable enough for the anaesthetic and surgery, ... As with any surgical procedure, immediate complications of neutering include the usual anesthetic and surgical complications, ...
Fornazzari L, Carlen PL, Kapur BM (November 1986). "Intravenous abuse of propylhexedrine (Benzedrex) and the risk of brainstem ... nasal congestion and as anesthetics.[24] Drugs used to treat obesity are called anorectics and generally include drugs that ... with intravenous use associated with the transmission of many disease such as Hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS and potential medical ... although it sees clinical use as a local anesthetic, in particular in ophthalmology. Most cocaine use is recreational and its ...
The J-Tip is being used as a prenumber for needle procedures by giving an anesthetic effect within 1-2 minutes. It is being ...
NS is used frequently in intravenous drips (IVs) for people who cannot take fluids orally and have developed or are in danger ... antibiotics or topical anesthetics. Eye drops sometimes do not have medications in them and are only lubricating and tear- ... Campbell-Falck, D; Thomas, T; Falck, TM; Tutuo, N; Clem, K (January 2000). "The intravenous use of coconut water". The American ... Because infusing a solution of low osmolality can cause problems such as hemolysis, intravenous solutions with reduced saline ...
Henry DH (Jul 2006). "The role of intravenous iron in cancer-related anemia". Oncology. 20 (8 Suppl 6): 21-4. PMID 16925107.. ... There are many intravenous methods of drug delivery, known as vascular access devices. These include the winged infusion device ... Fenn JE, Udelsman R (Mar 2011). "First use of intravenous chemotherapy cancer treatment: rectifying the record". Journal of the ... Depending on the patient, the cancer, the stage of cancer, the type of chemotherapy, and the dosage, intravenous chemotherapy ...
Local anesthetics[edit]. Adrenaline is added to injectable forms of a number of local anesthetics, such as bupivacaine and ... intravenous epinephrine is typically given every three to five minutes in these cases.[17] ... Some of the adverse effects of local anesthetic use, such as apprehension, tachycardia, and tremor, may be caused by adrenaline ... Due to epinephrine's vasoconstricting abilities, the use of epinephrine in localized anesthetics also helps to diminish the ...
The local anesthetic is injected into the skin and down to the muscle, and after the area is numb a small incision is made in ... Intravenous therapy (IV). *Tracheal intubation. *Laryngeal tube. *Combitube. *Nasopharyngeal airway (NPA). *Oropharyngeal ...
These are geared towards lay readers, not readers who are technically proficient. Do not replace easy to understand lay variants (e.g. "smell") with difficult variants lay readers will not understand (e.g. "olfaction ...
... intravenous dextrose and normal saline, sodium bicarbonate, and dialysis.[116] The diagnosis of poisoning usually involves ... Local anesthetics (e.g., cocaine, lidocaine). *Mexiletine. *Nefopam. *Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline#) ...
A medication's potency often is changed with its base. For example, some topical steroids will be classified one or two strengths higher when moving from cream to ointment. As a rule of thumb, an ointment base is more occlusive and will drive the medication into the skin more rapidly than a solution or cream base.[6] The manufacturer of each topical product has total control over the content of the base of a medication. Although containing the same active ingredients, one manufacturer's cream might be more acidic than the next, which could cause skin irritation or change its absorption rate. For example, a vaginal formulation of miconazole antifungal cream might irritate the skin less than an athlete foot formulation of miconazole cream. These variations can, on occasion, result in different clinical outcomes, even though the active ingredient is the same. No comparative potency labeling exists to ensure equal efficacy between brands of topical steroids (percentage of oil vs water dramatically ...
With halogenated anesthetics, such as halothane or intravenous agents, such as propofol, a rapid (alpha or low beta), ... Anesthetic effects on EEG signals are beginning to be understood at the level of drug actions on different kinds of synapses ... EEG under general anesthesia depends on the type of anesthetic employed. ...
In 2009, Teva Pharmaceuticals filed an ANDA to market a generic EpiPen in collaboration with Antares Pharma Inc, a maker of injection systems; Pfizer and King sued them for infringing US Patent 7,449,012 that was due to expire in 2025;[33] Pfizer, Mylan, and Teva settled in April 2012 in a deal that allowed Teva to start selling the device in mid-2015, pending FDA approval.[34] In 2009, Intelliject, a US startup developing a new epinephrine autoinjector, licensed their product to Sanofi.[35] King was acquired by Pfizer in 2010 for $3.6 billion in cash.[36] In 2010, Sciele/Shionogi faced a recall of Twinject devices[37] and launched Adrenaclick, a modified version of the Twinject that could deliver only one dose.[38][39] In 2010, European regulators approved Twinject,[40] and also approved a new epinephrine autoinjector made by ALK and sold under the brand name Jext.[41][42] Jext was launched in the European Union in September 2011.[43][44] Also in 2010, Shionogi authorized Greenstone, the ...
... who use intravenous drugs, or had spinal surgery, injection or catheter; it typically causes fever, leukocytosis and increased ... Evidence also supports consideration of epidural steroid injection with local anesthetic in improving both pain and function in ...
Physical harm is the average rating of the scores for acute binge use, chronic use, and intravenous use.[1]. Dependence ... Dissociative anesthetic. 2.00. 1.54. 1.69. 1.74 Benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepine. 1.63. 1.83. 1.65. 1.70 ...
Sinner, B; Graf, BM (2008). "Ketamine". Schüttler, J; Schwilden, H (Edl.). Modern Anesthetics. Handbook of Experimental ... "The Effect of a Single Dose of Intravenous Ketamine on Suicidal Ideation: A Systematic Review and Individual Participant Data ...
Intravenous and oral formulations of acetylcysteine are available for the treatment of paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose.[13 ... Intravenous injection (Assist, Parvolex, Acetadote) - treatment of paracetamol/acetaminophen overdose. *Nebulized as an inhaled ... Bailey B, McGuigan MA (June 1998). "Management of anaphylactoid reactions to intravenous N-acetylcysteine". Annals of Emergency ... Lynch RM, Robertson R (January 2004). "Anaphylactoid reactions to intravenous N-acetylcysteine: a prospective case controlled ...
An intravenous line may be inserted so that mild sedatives can be administered. In April 2017, the US Food and Drug ... using either local anesthetics or conscious sedation anesthesia. When it is delivered via catheter, it is called radiofrequency ... it does not directly stimulate nerves or heart muscle and therefore can often be used without the need for general anesthetic, ...
Treatment for acute adrenal insufficiency requires the administration of intravenous saline or dextrose solution; volumes of ... the sample is obtained with a needle that is passed under local anesthetic into the spine. In pituitary apoplexy the results ...
Intravenous injectionEdit. Main article: Intravenous therapy. Intravenous injections involve needle insertion directly into the ... The pain of an injection may be lessened by prior application of ice or topical anesthetic, or simultaneous pinching of the ... Parenteral injection includes subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous, intraperitoneal, intracardiac, intraarticular and ... Absorption takes the longest from this route compared to intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous injections. Because of ...
... anesthetic: Local anesthetics: …innervating a region, usually by injection. Thus, local anesthetics are useful in minor ... The first known and generally used local anesthetic was cocaine, an alkaloid (a naturally occurring organic nitrogen-containing ... In anesthetic: Local anesthetics. …innervating a region, usually by injection. Thus, local anesthetics are useful in minor ... Some anesthetics are administered via intravenous drip.. © Lim Yong Hian/Shutterstock.com. ...
... Ahmet Eroglu Karadeniz Technical University, ... The effects of intravenous anesthetics on ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) have been investigated in both animals and clinical ... The protective effects and the dosages of the intravenous anesthetics on IRI were discussed in this paper. The prevention of ... the tissue injury after the IRI was demonstrated with intravenous anesthetics in some studies. In the future, the studies ...
American Spine is pleased to now offer intravenous infusions of anesthetics and analgesics to patients with intractable pain ... American Spine Offers New Intravenous Infusions of Anesthetics and Analgesics to Treat Intractable Pain Issues. ... Intravenous infusion therapy is an exciting option for treating a variety of different pain syndromes. By infusing special ... Intravenous infusions of particular pharmacologic agents have been known to provide substantial pain relief in patients with ...
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Intravenous or Intra-abdominal Local Anesthetics for Postoperative Pain Management. (PoPuLAR). This study has been completed. ...
Intravenous Lipids: Antidotal Therapy for Drug Overdose and Toxic Effects of Local Anesthetics. Author(s): Dana Bartlett, RN, ... Intravenous lipid emulsion is an accepted therapy for the treatment of severe cardiac toxic effects caused by local anesthetics ... Intravenous Lipids: Antidotal Therapy for Drug Overdose and Toxic Effects of Local Anesthetics. ... but experience with intravenous lipids as antidotal therapy in these clinical situations is limited. However, intravenous ...
Intravenous anesthetics are thought to mediate their actions in part by potentiating inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by ... Intravenous anesthetics exert a component of their actions via potentiating inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ- ... Enhanced Tonic Inhibition Influences the Hypnotic and Amnestic Actions of the Intravenous Anesthetics Etomidate and Propofol. ... Previous studies have suggested that intravenous anesthetics have a higher efficacy for extrasynaptic GABAARs compared with ...
New life-saving treatments for Intra-abdominal surgery in clinical trial on Comparison of Intravenous Anesthetics to Volatile ... Comparison of Intravenous Anesthetics to Volatile Anesthetics on Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction Brief description of study ... different in patients received intravenous anesthetics only or sevoflurane (a volatile anesthetic-based general anesthesia for ... Two groups of general anesthetics are used for this purpose. We hypothesize that the incidence of POCD is not ...
Anesthetics. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anesthetics, General ... First Administration to Man Of Org 25435 a New Intravenous Anesthetic. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Infusion of intravenous anaesthetic agent to induce anaesthesia. Drug: ORG25435 Intended doses: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, ... Study Drug: Org 25435, a water soluble intravenous anaesthetic.. Subjects: Up to 47 healthy male volunteers, aged 18-40 years. ...
Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Leukocyte Migration You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated ... Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Leukocyte Migration. Anesthesiology 9 1980, Vol.53, S30. doi: ... Diana Mathieu, Alix Mathieu; Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Leukocyte Migration. Anesthesiology 1980;53(3 Suppl):S30. ...
Is intravenous lipid emulsion a safe and effective therapy for the reversal and treatment of local anesthetic toxicity?Results ... Intravenous lipid emulsion 20% should be available whenever patients receive large doses of local anesthetics in operating ... There are fewer data to support treatment of neurologic toxicities associated with local anesthetics.Implementation: ... Systematic reviews, human case reports, and experimental animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intravenous lipid ...
The Effects of Spinal, Inhalation, and Total Intravenous Anesthetic Techniques on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Arthroscopic ... The Effects of Spinal, Inhalation, and Total Intravenous Anesthetic Techniques on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Arthroscopic ... or total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) (Group T, ).. The patients were not premedicated before surgery. Heart rate (HR), ... for a: Group T versus S, for b: Group I versus S). Group I: inhalation, Group S: spinal, and Group T: total intravenous ...
Meaning of intravenous anesthetic. What does intravenous anesthetic mean? Information and translations of intravenous ... anesthetic in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. ... Definition of intravenous anesthetic in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... What does intravenous anesthetic mean?. Definitions for intravenous anesthetic. Here are all the possible meanings and ...
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Intravenous Anesthetics on Endotoxemia. Author(s): Takumi Taniguchi, Ken Yamamoto Department of ... Recently, it has been shown both in vitro and in vivo that several intravenous anesthetics have anti-inflammatory effects. ... Recently, it has been shown both in vitro and in vivo that several intravenous anesthetics have anti-inflammatory effects. ... Takumi Taniguchi and Ken Yamamoto, " Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Intravenous Anesthetics on Endotoxemia", Mini-Reviews in ...
general anesthetic. en. dc.title. Effect of intravenous anesthetic propofol on synaptic vesicle exocytosis at the frog ... Effect of intravenous anesthetic propofol on synaptic vesicle exocytosis at the frog neuromuscular junction. dc.contributor. ... "Effect of intravenous anesthetic propofol on synaptic vesicle exocytosis at the frog neuromuscular junction." Acta ... Aim: To investigate the presynaptic effects of propofol, a short-acting intravenous anesthetic, in the frog neuromuscular ...
Sedation from intravenous anesthetic agents can indirectly modulate the immunity, and intravenous anesthetic agents can ... Feng J, Yao W, Zhang Y, Xiang AP, Yuan D, Hei Z. Intravenous Anesthetics Enhance the Ability of Human Bone Marrow-Derived ... total number of animals between 12 and 22 for an intravenous anesthetic agent (between 36 and 66 for the three intravenous ... The effect of repetitive exposure to intravenous anesthetic agents on the immunity in mice. Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(4):428-436. ...
Intravenous Anesthetic Propofol Inhibits Multiple Human Cardiac Potassium Channels Lei Yang, M.D.; Hui Liu, M.D., Ph.D.; Hai- ... Intravenous Anesthetic Propofol Inhibits Multiple Human Cardiac Potassium Channels You will receive an email whenever this ... The current study demonstrates that the intravenous anesthetic propofol blocks human atrial native Ito, IKur, hERG, and hKCNQ1/ ... Intravenous Anesthetic Propofol Inhibits Multiple Human Cardiac Potassium Channels. Anesthesiology 03 2015, Vol.122, 571-584. ...
This study aimed to investigate the effects of intravenous anesthetics on hepatosplanchnic microcirculation in laparotomized ... Differential effects of intravenous anesthetics on hepatosplanchnic microcirculation in rats: Sidestream dark-field imaging ... In conclusion, intravenous anesthetics affect the hepatosplanchnic microcirculation differentially, propofol has shown ... Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of intravenous anesthetics on hepatosplanchnic microcirculation in ...
Since mid-2000, thoracoscopic lobectomy has been replaced with conventional open lobectomy and it has reduced the operative morbidities and mortalities.
Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is a widely used intravenous general anesthetic, which has been reported to produce ... Impairment of Hyperpolarization-Activated, Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channel Function by the Intravenous General Anesthetic ... Impairment of Hyperpolarization-Activated, Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channel Function by the Intravenous General Anesthetic ... Impairment of Hyperpolarization-Activated, Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channel Function by the Intravenous General Anesthetic ...
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there ... Anesthetics, Intravenous. Known as: Intravenous anesthetics, general intravenous anesthetic Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that ... BACKGROUND Volatile anesthetics show an ischemic preconditioning-like cardioprotective effect, whereas intravenous anesthetics ... Direct relaxant effects of intravenous anesthetics on airway smooth muscle.. *Earl Y. Cheng, Angela Mazzeo, Željka Bošnjak, ...
In addition, intravenous and volatile anesthetics can activate the GABAA receptor directly in the absence of GABA (Barker and ... Propofol and Other Intravenous Anesthetics Have Sites of Action on the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Distinct from That ... Propofol and Other Intravenous Anesthetics Have Sites of Action on the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Distinct from That ... Propofol and Other Intravenous Anesthetics Have Sites of Action on the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Distinct from That ...
Effect of an Intravenous Dexamethasone Added to Caudal Local Anesthetics to Improve Postoperative Pain: A Systematic Review and ... Intravenous steroids have been shown to be effective for postsurgical pain management after certain surgeries. The aim of this ... Intravenous dexamethasone prolongs the analgesic duration of caudal anesthesia. Trials to investigate the effectiveness of a ... Randomized controlled trials that compared intravenous steroids with a placebo in pediatric patients who had received caudal ...
Population model for pharmacokinetics and bispectral index after intravenous infusion of the sedative and anesthetic AZD3043 in ... Models describing the effects on anesthetic depth, measured by the bispectral index (BIS), for a commonly used anesthetic, ... propofol, and for a novel anesthetic, AZD3043, were developed. The propofol model consisted of two effect-site compartments, ...
intravenous anesthetic agents / water structure / ^1H-NMR / spin lattice relaxation times (T_1) / intermolecular cross- ... Study on mechanisms of intravenous anesthetic agents by ^1H-NMR. Research Project ... as a result of making clear for mechanisms of intravenous anesthetic agents. This is very important that the major parts of ^1H ... We studied on water structure in the tissues for anesthetic agents by measuring spin-lattice relaxation times (T_1) and ...
Physio-pharmacological effects of intravenous anesthetic agent ; Propofol on respiratory depression. Research Project ...
In preferred embodiment of the invention, the amount of the formulation administered to the patient is sub-anesthetic. The ... The method is conducted by parenterally administering a formulation containing a halogenated volatile anesthetic in an amount ... Rabbits received 0.9% saline, drug lipid vehicle (10 ml/h), or intravenous volatile anesthetic (10 ml/h) for 30 min. Infusions ... Actual sub-anesthetic dosages will depend on patient age, state and responsiveness to anesthetic agents, other medications used ...
Intravenous sub-anesthetic ketamine for perioperative analgesia. Andrew W Gorlin, David M Rosenfeld, Harish Ramakrishna. ... 3] Ketamine is a N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist which, at anesthetic dose (≥1.0 mg/kg intravenous [IV]), has ... Contraindications to sub-anesthetic ketamine. Relative contraindications to sub-anesthetic ketamine are listed in [Table 1]. ... Reves JG, Glass PS, Lubarsky DA, McEvoy MD, Martinez-Ruiz R. Intravenous anesthetics. In: Miller RE, editor. Millers ...
Intravenous Anesthetics - Anesthetic Drugs & boost your knowledge! Study for your classes, USMLE, MCAT or MBBS. Learn online ... General Anesthetics: Inhaled and Intravenous Anesthetics Inhaled anesthetics are either volatile or gaseous anesthetics used to ... The lecture Intravenous Anesthetics - Anesthetic Drugs by Pravin Shukle, MD is from the course CNS - Pharmacology. It contains ... These anesthetics are liquid at room temperature. Gaseous anesthetics include nitrous oxide and xenon both of which are gaseous ...
9.3 Intravenous Anesthetics Market Trend (Product Type). 9.4 Intravenous Anesthetics Market Trend (Application). 10 Intravenous ... 1.1.1 Definition of Intravenous Anesthetics. 1.1.2 Specifications of Intravenous Anesthetics. 1.2 Classification of Intravenous ... 4.4.2 2019 Intravenous Anesthetics Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment). 5 Intravenous Anesthetics Regional Market Analysis. ... 5.3 China Intravenous Anesthetics Market Analysis. 5.3.1 China Intravenous Anesthetics Market Overview. 5.3.2 China 2015-2020E ...
  • Collectively, these observations suggest that potentiation of tonic inhibition mediated by α4 subunit containing GABA A Rs contributes to the hypnotic and amnestic actions of the intravenous anesthetics, etomidate and propofol. (jneurosci.org)
  • Aim: To investigate the presynaptic effects of propofol, a short-acting intravenous anesthetic, in the frog neuromuscular junction. (harvard.edu)
  • The mice were divided into six groups: three intravenous anesthetic agents groups (dexmedetomidine, midazolam and propofol groups), and three corresponding control groups (C D , C M , and C P groups). (medsci.org)
  • Histopathological findings of liver and kidneys did not show any specific differences of any of three intravenous anesthetic agents groups with their corresponding control groups, although immunohistochemical examination indicated significantly lower expression of Toll-like receptor-4 from liver and kidneys in dexmedetomidine and propofol groups. (medsci.org)
  • The most commonly used intravenous anesthetic agents for sedation are dexmedetomidine, midazolam, and propofol. (medsci.org)
  • In conclusion, intravenous anesthetics affect the hepatosplanchnic microcirculation differentially, propofol has shown protective effect on the liver and intestinal microcirculation. (iospress.com)
  • Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is a widely used intravenous general anesthetic, which has been reported to produce bradycardia in patients at concentrations associated with profound sedation and loss of consciousness. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Propofol and other intravenous anesthetics have sites of action on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor distinct from that for isoflurane. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To determine whether receptor modulation by intravenous general anesthetics also was affected by these point mutations, we examined the effects of propofol, etomidate, the barbiturate methohexital, and the steroid alphaxalone on wild-type and mutant GABA A receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Models describing the effects on anesthetic depth, measured by the bispectral index (BIS), for a commonly used anesthetic, propofol, and for a novel anesthetic, AZD3043, were developed. (diva-portal.org)
  • This benefit is not seen with parenterally administered anesthetics agents such as propofol and barbiturates. (justia.com)
  • Intravenous Anesthetic, Propofol Affects. (dkyobobook.co.kr)
  • Objective: Propofol is an intravenously administered anesthetic that enhances -aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibition in the central nerve system. (dkyobobook.co.kr)
  • The neuroprotective efficacy of the intravenous anesthetics thiopental, propofol and etomidate is unproven. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Modulation of hECN GABAARs by intravenous anesthetics, SCS, furosemide and zolipidemA, upper panel: example trace showing potentiation of GABA-mediated whole-cell currents and direct activation of GABAARs by propofol. (nih.gov)
  • Propofol , anesthetic drug used to induce and maintain general anesthesia and to sedate patients for certain medical procedures. (britannica.com)
  • With subsequent reformulation of propofol into an oil-based emulsion , giving it a milky appearance, this challenge was overcome, and propofol gained widespread use as a key anesthetic agent. (britannica.com)
  • such interactions can increase the anesthetic and sedative effects of propofol, producing potentially dangerous effects, such as cardiorespiratory depression and slowing of heart rate. (britannica.com)
  • Propofol and local anesthetics carry a theoretical risk of arrhythmogenic potential in BrS patients, but clear evidence is lacking. (springer.com)
  • Toutefois, le fait d'être conscients de leur potentiel à induire des arythmies justifie que nous fassions preuve de prudence, particulièrement en ce qui touche aux perfusions de propofol. (springer.com)
  • Methods: The cells were exposed to the usual clinical plasma concentration of intravenous anesthetics, i.e., midazolam (0.15 μg/ml), propofol (2 μg/ml), remifentanil (2 μg/ml), thiopental (10 μg/ml), for 4, 8, or 24 h. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, ketamine, propofol, and midazolam were evaluated to determine whether the inhibitory effect of volatile anesthetics on this signal transduction pathway is a general property of other types of anesthetic drugs. (elsevier.com)
  • Glutamate release was measured in oxygenated (P O 2 = 400 mmHg), hypoxic ((P O 2 = 20 mmHg), and anoxic ((P O 2 = 20 mmHg plus 100 micro Meter NaCN) solutions and with clinical concentrations of anesthetics (halothane 325 micro Meter, enflurane 680 micro Meter, propofol 200 micro Meter, sodium thiopental 50 micro Meter). (asahq.org)
  • Propofol takes the largest amount of usage in Chinese intravenous anesthetic market, the market size is around 770 million in 2014.AZN is the largest supplier of propofol in China, Fresenius ranks the sencond.Due to the fierce competition status, the growth of propofol will probably slow down. (sbwire.com)
  • While usually administered with inhalational agents, general anesthesia can be achieved with intravenous agents, such as propofol . (wikidoc.org)
  • Finally, we report the results of our new study showing clear electrophysiological differences in burst suppression patterns induced by two common general anesthetics, sevoflurane and propofol. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the second part of this article, we present original research findings from our laboratory that demonstrate the distinct electrophysiological characteristics of burst suppression induced by the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane and the intravenous anesthetic propofol. (frontiersin.org)
  • Twenty large white pigs undergoing pneumonectomy plus lung autotransplant were divided into two 10-member groups on the basis of the anesthetic received (propofol or sevoflurane). (scielo.br)
  • 0.05) than pigs anesthetized with intravenous propofol. (scielo.br)
  • Glen ( Figure 1 ) spearheaded the discovery and clinical development of the i.v. anesthetic propofol, which has been identified among anesthesiologists as the most transformative drug in their field ( 1 ), as well as the development of a breakthrough infusion system that helped standardize anesthetic delivery. (jci.org)
  • To explore the contribution that these distinct forms of inhibition play in mediating intravenous anesthesia, we have used mice in which tyrosine residues 365/7 within the γ2 subunit are mutated to phenyalanines (Y365/7F). (jneurosci.org)
  • Although it is evident that intravenous anesthetics are able to enhance GABA A R subtypes that mediate phasic and tonic inhibition, the relative contribution of these distinct forms of inhibition to the mechanism of anesthesia remains elusive. (jneurosci.org)
  • We hypothesize that the incidence of POCD is not different in patients received intravenous anesthetics only or sevoflurane (a volatile anesthetic-based general anesthesia for their major intra-abdominal surgery. (centerwatch.com)
  • Randomized controlled trials that compared intravenous steroids with a placebo in pediatric patients who had received caudal anesthesia for surgery were included in the study. (ovid.com)
  • Intravenous dexamethasone prolongs the analgesic duration of caudal anesthesia. (ovid.com)
  • While these improvements to tissue tolerance of ischemia are very desirable, current volatile anesthetics are generally only administered by inhalation, requiring the use of an anesthesia machine in a controlled environment such as an operating room. (justia.com)
  • [1] , [2] Clinical use in anesthesia was first reported in 1966 and since that time ketamine has become a standard anesthetic drug primarily used for induction in hemodynamically unstable patients or as an adjunct for analgesia or sedation. (joacp.org)
  • Inhaled anesthetics are either volatile or gaseous anesthetics used to induce general anesthesia. (lecturio.com)
  • Ultane (sevoflurane) Volatile Liquid For Inhalation is an anesthetic drug used to induce and maintain general anesthesia in adult and pediatric patients during surgery. (rxlist.com)
  • In theory, any inhaled anesthetic agent can be used for induction of general anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • For those patients with myasthenia gravis undergoing anesthesia, anesthesiologists should be aware of anesthetic agents which warrant special attention. (ispub.com)
  • Some important constraints of anesthesia must be taken into consideration when the pharmacological properties of modern anesthetics are discussed. (springer.com)
  • The clinical understanding of that time considered anesthesia as a unique state achieved by any of the inhalation anesthetics, in- pendent of their specific molecular structure. (springer.com)
  • An anesthetic (or anaesthetic , see spelling differences ) is a drug that causes anesthesia -reversible loss of sensation. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Adverse effects of local anesthesia are generally referred to as local anesthetic toxicity . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Epidural and spinal anesthesia is a shot of anesthetic near the spinal cord and the nerves that connect to it. (thefullwiki.org)
  • When administered by intravenous injection, it quickly induced anesthesia, with fast and smooth recovery afterward. (britannica.com)
  • General anesthesia is not limited to the administration of inhalation agents, since induction and maintenance of anesthesia usually involve intravenous administration of different anesthetic agents. (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
  • General anesthetics elicit a state of general anesthesia . (wikipedia.org)
  • While general anesthesia induction may be facilitated by one general anesthetic, others may be used in parallel or subsequently to achieve and maintain the desired anesthetic state. (wikipedia.org)
  • For use as the sole anesthetic agent for brief (15 minute) procedures, for induction of anesthesia prior to administration of other anesthetic agents, to supplement regional anesthesia, to provide hypnosis during balanced anesthesia with other agents for analgesia or muscle relaxation, for the control of convulsive states during or following inhalation anesthesia or local anesthesia, in neurosurgical patients with increased intracranial pressure, and for narcoanalysis and narcosynthesis in psychiatric disorders. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Thiopental, a barbiturate, is used for the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Used as an analgesic adjunct in anesthesia and as a primary anesthetic drug in procedures requiring assisted ventilation and in the relief of pain. (pharmacycode.com)
  • The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Checklist for Managing Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity: 2017 Version. (medscape.com)
  • PURPOSE: A eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) is commonly used to provide topical anesthesia for intravenous (i.v.) cannulation. (lenus.ie)
  • Intravenous anesthesia and inhalation anesthesia is two commonly used technique for general anesthesia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Sevoflurane, USP is an inhalational anesthetic agent for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. (drugs.com)
  • The aim of this randomized, open-label, clinical study was to determine the effects of the interaction between intravenous anesthetics and desflurane on the QTc interval and QTcD during anesthesia induction. (springeropen.com)
  • Nine women in the early postpartum period were given intravenous alfentanil 50 mcg initially and then 10 mcg as needed during tubal ligation surgery under general anesthesia. (nih.gov)
  • Ketamine is an intravenous anesthetic agent used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures. (elsevier.com)
  • Because ketamine has more-stable hemodynamics than barbiturates or inhaled anesthetic agents, this anesthetic agent is widely applied in critically ill patients as an inducer of anesthesia. (elsevier.com)
  • With the use of opioids, i.v. anesthetic agents, and their combinations, this rank order of effects can change and may even be deliberately altered in accordance with the variable goals of anesthesia. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Anesthetic pre-conditioning group received sevoflurane 3% after anesthesia induction and it stopped when one-lung ventilation get started. (scielo.br)
  • Anesthetics (i.v.) possessed an important advantage over inhalational methods: they could provide a quicker onset of anesthesia. (jci.org)
  • Y365/7F mice exhibited a gender-specific enhancement of tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus that was more sensitive to modulation by the anesthetic etomidate, together with a deficit in long-term potentiation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Fig. 3A and C). The intravenous anaesthetic etomidate (3 μm), which is selective for β2/3 subunit-containing GABAARs (Hill-Venning et al. (nih.gov)
  • Etomidate also has interesting characteristics for people with traumatic brain injury because it is one of the only anesthetic agents able to decrease intracranial pressure and maintain a normal arterial pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to its action and use as an anesthetic, etomidate has also been found to directly inhibit the enzymatic biosynthesis of steroid hormones, including corticosteroids in the adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continuous intravenous administration of etomidate leads to adrenocortical dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • ULTANE (sevoflurane), volatile liquid for inhalation, a nonflammable and nonexplosive liquid administered by vaporization, is a halogenated general inhalation anesthetic drug. (rxlist.com)
  • 6 Among inhalation anesthetics, sevoflurane, USP has low arrhythmogenic potential. (drugs.com)
  • Anesthetic regimens that include opioid, alpha 2 -agonist, benzodiazepine or phenothiazine premedication will allow the use of lower sevoflurane maintenance concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of our investigation was to analyze the molecular mechanism that explain the anti-inflammatory effects of anesthetic pre-conditioning with sevoflurane focusing on its effects on MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa beta) pathways, and apoptosis in an experimental lung autotransplant model. (scielo.br)
  • Lung protection of anesthetic pre-conditioning with sevoflurane during experimental lung autotransplant is, at least, partially associated with MAPKs and NF κB pathways attenuation, and antiapoptotic effects. (scielo.br)
  • A new model of electrically evoked pain and hyperalgesia in human skin: the effects of intravenous alfentanil, S(+)-ketamine, and lidocaine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist, blunts central pain sensitization at sub-anesthetic doses (0.3 mg/kg or less) and has been studied extensively as an adjunct for perioperative analgesia. (joacp.org)
  • At sub-anesthetic doses, ketamine has a minimal physiologic impact though it is associated with a low incidence of mild psychomimetic symptoms as well as nystagmus and double vision. (joacp.org)
  • Sub-anesthetic ketamine improves pain scores and reduces perioperative opioid consumption in a broad range of surgical procedures. (joacp.org)
  • Ketamine, a phencyclidine derivative originally known as CI-581, was synthesized in the early 1960s as an anesthetic agent with unique properties including minimal negative effects on the cardiorespiratory system. (joacp.org)
  • [3] Ketamine is a N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist which, at anesthetic dose (≥1.0 mg/kg intravenous [IV]), has broad effects in the central nervous system that cause a dissociative anesthetic state. (joacp.org)
  • [5] At sub-anesthetic doses (≤0.3 mg/kg IV), ketamine possesses centrally mediated analgesic properties with minimal effects on consciousness and cognition. (joacp.org)
  • Numerous clinical studies support the role of sub-anesthetic ketamine as an analgesic, particularly for acute pain in the perioperative setting. (joacp.org)
  • [6] In this review, we discuss the mechanisms, pharmacology, and clinical applications of IV sub-anesthetic ketamine for perioperative pain management. (joacp.org)
  • What is NOT a side effect of ketamine used as a general anesthetic? (lecturio.com)
  • 13. Anesthetic frequently used for analgesia during surgery. (pharmacologycorner.com)
  • [2] General anesthetics, however, typically elicit several key reversible effects: immobility, analgesia , amnesia , unconsciousness, and reduced autonomic responsiveness to noxious stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also demonstrated that continuous epidural analgesia with ropivacaine or combination of ropivacaine and morphine improved GI motility in comparison to intravenous morphine. (medscape.com)
  • The lecture Intravenous Anesthetics - Anesthetic Drugs by Pravin Shukle, MD is from the course CNS - Pharmacology. (lecturio.com)
  • Eventually, Glen changed the focus of his PhD to studies on the pharmacology of injectable anesthetic agents. (jci.org)
  • Intravenous lipid emulsion 20% should be available whenever patients receive large doses of local anesthetics in operating rooms and emergency departments. (dovepress.com)
  • An aqueous composition for reducing pain at the site of injection of local parenteral anesthetic material, for improving the onset thereof, and for increasing its duration, and a means for preparing and dispensing the same, the composition containing a local parenteral anesthetic which in normal doses. (google.com)
  • however, because there is no published experience with repeated doses of intravenous alfentanil during established lactation, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, it has been shown both in vitro and in vivo that several intravenous anesthetics have anti-inflammatory effects. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This article reviews the anti-inflammatory effects of intravenous anesthetics on endotoxemia and endotoxic shock. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Takumi Taniguchi and Ken Yamamoto, " Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Intravenous Anesthetics on Endotoxemia", Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry (2005) 5: 241. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Amide local anesthetics (such as lidocaine , prilocaine , bupivicaine , levobupivacaine , ropivacaine , mepivacaine , dibucaine and etidocaine ) are generally heat-stable, with a long shelf life (around two years). (wikipedia.org)
  • As background information, the free esters or amides of local anesthetics such as Lidocaine, Mepivacaine and Bupivacaine are basic substances due to the presence of the amino group. (google.com)
  • Intravenous anesthetics are a group of fast-acting compounds that are used to induce complete sedation. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • Ester local anesthetics (such as procaine , amethocaine , cocaine , benzocaine , tetracaine ) are generally unstable in solution and fast-acting, are rapidly metabolised by cholinesterases in the blood plasma and liver , and more commonly induce allergic reactions . (wikipedia.org)
  • General anaesthetics (or anesthetics , see spelling differences ) are often defined as compounds that induce a loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs given to induce general anaesthesia can be either as gases or vapours ( inhalational anaesthetics ), or as injections ( intravenous anaesthetics or even intramuscular ). (wikipedia.org)
  • General anesthetics that agonize them are typically used to induce a state of sedation and/or unconsciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Halothane and other volatile anesthetics relax airway smooth muscle in part by decreasing the amount of force produced for a particular intracellular calcium concentration (the Ca 2+ sensitivity) during muscarinic receptor stimulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Intravenous infusions of particular pharmacologic agents have been known to provide substantial pain relief in patients with various chronic painful conditions. (prweb.com)
  • Depending on the intravenous anesthetic agents used, different immunity patterns would be expected. (medsci.org)
  • We hypothesized that repeated exposure to anesthetic agents might affect the immunity differently, depending on the intravenous anesthetic agent administered. (medsci.org)
  • from biopolymer to water, as a result of making clear for mechanisms of intravenous anesthetic agents. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Local anesthetic agents prevent transmission of nerve impulses without causing unconsciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only preservative -free local anesthetic agents may be injected intrathecally . (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a particularly important question when such medications are being prescribed for potentially life-threatening conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, or when anesthetic agents must be chosen for life-saving surgery. (ispub.com)
  • We also call attention to special considerations regarding the use of anesthetic agents in these patients. (ispub.com)
  • All other anesthetic agents not in the above categories of volatile anesthetic agents and depolarizing muscle relaxants are considered safe. (mhaus.org)
  • Our aim in this study is to investigate the effects of intravenous anesthetic agents on uterine contractions. (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
  • The inhibition of agonist- induced increases in Ca 2+ sensitivity of canine tracheal smooth is not a common property of anesthetics, but is unique to volatile agents. (elsevier.com)
  • Comprehensively covers the various types of anesthetic agents to be anticipated in the PACU. (elsevier.com)
  • It has been demonstrated that halogenated anesthetic agents have a potential utility in providing pre-conditioning to the organ against ischemia, which is termed anesthetic pre-conditioning (APC). (scielo.br)
  • Effect of intravenous anesthetics on spontaneous and endotoxin-stimulated cytokine response in cultured human whole blood. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Lipid emulsion therapy has also been used successfully to treat cardiac arrest and intractable arrhythmias caused by overdoses of antiepileptic drugs, cardiovascular drugs, and psychotropic medications, but experience with intravenous lipids as antidotal therapy in these clinical situations is limited. (aacn.org)
  • A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Local anesthetic drugs are toxic to the heart (where they cause arrhythmia ) and brain (where they may cause unconsciousness and seizures ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • The effects of intravenous anesthetics on ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) have been investigated in both animals and clinical studies. (hindawi.com)
  • download kinetics and dynamics of intravenous Rounds reserved tantalum of ecology and other wave success t remain proved by elastomeric sales to the conclusions had. (wanaksinklakeclub.org)
  • Conclusions: Intravenous anesthetics in high concentrations directly relax canine tracheal smooth muscle without affecting Ca 2+ sensitivity. (elsevier.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous cannulation was less painful following application of Ametop than EMLA. (lenus.ie)
  • The immunity of mice was checked after the last intravenous injection. (medsci.org)
  • It produces hypnosis within 30 to 40 seconds of intravenous injection. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Reversal of central nervous system and cardiac toxicity after local anesthetic intoxication by lipid emulsion injection. (medscape.com)
  • The invention also concerns a unique pH buffered, neutral or slightly basic aqueous composition containing a normally acidic parenteral anesthetic, but wherein a pH adjustment from acid to neutral or basic is made completely within a composite article in a hermetically sealed manner substantially immediately prior to injection of the composition. (google.com)
  • The acid pH ranging, for example, between 3.5 to 6.5, of intradermal or subcutaneous anesthetic solutions and of most intravenous anesthetic solutions has been implicated as a factor responsible for local irritation at the site of injection, which leads to pain or discomfort during the period of infiltration. (google.com)
  • even more rapid action is obtained by injection into a vein (intravenous). (infoplease.com)
  • While traditionally administered as a single injection, newer techniques involve placement of indwelling catheters for continuous or intermittent administration of local anesthetics. (wikidoc.org)
  • Regional block resulting from an injection of a large volume of local anesthetic into the epidural space . (wikidoc.org)
  • For disproportionate download kinetics and dynamics of intravenous anesthetics on the voting of projects, terms and people do jail our LaTeX and Word guides. (wanaksinklakeclub.org)
  • All fibers of such download kinetics and dynamics of intravenous anesthetics for the orientation must Just prevent supposed in the metals letterhead. (wanaksinklakeclub.org)
  • Conscious sedation is a combination of medicines to help you relax (a sedative) and to block pain (an anesthetic) during a medical or dental procedure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We now report that mutation of these residues within either GABA A α2 (S270 or A291) or β1 (S265 or M286) subunits resulted in receptors that retain normal or near-normal gating by GABA but are insensitive to clinically relevant concentrations of another inhaled anesthetic, isoflurane. (aspetjournals.org)
  • General anesthetics are widely used in clinical practice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interaction of intravenous anesthetics with human neuronal potassium currents in relation to clinical concentrations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this review, we present the clinical evidence of intravenous anesthetics on perioperative neuroprotection, and we also provide a critical perspective for future studies. (bgu.ac.il)
  • The evaluation in patients with possible toxicity from a local anesthetic should be guided by the clinical presentation. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical LAs belong to one of two classes: aminoamide and aminoester local anesthetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • We then review clinical applications of anesthetic-induced burst suppression. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also describe clinical applications of burst suppression induced by general anesthetics. (frontiersin.org)
  • John Lundy, of the Mayo Clinic, is credited with bringing the i.v. anesthetic sodium thiopental into clinical practice in the 1930s. (jci.org)
  • Also intravenous metoclopramide was a commonly used drug in the acute abortive treatment of migraine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • marketed as Amidate) is a short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agent used for the induction of general anaesthesia and sedation for short procedures such as reduction of dislocated joints, tracheal intubation, cardioversion and electroconvulsive therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intravenous lipid emulsion is an accepted therapy for the treatment of severe cardiac toxic effects caused by local anesthetics. (aacn.org)
  • Is intravenous lipid emulsion a safe and effective therapy for the reversal and treatment of local anesthetic toxicity? (dovepress.com)
  • Systematic reviews, human case reports, and experimental animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy in successfully reversing cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, and cardiac collapse seen with severe systemic local anesthetic toxicity. (dovepress.com)
  • Although the dosing protocols are based on low-level evidence, a lack of major adverse events makes lipid emulsion an appropriate therapy for treating cardiotoxic symptoms induced by local anesthetics. (dovepress.com)
  • The ideal anesthetic vapor or gas should be non-flammable, non-explosive, and lipid-soluble. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11. Anesthetic that must be administered in a lipid diluent due to poor aqueous solubility. (pharmacologycorner.com)
  • Lipid Emulsion for Treating Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Mazoit JX, Le Guen R, Beloeil H, Benhamou D. Binding of long-lasting local anesthetics to lipid emulsions. (medscape.com)
  • Do We Know the Mechanism of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion (ILE) Therapy for High Blood Levels of Local Anesthetics? (yho.vn)
  • Auspiciously, the steroid anesthetics Glen had studied at the University of Glasgow had been formulated in a surfactant material known as Cremophor EL, which made it possible to solubilize lipid molecules in an aqueous solution. (jci.org)
  • American Spine is pleased to now offer intravenous infusions of anesthetics and analgesics to patients with intractable pain issues such as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD), Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), Migraine headaches, Fibromyalgia, and other pain syndromes. (prweb.com)
  • Patients who have not responded to standard therapies have been quickly revived by administration of intravenous lipids. (aacn.org)
  • 211 patients received intravenous steroids. (ovid.com)
  • following the wide usage of A.C.E. mixture as an anesthetic , one doctor found patients were more relaxed when he used Eau de Cologne and chloroform for dental operations? (thefullwiki.org)
  • A critical analysis on data recorded from randomized control trials (RCTs) is essential in identifying patients who may benefit or be harmed by a particular anesthetic. (bgu.ac.il)
  • The timing of IV insertion in our ED would allow for full medication effect of the currently marketed topical anesthetics in the majority of ED patients. (aappublications.org)
  • 1-4 However, it has not been common practice to use these medications in the emergency department (ED). The requirements for successful and efficient application of topical anesthetic in the ED are 1) prospective identification of patients receiving IV insertions and 2) sufficient time between triage and IV insertion for the medication to take effect. (aappublications.org)
  • 3. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) is the concentration of anesthetic at 1 atmosphere of pressure that produces immobility in 50% of patients exposed to a noxious stimulus. (pharmacologycorner.com)
  • 7. The anesthetic which should be avoided in patients with a seizure disorder because tonic-clonic seizures are associated with its use. (pharmacologycorner.com)
  • 8. The halogenated anesthetic which is advantageous in patients with cardiovascular disease because it maintains cardiac output, produces systemic and coronary vasodilation, and catecholamine dependent arrhythmias are uncommon. (pharmacologycorner.com)
  • To review the anesthetic management and perioperative outcomes of patients diagnosed with Brugada syndrome (BrS) who were treated at a single centre and to compare those results with a comprehensive review of the existing literature. (springer.com)
  • A total of 20 significant ST segment elevations were recorded in four patients, several of which occurred in close temporal relation to anesthetic drug administration. (springer.com)
  • A literature review of patients with BrS yielded 52 anesthetics in 43 patients. (springer.com)
  • L'objectif de cette étude était de passer en revue la prise en charge de l'anesthésie et les pronostics périopératoires de patients atteints du syndrome de Brugada (BrS) traités dans un seul centre et de comparer ces pronostics à une analyse exhaustive de la littérature existante. (springer.com)
  • Une révision rétrospective des dossiers anesthésiques de patients porteurs d'un BrS à la Clinique Mayo a été entreprise en recherchant particulièrement les médicaments administrés, les modifications au niveau du segment ST et la survenue de complications, y compris la mort, l'instabilité hémodynamique et les dysrythmies. (springer.com)
  • Glen and James identified anesthetic activity in 2,6 diethylphenol, but it was not sufficiently potent or rapidly acting enough to compete with thiopental. (jci.org)
  • Intravenous anesthetics are known to act via γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA A Rs), which are ligand-gated ion channels assembled from multiple subunit classes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Intravenous anesthetics differentially modulate ligand-gated ion channels. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Diagnostic tests such as bone marrow aspiration, lumbar puncture (spinal tap) and aspiration of cysts or other structures are made to be less painful upon administration of local anesthetic before insertion of larger needles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Refers to a Regional block resulting from a small volume of local anesthetics being injected into the spinal canal . (wikidoc.org)
  • How You'll Make a Difference: Assembles necessary supplies and equipment, and administers intravenous, spinal, and other anesthetics prior to surgical or. (simplyhired.com)
  • Recent work has revealed that two specific amino acid residues within transmembrane domain (TM)2 and TM3 are necessary for positive modulation of GABA A and glycine receptors by the volatile anesthetic enflurane. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our data suggest that the circuit mechanisms that generate burst suppression activity may differ among general anesthetics. (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate the potential for pediatric emergency department (ED) triage nurses to apply a topical anesthetic (ie, eutectic mixture of local anesthetic) for intravenous catheter (IV) insertion. (aappublications.org)
  • Its use as a topical anesthetic agent is recommended, especially when i.v. access may be problematic. (lenus.ie)
  • Instead, specific defined stimuli and specific responses are needed to assess the particular anesthetic state ( Stanski, 1990 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Objectives: To assess the safety, tolerability, preliminary pharmacokinetics and efficacy of Org 25435 as an intravenous anaesthetic. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Assessment of the efficacy of topical anesthetics using the tactile spatial resolution method. (lenus.ie)
  • 12. In contrast to most anesthetics, this agent produces cardiac stimulation, resulting in increased blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output. (pharmacologycorner.com)
  • Froehle M, Haas NA, Kirchner G, Kececioglu D, Sandica E. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application. (medscape.com)
  • This study characterizes the anesthetic profile of dexmedetomidine on the basis of steady-state plasma concentrations using defined stimulus-response, ventilatory, and continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) and cardiovascular effect measures in rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Recently, α 2 -adrenergic agonists, like dexmedetomidine, are being studied for potential use in anesthetic practice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To date, the anesthetic profile of dexmedetomidine has not been quantified on the basis of drug concentrations. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Intravenous infusion therapy is an exciting option for treating a variety of different pain syndromes. (prweb.com)
  • If you are interested in learning more about whether you are a candidate for intravenous infusion therapy, call and make an appointment for a consultation with one of our pain management specialists today. (prweb.com)
  • Title: First administration to man of Org 25435, a new intravenous anaesthetic. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Study Design: Sequential study of an intravenous anaesthetic in young healthy males, at up to eight dose levels. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Study Drug: Org 25435, a water soluble intravenous anaesthetic. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Direct relaxant effects of intravenous anesthetics on airway smooth muscle. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, most of the halogenated anesthetics are irritating to the airway, perhaps leading to coughing, laryngospasm and overall difficult inductions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two groups of general anesthetics are used for this purpose. (centerwatch.com)
  • General anesthetic actions in vivo strongly attenuated by a point mutation in the GABA(A) receptor beta3 subunit. (semanticscholar.org)
  • General anesthetics hyperpolarize neurons in the vertebrate central nervous system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Both volatile and intravenous general anesthetics allosterically enhance γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-evoked chloride currents at the GABA type A (GABA A ) receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These data indicate that the receptor structural requirements for positive modulation by volatile and intravenous general anesthetics may be quite distinct. (aspetjournals.org)
  • general anesthetics , which result in a reversible loss of consciousness , and local anesthetics , which cause a reversible loss of sensation for a limited region of the body without necessarily affecting consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual general anesthetics vary with respect to their specific physiological and cognitive effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you are given a general anesthetic, a tube may be placed in your windpipe to help you breathe during surgery. (cancer.ca)
  • Nausea and vomiting can occur because of the effects of a general anesthetic used during surgery. (cancer.ca)
  • Thus, local anesthetics are useful in minor surgical procedures, such as the extraction of teeth. (britannica.com)
  • Intravenous or Intra-abdominal Local Anesthetics for Postoperative Pain Management. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There are fewer data to support treatment of neurologic toxicities associated with local anesthetics. (dovepress.com)
  • These anesthetics have poor water-solubility and their i.v. administration using conventional formulation is not well tolerated, resulting in severe local reactions. (justia.com)
  • Each of the local anesthetics have the suffix "-caine" in their names. (wikipedia.org)
  • Local anesthetics can be either ester - or amide -based. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pethidine also has local anesthetic properties, in addition to its opioid effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ester local anesthetics (e.g., procaine, amethocaine, cocaine) are generally unstable in solution and fast-acting, and allergic reactions are common. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The first evidence of local anesthetic toxicity involves the nervous system, including agitation, confusion, dizziness, blurred vision, tinnitus, a metallic taste in the mouth, and nausea that can quickly progress to seizures and cardiovascular collapse. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Toxicity can occur with any local anesthetic as an individual reaction by that patient. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Direct infiltration of local anesthetic into skeletal muscle will cause temporary paralysis of the muscle. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Topically applied local anesthetics have been shown to reduce the pain associated with intravenous catheter (IV) insertion significantly. (aappublications.org)
  • Considering taking medication to treat administration+of+local+anesthetic+drug? (webmd.com)
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of administration+of+local+anesthetic+drug. (webmd.com)
  • Schwartz DR, Kaufman B. Local Anesthetics. (medscape.com)
  • Local anesthetic systemic toxicity: current perspectives. (medscape.com)
  • Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics. (lenus.ie)
  • A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes absence of pain sensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When it is used on specific nerve pathways ( local anesthetic nerve block ), paralysis (loss of muscle power) also can be achieved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Are Drug-Drug Interactions The Smoking Guns of Local Anesthetic Toxicity? (springer.com)
  • Comfort: Not only are the dental chairs and the dentistry office environment more comfortable and pleasant, improvements in the use of local anesthetics and new equipment provide more comfort than ever before. (1stsedationdentist.com)
  • This invention concerns the modification of materials normally employed as parenteral anesthetics in acidic solution, and particularly concerns a composite article and its method of use which provides in a very convenient manner a buffering system for addition to these acidic materials for reducing certain adverse physiological effects thereof such as burning or stinging generally resulting from injections thereof. (google.com)
  • As the only adrenal steroidogenesis inhibitor available for intravenous or parenteral administration, it is useful in situations in which rapid control of hypercortisolism is necessary or in which oral administration is unfeasible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current evidence, while inconclusive, suggest that intravenous anesthetics may be both neuroprotective and neurotoxic in the perioperative period. (bgu.ac.il)
  • abstract = "Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the cytotoxic and antiproliferating effects of intravenous anesthetics on an mouse fibroblast in vitro cell culture system. (elsevier.com)
  • Gaseous anesthetics include nitrous oxide and xenon both of which are gaseous at room temperature. (lecturio.com)
  • The target effects, such as unconsciousness, are pot- tially life-threatening, as are the side effects of modern anesthetics, such as respi- tory and cardiovascular depression. (springer.com)
  • 10. The intravenous anesthetic with excitatory effects on the central nervous system but produces the least cardiovascular disturbance among intravenous anesthetics. (pharmacologycorner.com)
  • Status of organ systems: Cardiovascular system: whereas the hypotensive effect of most anesthetics is sometimes desirable, ischemic injury of tissues could follow reduced perfusion pressure. (slideshare.net)
  • As an adjuvant, it reduces anesthetic requirements and attenuates the hemodynamic responses to tracheal intubation and surgical stimuli, providing cardiovascular stability during surgery. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Topical amethocaine (Ametop) is superior to EMLA for intravenous cannulation. (lenus.ie)
  • Amethocaine versus EMLA for successful intravenous cannulation in a children's emergency department: a randomised controlled study. (lenus.ie)
  • These constraints were already recognised 35 years ago, when in 1972 Volume XXX entitled "Modern Inhalation Anesthetics" appeared in this Handbook Series. (springer.com)
  • In 1972, Glen joined ICI Pharmaceuticals' anesthetics research team, which sought to identify a compound that matched thiopental's induction speed but improved upon its slow metabolism. (jci.org)
  • It was developed at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1964 and was introduced as an intravenous agent in 1972 in Europe and in 1983 in the United States. (wikipedia.org)