Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
The period during a surgical operation.
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.
The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Specially trained personnel to assist in routine technical procedures in the operating room.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients in the recovery room following surgery and/or anesthesia.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.
The functions of the professional nurse in the operating room.

Binding of propofol to blood components: implications for pharmacokinetics and for pharmacodynamics. (1/1639)

AIMS: Propofol is a widely used i.v. anaesthetic agent. However, its binding properties to blood components have not been fully studied. METHODS: We studied the binding of propofol to erythrocytes, to human serum and to isolated serum proteins. Because propofol bound to ultrafiltration and equilibrium dialysis membranes, we used a co-binding technique with dextran coated charcoal and with erythrocytes. RESULTS: Propofol free fraction in blood was 1.2-1.7% at total concentrations ranging from 2.80 to 179 microM (0.5 to 32 microg ml(-1)). Fifty percent was bound to erythrocytes and 48% to serum proteins, almost exclusively to human serum albumin. In the clinical range of concentrations (0.5-16 microg ml(-1)) 40% of the molecules bound to erythrocytes are on the red blood cells membranes. No binding to lipoproteins occurred and binding to alpha1-acid glycoprotein was less than 1.5% CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that hypoalbuminaemia may increase propofol free fraction particularly during prolonged administration. Since propofol is non-restrictively cleared, no change in clearance is expected to occur, and the increase in free fraction will not be compensated by a parallel increase in clearance. It is also noted that many in vitro studies used concentrations 50 to 500 times the concentration expected to be encountered in the immediate cellular environment.  (+info)

Benzodiazepine premedication: can it improve outcome in patients undergoing breast biopsy procedures? (2/1639)

BACKGROUND: Women awaiting needle-guided breast biopsy procedures may experience high anxiety levels. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the ability of midazolam and diazepam (in a lipid emulsion [Dizac]) to improve patient comfort during needle localization and breast biopsy procedures. METHODS: Ninety women received two consecutive doses of a study medication, one before the mammographic needle localization and a second before entering the operating room. Patients were assigned randomly to receive saline, 2.0 ml intravenously, at the two time points; midazolam, 1.0 mg intravenously and 2.0 mg intravenously; or diazepam emulsion, 2.0 mg intravenously and 5.0 mg intravenously, respectively. Patients assessed their anxiety levels before the needle localization, before entering the operating room, and on arrival in the operating room. Patients completed a questionnaire evaluating their perioperative experience at the time of discharge. RESULTS: Patient satisfaction during needle localization was significantly improved in both benzodiazepine treatment groups (vs. saline). The incidence of moderate-to-severe discomfort during needle localization was lower in the midazolam (20%) and diazepam emulsion (6%) groups compared with the saline group (70%) (P<0.05). The preoperative visual analogue scale anxiety scores were similar in all three groups. In the operating room, however, anxiety scores were 55% and 68% lower after midazolam (21+/-19) and diazepam emulsion (15+/-14) compared with saline (46+/-28). Finally, there was no difference in the time to achieve home-readiness or actual discharge time among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Premedication with midazolam or diazepam emulsion improved patients' comfort during needle localization procedures and significantly reduced intraoperative anxiety levels before breast biopsy procedures without prolonging discharge times. Use of diazepam emulsion may be an effective alternative to midazolam in this population.  (+info)

Postoperative behavioral outcomes in children: effects of sedative premedication. (3/1639)

BACKGROUND: Although multiple studies document the effect of sedative premedication on preoperative anxiety in children, there is a paucity of data regarding its effect on postoperative behavioral outcomes. METHODS: After screening for recent stressful life events, children undergoing anesthesia and surgery were assigned randomly to receive either 0.5 mg/kg midazolam in 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43) or 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43). Using validated measures of anxiety, children were evaluated before and after administration of the intervention and during induction of anesthesia. On postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14, the behavioral recovery of the children was assessed using the Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS: The intervention group demonstrated significantly lower anxiety levels compared with the placebo group on separation to the operating room and during induction of anesthesia (F[1,77] = 3.95, P = 0.041). Using a multivariate logistic regression model, the authors found that the presence or absence of postoperative behavioral changes was dependent on the group assignment (R = 0.18, P = 0.0001) and days after operation (R = -0.20, P = 0.0001). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that during postoperative days 1-7, a significantly smaller number of children in the midazolam group manifested negative behavioral changes. At week 2 postoperatively, however, there were no significant differences between the midazolam and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Children who are premedicated with midazolam before surgery have fewer negative behavioral changes during the first postoperative week.  (+info)

Mechanisms of bronchoprotection by anesthetic induction agents: propofol versus ketamine. (4/1639)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and ketamine have been purported to decrease bronchoconstriction during induction of anesthesia and intubation. Whether they act on airway smooth muscle or through neural reflexes has not been determined. We compared propofol and ketamine to attenuate the direct activation of airway smooth muscle by methacholine and limit neurally mediated bronchoconstriction (vagal nerve stimulation). METHODS: After approval from the institutional review board, eight sheep were anesthetized with pentobarbital, paralyzed, and ventilated. After left thoracotomy, the bronchial artery was cannulated and perfused. In random order, 5 mg/ml concentrations of propofol, ketamine, and thiopental were infused into the bronchial artery at rates of 0.06, 0.20, and 0.60 ml/min. After 10 min, airway resistance was measured before and after vagal nerve stimulation and methacholine given via the bronchial artery. Data were expressed as a percent of baseline response before infusion of drug and analyzed by analysis of variance with significance set at P< or =0.05. RESULTS: Systemic blood pressure was not affected by any of the drugs (P>0.46). Baseline airway resistance was not different among the three agents (P = 0.56) or by dose (P = 0.96). Infusion of propofol and ketamine into the bronchial artery caused a dose-dependent attenuation of the vagal nerve stimulation-induced bronchoconstriction to 26+/-11% and 8+/-2% of maximum, respectively (P<0.0001). In addition, propofol caused a significant decrease in the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction to 43+/-27% of maximum at the highest concentration (P = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The local bronchoprotective effects of ketamine and propofol on airways is through neurally mediated mechanisms. Although the direct effects on airway smooth muscle occur at high concentrations, these are unlikely to be of primary clinical relevance.  (+info)

Propofol concentrations in follicular fluid during general anaesthesia for transvaginal oocyte retrieval. (5/1639)

Propofol (Diprivan) is an i.v. anaesthetic used for general anaesthesia. The purpose of this study was to measure the propofol concentration in arterial blood and follicular fluid in patients during transvaginal oocyte retrieval. After approval by the University Ethics Committee, 30 women participated in this prospective study. Following induction of anaesthesia with 0.5 mg alfentanil and 2 propofol i.v., a continuous infusion of propofol at 10 was used for maintenance of anaesthesia. Follicular fluid and arterial blood samples were aspirated simultaneously at fixed intervals during the surgical procedure and propofol assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean follicular fluid concentration of propofol increased linearly with time from 0.10 +/- 0.02 to 0.57 +/- 0.06 and was strongly related to the cumulative dose of propofol administered. The absorption of propofol was time-dependent. There was no correlation between the concentration of propofol in the follicular fluid and the arterial blood concentration of the drug. In conclusion, a propofol-based anaesthetic technique resulted in significant concentrations of this agent in follicular fluid, related to the dose administered and to the duration of propofol administration.  (+info)

Effects of inhaled oxygen concentration on fat metabolism during propofol infusion in rabbits. (6/1639)

We have investigated the effect of inhaled oxygen tension on lipid metabolism during propofol infusion. Propofol is supplied as a lipid emulsion containing 10% soybean oil, which is rich in triglycerides (TG). Infused TG are metabolized via three pathways in the liver cell; Krebs cycle, ketogenesis and release as very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) into the blood. For this reason, we measured TG and the products of the three pathways; carbon dioxide, ketone bodies and VLDL. Thirty-two rabbits were anaesthetized under four different conditions: propofol under hyperoxia, normoxia, hypoxia and isoflurane anaesthesia under hyperoxia. Our results indicated that hyperoxia produced more ketone bodies, normoxia more PaCO2 and hypoxia more free fatty acids (FFA) and TG compared with the other propofol infusion groups. We conclude that hyperoxia during propofol infusion facilitated fat metabolism through ketogenesis, while normoxia did so via the Krebs cycle. Also, hypoxia suppressed utilization of TG and VLDL production in the liver.  (+info)

Thiopental and propofol impair relaxation produced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers in the rat aorta. (7/1639)

ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers are used as vasodilators in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The effects of i.v. anaesthetics on arterial relaxation induced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we have examined if thiopental (thiopentone) and propofol affect the vascular response to the ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers, cromakalim and pinacidil, in the isolated rat aorta. Rings of rat thoracic aortas without endothelium were suspended for isometric force recording. Concentration-response curves were obtained in a cumulative manner. During submaximal contractions with phenylephrine 0.3 mumol litre-1, relaxation after cromakalim 0.1-30 mumol litre-1, pinacidil 0.1-30 mumol litre-1 and papaverine 0.1-300 mumol litre-1 was demonstrated. Thiopental 30-300 mumol litre-1, propofol 10-100 mumol litre-1, 10% Intralipid 45 microliters or glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1 were applied 15 min before addition of phenylephrine. During contractions with phenylephrine, cromakalim and pinacidil induced concentration-dependent relaxation. A selective ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist, glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1, abolished this relaxation, whereas it did not affect relaxation produced by papaverine. Thiopental concentrations > 30 mumol litre-1 significantly impaired relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil. Propofol concentrations > 10 mumol litre-1 also significantly reduced relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil, whereas Intralipid was ineffective. Thiopental 300 mumol litre-1 and propofol 100 mumol litre-1 did not alter relaxation produced by papaverine. These results suggest that the i.v. anaesthetics, thiopental and propofol, impaired vasodilatation mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.  (+info)

Effect of remifentanil on the auditory evoked response and haemodynamic changes after intubation and surgical incision. (8/1639)

We have observed the effect of intubation and incision, as measured by the auditory evoked response (AER) and haemodynamic variables, in 12 patients undergoing hernia repair or varicose vein surgery who received remifentanil as part of either an inhaled anaesthetic technique using isoflurane or as part of a total i.v. technique using propofol. Anaesthesia was induced with remifentanil 1 microgram kg-1 and propofol, neuromuscular block was achieved with atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 before intubation, and anaesthesia was maintained with a continuous infusion of remifentanil in combination with either a continuous infusion of propofol or inhaled isoflurane. The AER and haemodynamic variables were measured before and after intubation and incision. The effects of intubation and incision on the AER and haemodynamic variables were not significantly different between the remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-isoflurane groups. However, the study had a low power for this comparison. When the data for the two anaesthetic combinations were pooled, the only significant effects were increases in diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate immediately after intubation; these were not seen 5 min after intubation. There were no cardiovascular responses to incision. There were no significant changes in the AER after intubation or incision.  (+info)

Postoperative pain is typically managed with pain medication, which may include opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or other types of medications. The goal of managing postoperative pain is to provide effective pain relief while minimizing the risk of complications such as addiction, constipation, or nausea and vomiting.

In addition to medication, other techniques for managing postoperative pain may include breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. It is important for patients to communicate with their healthcare provider about the severity of their pain and any side effects they experience from medication, in order to provide effective pain management and minimize complications.

Postoperative pain can be categorized into several different types, including:

* Acute pain: This type of pain is intense but short-lived, typically lasting for a few days or weeks after surgery.
* Chronic pain: This type of pain persists for longer than 3 months after surgery and can be more challenging to manage.
* Neuropathic pain: This type of pain is caused by damage to nerves and can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
* Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs and can be referred to other areas of the body, such as the back or abdomen.

The exact cause of malignant hyperthermia is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a genetic predisposition and exposure to certain anesthetic agents. The condition can be triggered by a variety of factors, including the use of certain anesthetics, stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, and changes in blood sugar levels.

Symptoms of malignant hyperthermia can include:

* Elevated body temperature (usually above 104°F/40°C)
* Muscle rigidity and stiffness
* Heart arrhythmias and palpitations
* Shivering or tremors
* Confusion, agitation, or other neurological symptoms
* Shortness of breath or respiratory failure

If left untreated, malignant hyperthermia can lead to serious complications such as seizures, brain damage, and even death. Treatment typically involves the immediate discontinuation of any triggering anesthetic agents, cooling measures such as ice packs or cold compresses, and medications to help regulate body temperature and reduce muscle rigidity. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support breathing.

Overall, malignant hyperthermia is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes.

Some common examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding during surgery can lead to hypovolemia (low blood volume), anemia (low red blood cell count), and even death.
2. Infection: Surgical wounds can become infected, leading to sepsis or bacteremia (bacterial infection of the bloodstream).
3. Nerve damage: Surgery can sometimes result in nerve damage, leading to numbness, weakness, or paralysis.
4. Organ injury: Injury to organs such as the liver, lung, or bowel can occur during surgery, leading to complications such as bleeding, infection, or organ failure.
5. Anesthesia-related complications: Problems with anesthesia can include respiratory or cardiac depression, allergic reactions, or awareness during anesthesia (a rare but potentially devastating complication).
6. Hypotension: Low blood pressure during surgery can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs and tissues, resulting in organ damage or death.
7. Thromboembolism: Blood clots can form during surgery and travel to other parts of the body, causing complications such as stroke, pulmonary embolism, or deep vein thrombosis.
8. Postoperative respiratory failure: Respiratory complications can occur after surgery, leading to respiratory failure, pneumonia, or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
9. Wound dehiscence: The incision site can separate or come open after surgery, leading to infection, fluid accumulation, or hernia.
10. Seroma: A collection of serous fluid that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
11. Nerve damage: Injury to nerves during surgery can result in numbness, weakness, or paralysis, sometimes permanently.
12. Urinary retention or incontinence: Surgery can damage the bladder or urinary sphincter, leading to urinary retention or incontinence.
13. Hematoma: A collection of blood that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
14. Pneumonia: Inflammation of the lungs after surgery can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi and can lead to serious complications.
15. Sepsis: A systemic inflammatory response to infection that can occur after surgery, leading to organ dysfunction and death if not treated promptly.

It is important to note that these are potential complications, and not all patients will experience them. Additionally, many of these complications are rare, and the vast majority of surgeries are successful with minimal or no complications. However, it is important for patients to be aware of the potential risks before undergoing surgery so they can make an informed decision about their care.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

There are several different types of unconsciousness, including:

1. Concussion: A mild form of traumatic brain injury that can cause temporary unconsciousness, confusion, and amnesia.
2. Coma: A more severe form of unconsciousness that can be caused by a head injury, stroke, or other medical condition. Comas can last for days, weeks, or even months.
3. Vegetative state: A condition in which a person is unaware and unresponsive, but still has some reflexes. This can be caused by a traumatic brain injury, stroke, or other medical condition.
4. Persistent vegetative state (PVS): A long-term version of the vegetative state that can last for months or years.
5. Brain death: A permanent form of unconsciousness that is caused by severe damage to the brain.

Unconsciousness can be diagnosed through a variety of medical tests, including:

1. Neurological exam: A doctor will check the patient's reflexes, muscle strength, and sensation to determine the extent of any brain damage.
2. Imaging tests: CT or MRI scans can help doctors identify any structural abnormalities in the brain that may be causing unconsciousness.
3. Electroencephalogram (EEG): A test that measures electrical activity in the brain to determine if there is any abnormal brain wave activity.
4. Blood tests: To rule out other medical conditions that may be causing unconsciousness, such as infections or poisoning.

Treatment for unconsciousness depends on the underlying cause and can range from simple observation to complex surgical procedures. Some common treatments include:

1. Medications: To control seizures, reduce inflammation, or regulate brain activity.
2. Surgery: To relieve pressure on the brain, repair damaged blood vessels, or remove tumors.
3. Rehabilitation: To help the patient regain lost cognitive and motor function.
4. Supportive care: To address any other medical conditions that may be contributing to the unconsciousness, such as infections or respiratory failure.

PONV can be caused by various factors, including:

1. Anesthesia-related factors: The type and dose of anesthesia used, as well as the duration of anesthesia exposure, can contribute to PONV.
2. Surgical factors: The type and duration of surgery, as well as any complications during the procedure, can increase the risk of PONV.
3. Patient-related factors: Factors such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and medical history can influence the likelihood of PONV.
4. Medication-related factors: Certain medications used during or after surgery, such as opioids and benzodiazepines, can increase the risk of PONV.

PONV can lead to a range of complications, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and aspiration pneumonia. It can also cause significant discomfort, pain, and distress for patients, leading to delayed recovery and increased healthcare costs.

There are several strategies to prevent or manage PONV, including:

1. Anti-nausea medications: Prophylactic medications such as ondansetron, dolasetron, and granisetron can be given before or after surgery to reduce the risk of PONV.
2. Anesthesia techniques: Techniques such as avoiding general anesthesia, using regional anesthesia, and maintaining a stable body temperature can help reduce the risk of PONV.
3. Patient positioning: Positioning patients in a way that minimizes pressure on the stomach and diaphragm can help reduce the risk of PONV.
4. Fluid management: Encouraging patients to drink fluids before and after surgery can help prevent dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
5. Deep breathing exercises: Encouraging patients to perform deep breathing exercises during the recovery period can help reduce nausea and vomiting.
6. Aromatherapy: Using aromatherapy with essential oils such as lavender and peppermint can help reduce nausea and vomiting.
7. Ginger: Ginger has anti-inflammatory properties and has been shown to reduce nausea and vomiting in some studies.
8. Vitamin B6: Some studies have suggested that taking vitamin B6 before surgery may reduce the risk of PONV.
9. Acupuncture: Acupuncture has been shown to reduce PONV in some studies.
10. Herbal remedies: Some herbal remedies such as peppermint, ginger, and chamomile have anti-nausea properties and may help reduce PONV.

It is important for patients to discuss their individual risk factors with their anesthesiologist before undergoing surgery and to follow any instructions provided by their healthcare provider regarding prevention and management of PONV.

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

There are several different types of drug hypersensitivity reactions, including:

1. Maculopapular exanthema (MPE): This is a type of allergic reaction that causes a red, itchy rash to appear on the skin. It can be caused by a variety of medications, including antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
2. Exfoliative dermatitis: This is a more severe form of MPE that can cause widespread scaling and peeling of the skin. It is often associated with reactions to antibiotics and other medications.
3. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS): This is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that can be caused by certain medications, including antibiotics and NSAIDs. SJS can cause blisters to form on the skin and mucous membranes, as well as fever and fatigue.
4. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN): This is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition that can be caused by certain medications, including antibiotics and NSAIDs. TEN can cause widespread peeling of the skin, as well as fever and fatigue.
5. Anaphylaxis: This is a severe allergic reaction that can be caused by a variety of medications, including antibiotics and NSAIDs. It can cause symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing.

Drug hypersensitivity reactions can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the medication that is causing the reaction, as well as providing supportive care to manage symptoms such as fever, itching, and pain. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the reaction.

Prevention of drug hypersensitivity reactions can be challenging, but there are several strategies that can help reduce the risk. These include:

1. Gradual dose escalation: When starting a new medication, it is important to gradually increase the dose over time to allow the body to adjust.
2. Monitoring for signs of a reaction: Patients should be monitored closely for signs of a reaction, such as hives, itching, or difficulty breathing.
3. Avoiding certain medications: In some cases, it may be necessary to avoid certain medications that are known to cause hypersensitivity reactions.
4. Skin testing: Skin testing can be used to determine whether a patient is allergic to a particular medication before starting treatment.
5. Desensitization: In some cases, desensitization therapy may be used to gradually expose the patient to the medication that is causing the reaction, with the goal of reducing the risk of an adverse event.

Word origin: [O. Eng. larynx + Gr. , voice.]


1. Stuttering.
2. Hysterical stammering.
3. Spasmodic dysartria.

Note under Dysarthria: Laryngismus is a form of spasmodic dysarthria, the spasms being more sudden and violent than in the ordinary type.

Source: Stedman's Medical Dictionary (28th ed.) via

Terms popularity compared to other word forms of 'laryngismus':

Laryngismus has been less popular than other word forms such as 'laryngitis'.

Reference link:

Hypothermia can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild hypothermia is characterized by shivering and a body temperature of 95 to 97 degrees Fahrenheit (32 to 36.1 degrees Celsius). Moderate hypothermia has a body temperature of 82 to 94 degrees Fahrenheit (28 to 34 degrees Celsius), and the person may appear lethargic, drowsy, or confused. Severe hypothermia is characterized by a body temperature below 82 degrees Fahrenheit (28 degrees Celsius) and can lead to coma and even death if not treated promptly.

Treatment for hypothermia typically involves warming the person up slowly, using blankets or heating pads, and providing warm fluids to drink. In severe cases, medical professionals may use a specialized warm water bath or apply warm packs to specific areas of the body.

Preventing hypothermia is important, especially in cold weather conditions. This can be done by dressing appropriately for the weather, staying dry and avoiding wet clothing, eating regularly to maintain energy levels, and seeking shelter if you become stranded or lost. It's also essential to recognize the signs of hypothermia early on so that treatment can begin promptly.

Intraoperative awareness is a serious issue because it can lead to memory recall of the surgical procedure, which can be distressing for the patient. In some cases, patients may also experience pain or discomfort during the procedure, which can result in long-term psychological and emotional sequelae.

The exact incidence of intraoperative awareness is not well established, but it is estimated to occur in 1-2% of all surgical procedures. However, the phenomenon is likely underreported due to the difficulty of detecting and documenting consciousness during anesthesia.

The causes of intraoperative awareness are multifactorial and may include:

* Inadequate dosing or timing of anesthetic medications
* Drug interactions or allergies
* Technical difficulties with the anesthesia equipment
* Patient factors such as obesity, sleep apnea, or psychiatric disorders

To minimize the risk of intraoperative awareness, anesthesiologists use a variety of techniques to ensure adequate anesthesia and avoid any potential complications. These may include:

* Using multiple anesthetic drugs and monitoring devices to maintain appropriate depth of anesthesia
* Administering additional doses of anesthetics as needed during the procedure
* Regularly checking the patient's vital signs and level of consciousness during the procedure
* Providing adequate pain management during the recovery period

Overall, intraoperative awareness is a rare but potentially distressing complication of anesthesia that can have long-term psychological and emotional consequences. Anesthesiologists must be vigilant in monitoring their patients' consciousness levels throughout the surgical procedure to minimize the risk of this phenomenon.

Trauma to the face or mouth
Gingivitis (inflammation of the gums)
Periodontal disease (gum disease)
Viral infections such as herpes simplex
Bacterial infections such as strep throat
Canker sores (ulcers on the lining of the mouth)
Leukoplakia (abnormal growth of cells on the lining of the mouth)
Oral cancer

Symptoms of an oral hemorrhage can include:

Blood in the saliva
Blood on the teeth, gums, or tongue
Pain or discomfort in the mouth
Difficulty swallowing
Bad breath (halitosis)

Treatment for an oral hemorrhage will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

Antibiotics to treat bacterial infections
Pain relief medication
Topical anesthetics to numb the affected area
Cold compresses to reduce swelling
In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to stop the bleeding or remove any damaged tissue.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience an oral hemorrhage, as it can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition. A healthcare professional can diagnose the cause of the bleeding and provide appropriate treatment.

Synonyms: Bronchial Constriction, Airway Spasm, Reversible Airway Obstruction.

Antonyms: Bronchodilation, Relaxation of Bronchial Muscles.

Example Sentences:

1. The patient experienced bronchial spasms during the asthma attack and was treated with an inhaler.
2. The bronchial spasm caused by the allergic reaction was relieved by administering epinephrine.
3. The doctor prescribed corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and prevent future bronchial spasms.

* Definition: A hernia that occurs when a part of the intestine bulges through a weakened area in the abdominal wall, typically near the inguinal region.
* Also known as: Direct or indirect inguinal hernia
* Prevalence: Common, affecting approximately 2% of adult males and 1% of adult females.
* Causes: Weakened abdominal muscles, age-related degeneration, previous surgery, or injury.

Slide 2: Types of Inguinal Hernia

* Indirect inguinal hernia: Occurs when a part of the intestine descends into the inguinal canal and protrudes through a weakened area in the abdominal wall.
* Direct inguinal hernia: Occurs when a part of the intestine protrudes directly through a weakened area in the abdominal wall, without passing through the inguinal canal.
* Recurrent inguinal hernia: Occurs when a previous hernia recurs after previous surgical repair.

Slide 3: Symptoms of Inguinal Hernia

* Bulge or lump in the groin area, often more prominent when coughing or straining.
* Pain or discomfort in the groin area, which may be exacerbated by straining or heavy lifting.
* Burning sensation or weakness in the groin area.
* Abdominal pain or nausea.

Slide 4: Diagnosis of Inguinal Hernia

* Physical examination to detect the presence of a bulge or lump in the groin area.
* Imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions.

Slide 5: Treatment of Inguinal Hernia

* Surgery is the primary treatment for inguinal hernia, which involves repairing the weakened area in the abdominal wall and returning the protruded intestine to its proper position.
* Open hernia repair: A surgical incision is made in the groin area to access the hernia sac and repair it with synthetic mesh or other materials.
* Laparoscopic hernia repair: A minimally invasive procedure in which a small camera and specialized instruments are inserted through small incisions to repair the hernia sac.

Slide 6: Prevention of Inguinal Hernia

* Maintaining a healthy weight to reduce strain on the abdominal wall.
* Avoiding heavy lifting or strenuous activities that can put additional pressure on the abdominal wall.
* Keeping the abdominal wall muscles strong through exercises such as crunches and planks.
* Avoiding smoking and other unhealthy habits that can weaken the abdominal wall.

Slide 7: Complications of Inguinal Hernia

* Strangulation: When the hernia sac becomes trapped and its blood supply is cut off, it can lead to tissue death and potentially life-threatening complications.
* Obstruction: The hernia can cause a blockage in the intestine, leading to abdominal pain, vomiting, and constipation.
* Recurrence: In some cases, the hernia may recur after initial repair.

Slide 8: Treatment of Complications

* Strangulation: Emergency surgery is necessary to release the trapped tissue and restore blood flow.
* Obstruction: Surgical intervention may be required to remove the blockage and restore intestinal function.
* Recurrence: Repeat hernia repair surgery may be necessary to prevent recurrence.

Slide 9: Prognosis and Quality of Life

* With prompt and proper treatment, the prognosis for inguinal hernia is generally good, and most people can expect a full recovery.
* In some cases, complications such as strangulation or obstruction may result in long-term health problems or impaired quality of life.
* However, with appropriate management and follow-up care, many people with inguinal hernia can lead active and healthy lives.

Slide 10: Conclusion

* Inguinal hernia is a common condition that can cause significant discomfort and complications if left untreated.
* Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
* With proper management, most people with inguinal hernia can expect a full recovery and improved quality of life.

The term "decerebrate" comes from the Latin word "cerebrum," which means brain. In this context, the term refers to a state where the brain is significantly damaged or absent, leading to a loss of consciousness and other cognitive functions.

Some common symptoms of the decerebrate state include:

* Loss of consciousness
* Flaccid paralysis (loss of muscle tone)
* Dilated pupils
* Lack of responsiveness to stimuli
* Poor or absent reflexes
* Inability to speak or communicate

The decerebrate state can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Severe head injury
* Stroke or cerebral vasculature disorders
* Brain tumors or cysts
* Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Traumatic brain injury

Treatment for the decerebrate state is typically focused on addressing the underlying cause of the condition. This may involve medications to control seizures, antibiotics for infections, or surgery to relieve pressure on the brain. In some cases, the decerebrate state may be a permanent condition, and individuals may require long-term care and support.

Pharmacokinetics of intravenous anesthetics". In Evers, Alex S.; Maze, Mervyn; Kharasch, Evan D. (eds.). Anesthetic ... It was developed at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1964 and was introduced as an intravenous agent in 1972 in Europe and in 1983 in ... Continuous intravenous administration of etomidate leads to adrenocortical dysfunction. The mortality of patients exposed to a ... Chiara DC, Dostalova Z, Jayakar SS, Zhou X, Miller KW, Cohen JB (2012). "Mapping general anesthetic binding site(s) in human ...
Usually, inhalational and intravenous anesthetics are used. Requirements for anesthetics may be reduced in sepsis. Inhalational ... Within the first three hours, someone with sepsis should have received antibiotics and, intravenous fluids if there is evidence ... Monoclonal and polyclonal preparations of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) do not lower the rate of death in newborns and ... The 2016 Surviving Sepsis Campaign recommends low dose hydrocortisone only if both intravenous fluids and vasopressors are not ...
2] Egan T. D. (2003). Target-controlled drug delivery: progress toward an intravenous "vaporizer" and automated anesthetic ... Mahmoud, Mohamed; Mason, Keira P. (April 17, 2018). "Recent advances in intravenous anesthesia and anesthetics". F1000Research ... "Target-controlled Infusions for Intravenous Anesthetics: Surfing USA Not!". "Elder Talmage D. Egan". "Pictures: 2007 - ... and defined interactions between intravenous anesthetics i.e., propofol and opioids. Much of his research focuses on the ...
Larijani GE, Gratz I, Afshar M, Jacobi AG (October 1989). "Clinical pharmacology of propofol: an intravenous anesthetic agent ... Propofol has more pronounced hemodynamic effects relative to many intravenous anesthetic agents. Reports of blood pressure ... Sebel PS, Lowdon JD (August 1989). "Propofol: a new intravenous anesthetic". Anesthesiology. 71 (2): 260-277. doi:10.1097/ ... 1305-7 Baudoin Z. General anesthetics and anesthetic gases. In Dukes MNG and Aronson JK (Eds.). Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs ...
Cave G, Harvey M (September 2009). "Intravenous lipid emulsion as antidote beyond local anesthetic toxicity: a systematic ... Amylocaine Anesthetic General anesthetic List of cocaine analogues List of local anesthetics Ryan T, Hodge A, Holyoak R, Vlok R ... A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes absence of pain sensation. In the context of surgery, a local anesthetic ... Anesthetic deposition is recommended at 0.2 mL, per root or site, over minimally 20 seconds. For its success, the anesthetic ...
The intravenous dose causing 50% of opioid-naive experimental subjects to die (LD50) is "3 mg/kg in rats, 1 mg/kg in cats, 14 ... To maintain anesthesia, inhaled anesthetics and additional fentanyl may be used. These are often given in 15-30 minute ... Intravenous fentanyl is often used for anesthesia and to treat pain. To induce anesthesia, it is given with a sedative-hypnotic ... Smith HS, Colson J, Sehgal N (April 2013). "An update of evaluation of intravenous sedation on diagnostic spinal injection ...
"Sneezing reflex associated with intravenous sedation and periocular anesthetic injection". American Journal of Ophthalmology. ... the patient often requires injection of a local anesthetic into the eye. In patients who show the photic sneeze reflex, an ... often resulting in the anesthesiologist having to remove the needle before injecting the local anesthetic. A condition called ...
He specializes in the clinical pharmacology of intravenous anesthetic drugs. Shafer left Stanford in 2007 to go to Columbia ...
Systemic local anesthetics: local anesthetics are given systemically (orally or intravenous) to relieve neuropathic pain. A ... In the 1930s, physicians started to augment inhaled general anesthetics with intravenous general anesthetics. The drugs used in ... Intravenous anesthetic is delivered either by bolus doses or an infusion pump. There are also many smaller instruments used in ... More recently, several intravenous drugs have been developed which, if desired, allow inhaled general anesthetics to be avoided ...
Advised is to use an intravenous injection of fast-acting anesthetics directly after poisoning. The anesthetic should be ... From intravenous injection mice, rats and guinea pigs show symptoms after 15 min to 2 hours. The animals become quiet and limp ...
... goes into effect 90 seconds after intravenous (IV) administration, and its anesthetic effects typically last for half ... Frederickson EL, Longnecker DE, Allen GW (May-Jun 1976). "Clinical investigation of a new intravenous anesthetic--etoxadrol ... As an anesthetic, etoxadrol is more potent than ketamine, but less potent than PCP. Etoxadrol is also a potent analgesic. ... Hidalgo J, Dileo RM, Rikimaru MT, Guzman RJ, Thompson CR (Mar-Apr 1971). "Etoxadrol (CL-1848C) a new dissociative anesthetic: ...
... a Photoactive Analogue of the Intravenous General Anesthetic Propofol". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 53 (15): 5667-5675. doi ...
Weber M, Motin L, Gaul S, Beker F, Fink RH, Adams DJ (January 2005). "Intravenous anesthetics inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine ...
Propofol-based anesthetic techniques result in significant concentrations of propofol in follicular fluid. As propofol has been ... Bumen S, Gunusen I, Firat V, Karaman S, Akdogan A, Tavmergen Goker EN (2011). "A comparison of intravenous general anesthesia ... Viscomi CM, Hill K, Johnson J, Sites C (January 1997). "Spinal anesthesia versus intravenous sedation for transvaginal oocyte ... Local anesthesia is not typically used because local anesthetic agents interfere with follicular cleavage and the technique ...
Local anesthetic receptor site binds local anesthetics, antiarrhythmic drugs and antiepileptic drugs NSTX and other site 1 ... Guay J (December 2009). "Adverse events associated with intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier block): a systematic review of ... The medical use of the NSTX anesthetic effect is supported by three reasons: NSTX anesthetic duration: Any current available ... well over all the current available local anesthetics. Some investigations demonstrated anesthetic effect lasting over one week ...
... they are frequently used along with other agents such as intravenous non-opioid anesthetics or inhalational anesthetics. ... Unlike the intravenous anesthetic drugs previously mentioned, ketamine produces profound pain relief, even in doses lower than ... Local anesthetics can be either ester- or amide-based. Ester local anesthetics (such as procaine, amethocaine, cocaine, ... Anesthetics are distinct from analgesics, which block only sensation of painful stimuli.[citation needed] Local anesthetic ...
Hirota K, Hashimoto Y, Lambert DG (December 2002). "Interaction of intravenous anesthetics with recombinant human M1-M3 ... It suppresses breathing much less than most other available anesthetics. When used at anesthetic doses, ketamine usually ... At lower sub-anesthetic doses, psychiatric side effects are prominent. Most people feel strange, spacey, woozy, or a sense of ... After an intravenous injection of tritium-labelled ketamine, 91% of the radioactivity is recovered from urine and 3% from the ...
Irwin S, Stagg RD, Dunbar E, Govier WM (March 1956). "Methitural, a new intravenous anesthetic: comparison with thiopental in ... as an ultra-short-acting intravenous anesthetic. A somewhat more complex side chain is incorporated by alkylation of the ... General anesthetics, Thiobarbiturates, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators, All stub articles, Sedative stubs). ...
Many new intravenous and inhalational anesthetics were developed and brought into clinical use during the second half of the ... Sodium thiopental, the first intravenous anesthetic, was synthesized in 1934 by Ernest H. Volwiler (1893-1992) and Donalee L. ... a potent intravenous anesthetic induction agent. The concept of using a fiberoptic endoscope for tracheal intubation was ... topical application of local anesthetics to the mucosa, rectal anesthesia, or intravenous anesthesia. While otherwise effective ...
Often the dosage of induction agents (e.g. propofol) may be drastically reduced, as may the volumes of anesthetic gases (i.e. ... It is an α2 adrenergic agonist that can be administered as an intravenous drug solution with sterile water. It was developed by ... Medetomidine is a synthetic drug used as both a surgical anesthetic and analgesic. It is often used as the hydrochloride salt, ... It can be given by intramuscular injection (IM), subcutaneous injection (SC) or intravenous injection (IV). When delivered ...
It can be used as a local anesthetic, especially with epinephrine. As a dye solvent, it enhances the process of dying wool, ... Benzyl alcohol is used as a bacteriostatic preservative at low concentration in intravenous medications, cosmetics, and topical ... "Benzyl alcohol as an alternative local anesthetic". Annals of Emergency Medicine. 33 (5): 495-499. doi:10.1016/s0196-0644(99) ...
The GABAA receptor has been identified as the main target of intravenous anesthetics such as propofol and etomidate. The ... Rebuttal to the objection: 1) Stereo selective transport of the anesthetic was never considered. Anesthetics are hydrophobic ... The anesthetics work by inserting into the membrane between the cholesterol and the palmitate, which disrupts the ability of ... However, for certain intravenous anaesthetics, such as propofol and etomidate, the molecular target has been identified as the ...
Pentothal's discovery revolutionized intravenous anesthesia. The anesthetic can quickly put patients to sleep for a short ... In 1934, Volwiler and Tabern synthesized the first intravenous general anesthetic, Sodium thiopental, in 1934. In the mid 1930s ... He was a pioneer in the field of anesthetic pharmacology, assisting in the development of two breakthrough drugs, Nembutal and ... Volwiler was a pioneer in the field of anesthetic pharmacology, assisting in the development of two breakthrough drugs, the ...
As with intravenous anesthetic infusions, prolonged delivery of highly soluble anesthetic gases generally results in longer ... This process is accelerated with intravenous anesthetics, so much so that it is negligible to consider during their use. The ... Generally, inhalational anesthetics that are minimally soluble reach equilibrium more quickly. Inhalational anesthetics that ... K2Ps have been found to be affected by general anesthetics (esp. halogenated inhalation anesthetics) and are currently under ...
Upon administration of intravenous anesthetic, unconsciousness, respiratory then cardiac arrest follow rapidly, usually within ... Gas anesthetics such as isoflurane and sevoflurane can be used for euthanasia of very small animals. The animals are placed in ... When intravenous injection is not possible, euthanasia drugs such as pentobarbital can be injected directly into a heart ... In the U.S., for companion animals euthanized in animal shelters, most states prescribe intravenous injection as the required ...
"The in vitro mechanisms and in vivo efficacy of intravenous lidocaine on the neuroinflammatory response in acute and chronic ... Local anesthetic nerve block (local anesthetic regional nerve blockade, or often simply nerve block) is a short-term nerve ... Since the plexus is located deep, there is an increased risk of local anesthetic toxicity, so less toxic anesthetics like ... The local anesthetic bathes the nerve and numbs the area of the body that is supplied by that nerve. The goal of the nerve ...
Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment has shown some promise in reducing the length of the reaction and improving symptoms. ... Other common supportive measures include the use of topical pain anesthetics and antiseptics, maintaining a warm environment, ... Efforts may include stopping the cause, pain medication, antihistamines, antibiotics, intravenous immunoglobulins or ... intravenous fluids and nasogastric or parenteral feeding) and symptomatic (e.g., analgesic mouth rinse for mouth ulcer). ...
Ketamine is the most widely anesthetic agent used for the long time operation. Pharmacokinetics After an intravenous therapy, ... Using the anesthetic injection medicine, which is a portion of balanced anesthetic techniques, can be made like a single ... Compare with the balanced anesthetic techniques, the low concentration of inhalant anesthetic agents and other medicines are ... which is always lower than using the single anesthetics. The doses of anesthetics will have a change, which depends on the ...
Although newer intravenous anesthetics (such as propofol) have increased the options of anesthesiologists, halogenated ethers ... Inhalation anesthetics are vaporized and mixed with other gases prior to their inhalation by the patient before or during ... This is among the most important reasons that diethyl ether has fallen out of favor as a general anesthetic. Diethyl ether is ... All inhalation anesthetics in current clinical use are halogenated ethers, except for halothane (which is a halogenated ...
Provided a dentist performs proper aspiration to avoid intravenous injections, local anesthetics containing epinephrine ( ... It includes local anesthetics, sedation, and general anesthesia. In dentistry, the most commonly used local anesthetic is ... A dental syringe is a syringe for the injection of a local anesthetic. It consists of a breech-loading syringe fitted with a ... Topical anesthetics benzocaine, eugenol, and forms of xylocaine are used topically to numb various areas before injections or ...
The baby's father or other support person may also choose to hold the baby SSC until the mother recovers from the anesthetic. ... or with a combination of prostaglandin and intravenous oxytocin treatment. Caesarean section is the removal of the neonate ...
Joseph DeLee, an obstetrician, stated in the early 20th century that hypnosis was the only risk-free childbirth anesthetic. ... Effects on Pain Perception and Intravenous Drug Use", International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol.44, No.2 ...
Slow intravenous administration of physostigmine may reverse some of the toxic effects of overdose such as anticholinergic ... and as a local anesthetic). The potencies of doxepin in terms of its receptor antagonism specifically are as follows: Extremely ...
Intravenous flumazenil is primarily used to treat benzodiazepine overdoses and to help reverse anesthesia. Administration of ... and most anesthetics) and does not reverse the effects of opioids. It will however antagonize the action of non-benzodiazepine ... Intravenous flumazenil has been shown to antagonize sedation, impairment of recall, psychomotor impairment and ventilatory ... It is available as a clear, colourless solution for intravenous injection, containing 500 μg in 5 mL. Many benzodiazepines ( ...
... intravenous hydrocortisone in the operating room prior to anesthesia Repeat administration of 25-50 mg intravenous ... or during anesthetic induction. While the above symptoms are classic, other common clinical manifestations have been reported ... Furthermore, the intravenous contrast used in CT can cause kidney damage and should therefore be avoided in patients with pre- ... Some institutions in the United States will even admit patients the night prior to surgery for intravenous fluid replacement ...
March 8 - Sodium thiopental, the first intravenous anesthetic, synthesized by Ernest H. Volwiler with Donalee L. Tabern of ...
... is contraindicated for intravenous (IV) injection, as it has shown to cause hemolysis. Other contraindications ... and use in pre-anesthetic adjunctive therapy should be modified depending upon the state of the individual. Hydroxyzine is used ...
"Studies on Local Anesthetics. XX. Synthesis of Some alpha-Monoalkylamino-2-methylpropionanilides. A New Useful Local Anesthetic ... As it has low cardiac toxicity, it is commonly used for intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA). In some patients, ortho- ... Prilocaine (/ˈpraɪləˌkeɪn/) is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Löfgren. In ... "Topical Anesthesia Use in Children: Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics". Retrieved 2014-01-07. The United ...
Temporary lesions - Neural tissue is temporarily disabled by cooling or by the use of anesthetics such as tetrodotoxin. ... Antagonists can be delivered systemically (such as by intravenous injection) or locally (intracerebrally) during a surgical ... Agonists can be delivered systemically (such as by intravenous injection) or locally (intracerebrally) during a surgical ...
It was concluded that IP administration should not be used over intravenous therapy due to high radiation absorption in the ... One study utilized IP injections to study pain in the abdomen after a hysterectomy when administering anesthetic continuously ... Wang, M.; Liang, C.; Hu, H. (2016). "Intraperitoneal injection (IP), Intravenous injection (IV) or anal injection (AI)? Best ... The results depicted that ketobemidone consumption was significantly lower when patients controlled anesthetic through IP. This ...
If intravenous midazolam is given too quickly, hypotension may occur. A "midazolam infusion syndrome" may result from high ... As of 2010[update], it is the most commonly used benzodiazepine in anesthetic medicine. In acute medicine, midazolam has become ... Intravenous midazolam is indicated for procedural sedation (often in combination with an opioid, such as fentanyl), ... Midazolam is effective for status epilepticus or when intravenous access cannot be obtained, and has advantages of being water- ...
The convulsant properties of flurothyl pose a challenge to unifying theories of general anesthetics such as the Meyer-Overton ... Karliner W (February 1963). "Clinical experiences with intravenous Indoklon: a new convulsant drug". Journal of Neuropsychiatry ... Koblin DD, Eger EI, Johnson BH, Collins P, Terrell RC, Speers L (July 1981). "Are convulsant gases also anesthetics?". ... Wakamori M, Ikemoto Y, Akaike N (December 1991). "Effects of two volatile anesthetics and a volatile convulsant on the ...
The client also has a secured peripheral intravenous (IV) access, blood pressure cuff around one extremity, and is connected to ... The client is then given a short-acting anesthetic, such as methohexital, and also given a muscle relaxant, such as ...
Most prominent acharonim rule that the mitzvah of brit milah lies in the pain it causes, and anesthetic, sedation, or ointment ... Berger, Itai; Steinberg, Avraham (May 2002). "Neonatal mydriasis: intravenous lidocaine adverse reaction". J Child Neurol. 17 ( ...
Anesthetic gases used for surgery, such as nitrous oxide or enflurane, are believed to induce anesthesia primarily by acting as ... and inhaled solvent use is statistically more likely to result in life-threatening respiratory depression than intravenous use ... This makes inhaled anesthetic gases different from other NMDA antagonists, such as ketamine, which bind to a regulatory site on ... Several medical anesthetics are used as recreational drugs, including diethyl ether (a drug that is no longer used medically, ...
... is a sedative and hypnotic drug being researched as a potential anesthetic. It has similar effects to sedative-hypnotic ... Sneyd JR, Rigby-Jones AE (September 2010). "New drugs and technologies, intravenous anaesthesia is on the move (again)". ... General anesthetics, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators, Experimental drugs, All stub articles, Sedative stubs). ...
... intravenous atypical vascular proliferation, papular angioplasia, pseudopyogenic granuloma) Annular erythema of infancy ... Lanolin-induced Lipstick-induced Local anesthetic-induced Makassar ebony dermatitis Marine plant-induced Mechanical irritant ...
The direct antagonism of the NMDA receptor by the antibody, similar to the action of the classic dissociative anesthetics ... This involves steroids to suppress the immune system, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis to physically remove ...
Amisulpride (Barhemsys), administered by intravenous injection. Domperidone (Motilium) Olanzapine (Zyprexa) Haloperidol ( ... is given in low dose at the onset of a general anesthetic as an effective antiemetic. It is also used in chemotherapy as a ... intravenous injection, oral tablet or oral suspension for adults and children over 2 years of age. Hydroxyzine (Vistaril) ...
... then an intravenous induction agent: propofol. A muscle relaxant such as atracurium would be administered after this, though ... The use of coinduction allows lower doses of the same anesthetic agents to be used which provides enhanced safety, faster ... Coinduction is used in human medicine and veterinary medicine as standard practice to provide optimum anesthetic induction. The ... and is arguably the most dangerous period of a general anesthetic. A great variety of coinduction combinations are in use and ...
The most common causes of postpartum hemorrhage are lack of tone in the uterus from overstretching or the use of an anesthetic ... A single carbetocin dose compared to a placebo or an eight-hour intravenous drip of oxytocin in a randomized blind study, ... The bioavailable dose is around 80%. The elimination half-life following intravenous administration is around 40 minutes, ... following intravenous administration in horses". Equine Veterinary Journal. 40 (7): 658-61. doi:10.2746/042516408X334343. PMID ...
Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) refers to the intravenous administration of anesthetic agents to induce a temporary loss of ... Unlike inhaled anesthetic agents, intravenous agents do not have an indicative end-tidal anesthetic concentration (ETAC) for ... Using this new mode of delivery, many chemical compounds were tested as intravenous anesthetics. This was pioneered by Pierre- ... Reves, J.G.; Glass, Peter S.A.; Lubarsky, David A.; McEvoy, Matthew D.; Martinez-Ruiz, Ricardo (2010), "Intravenous Anesthetics ...
Crozier, TA; Müller, JE; Quittkat, D; Sydow, M; Wuttke, W; Kettler, D (Sep 1994). "[Total intravenous anesthesia with ... "Neurobiology of anesthetic-surgical stress and induced behavioral changes in dogs and cats: A review" (PDF). Veterinary World. ... a comparison of total intravenous versus balanced anesthesia". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 101 (6): 1700-5. doi:10.1213/01.ane. ... A Comparison of Total Intravenous Versus Balanced Anesthesia:". Anesthesia & Analgesia: 1700-1705. doi:10.1213/01.ane. ...
Its emergence as a club drug differs from other club drugs (e.g., MDMA), however, due to its anesthetic properties (e.g., ... After the publication of the NIH-run antidepressant clinical trial, clinics began opening in which the intravenous ketamine is ...
Peripherally administered (e.g. intravenous) peptides like oxytocin cross the blood-brain-barrier very poorly, although very ... Chan, Patrick; Uchizono, James A. (2015). "Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Anesthetics". Essentials of Pharmacology ...
... and desflurane-as well as intravenous anesthetics like ketamine and propofol. Studies in nonhuman primates have shown that ... Nearly all anesthetics that are antagonists of NMDA receptors and/or agonists of GABAA receptors have been shown to cause ... Exposures to anesthetics in early life can also cause genomic and epigenomic changes, including reduced levels of proteins that ... There is not conclusive clinical evidence that a single, brief anesthetic exposure in children under the age of three is ...
... intravenous MeSH D27.505.696. - anesthetics, dissociative MeSH D27.505.696.277.100.200 - anesthetics, local ... anesthetics, inhalation MeSH D27.505.954.427. - anesthetics, intravenous MeSH D27.505.954.427. ... anesthetics MeSH D27.505.696.277.100.017 - anesthetics, combined MeSH D27.505.696.277.100.035 - anesthetics, general MeSH ... anesthetics MeSH D27.505.954.427.210.100.017 - anesthetics, combined MeSH D27.505.954.427.210.100.035 - anesthetics, general ...
... and conscious intravenous sedation.[citation needed] Benzodiazepines are commonly used, specifically triazolam. Triazolam is ... Anesthetics, Anesthesia, Dentistry procedures). ... patient acceptance Amnesic effect Lower cost vs intravenous ...
All cases at all four hospitals were associated with the use of propofol, a newly introduced intravenous hypnotic anesthetic ... An epidemiologic investigation identified use of an intravenous anesthetic, propofol (DiprivanPr*), delivered by an infusion ... Postsurgical Infections Associated with an Extrinsically Contaminated Intravenous Anesthetic Agent -- California, Illinois, ... Propofol is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, white, soybean oil-in-water emulsion to be used by intravenous delivery for induction (by ...
Intravenous anesthetic agents such as midazolam, propofol, and ketamine are routinely used to provide anesthesia and sedation. ... Remimazolam - current knowledge on a new intravenous benzodiazepine anesthetic agent Seong-Hyop Kim 1 2 , Jörg Fechner 3 ... Remimazolam - current knowledge on a new intravenous benzodiazepine anesthetic agent Seong-Hyop Kim et al. Korean J Anesthesiol ... Intravenous anesthetic agents such as midazolam, propofol, and ketamine are routinely used to provide anesthesia and sedation. ...
Remimazolam - current knowledge on a new intravenous benzodiazepine anesthetic agent. Kim SH, Fechner J. Kim SH, et al. Korean ... Remimazolam is a new ultra-short-acting intravenous benzodiazepine sedative/anesthetic, which is a high-selective and affinity ... The effect of obstructive jaundice on the sensitivity of intravenous anesthetic of remimazolam: study protocol for a controlled ... The effect of obstructive jaundice on the sensitivity of intravenous anesthetic of remimazolam: study protocol for a controlled ...
Intravenous Anesthetics. Sevoflurane administration is compatible with barbiturates, propofol, and other commonly used ... Figure 3. Ratio of Concentration of Anesthetic in Alveolar Gas to Inspired Gas. Figure 4. Concentration of Anesthetic in ... The average MAC dose was 0.49 for both anesthetics. There was no significant difference between the anesthetic regimens for ... As with other halogenated volatile anesthetics, the anesthetic requirement for sevoflurane is decreased when administered in ...
Anesthetics, Intravenous -- administration & dosage. Anesthetics, Intravenous -- adverse effects. Anesthetics, Intravenous -- ... Start Over You searched for: Subjects Anesthetics, Intravenous -- adverse effects ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Anesthetics, ... Infusions, Intravenous -- adverse effects. Pain Management -- methods. Risk Assessment. Humans. Pennsylvania. United States ...
... inhalational and intravenous anesthetics, muscle relaxants. Developed by UMKC School of Medicine. ... Item Number: correct answer: 4 category: Anesthetics. 10. The intravenous anesthetic with excitatory effects on the central ... anesthetics.. Item Number: correct answer: 2 category: Anesthetics. 11. Anesthetic that must be administered in a lipid diluent ... Intravenous and inhalational anesthetics, MCQs for test review. I believe some of the questions ( developed by the UMKC School ...
... and pain scores between local anesthetic epidural infusion catheters combined with intravenous opioids, versus intravenous ... and pain scores between local anesthetic epidural infusion catheters combined with intravenous opioids, versus intravenous ... and pain scores between local anesthetic epidural infusion catheters combined with intravenous opioids, versus intravenous ... and pain scores between local anesthetic epidural infusion catheters combined with intravenous opioids, versus intravenous ...
Anesthetics, Intravenous / adverse effects* * Central Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced* * Central Nervous System ... Still, many prescription and over the counter medications as well as many anesthetic agents possess anticholinergic activity, ...
Anesthetics, Dissociative. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Anesthetics, General. Anesthetics. Central Nervous System Depressants. ... Finding non-opioid alternatives for intravenous analgesia is problematic based on the limited availability this class of drugs ... Finding non-opioid alternatives for intravenous analgesia is problematic based on limited availability and poor side-effect ...
Anesthetics, Dissociative. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Anesthetics, General. Anesthetics. Central Nervous System Depressants. ... Rapid resolution of obsessions after an infusion of intravenous ketamine in a patient with treatment-resistant obsessive- ...
... local anesthetic agents can be toxic if administered inappropriately, and in some cases may cause unintended reactions even ... Table 3. Minimum Intravenous Toxic Dose of Local Anesthetic in Humans [8] (Open Table in a new window) ... Table 2. Local Anesthetic Agents Used Commonly for Infiltrative Injection. *Table 3. Minimum Intravenous Toxic Dose of Local ... Table 3. Minimum Intravenous Toxic Dose of Local Anesthetic in Humans [8] ...
Underdosing of intravenous anesthetics, initial encounter. T41206A. Underdosing of unspecified general anesthetics, initial ... Underdosing of inhaled anesthetics, initial encounter. T411X6A. ... Underdosing of local anesthetics, initial encounter. T4146XA. ... Underdosing of other general anesthetics, initial encounter. T413X6A. ...
... an anesthetic) during a medical or dental procedure. You will probably stay awake, but may not be able ... Vuyk J, Sitsen E, Reekers M. Intravenous anesthetics. In: Grooper MA, ed. Millers Anesthesia. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... You may receive the medicine through an intravenous line (IV, in a vein) or a shot into a muscle. You will begin to feel drowsy ... Conscious sedation is a combination of medicines to help you relax (a sedative) and to block pain (an anesthetic) during a ...
... epidural sufentanil plus a local anesthetic has little or no effect on breastfeeding success.[1,2] ... Anesthetics, Intravenous. Opiates. Disclaimer: Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for ... Therapeutic plasma levels from intravenous sufentanil during surgery in adults are 0.25 to 8 mcg/L. The usual intravenous ... Because of sufentanils long half-life during continued intravenous infusion or repeated intravenous administration,[1] ...
Basics of Anesthesia Lecture Series: 8. Intravenous Anesthetics 9. Opioids 11. Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs w/Dr. .... day:. ... ANES) Basics of Anesthesia Lecture Series: 8. Intravenous Anesthetics; 9. Opioids; 11. Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs w/Dr. Elton ... Choice of Anesthetic Technique w/Dr. Patry. area:. location:. OR Classrooms A&B. type:. Conference department:. Anesthesiology ... Choice of Anesthetic Technique .... day:. Friday. date:. 09/02/2022. time:. 9:00 AM - 10:30 AM. event:. Cancer Immunology Group ...
Systemic administration of local anesthetics for neuropathic pain (eg, intravenous lidocaine): Use with caution; may be ... On this basis, intravenous lidocaine has been used for the management of fibromyalgia pain. This treatment option is not a ... It has been shown that inhibition of the pain pathway can be achieved by systemic administration of local anesthetics such as ... Effect of intravenous lidocaine associated with amitriptyline on pain relief and plasma serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine ...
Waste anesthetic gases - unused gas exhaled by the patient - are considered Scope 1 greenhouse gases and may make up 5 percent ... With the leadership and engagement of an anesthesia clinical champion, it is possible to reduce the impacts of anesthetic gas ... Anesthetic gas is an operating room requirement that has big impacts on the outside world. ... Considering intravenous and regional techniques. *Investing in new anesthesia equipment, including energy-efficient systems ...
The intravenous anesthetics barbiturates inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor 1 activation. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2009, 617, 17-22. [ ... Cancerous phenotypes associated with hypoxia-inducible factors are not influenced by the volatile anesthetic isoflurane in ...
thiopental is an ultrashort-acting intravenous anesthetic.. - it is not recommended for use as the sole anesthetic for surgical ... in addition to its use as anesthetic, thiopental has been used in the treatment of seizures unresponsive to anticonvulsant ...
Topical local anesthetic ointments, sprays, or creams such as lidocaine and patches such as fentanyl. These can reduce ... Such studies may provide support for future CRPS clinical trials using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), rituximab B cell ... More recent studies demonstrate no long-lasting benefit after the injected anesthetic wears off and there is the risk of injury ... Sympathetic nerve block-Previously, sympathetic blocks-in which an anesthetic is injected next to the spine to directly block ...
An intravenous (IV) is inserted to provide anesthetic medication. Vital signs are taken initially and continuously throughout ...
Severe infections may require topical or intravenous antibiotics.. If a person has a broken nose, a doctor may need to set the ... They will do this when a person is either sedated or under general anesthetic. ...
7. Volatile anesthetics, not intravenous anesthetic propofol bind to and attenuate the activation of platelet receptor integrin ... Intravenous Propofol Versus Volatile Anesthetics For Stroke Endovascular Thrombectomy.. Diprose WK; Wang MTM; Campbell D; ... Anesthetics may modulate cancer surgical outcome: a possible role of miRNAs regulation.. Ishikawa M; Iwasaki M; Sakamoto A; Ma ... Brain protection by anesthetic agents.. Koerner IP; Brambrink AM. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol; 2006 Oct; 19(5):481-6. PubMed ID: ...
The intravenous line should be flushed every 12 hours and at the end of the anesthetic procedure to remove residual propofol ... Propofol injectable emulsion is an intravenous general anesthetic and sedation drug indicated for:. *Induction of General ... Propofol injectable emulsion is an intravenous general anesthetic and sedation drug for use in the induction and maintenance of ... Pain during intravenous injection may also be reduced by prior injection of intravenous lidocaine (1 mL of a 1% solution). Pain ...
Before I go any further, I want to be very clear that I am going to be discussing today intravenous ketamine as compared to ... It is a dissociative anesthetic and analgesic. It has been used in surgery for decades. It is something very familiar to ... So, all of what I am going to be discussing right now is intravenous ketamine which has very longstanding use in especially the ... sub-anesthetic doses .5 milligrams per kilogram, often administered intravenously over 40 minutes. That was first described in ...
A new intravenous anesthetic: evipan sodium.. Subject(s):. Barbituric acid [ and derivatives ] [ CH2. (CO. NH)2. CO ] ... The advantages of sodium evipal as an anesthetic agent.. Subject(s):. Barbituric acid [ and derivatives ] [ CH2. (CO. NH)2. CO ... Evipan as a general anesthetic.. Subject(s):. Barbituric acid [ and derivatives ] [ CH2. (CO. NH)2. CO ] cyclohexenyl-methyl-N- ...
  • An epidemiologic investigation identified use of an intravenous anesthetic, propofol (DiprivanPr*), delivered by an infusion pump and attendance by one anesthesiologist as risk factors. (
  • Propofol is a rapid-onset, short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent. (
  • Administration of propofol, the most frequently used intravenous anesthetic worldwide, has been associated with several iatrogenic infections despite its relative safety. (
  • Globally, propofol is the most frequently used intravenous (IV) anesthetic for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia ( 1 ). (
  • Intravenous anesthetic propofol binds to 5-lipoxygenase and attenuates leukotriene B4 production. (
  • A review of anesthesia practices revealed numerous breaks in aseptic technique during preparation of the anesthetic. (
  • Still, many prescription and over the counter medications as well as many anesthetic agents possess anticholinergic activity, and this diagnosis should be considered in patients with altered mental status following general anesthesia. (
  • See also Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity (LAST) Under Anesthesia . (
  • Large doses of lidocaine (up to 55 mg/kg, versus the conventional maximum of 4.5 mg/kg) are used for tumescent anesthesia, in which a dilute local anesthetic solution is injected into subcutaneous tissue until it becomes firm and tense. (
  • With the leadership and engagement of an anesthesia clinical champion, it is possible to reduce the impacts of anesthetic gas in the operating room. (
  • The American Society of Anesthesiologists offers guidance on environmental sustainability, including anesthetic choice and management, and the reduction, capture, and reuse of waste anesthesia gases. (
  • To produce anesthesia, doctors use drugs called anesthetics . (
  • 13. Anesthetic frequently used for analgesia during surgery. (
  • Purpose: Postoperative analgesia following minimally invasive video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in pediatric patients may involve intravenous opioid analgesics and continuous local anesthetic infusions via an epidural infusion catheter. (
  • Finding non-opioid alternatives for intravenous analgesia is problematic based on the limited availability this class of drugs. (
  • Finding non-opioid alternatives for intravenous analgesia is problematic based on limited availability and poor side-effect profile. (
  • 4 - 6 ] When a combination of anesthetic agents is used for a procedure, follow the recommendations for the most problematic medication used during the procedure. (
  • An intravenous (IV) is inserted to provide anesthetic medication. (
  • People with treatment-resistant bipolar disorder were relieved from the symptoms of depression in as little as 40 minutes after an intravenous dose of the anesthetic medication ketamine. (
  • The anesthetic medication ketamine is known to block NMDA receptors, an important class of receptor for glutamate. (
  • 8. The halogenated anesthetic which is advantageous in patients with cardiovascular disease because it maintains cardiac output, produces systemic and coronary vasodilation, and catecholamine dependent arrhythmias are uncommon. (
  • The use of epidural catheters may avoid systemic side effects of intravenous opioids in this vulnerable population. (
  • Both groups received intravenous systemic opioids. (
  • The toxicity of local and infiltration anesthetics can be local or systemic. (
  • Systemic toxicity of anesthetics most often involves the central nervous system (CNS) or the cardiovascular system. (
  • Anesthetic induction of California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) (n=9) with alfaxalone (1.07-2.02 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.196-0.312 mg/kg) administered intramuscularly was performed opportunistically during assessments at a rehabilitation center. (
  • Alfaxalone with midazolam appears to be a safe and reliable combination for anesthetic induction in California sea lions and warrants further investigation. (
  • Design: Our primary aim was to compare total morphine equivalents (MEQ) required, and pain scores between local anesthetic epidural infusion catheters combined with intravenous opioids, versus intravenous opioids alone in pediatric patients following VATS procedure. (
  • Conscious sedation is a combination of medicines to help you relax (a sedative) and to block pain (an anesthetic) during a medical or dental procedure. (
  • The procedure is done using local anesthetic. (
  • The anesthetic numbs your throat and helps prevent gagging during the procedure. (
  • General anesthetics make patients unconscious during the procedure while local and regional anesthetics just numb part of the body and allow patients to remain awake. (
  • Sevoflurane, volatile liquid for inhalation, a nonflammable and nonexplosive liquid administered by vaporization, is a halogenated general inhalation anesthetic drug. (
  • In the first phase of the study, the participants were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of either intravenous ketamine or placebo (saline). (
  • 10. The intravenous anesthetic with excitatory effects on the central nervous system but produces the least cardiovascular disturbance among intravenous anesthetics. (
  • The evaluation of patients with possible toxicity from a local anesthetic should be guided by the clinical presentation. (
  • 7. Muir W, Lerche P, Wiese A, Nelson L, Pasloske K, Whittem T. The cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of clinical and supraclinical doses of alfaxalone in cats. (
  • While generally safe, local anesthetic agents can be toxic if administered inappropriately, and in some cases may cause unintended reactions even when properly administered. (
  • Manifestations of local anesthetic toxicity typically appear 1 to 5 minutes after the injection, but onset may range from 30 seconds to as long as 60 minutes. (
  • Adding epinephrine to local anesthetics can make them last longer. (
  • These drugs include general, regional, and local anesthetics. (
  • Doctors use local and regional anesthetics to block pain in a part of the body. (
  • Local anesthetics affect a small part of the body, such as a single tooth. (
  • 1 ] Two expert panels advocates waiting for at least 4 hours after a single intravenous dose of midazolam (e.g., for endoscopy) before resuming nursing. (
  • 12. In contrast to most anesthetics, this agent produces cardiac stimulation, resulting in increased blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output. (
  • Reducing or eliminating the use of desflurane, the most expensive anesthetic agent with the highest global warming potential (GWP). (
  • The advantages of sodium evipal as an anesthetic agent. (
  • 7. The anesthetic which should be avoided in patients with a seizure disorder because tonic-clonic seizures are associated with its use. (
  • Blood levels of the anesthetic may be measured, although blood levels may not correlate with toxicity or may not be obtained at a clinically useful time. (
  • Here we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of GABA A receptors bound to intravenous anaesthetics, benzodiazepines and inhibitory modulators. (
  • Forman, S. A. & Miller, K. W. Mapping general anesthetic sites in heteromeric γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors reveals a potential for targeting receptor subtypes. (
  • Emerging molecular mechanisms of general anesthetic action. (
  • Evipan as a general anesthetic. (
  • General anesthetics cause changes in brain waves. (
  • Doctors provide general anesthetics either directly into the bloodstream (intravenously) or as an inhaled gas. (
  • General anesthetics typically are very safe. (
  • You may receive the medicine through an intravenous line (IV, in a vein) or a shot into a muscle. (
  • Placement of central line, if needed: An intravenous line (tube) is placed into a major vein in the chest. (
  • Both berberine and hydrastine produced parasympatholytic and anesthetic effects when applied to the eyes. (
  • Scientists have developed a collection of anesthetic drugs with different effects. (
  • Because inhaled anesthetics have different effects than intravenous ones, scientists suspect that the two types of drugs target different sets of proteins. (
  • A health care professional will give you a liquid anesthetic to gargle or will spray anesthetic on the back of your throat. (
  • To minimize these risks, specialized doctors called anesthesiologists carefully monitor unconscious patients and can adjust the amount of anesthetic they receive. (
  • 3. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) is the concentration of anesthetic at 1 atmosphere of pressure that produces immobility in 50% of patients exposed to a noxious stimulus. (
  • Both drugs are commonly used as anesthetic in patients undergoing open-heart surgery. (
  • With these anesthetics, patients stay conscious and comfortable. (
  • If you have a severe infection and aren't producing enough catecholamines, you may need to be given epinephrine through an intravenous line (IV). (
  • An intravenous (IV) needle will be placed in your arm to provide a sedative. (
  • 5. The anesthetic that may be most safely used in a patient with a history of malignant hyperthermia? (
  • Waste anesthetic gases - unused gas exhaled by the patient - are considered Scope 1 greenhouse gases and may make up 5 percent or more of a hospital's entire carbon footprint. (
  • Plasma pharmacokinetics of alfaxalone in dogs after an intravenous bolus of Alfaxan-CD RTU. (
  • Inhaled anesthetics may take longer to wear off. (
  • 9. This anesthetic has become obsolete due to its potential for causing nephrotoxicity. (
  • 2. The blood:gas partition coefficient is the ratio of anesthetic concentration in blood compared to gas phase. (