Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The act of BREATHING in.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Relating to the size of solids.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.

John Collins Warren and his act of conscience: a brief narrative of the trial and triumph of a great surgeon. (1/2307)

On examination of the correspondence among the principals involved, as well as the original patent application being prepared by Morton, it has become possible to reconstruct some of the remarkable details attending the first use of ether anesthesia at the Massachusetts General Hos pital in the autumn of 1846. At the time that Warren invited Morton to demonstrate the use of his "ethereal vapor" for anesthesia in a minor operation on Oct. 16, 1846, the exact chemical composition of the agent used was being held secret by Morton; Warren was clearly disturbed by this unethical use of a secret "nostrum." When the time arrived 3 weeks later for its possible use for a serious "capital" operation, Warren employed a simple stratagem of public confrontation to discover from Morton the true nature of the substance to be used. On being informed that it was pure unadulterated sulfuric ether, not some mysterious new discovery labeled "Letheon," Warren gave approval for its first use in a "capital" operation (low thigh amputation) on Nov. 7, 1846. Despite this revelation to the immediate participants, a veil of secrecy continued to surround the substance for many months, an anomalous situation evidently traceable to Morton's desire for personal reward from the discovery. It was this matter of secrecy, rather than priority for its discovery, that surrounded the early use of ether anesthesia with controversy and recrimination both in this country and abroad.  (+info)

A neomorphic syntaxin mutation blocks volatile-anesthetic action in Caenorhabditis elegans. (2/2307)

The molecular mechanisms underlying general anesthesia are unknown. For volatile general anesthetics (VAs), indirect evidence for both lipid and protein targets has been found. However, no in vivo data have implicated clearly any particular lipid or protein in the control of sensitivity to clinical concentrations of VAs. Genetics provides one approach toward identifying these mechanisms, but genes strongly regulating sensitivity to clinical concentrations of VAs have not been identified. By screening existing mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that a mutation in the neuronal syntaxin gene dominantly conferred resistance to the VAs isoflurane and halothane. By contrast, other mutations in syntaxin and in the syntaxin-binding proteins synaptobrevin and SNAP-25 produced VA hypersensitivity. The syntaxin allelic variation was striking, particularly for isoflurane, where a 33-fold range of sensitivities was seen. Both the resistant and hypersensitive mutations decrease synaptic transmission; thus, the indirect effect of reducing neurotransmission does not explain the VA resistance. As assessed by pharmacological criteria, halothane and isoflurane themselves reduced cholinergic transmission, and the presynaptic anesthetic effect was blocked by the resistant syntaxin mutation. A single gene mutation conferring high-level resistance to VAs is inconsistent with nonspecific membrane-perturbation theories of anesthesia. The genetic and pharmacological data suggest that the resistant syntaxin mutant directly blocks VA binding to or efficacy against presynaptic targets that mediate anesthetic behavioral effects. Syntaxin and syntaxin-binding proteins are candidate anesthetic targets.  (+info)

Causes of nitrous oxide contamination in operating rooms. (3/2307)

BACKGROUND: To reduce the ambient concentration of waste anesthetic agents, exhaust gas scavenging systems are standard in almost all operating rooms. The incidence of contamination and the factors that may increase the concentrations of ambient anesthetic gases have not been evaluated fully during routine circumstances, however. METHODS: Concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) in ambient air were monitored automatically in 10 operating rooms in Kagoshima University Hospital from January to March 1997. Ambient air was sampled automatically from each operating room, and the concentrations of N2O were analyzed every 22 min by an infrared spectrophotometer. The output of the N2O analyzer was integrated electronically regarding time, and data were displayed on a monitor in the administrative office for anesthesia supervisors. A concentration of N2O > 50 parts per million was regarded as abnormally high and was displayed with an alarm signal. The cause of the high concentration of N2O was then sought. RESULTS: During the 3-month investigation, N2O was used in 402 cases. Abnormally high concentrations of N2O were detected at some time during 104 (25.9%) of those cases. The causes were mask ventilation (42 cases, 40.4% of detected cases), unconnected scavenging systems (20 cases, 19.2%), leak around uncuffed pediatric endotracheal tube (13 cases, 12.5%), equipment leakage (12 cases, 11.5%), and others (17 cases, 16.4%). CONCLUSIONS: N2O contamination was common during routine circumstances in our operating rooms. An unconnected scavenging system led to the highest concentrations of N2O recorded. Proper use of scavenging systems is necessary if contamination by anesthetic gas is to be limited.  (+info)

Effects of anticholinergics on postoperative vomiting, recovery, and hospital stay in children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. (4/2307)

BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting are the most frequent problems after minor ambulatory surgical procedures. The agents used to induce and maintain anesthesia may modify the incidence of emesis. When neuromuscular blockade is antagonized with anticholinesterases, atropine or glycopyrrolate is used commonly to prevent bradycardia and excessive oral secretions. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of atropine and glycopyrrolate on postoperative vomiting in children. METHODS: Ninety-three patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy were studied. After inhalation induction of anesthesia with nitrous oxide, oxygen, and halothane, anesthesia was maintained with a nitrous oxide-oxygen mixture, halothane, morphine, and atracurium. Patients were randomized to receive, in a double-blinded manner, either 15 microg/kg atropine or 10 microg/kg glycopyrrolate with 60 microg/kg neostigmine to reverse neuromuscular blockade. Patient recovery, the incidence of postoperative emesis, antiemetic therapy, and the duration of postoperative hospital stay were assessed. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, gender, weight, or discharge time from the postanesthesia care unit or the hospital between the groups. Twenty-four hours after operation, the incidence of vomiting in the atropine group (56%) was significantly less than in the glycopyrrolate group (81%; P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the atropine and glycopyrrolate groups in the number of patients who required antiemetics or additional analgesics. CONCLUSIONS: In children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy, reversal of neuromuscular blockade with atropine and neostigmine is associated with a lesser incidence of postoperative emesis compared with glycopyrrolate and neostigmine.  (+info)

Functional brain imaging during anesthesia in humans: effects of halothane on global and regional cerebral glucose metabolism. (5/2307)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and isoflurane anesthesia were studied previously with functional brain imaging in humans to begin identifying key brain areas involved with mediating anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. The authors describe an additional positron emission tomography study of halothane's in vivo cerebral metabolic effects. METHODS: Five male volunteers each underwent two positron emission tomography scans. One scan assessed awake-baseline metabolism, and the other scan assessed metabolism during halothane anesthesia titrated to the point of unresponsiveness (mean +/- SD, expired = 0.7+/-0.2%). Scans were obtained using a GE2048 scanner and the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose technique. Regions of interest were analyzed for changes in both absolute and relative glucose metabolism. In addition, relative changes in metabolism were evaluated using statistical parametric mapping. RESULTS: Awake whole-brain metabolism averaged 6.3+/-1.2 mg x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (mean +/- SD). Halothane reduced metabolism 40+/-9% to 3.7+/-0.6 mg x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (P< or =0.005). Regional metabolism did not increase in any brain areas for any volunteer. The statistical parametric mapping analysis revealed significantly less relative metabolism in the basal forebrain, thalamus, limbic system, cerebellum, and occiput during halothane anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Halothane caused a global whole-brain metabolic reduction with significant shifts in regional metabolism. Comparisons with previous studies reveal similar absolute and relative metabolic effects for halothane and isoflurane. Propofol, however, was associated with larger absolute metabolic reductions, suppression of relative cortical metabolism more than either inhalational agent, and significantly less suppression of relative basal ganglia and midbrain metabolism.  (+info)

Clinical isoflurane metabolism by cytochrome P450 2E1. (6/2307)

BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that isoflurane metabolism to trifluoroacetic acid and inorganic fluoride by human liver microsomes in vitro is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). This investigation tested the hypothesis that P450 2E1 predominantly catalyzes human isoflurane metabolism in vivo. Disulfiram, which is converted in vivo to a selective inhibitor of P450 2E1, was used as a metabolic probe for P450 2E1. METHODS: Twenty-two elective surgery patients who provided institutionally-approved written informed consent were randomized to receive disulfiram (500 mg orally, N = 12) or nothing (controls, N = 10) the evening before surgery. All patients received a standard isoflurane anesthetic (1.5% end-tidal in oxygen) for 8 hr. Urine and plasma trifluoroacetic acid and fluoride concentrations were quantitated in samples obtained for 4 days postoperatively. RESULTS: Patient groups were similar with respect to age, weight, gender, duration of surgery, blood loss, and delivered isoflurane dose, measured by cumulative end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (9.7-10.2 MAC-hr). Postoperative urine excretion of trifluoroacetic acid (days 1-4) and fluoride (days 1-3) was significantly (P<0.05) diminished in disulfiram-treated patients. Cumulative 0-96 hr excretion of trifluoroacetic acid and fluoride in disulfiram-treated patients was 34+/-72 and 270+/-70 micromoles (mean +/- SD), respectively, compared to 440+/-360 and 1500+/-800 micromoles in controls (P<0.05 for both). Disulfiram also abolished the rise in plasma metabolite concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Disulfiram, a selective inhibitor of human hepatic P450 2E1, prevented 80-90% of isoflurane metabolism. These results suggest that P450 2E1 is the predominant P450 isoform responsible for human clinical isoflurane metabolism in vivo.  (+info)

Potassium channel-mediated hyperpolarization of mesenteric vascular smooth muscle by isoflurane. (7/2307)

BACKGROUND: A primary source of calcium (Ca2+) necessary for excitation contraction in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) is influx via voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Thus, force generation in VSM is coupled closely to resting transmembrane potential, which itself is primarily a function of potassium conductance. Previously, the authors reported that volatile anesthetics hyperpolarize VSM of small mesenteric resistance arteries and capacitance veins. The current study was designed to determine whether isoflurane-mediated hyperpolarization is the result of specific effects on one or more of four types of potassium channels known to exist in VSM. METHODS: Transmembrane potentials (Em) were recorded from in situ mesenteric capacitance and resistance vessels in Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g. In separate experiments, selective inhibitors of each of four types of potassium channels known to exist in VSM were administered in the superfusate of the vessel preparations to assess their effects on isoflurane-mediated hyperpolarization. RESULTS: Resting VSM Em ranged from -38 to -43 mV after local sympathetic denervation. Isoflurane produced a significant hyperpolarization (2.7-4.3 mV), whereas each potassium channel inhibitor significantly depolarized (2.8-8.5 mV) the VSM. Both 100 nM iberiotoxin (inhibitor of high conductance calcium-activated potassium channels) and 1 microM glybenclamide (inhibitor of adenosine triphosphatase-sensitive potassium channels) significantly inhibited VSM hyperpolarization induced by 1 MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) levels of inhaled isoflurane (0.1-0.9 mV Em change, which was not significant). In contrast, isoflurane hyperpolarized the VSM significantly despite the presence of 3 mM 4 aminopyridine (inhibitor of voltage-dependent potassium channels) or 10 microM barium chloride (an inhibitor of inward rectifier potassium channels) (3.7-8.2 mV change in VSM Em). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that isoflurane-mediated hyperpolarization (and associated relaxation) of VSM can be attributed in part to an enhanced (or maintained) opening of calcium-activated and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels but not voltage-dependent or inward rectifier potassium channels.  (+info)

Effects of isoflurane anesthesia on pulmonary vascular response to K+ ATP channel activation and circulatory hypotension in chronically instrumented dogs. (8/2307)

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on the pulmonary vascular responses to exogenous adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K+ ATP) channel activation and circulatory hypotension compared with responses measured in the conscious state. In addition, the extent to which K+ ATP channel inhibition modulates the pulmonary vascular response to circulatory hypotension in conscious and isoflurane-anesthetized dogs was assessed. METHODS: Fifteen conditioned, male mongrel dogs were fitted with instruments for long-term monitoring to measure the left pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relation. The dose-response relation to the K+ ATP channel agonist, lemakalim, and the pulmonary vascular response to circulatory hypotension were assessed in conscious and isoflurane-anesthetized (approximately 1.2 minimum alveolar concentration) dogs. The effect of the selective K+ ATP channel antagonist, glibenclamide, on the pulmonary vascular response to hypotension was also assessed in conscious and isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. RESULTS: Isoflurane had no effect on the baseline pulmonary circulation, but it attenuated (P<0.05) the pulmonary vasodilator response to lemakalim. Reducing the mean systemic arterial pressure to approximately 50 mm Hg resulted in pulmonary vasoconstriction (P<0.05) in the conscious state, and this response was attenuated (P<0.05) during isoflurane. Glibenclamide had no effect on the baseline pulmonary circulation, but it potentiated (P<0.05) the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypotension in conscious and isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that K+ ATP-mediated pulmonary vasodilation and the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypotension are attenuated during isoflurane anesthesia. Endogenous K+ ATP channel activation modulates the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypotension in the conscious state, and this effect is preserved during isoflurane anesthesia.  (+info)

Minimum alveolar concentration or MAC is the concentration of a vapour in the lungs that is needed to prevent movement (motor response) in 50% of subjects in response to surgical (pain) stimulus. MAC is used to compare the strengths, or potency, of anaesthetic vapours. MAC was introduced in 1965. MAC actually is a median value, not a minimum as term implies. The original paper proposed MAC as the minimal alveolar concentration, which was shortly thereafter revised to minimum alveolar concentration. A lower MAC value represents a more potent volatile anesthetic. Other uses of MAC include MAC-BAR (1.7-2.0 MAC), which is the concentration required to block autonomic reflexes to nociceptive stimuli, and MAC-awake (0.3-0.5 MAC), the concentration required to block voluntary reflexes and control perceptive awareness. The MAC is the concentration of the vapour (measured as a percentage at 1 atmosphere, i.e. the partial pressure) that prevents patient movement in response to a supramaximal stimulus ...
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Definition of inhalation anesthetic in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is inhalation anesthetic? Meaning of inhalation anesthetic as a legal term. What does inhalation anesthetic mean in law?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct effects of volatile anesthetics on cardiac function. AU - Gentry-Smetana, S.. AU - Redford, D.. AU - Moore, D.. AU - Larson, D. F.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - The volatile anesthetics are a class of general anesthetic drugs used by the perfusionist during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). These agents are used in low doses in combination with other anesthetics to produce complete anesthesia. During CPB, these agents are capable of safely anesthetizing the paitent. It is well understood that these anesthetics act at the level of the central nervous system. However the intent of this study was to define the effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane on left ventricular function. C57BL/6 female mice were anesthetized with either isoflurane or sevoflurane at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5%. The cardiac function was assessed with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Sevoflurane caused a reduction of left ventricular function at lower concentrations compared with ...
Definition of Volatile anesthetic in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Volatile anesthetic? Meaning of Volatile anesthetic as a finance term. What does Volatile anesthetic mean in finance?
Examination of volatile anesthetic actions at single synapses provides more direct information by reducing interference by surrounding tissue and extrasynaptic modulation. We examined how volatile anesthetics modulate GABA release by measuring spontaneous or miniature GABA-induced inhibitory postsyn …
Inhalational anesthetics are used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia as well as sedation. The exact mechanisms by which they act are still unknown. The most common inhalational...
For most of the 1900s, it was widely believed that ethanol and the volatile anesthetics exerted their effects in vivo in a nonspecific manner, through the disordering of cell membrane lipids. The Meyer-Overton correlation of anesthetic potency with lipophilicity and the observation that agents with markedly dissimilar structures could all produce the same behavioral end point made it appear unlikely that volatile anesthetic agents had discrete protein binding sites. By analogy, inhaled drugs of abuse, which also vary greatly in their chemical structures, were also thought to nonspecifically influence neuronal function (Balster, 1998). The demonstration that pharmacologically relevant concentrations of volatile anesthetic agents and alcohols affect the functioning of lipid-free proteins such as firefly luciferase (Franks and Lieb, 1984) promoted a shift in research focus toward protein sites of anesthetic action. Among these protein sites, the ligand-gated ion channels, particularly the GABAA, ...
There are a number of factors related to the animal that impact on the quality of anesthesia. These factors should be considered when the type of anesthetic agent is being chosen.. Species: Different species require different doses of anesthetic agents. This applies particularly to the injectable anesthetics. In general, the smaller animals require a higher dose in mg/kg of a given anesthetic than larger animals. Familiarity with the effects of an anesthetic agent in one species should not be assumed in another species. The volatile anesthetics are more consistent in their application between species. The mean alveolar concentration of the anesthetic agent required for anesthesia is similar among species and this is controlled by the concentration of the agent in the inspired gases. Differences in the respiratory tract in birds (fixed lungs, air sacs) and other non-mammalian species must be considered when administering inhalation anesthetics.. Strain: Strain differences have been noted even ...
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Summary: Many studies have shown that inhalation anaesthetics such as isoflurane, enflurane and halothane have potent cardioprotective effects. The cardioprotective effects can be attributed to several factors: preservation of energy levels during ischaemia; alteration of intracellular calcium concentrtations; inhibition of free radicals; and interactions with KATP channels. Potent inhalation agents also have preconditioning effects which may be beneficial, particularly in patients who are susceptible to myocardial infarction during and after surgery. The article in brief: Ischaemia and subsequent reperfusion of the myocardium can lead to reversible or irreversible injury depending on the severity and duration of the preceding ischaemia. Some anaesthetics, particularly potent inhalational agents, can afford protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury Reversible ischaemia-reperfusion injury: ...
Other Course Information A. Objectives OBJECTIVES: DURING THIS COURSE THE STUDENTS WILL HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO: 1. INTERPRET THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF UPTAKE AND DISTRIBUTION OF INHALATION ANESTHETIC AGENTS. 2. COMPARE THE PHARMACOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL USE OF THE MODERN INHALATION ANESTHETICS. 3. EVALUATE THE PHARMACOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL USAGE OF VARIOUS NARCOTIC AGENTS USED IN ANESTHESIA INCLUDING NARCOTIC ANTAGONISTS, TOLERANCE, AND ADDICTION. 4. DISTINGUISH THE PHARMACOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL USE OF NON-NARCOTIC AGENTS USED IN ANESTHESIA, INCLUDING THE BARBITURATES, BENZODIAZEPINES, AND NON-BARBITURATE INDUCTION DRUGS. 5. EXAMINE THE INDICATION FOR THE USE OF VARIOUS INDUCTION AGENTS, LOCAL ANESTHETICS, ANTICHOLINESTERASE AND ANTICHOLINERGIC DRUGS, MUSCLE RELAXANTS, AND NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS. 6. DISCUSS THE EFFECT OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGICAL THERAPY, CHEMOTHERAPY, NUTRITIONAL THERAPY AND ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS UPON ANESTHESIA CARE. 7. DISCUSS THE EFFECT AND APPROPRIATE CHOICE OF ...
Principal Investigator:SOMETY Genji, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:外科・放射線系歯学
How to edit PATH variable on mac (Lion). I cannot find any file where I can add paths. can someone guide me about it?. Whats the file name? .profile or .bash_profile???. and where I can find it? I have tried ...
Chris Dumez ,cdumez at apple.com, has asked for review: Bug 204267: REGRESSION (r252497): Multiple mediacapturefromelement tests are crashing on mac debug https://bugs.webkit.org/show_bug.cgi?id=204267 Attachment 383751: Patch https://bugs.webkit.org/attachment.cgi?id=383751&action=review --- Comment #16 from Chris Dumez ,cdumez at apple.com, --- Created attachment 383751 --, https://bugs.webkit.org/attachment.cgi?id=383751&action=review Patch ...
Volatile anesthetics not only induce anesthesia, but also render organs resistant against ischemic damage. For example, the magnitude of an experimentally induced myocardial infarct size can be reduced by more than 50% by the administration of volatile anesthetics, even if the administration has been discontinued prior to the ischemic injury (anesthetic-induced preconditioning, APC). These protective effects are also effective in other organ systems; e.g. the brain. APC is as effective as ischemic preconditioning and thus represents one of the most potent therapeutic strategies of infarct size reduction. Surgery-related temporary ischemia of the heart or the brain can be prevented using APC in the perioperative period ...
If your Mac has a Touch Bar, you can use it to adjust common system settings, use Siri, access function keys, and do tasks in apps.
For me this solved my issue. Installing on a remote mac with Apple Remote Desktop the clicks would not work until I used an actual mouse and keyboard.
With Mini vMac, you can set a custom screen size at build time as well; I always compile a larger resolution. For System 6 and higher, any screen resolution will work with the OS (even though the original hardware didnt support it) -- for below System 6, I try to use X2 magnification mode and divide my resolution in half, as earlier OSes can behave oddly with larger screen resolutions ...
With Mini vMac, you can set a custom screen size at build time as well; I always compile a larger resolution. For System 6 and higher, any screen resolution will work with the OS (even though the original hardware didnt support it) -- for below System 6, I try to use X2 magnification mode and divide my resolution in half, as earlier OSes can behave oddly with larger screen resolutions ...
Answers for What do doctors use during surgery to make you go to sleep:As the type of anesthetic you may require is varied, so are the medications used to produce the anesthetic state. Sodium Pentothal is the drug used that most people are f
Ирина А. Вацадзе, Ольга В. Серушкина, Михаил Д. Дутов, Татьяна К. Шкинева, Кирилл Ю. Супоницкий, Богдан И. Уграк, Игорь Л. Далингер ...
Dikelola oleh Direktorat Layanan Teknologi Informasi (DLTI) berkolaborasi dengan Pengelola Jurnal di Lingkungan Universitas Kristen Maranatha ...
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Леонид Г. Воскресенский, Татьяна Н. Борисова, Марьяна И. Бабаханова, Татьяна М. Червякова, Александр А. Титов, Роман А. Новиков, Флавьен Тозе, Ти Туйет Aнь Данг, Алексей В. Варламов ...
摘要Background: Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) is decreased in pregnant animals, but this change has not been demonstrated in humans, probably because of ethical considerations. It is less problematic to determine MAC in pregnant women undergoing termination of pregnancy, however, and therefore we compared the MAC of isoflurane in these women with the MAC in matched nonpregnant women. ...
Endothelium-independent vasodilation was increased in control rats by isoflurane pretreatment. Since sodium nitroprusside provides NO at the level of the vascular smooth muscle, this indicates that distal portions of the NO-3′5′cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway may be up-regulated. The etiology of this is unclear since isoflurane is thought to have either no effect or inhibit guanylate cyclase activity. 21,22 Endothelium-independent vasodilation was decreased by lipopolysaccharide but not altered by isoflurane pretreatment. It would be expected that if isoflurane pretreatment increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation in lipopolysaccharide rats, that endothelium-independent vasodilation would also be increased since endothelium-dependent vasodilation evaluates the entire NO-3′5′cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. However, it is possible that alterations of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor or the cyclooxygenase pathway may be responsible for the increase in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacokinetics of isoflurane. T2 - Uptake in the brain. AU - Lu, Chih Cherng. AU - Ho, Shung Tai. AU - Wang, Jhi Joung. AU - Wong, Chih Shung. AU - Hu, Oliver Yao Pu. AU - Chang, Sun Yran. AU - Lin, Chung Yuan. PY - 2003/9/4. Y1 - 2003/9/4. N2 - We studied the effect of the inspired isoflurane concentration (C Iiso) on the pharmacokinetics of isoflurane uptake in the brain by comparing the isoflurane concentration in internal jugular-bulb blood (Jiso) with that in arterial blood (Aiso), and analyzed this by gas chromatography. Sixteen patients (aged 43-76 years) undergoing colorectal surgery were enrolled, and anesthesia was maintained with a constant CIiso of either 1% (group 1, n = 8) or 2% (group 2, n = 8) during the 1st hour of isoflurane anesthesia. Under constant volume-controlled ventilation, we measured the C Iiso and the end-tidal isoflurane concentration (CEiso) at the mouthpiece by infrared analysis. Our results demonstrate that it takes 40 min for the brain tissue ...
Background. Inhalation anesthetics such as isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane are widely used in clinical practice; however, there is no study for comparing these drugs in cardiac surgery with respect to postoperative cognitive out. come and SIN beta protein (SIOO BP) levels. In this study, we evaluated the effect of sevoflurane, isoflurane, and desflurane anesthesia on neuropsychological outcome and S100 BP levels in patients-undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). ...
Clinical pharmacists rarely are involved in the selection and dosing of anesthetic agents. However, when practicing evidence‐based medicine in a cost‐conscious health care system, optimizing drug therapy is imperative in all areas. Thus, we provide general information on anesthesiology, including the different types of breathing systems and the components of anesthesia machines. Modern inhalation anesthetics that are predominantly used in clinical practice include one gas-nitrous oxide-and new volatile liquid agents-isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane. Desflurane and sevoflurane are the low‐soluble inhalation anesthetics, and they offer some clinical advantages over isoflurane, such as fast induction and faster recovery with long procedures. However, efficient use of isoflurane can match the speed of induction and recovery of the other agents in certain cases. In addition, the patient characteristics, duration and type of procedure, type of breathing system, and efficiency in monitoring must
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sevoflurane induction procedure. T2 - Cost Comparison between fixed 8% versus incremental techniques in pediatric patients. AU - Singh, Preet Mohinder. AU - Trikha, Anjan. AU - Sinha, Renu. AU - Rewari, Vimi. AU - Ramachandran, Rashmi. AU - Borle, Anuradha. PY - 2014/2. Y1 - 2014/2. N2 - This study compared 2 well-accepted and safe methods of pediatric inhalation induction using sevoflurane. Incremental and fixed 8% induction methods were evaluated for economic outcomes by comparing the amount of liquid sevoflurane consumed. We also tried to establish the relation between cost of induction and demographic parameters in both groups. One hundred pediatric patients scheduled for ophthalmologic examination under anesthesia were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. The amount of sevoflurane consumed in both groups was computed using the Dion method. Although the time to loss of consciousness was significantly lower using the 8% method (75.98 vs 135 seconds), the liquid sevoflurane ...
Rivenes SM, Lewin MB, Stayer SA, Bent ST, Schoenig HM, McKenzie ED, et al. Cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, and fentanyl-midazolam in children with congenital heart disease: an echocardiographic study of myocardial contractility and hemodynamics. Anesthesiology. 2001; 94(2):223-9. Pagel PS. Cardioprotection by volatile anesthetics: Established scientific principle or lingering clinical uncertainty? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2009; 23(5):589-93. Regueiro-Purriños M, Fernández-Vázquez F, de Prado AP, Altónaga JR, Cuellas-Ramón C, Ajenjo-Silverio JM, et al. Ventricular arrhythmias and mortality associated with isoflurane and sevoflurane in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2011; 50(1):73-8. Eger EI. Isoflurane (Forane): a compendium and reference: Anaquest; 1985. Hornbein TF, Eger EI, Winter PM, Smith G, Wetstone D, Smith KH. The minimum alveolar concentration of nitrous oxide in man. Anesth Analg. 1982; 61(7):553-6. Cahalan MK, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Computational Studies on the Interactions of Inhalational Anesthetics with Proteins. AU - Vemparala, Satyavani. AU - Domene Nunez, Carmen. AU - Klein, Michael L.. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Despite the widespread clinical use of anesthetics since the 19th century, a clear understanding of the mechanism of anesthetic action has yet to emerge. On the basis of early experiments by Meyer, Overton, and subsequent researchers, the cells lipid membrane was generally concluded to be the primary site of action of anesthetics. However, later experiments with lipid-free globular proteins, such as luciferase and apoferritin, shifted the focus of anesthetic action to proteins. Recent experimental studies, such as photoaffinity labeling and mutagenesis on membrane proteins, have suggested specific binding sites for anesthetic molecules, further strengthening the proteocentric view of anesthetic mechanism. With the increased availability of high-resolution crystal structures of ion ...
INTRODUCTION. Nitrous oxide is a gaseous anesthetic agent of low potency. Its minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) is 104% (± 10), which corresponds to a partial pressure of 805 mmHg (at sea level), only experimentally obtained with a hyperbaric chamber 1 or by calculated estimates.. It is used in non-hypoxic concentrations, never above 70%. Nitrous oxide has moderate analgesic properties, weak amnesic action, minor immobilizing power and very mild hypnotic effect 2-4. Hence, its indications as sole anesthetic agent are very limited, being used mostly a coadjuvant of more potent inhalational anesthetic to decrease their doses and, as a consequence, their side-effects.. Nitrous oxide low blood and tissue solubility (blood/gas coefficient of 0.47 and brain/blood coefficient of 1.1) 5 provides it with very special and desirable pharmacokinetic properties, especially as a coadjuvant, since its uptake and distribution are very fast , as well as its excretion. Its pharmacodynamic profile indicates ...
There has been growing concern about the detrimental effects of certain anesthetic agents on the developing brain. Preclinical studies in small animal models as well as nonhuman primates suggested loss or death of brain cells and consequent impaired neurocognitive function following anesthetic exposure in neonates and late gestation fetuses. Human studies in this area are limited and currently inconclusive. On Dec. 14, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning regarding impaired brain development in children following exposure to certain anesthetic agents used for general anesthesia, namely the inhalational anesthetics isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, and the intravenous agents propofol and midazolam, in the third trimester of pregnancy ...
Define anaesthetic agent. anaesthetic agent synonyms, anaesthetic agent pronunciation, anaesthetic agent translation, English dictionary definition of anaesthetic agent. Noun 1. anaesthetic agent - a drug that causes temporary loss of bodily sensations anaesthetic, anesthetic, anesthetic agent drug - a substance that is used...
Numerous studies demonstrate that patients have improved immediate recovery characteristics following desflurane anesthesia compared to other volatile agents, including sevoflurane. There is limited evidence in the literature to suggest that patients undergoing sevoflurane, compared to desflurane anesthesia, may suffer from limitation in function and cognitive ability for an undetermined, but prolonged period of time following surgery. These differences are not explained pharmacokinetically and may be a result of a direct neurotoxic effect of sevoflurane. An unresolved question is the time required for the ability to return to complex tasks, such as driving, following anesthesia. Commonly, patients are advised not to drive or make important decisions for 24 hours following anesthesia, but this is not well-studied and proscribed on an empiric, rather than scientific, basis with very limited data available.This study will better define recovery characteristics and characterize the severity and ...
Volatile anesthetics protect myocardium against reversible and irreversible ischemic injury. Experimental evidence from several in vitro and in vivo animal models demonstrates that volatile agents enhance the recovery of stunned myocardium and reduce the size of myocardial infarction after brief or prolonged coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion, respectively. This protective effect persists after the anesthetic has been discontinued, a phenomenon known as anesthetic-induced preconditioning (APC). Recent clinical data also demonstrates evidence of APC in patients during cardiac surgery. Thus, administration of volatile anesthetics may represent a novel therapeutic approach that reduces morbidity and mortality associated with perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction. The mechanisms responsible for APC appear to be similar to those implicated in ischemic preconditioning, but nonetheless have subtle differences. Accumulating evidence indicates that APC is characterized by complex signal
Isoflurane can lead to neuron damage to the developing brain, resulting in learning and memory disability. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-142-5p on isoflurane-induced neurological impairment. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to evaluate spatial learning and memory of rats. The expression level of miR-142-5p was measured using qRT-PCR. MTT assay was used to calculate the viability of hippocampal neuronal cells. The cell apoptosis was analyzed using Flow cytometric assay. Isoflurane treatment led to the increase of neurological function score and escape latency, and the reduction of time spent in the original quadrant in rats. The expression level of miR-142-5p was increased significantly in isoflurane-treated rats. MiR-142-5p downregulation protected against isoflurane-induced neurological impairment, which was reflected by the decrease of neurological function score and escape latency, and the increase of time spent in the original quadrant. In vitro,
After induction, anesthesia will be maintained with 1MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) of Isoflurane according to age and end-expiratory concentration. Thirty minutes before the anticipated inflow occlusion and commencement of liver transaction, Isoflurane concentration will be gradually increased to 2 MAC over a period of 5 minutes (induction) and maintained at 2 MAC for 10 minutes (preconditioning). Then the concentration of Isoflurane will be decreased to 1 MAC during next 15 minutes (washout ...
Previously we reported that a 5-hour exposure of 6-day-old (P6) rhesus macaques to isoflurane triggers robust neuron and oligodendrocyte apoptosis. In an attempt to further describe the window of vulnerability to anesthetic neurotoxicity, we exposed P20 and P40 rhesus macaques to 5 h of isoflurane anesthesia or no exposure (control animals). Brains were collected 3 h later and examined immunohistochemically to analyze neuronal and glial apoptosis. Brains exposed to isoflurane displayed neuron and oligodendrocyte apoptosis distributed throughout cortex and white matter, respectively. When combining the two age groups (P20 + P40), the animals exposed to isoflurane had 3.6 times as many apoptotic cells as the control animals. In the isoflurane group, approximately 66% of the apoptotic cells were oligodendrocytes and 34% were neurons. In comparison, in our previous studies on P6 rhesus macaques, approximately 52% of the dying cells were glia and 48% were neurons. In conclusion, the present data ...
Effects of sevoflurane inhalation with different concentrations on the postoperative cognitive functions of elderly patients with diabetes, Chun-Liang Liu, Qi Liu, Xiao-Ying Yang,
The use of a less-expensive, longer-acting anesthetic (isoflurane) resulted in no difference in duration of hospitalization compared to the use of a more expensive, shorter-acting anesthetic (desflurane or sevoflurane), according to a study from the July issue of Anesthesiology.
Anesthesia and surgery have been reported to induce or worsen cognitive dysfunction, and worsen Alzheimers disease. Nevertheless, every year, many people with Alzheimers disease require surgery. Zhongcong Xie, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues have obtained preliminary evidence that the commonly used anesthetic isoflurane worsened several of the biochemical features of Alzheimers-like disease in mice, and worsened cognitive function in humans. In contrast, another anesthetic, desflurane, did not have these effects.. Dr. Xie and colleagues have proposed a series of studies to extend their observations in both mice and humans. Using mice that have been genetically engineered to have Alzheimers-like disease, the researchers will compare how isoflurane and desflurane affect amyloid plaque formation, brain structure and learning and memory. They will also examine whether the breakdown products of these anesthetics reduce nerve cell function and cause nerve cell death in mice. Finally, Dr. Xies team ...
Definition of anesthetic agent in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is anesthetic agent? Meaning of anesthetic agent as a finance term. What does anesthetic agent mean in finance?
In this article, we report on the characterization of mutant recombinant GABAA-R α2 subunits that are functionally normal with the exception that they show reduced sensitivity to potentiation by isoflurane. We subsequently introduced these mutations into the mouse germ line to produce gene knockin mice. Although approximately half of the knockin mice died prematurely, those that survived seemed overtly normal and were used to investigate the role of the α2 subunit of the GABAA-R in inhaled anesthetic action. In the first generation of knockin mice that were studied, the knockins were found to be paradoxically more sensitive to isoflurane exposure and recovered more slowly from isoflurane anesthesia. However, this altered sensitivity was not observed after backcrossing to C57BL/6J for two additional generations. Other isoflurane-induced behavioral alterations (LORR, tail clamp/withdrawal, and amnesia) were unaltered by the knockin. These results must be interpreted with caution because of the ...
Dong Y, Zhang G, Zhang B, Moir RD, Xia W, Marcantonio ER, Culley DJ, Crosby G, Tanzi RE, Xie Z. The common inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane induces apoptosis and increases beta-amyloid protein levels. Arch Neurol. 2009 May; 66(5):620-31 ...
Background: We hypothesized that preconditioning (PC) with a short exposure to isoflurane (ISO) would reduce neurodegeneration induced by prolonged exposure to ISO in neonatal rats, as previously shown in neuronal cell culture.. Methods: We randomly divided 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats into 3 groups: control, 1.5% ISO, and PC + 1.5% ISO. The control group was exposed to carrier gas (30% oxygen balanced in nitrogen) for 30 minutes and then to carrier gas again for 6 hours the following day. The 1.5% ISO group was exposed to carrier gas for 30 minutes and then to 1.5% ISO for 6 hours the following day. The PC + 1.5% ISO group was preconditioned with a 30-minute 1.5% ISO exposure and then exposed to 1.5% ISO for 6 hours the following day. Blood and brain samples were collected 2 hours after the exposures for determination of neurodegenerative biomarkers, including caspase-3, S100[beta], caspase-12, and an autophagy biomarker Beclin-1.. Results: Prolonged exposure to ISO significantly increased ...
There is great concern about the possible harmful effects of exposure to volatile anesthetics. The current study aimed at evaluating, for the first time, the effects of occupational exposure to anesthetic gases on physicians who work in operating rooms, by determining several inflammatory cytokines. Plasma inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, -6, -8, -10, -12, TNF-α) were investigated in 30 individuals who were allocated into two groups of 15: the exposed group, consisting of operating room medical personnel exposed to a mixture of anesthetic gases for 3 years, and a control group composed of medical personnel not exposed to anesthetic gases. The concentrations of volatile anesthetics were measured in the operating room by means of an infrared portable analyzer Our findings suggest an increase of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 (p , 0.05) in medical personnel exposed to high concentrations of anesthetic gases, even for a relatively short period.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Sevoflurane preconditions stunned myocardium in septic but not healthy isolated rat hearts. AU - Serita, R.. AU - Morisaki, H.. AU - Ai, K.. AU - Morita, Y.. AU - Innami, Y.. AU - Satoh, T.. AU - Kosugi, S.. AU - Kotake, Y.. AU - Takeda, J.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - Background. Recent evidence indicates that sevoflurane treatment before prolonged ischaemia reduces infarct size in normal hearts, mimicking ischaemic preconditioning. We examined whether exposure to sevoflurane before brief ischaemia, inducing a stunned myocardium, provided such protective effects in an isolated working heart from normal or septic rats. Methods. With institutional approval, 91 rats were randomly allocated into one of either caecal-ligation and perforation (CLP: n=50) or sham (Sham: n=41) procedure groups 24 h before the study. After determination of baseline measurements, including cardiac output (CO), myocardial oxygen consumption (mVO2) and cardiac efficiency (CE; COpeak systolic ...
Khan, OA, Taylor, SRJ, Swart, M and Jones, JG (1997) The effects of low dose isoflurane on inhibition of saccadic generation In: Anaesthetics Research Society Annual Meeting, 1997-04 - ?. Full text not available from this repository ...
Andreas Wiklund, Sylvie Granon, Isabelle Cloëz-Tayarani, Philippe Faure, Anne-Marie le Sourd, Eva Sundman, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Lars I Eriksson
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1. The term anaesthetic tension, is employed to indicate the partial pressure of ether vapor that, after equilibrium is established, can, for an indefinite period, maintain the subject in the stage of ideal surgical anaesthesia.. 2. Curves are given showing that the anaesthetic tension of ether vapor for man is between 47 and 54 mm.-probably 51 mm.. 3. A working hypothesis based on the theory of Meyer and Overton is suggested to explain the mode of action of the volatile inhalation anaesthetics which can be summarized in the quantitative reversible equation. [See equation in the PDF file]. in which the percentage saturation of the susceptible molecules in the nerve cells (Mn), and, therefore, the inhibition of the cell function (the depth of anaesthesia), is dependent on the tension of the anaesthetic vapor (An) to which these susceptible molecules are exposed.. 4. To harmonize the fact that large variations occur in the amount of ether required by the usual methods of anaesthesia with the ...
[100 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Sevoflurane Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States Sevoflurane market is valued...
OpenAnesthesia™ content is intended for educational purposes only and not intended as medical advice.. Reuse of OpenAnesthesia™ content for commercial purposes of any kind is prohibited. ...
The Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anaesthesia (ENIGMA)-II trial randomly assigned 7,112 noncardiac surgery patients at risk of perioperative cardiovascular events to 70% N2O or 70% N2 groups. The aim of this follow-up study was to determine the effect of nitrous oxide on a compo...
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate. [PubChem]
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Isoflurane Market by Type (Human Series, Animal Series) Application (Hospitals, Other Medical Institutions) - Global Industry Analysis & Forecast to 2025,The isoflurane market has encountered significant development over the recent years and is anticipated to grow tremendously over the forecast period. Isoflurane is a colorless, clear, stable fluid containing no added substances or compound stabilizers.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes. . ...
Burns, T. H. S.; Bracken, A. (1972). "Exploratory and Newer Compounds". Modern Inhalation Anesthetics. Springer Berlin ... Burns, T. H. S.; Bracken, A. (1972). "Exploratory and Newer Compounds". Modern Inhalation Anesthetics. Springer Berlin ... Modern Inhalation Anesthetics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 413. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-65055-0_19. ISBN 9783642650574. De ...
doi:10.1016/0378-3812(84)87009-0. Nagelhout, J. J. (2014). Pharmacokinetics of Inhalation Anesthetics. Nurse anesthesia (5th ed ... If an anesthetic has a high coefficient, then a large amount of it will have to be taken up in the body's blood before being ... The concentration of the anesthetic in blood includes the portion that is undissolved in plasma and the portion that is ... The potency of an anesthetic is associated with its lipid solubility, which is measured by its oil/gas partition coefficient. ...
Some vinyl ethers also find some use as inhalation anesthetics. Enol ethers bearing α substituents do not polymerize readily. ...
"Modern inhalation anesthetics: Potent greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere". Geophysical Research Letters. 42 (5): 1606- ... Isoflurane, sold under the brand name Forane among others, is a general anesthetic. It can be used to start or maintain ... This area is important as "some of the commonly used inhaled anesthetics may cause brain damage that accelerates the onset of ... "Isoflurane (inhalation anaesthetic) - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - (eMC)". www.medicines.org.uk. 11 January 2016 ...
K2Ps have been found to be affected by general anesthetics (esp. halogenated inhalation anesthetics) and are currently under ... As with intravenous anesthetic infusions, prolonged delivery of highly soluble anesthetic gases generally results in longer ... Generally, inhalational anesthetics that are minimally soluble reach equilibrium more quickly. Inhalational anesthetics that ... Inhalational anesthetics vary widely with respect to their tissue solubilities and partition coefficients. Anesthetics that are ...
Sakai EM, Connolly LA, Klauck JA (December 2005). "Inhalation anesthesiology and volatile liquid anesthetics: focus on ... After desflurane, it is the volatile anesthetic with the fastest onset . While its offset may be faster than agents other than ... It is one of the most commonly used volatile anesthetic agents, particularly for outpatient anesthesia, across all ages, as ... Burns WB, Eger EI (August 2011). "Ross C. Terrell, PhD, an anesthetic pioneer". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 113 (2): 387-9. doi: ...
In the 1920s, pure acetylene was experimentally used as an inhalation anesthetic. Acetylene is sometimes used for carburization ...
Propyl methyl ether as an inhalation anesthetic in man", Anesthesiology, (1946), 7, 663-7. Merck Index, 11th edition, 6031. v t ...
... has low acute toxicity from inhalation. Inhalation of the gas can cause anesthetic effects and at very high ... Intentional inhalation may also result in death via asphyxiation (sudden inhalant death). Propene is detected in the ...
It is both the precursor and the chief metabolite of the inhalation anesthetic sevoflurane. Sevoflurane gets metabolized within ...
It has the most rapid onset and offset of the volatile anesthetic drugs used for general anesthesia due to its low solubility ... Sulbaek Andersen MP, Sander SP, Nielsen OJ, Wagner DS, Sanford Jr TJ, Wallington TJ (July 2010). "Inhalation anaesthetics and ... Sherman J, Le C, Lamers V, Eckelman M (May 2012). "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Anesthetic Drugs". Anesthesia and ... When a steady state hourly amount of anesthetic necessary for 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) at 2 liters per minute ( ...
The neuromuscular blocking action of vecuronium is slightly enhanced in the presence of potent inhalation anesthetics. If ... vecuronium is first administered more than 5 minutes after the start of the inhalation of enflurane, isoflurane, or halothane, ...
... and xenon has so much anesthetic activity that it is a usable anesthetic at 80% concentration and normal atmospheric pressure. ... Narcosis produces a state similar to drunkenness (alcohol intoxication), or nitrous oxide inhalation. It can occur during ... It is caused by the anesthetic effect of certain gases at high pressure. The Greek word νάρκωσις (narkōsis), "the act of making ... The first report of anesthetic potency being related to lipid solubility was published by Hans H. Meyer in 1899, entitled Zur ...
... interacts with many different receptors and ion channels, and like many theoretically multi-modal inhalation anesthetics ... Xenon has been used as a general anesthetic, but it is more expensive than conventional anesthetics. ... A related channel TASK-3 also implicated in the actions of inhalation anesthetics is insensitive to xenon. Xenon inhibits ... Xenon is used in flash lamps and arc lamps, and as a general anesthetic. The first excimer laser design used a xenon dimer ...
Anesthesia masks are face masks that are designed to administer anesthetic gases to a patient through inhalation. Anesthesia ... One hose carries inhaled anesthetic gas to the mask and the other brings exhaled anesthetic gas back to the machine. Anesthesia ... Inner view of a military aviators mask showing face seal, facepiece and inhalation valves ... inhalation is easy, but exhalation requires more effort. Aviators are trained in pressure-demand breathing in altitude chambers ...
Long CW (1849). "An account of the first use of Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anesthetic in Surgical Operations". ... and the type of anesthetic (regional anesthetics are lower risk than general anesthetics). Obstetrical, the very young and the ... Early medieval Arabic writings mention anaesthesia by inhalation. Inhalational anesthetics were first used by Arabic physicians ... Because of the large amount of local anesthetic required to affect the nerve, the maximum dose of local anesthetic has to be ...
... could also be mixed with other anesthetic agents such as ether to make C.E. mixture, or ether and alcohol to make A. ... After a person has lost consciousness due to chloroform inhalation, a continuous volume must be administered and the chin must ... In the United States, chloroform began to replace ether as an anesthetic at the beginning of the 20th century; however, it was ... It is a powerful anesthetic, euphoriant, anxiolytic and sedative when inhaled or ingested. The molecule adopts a tetrahedral ...
TCE replaced earlier anesthetics chloroform and ether in the 1940s, but was itself replaced in the 1960s in developed countries ... TCE was still used as an inhalation analgesic in childbirth given by self-administration. Fetal toxicity and concerns for ... As of 2000, however, TCE was still in use as an anesthetic in Africa. It has also been used as a dry cleaning solvent, although ... From the 1930s through the 1970s, both in Europe and in North America, trichloroethylene was used as a volatile anesthetic ...
In this context, halothane eventually became popular as a nonflammable general anesthetic replacing other volatile anesthetics ... Its lack of airway irritation made it a common inhalation induction agent in pediatric anesthesia. Its use in developed ... Like all volatile anesthetics, it should not be used in people with a personal or family history of malignant hyperthermia. It ... Attempts to find anesthetics with less metabolism led to halogenated ethers such as enflurane and isoflurane. The incidence of ...
Solely guided by predictions based upon structure, Leake pursued the usage of vinyl ether as an inhalation anesthetic. As vinyl ... Vinyl ether is a potent anesthetic giving it a large safety margin; the ratio of the anesthetic to lethal does for vinyl ether ... volatile liquid that has mainly been of interest as an inhalation anesthetic. It is prepared by treating bis(chloroethyl) ether ... The anesthetic product was inhibited with .01% phenyl-α-napthylamine which gave it a faint violet fluorescence. Vinyl ether ...
Inhalation anesthetics are vaporized and mixed with other gases prior to their inhalation by the patient before or during ... All inhalation anesthetics in current clinical use are halogenated ethers, except for halothane (which is a halogenated ... The first widely used inhalation anesthetic was diethyl ether, which is a non-substituted (non-halogenated) ether. This drug ... This is among the most important reasons that diethyl ether has fallen out of favor as a general anesthetic. Diethyl ether is ...
Dentists who have completed a training program in anesthesiology may also administer general IV and inhalation anesthetic ... It includes local anesthetics, sedation, and general anesthesia. In dentistry, the most commonly used local anesthetic is ... A dental syringe is a syringe for the injection of a local anesthetic. It consists of a breech-loading syringe fitted with a ... Topical anesthetics benzocaine, eugenol, and forms of xylocaine are used topically to numb various areas before injections or ...
From about 1880s to 1950s, TAA was used as an anesthetic with the contemporary name of amylene hydrate, but was rarely used ... Ingestion or inhalation of TAA causes euphoria, sedative, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects similar to ethanol. When ... In the 1930s, TAA was mainly used as a solvent for the primary anesthetic tribromoethanol (TBE). Like chloroform, TBE is toxic ... Historically TAA has been used an anesthetic and more recently used as a recreational drug. TAA is mostly a positive allosteric ...
... an entry to the 14th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the experimental use of acetylene as an inhalation anesthetic. ...
It is common to provide the additional oxygen as a pure gas added to the breathing air at inhalation, or though a life-support ... Inhalational anesthetics are thought to exact their effects on different parts of the central nervous system. For instance, the ... The most common approach to general anaesthesia is through the use of inhaled general anesthetics. Each has its own potency ... and to maintain enough oxygen while inhaled anesthetics are given. Long term oxygen is often useful in people with chronically ...
Davy recovered two days later and concluded inhalation of more hydrocarbonate could have "destroyed life immediately without ... physicians such as Tiberius Cavallo and Davies Gilbert experimented with hydrocarbonate as an analgesic and anesthetic. Humphry ... delivery of carbon monoxide via inhalation protocol or carbon monoxide-releasing molecules has significant preclinical data ...
Anesthetics were not regularly used in medicine or dentistry until decades after Davy's death. Davy threw himself energetically ... James Watt built a portable gas chamber to facilitate Davy's experiments with the inhalation of nitrous oxide. At one point the ...
The composition of the anesthetic powder was not mentioned in either the Records of Three Kingdoms or the Book of the Later Han ... On 30 March 1842, he administered diethyl ether by inhalation to a man named James Venable, in order to remove a tumor from the ... Chloroform began to replace ether as an anesthetic in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. It was soon ... reprinted in Long, C. W. (December 1991). "An account of the first use of Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anaesthetic in ...
A recent study documented in the AANA Journal discussed the use of volatile anesthetic agents, such as sevoflurane, to be used ... 1995) Toxic gas inhalation. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 1:102-8. Clark WR Jr. (1992) Smoke inhalation: diagnosis and treatment. World J ... Smoke inhalation injury, either by itself but more so in the presence of body surface burn, can result in severe lung-induced ... Inhalation of high doses of this gas causes lesions in the larynx, trachea, and large bronchi with inflammatory reactions and ...
RFA is usually performed in an outpatient setting, using either local anesthetics or conscious sedation anesthesia, the ... a higher one during inhalation and a lower pressure during exhalation. This system is more expensive, and is sometimes used ... in OSA the chest not only continues to make the movements of inhalation, but the movements typically become even more ...
Some anesthetics include Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates. For musculo-skeletal disordersEdit. The main categories of drugs for ... inhalation, and rectal means).[9] ... opioids and Local anesthetics. For consciousness (anesthetic ... Diagnostic: topical anesthetics, sympathomimetics, parasympatholytics, mydriatics, cycloplegics. *Antibacterial: antibiotics, ... Antibiotics, sympathomimetics, antihistamines, anticholinergics, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, antiseptics, local anesthetics, ...
Masks over their lower face, covering their mouths and noses with minimal gaps to prevent inhalation of plume or airborne ... Rooms are supplied with wall suction, oxygen, and possibly other anesthetic gases. Key equipment consists of the operating ...
A 13-year-old male was found dead in the woods subsequent to 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) inhalation.. ... Winekab, Charles L.; Wahba, Wagdy W.; Huston, Robert; Rozin, Leon (6 June 1997). "Fatal inhalation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane". ... Fatal poisonings and illnesses linked to intentional inhalation of trichloroethane have been reported.[7][8][9][10] The removal ... "Sudden Death in Adolescents Resulting From the Inhalation of Typewriter Correction Fluid". JAMA: The Journal of the American ...
... nasal congestion and as anesthetics.[24] Drugs used to treat obesity are called anorectics and generally include drugs that ... while inhalation may be associated with increased lower respiratory tract infection, lung cancer, and pathological restricting ... although it sees clinical use as a local anesthetic, in particular in ophthalmology. Most cocaine use is recreational and its ...
Inhalation of hypertonic saline has also been shown to help in other respiratory problems, specifically bronchiolitis.[23] ... antibiotics or topical anesthetics. Eye drops sometimes do not have medications in them and are only lubricating and tear- ...
... inhalation, and ingestion via hand-to-mouth.[139] The long-term effects of exposure include chromosomal abnormalities and ...
Local anesthetics[edit]. Adrenaline is added to injectable forms of a number of local anesthetics, such as bupivacaine and ... by inhalation, or by injection just under the skin.[1] ... Some of the adverse effects of local anesthetic use, such as ... Due to epinephrine's vasoconstricting abilities, the use of epinephrine in localized anesthetics also helps to diminish the ... Epinephrine/adrenaline is frequently combined with dental and spinal anesthetics and can cause panic attacks in susceptible ...
It is a powerful anesthetic, euphoriant, anxiolytic and sedative when inhaled or ingested.[8][9] ... After a person has lost consciousness due to chloroform inhalation, a continuous volume must be administered and the chin must ... The anesthetic use of chloroform has been discontinued because it caused deaths due to respiratory failure and cardiac ... In 1848, Hannah Greener, a 15-year-old girl who was having an infected toenail removed, died after being given the anesthetic.[ ...
Solution for inhalation (Assist, Mucomyst, Mucosil) - inhaled for mucolytic therapy. *Intravenous injection (Assist, Parvolex, ... The IV injection and inhalation preparations are, in general, prescription only, whereas the oral solution and the effervescent ...
Anesthetic: General anesthetics (N01A). Inhalation. Ethers. Diethyl ether • Methoxypropane • Vinyl ether • halogenated ethers ( ...
The procedure is generally painless, but after the anesthetic wears off, there may be pain for several days, and the nose may ... This contains chemicals that, through inhalation, may harm patients or medical staff. Ultrasonic coagulation and ablation ... Cocaine is the only local anesthetic that also produces vasoconstriction, making it ideal for controlling nosebleeds. More ... modern treatment applies silver nitrate after a local anesthetic. ...
Occasional deaths are reported from recreational inhalation of helium, but these are very rare from direct inhalation from ... The term "physiologically inert" is used to indicate a gas which has no toxic or anesthetic properties and does not act upon ... Harding BE, Wolf BC (Sep 2008). "Case report of suicide by inhalation of nitrogen gas". Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 29: 235-7. ... a b Chemical Safety Board Bulletin This is a government summary of accidental 80 nitrogen inhalation deaths, mostly in ...
Inspired by Macintosh's report, P. Hex Venn (who was at that time the anesthetic advisor to the British firm Eschmann Brothers ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)55592-5. Magill, I (1921). "Warming ether vapour for Inhalation". The Lancet. 197 (5102): 1270. doi: ... Rowbotham, ES; Magill, I (1921). "Anæsthetics in the Plastic Surgery of the Face and Jaws". Proceedings of the Royal Society of ... Ironically, the newly developed inhalational anesthetic agents and techniques of general anesthesia actually seemed to increase ...
General anesthetic agents, opioids, and neuromuscular-blocking drugs may diminish or even abolish the respiratory drive. ... Airway obstruction is also common in people who have suffered smoke inhalation or burns within or near the airway or ... Alternative techniques for airway management and delivery of oxygen, volatile anesthetics or other breathing gases include the ... Even for longer duration or more invasive procedures, a general anesthetic may be administered without intubating the trachea, ...
Available in oral and injectable form, theophylline is a long-acting bronchodilator that prevents asthma episodes. It belongs to the chemical class methyl xanthines (along with caffeine). It is prescribed in severe cases of asthma or those that are difficult to control. It must be taken 1-4 times daily, and doses cannot be missed. Blood tests are required to monitor therapy and to indicate when dosage adjustment is necessary. Side effects can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach or headache, rapid or irregular heart beat, muscle cramps, nervous or jittery feelings, and hyperactivity. These symptoms may signal the need for an adjustment in medication. It may promote acid reflux, also known as GERD, by relaxing the lower esophageal sphincter muscle. Some medications, such as seizure and ulcer medications and antibiotics containing erythromycin, can interfere with the way theophylline works. Coffee, tea, colas, cigarette-smoking, and viral illnesses can all affect the action of theophylline ...
Solubilities of local anesthetics". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 36 (1): 17-9. doi:10.1002/jps. ... 53000 mg/m3 (inhalation, mouse)[citation needed]. 12,000 ppm (rat, 8 hr)[7] ... Early uses as an anesthetic[edit]. Although isopropyl alcohol can be used for anesthesia, its many negative attributes or ... Isopropyl alcohol can also be used similarly to ether as a solvent[24] or as an anesthetic by inhaling the fumes or orally. ...
Sodium thiopental or pentobarbital:[25] ultrashort-action barbiturate, an anesthetic agent used at a high dose that renders the ... gas inhalation, hanging and firing squad, that were considered to be less humane. It is now the most common form of execution ... Supporters of the death penalty say that a huge dose of thiopental, which is between 14 and 20 times the anesthetic induction ... It contrasts towards the inhaled anesthetics have extremely short half-lives and allow the patient to wake up rapidly and ...
Inhalation General Anesthesia. This will eliminate all pain and also all memory of any needle procedure. On the other hand, it ... EMLA is a topical anesthetic cream that is a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine. It is a prescription cream in the ... The patch requires 20 to 30 minutes to achieve full anesthetic effect.[16] The Synera patch was approved by the United States ... Iontophoresis drives anesthetic through the skin by using an electric current. It provides effective anesthesia, but is ...
It is a powerful analgesic agent at well below full anesthetic concentrations.[14][52][53][54][34] Because of its low ... Tomlin PJ, Jones BC, Edwards R, Robin PE (1973). "Subjective and objective sensory responses to inhalation of nitrous oxide and ... It was first made in 1948 by William T. Miller and came into medical use in the 1960s.[4] It was used as a general anesthetic ... Gottlieb LS, Trey C (1974). "The effects of fluorinated anesthetics on the liver and kidneys". Annual Review of Medicine. 25: ...
These are popular for administration of opioids such as fentanyl, or local anesthetics such as lidocaine. Iontocaine is one ... "PENTHROX (methoxyflurane) Inhalation: Product Information" (PDF). Springvale, Victoria, Australia: Medical Developments ... "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation anesthesia". Abbott Park, Illinois: Abbott Laboratories ...
... and the inhalation anesthetic isoflurane.[15] Rachel Carson brought the issue of DDT pesticide toxicity to public awareness ...
In November 1846, Henry Jacob Bigelow, a Boston surgeon, reported a breakthrough in the search for surgical anesthetics with ... "Insensibility during surgical operations produced by inhalation". The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 35 (16): 309-17. ...
Shiraishi M, Harris RA (2004). "Effects of alcohols and anesthetics on recombinant voltage-gated Na+ channels". J. Pharmacol. ... Vomiting (death may occur due to inhalation of vomit (pulmonary aspiration) while unconscious) ...
... inhalations were first conducted without sedation or muscle paralysis. Premedication with pentothal and ... The convulsant properties of flurothyl pose a challenge to unifying theories of general anesthetics such as the Meyer-Overton ... Koblin DD, Eger EI, Johnson BH, Collins P, Terrell RC, Speers L (July 1981). "Are convulsant gases also anesthetics?". ... Wakamori M, Ikemoto Y, Akaike N (December 1991). "Effects of two volatile anesthetics and a volatile convulsant on the ...
Anesthetic gases used for surgery, such as nitrous oxide or enflurane, are believed to induce anesthesia primarily by acting as ... Furthermore, the inhalation of any gas that is capable of displacing oxygen in the lungs (especially gases heavier than oxygen ... This makes inhaled anesthetic gases different from other NMDA antagonists, such as ketamine, which bind to a regulatory site on ... Several medical anesthetics are used as recreational drugs, including diethyl ether (a drug that is no longer used medically, ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Methylphenidate Hcl Oral and sympathomimetics-selected-inhalation- ... Selected Inhalation Anesthetic Agents/Sympathomimetics Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as ... The interaction of anesthetic agents and adrenergic drugs to produce cardiac arrhythmias. Anesthesiology 1968 Jul-Aug; 29(4): ... Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure and heart rate, which can increase the ability of anesthetics to change the rhythm ...
Anesthetics, Inhalation. Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce Anesthesia; potency; the degree ... Inhalation Anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of Anesthesia can be changed rapidly by ...
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:. ...
General anesthetics are usually given by inhalation or by injection into a vein. However, certain anesthetics may be given ... General anesthetics are given only by or under the immediate supervision of a medical doctor or dentist trained to use them. If ... Although most general anesthetics can be used by themselves in producing loss of consciousness, some are often used together. ... General anesthetics normally are used to produce loss of consciousness before and during surgery. However, for obstetrics ( ...
What is inhalation anesthetic? Meaning of inhalation anesthetic as a legal term. What does inhalation anesthetic mean in law? ... Definition of inhalation anesthetic in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Inhalation anesthetic legal definition of inhalation anesthetic https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/inhalation+ ... anesthetic. (redirected from inhalation anesthetic). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ...
The Effects of Spinal, Inhalation, and Total Intravenous Anesthetic Techniques on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Arthroscopic ... The Effects of Spinal, Inhalation, and Total Intravenous Anesthetic Techniques on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Arthroscopic ... In the inhalation group (Group I), inhalation anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane mask induction and maintained with ... Inhalation anesthetic agents and propofol have been compared to examine the effect of MDA levels in different types of surgery ...
Effect of Inhalation Anesthetics on Cardiac Cell Membrane Potentials Evan L. Frederickson, M.D.; Joseph V. Levy, Ph.D.; K. ... Effect of Inhalation Anesthetics on Cardiac Cell Membrane Potentials You will receive an email whenever this article is ... Effect of Inhalation Anesthetics on Cardiac Cell Membrane Potentials. Anesthesiology 1 1960, Vol.21, 100. doi: ... Evan L. Frederickson, Joseph V. Levy, K. Ichiyanagi; Effect of Inhalation Anesthetics on Cardiac Cell Membrane Potentials. ...
5-27 A sample of the inhalation anesthetic gas Halothane, C2HBrCIF3, in a 500-mL cylinder has a pressure of 2.3 atm at 0°C. ... 5 - 5-27 A sample of the inhalation anesthetic gas...Ch. 5 - 5-28 Complete this table: 546 L 43°C 6.5 atm 65°C...Ch. 5 - 5-29 ... 5-27 A sample of the inhalation anesthetic gas Halothane, C 2 HBrCIF 3 , in a 500-mL cylinder has a pressure of 2.3 atm at 0°C ... ChemistryIntroduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry5-27 A sample of the inhalation anesthetic gas Halothane, C 2 HBrCIF ...
Modern inhalation anesthetics that are predominantly used in clinical practice include one gas-nitrous oxide-and new volatile ... Desflurane and sevoflurane are the low‐soluble inhalation anesthetics, and they offer some clinical advantages over isoflurane ... An anesthetic agent algorithm is provided as a sample decision‐process tree for selecting among isoflurane, desflurane, and ... and pharmacodynamics of these anesthetic agents and the collaborated effort from both the anesthesia and pharmacy departments. ...
The Effect of Inhalation of Halogenated Anesthetics on Rat Liver Mitochondrial Function. Anesthesiology 9 1971, Vol.35, 253-255 ... The Effect of Inhalation of Halogenated Anesthetics on Rat Liver Mitochondrial Function ... The Effect of Inhalation of Halogenated Anesthetics on Rat Liver Mitochondrial Function ... The Effect of Inhalation of Halogenated Anesthetics on Rat Liver Mitochondrial Function. Anesthesiology 1971;35(3):253-255. ...
Home/Inhalation Anesthetic Market Trend. Inhalation Anesthetic Market Trend. * richard September 5, 2020. 0 4 ... Global Inhalation Anesthetic Market Size, Growth, Share, and Trends Inhalation Anesthetic Market Is Expected to Reach USD XXX ... Coronaviruss Impact On Inhalation Anesthetic Market 2020 - Global Industry Report, Forecast 2026. ...
400.28(a)(3)(iii)(A)) of changes in sourcing related to inhalation anesthetics at Foreign-Trade Subzone 61H, at the facility of ... 400.28(a)(3)(iii)(A)) of changes in sourcing related to inhalation anesthetics at Foreign-Trade Subzone 61H, at the facility of ... Review of Sourcing Change, Foreign-Trade Subzone 61H, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico (Inhalation Anesthetics Manufacturing), ... primarily inhalation anesthetics for hospital and critical care therapy. The subzone was initially approved for a period of ...
Effect of Inhalation Anesthetic on Barnoreflex and Maxillofacial Blood Flow under Hypotention Anesthesia.. Research Project ... Decrease of systemic blood pressure induced by halothane inhalation did not cause decrease of afferent baro-activity of aortic ... The efferent sympathetic activity of aortic nerve was decreased by 1% halothane inhalation.. Afferent activity of aortic nerve ...
Inhalation Anesthetics. Animal experiments have shown that inhalation anesthetics depress cardiovascular activity by decreasing ... When used concomitantly, inhalation anesthetics and calcium antagonists, such as verapamil, titrate slowly to avoid excessive ... Verapamil has a local anesthetic action that is 1.6 times that of procaine on an equimolar basis. It is not known whether this ...
Inhalation anesthetics. Animal experiments have shown that inhalation anesthetics depress cardiovascular activity by decreasing ... When used concomitantly, inhalation anesthetics and calcium antagonists, such as verapamil, should each be titrated carefully ... Calan has a local anesthetic action that is 1.6 times that of procaine on an equimolar basis. It is not known whether this ...
Our inhalation anesthetics manufacturing location in Lebanon is part of our commitment to delivering critical care solutions ...
... an increase in cardiac output and the consequent increased pulmonary blood flow removes more anesthetic from ... The alveolar venous anesthetic gradient is determined by the amount of tissue uptake of an inhalation agent anesthetic . This ... The brain has a high perfusion and equilibrates rapidly with the inhalation agent anesthetic , muscle has 1/20th perfusion of ... With respect to inhalation agent anesthetic , an increase in cardiac output and the consequent increased pulmonary blood flow ...
Inhalation anesthetics. Animal experiments have shown that inhalation anesthetics depress cardiovascular activity by decreasing ... When used concomitantly, inhalation anesthetics and calcium antagonists, such as verapamil, should each be titrated carefully ... Verapamil hydrochloride has a local anesthetic action that is 1.6 times that of procaine on an equimolar basis. It is not known ...
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you dont have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your librarys reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. OK ...
The waste anesthetic gases and vapors of concern involved in animal surgery are liquid halogenated inhalation agents (vapors) ... Anesthetic vapors that leak into the surrounding room during animal surgeries are called Waste Anesthetic Gases (WAG). It is ... Some potential effects of exposure to waste anesthetic gases are nausea, dizziness, headaches, fatigue, and irritability, as ... are potentially exposed to waste anesthetic gases and are at risk of occupational illness. ...
... important constraints of anesthesia must be taken into consideration when the pharmacological properties of modern anesthetics ... The clinical understanding of that time considered anesthesia as a unique state achieved by any of the inhalation anesthetics, ... These constraints were already recognised 35 years ago, when in 1972 Volume XXX entitled "Modern Inhalation Anesthetics" ... CNS Modern Anesthetics anesthesia depression drug kinetics neurotoxicity opioid pain pharmacodynamics pharmacokinetics research ...
Inhalation Anesthetics. In: Butterworth IV JF, Mackey DC, Wasnick JD. Butterworth IV J.F., Mackey D.C., Wasnick J.D. Eds. John ... "Inhalation Anesthetics." Morgan & Mikhails Clinical Anesthesiology, 6e Butterworth IV JF, Mackey DC, Wasnick JD. Butterworth ... Inhalation anesthetics, notably halothane and sevoflurane, are particularly useful in the induction of pediatric patients in ... This was previously supported by the observation that the anesthetic potency of inhalation agents correlates directly with ...
Posts tagged as "Global Inhalation Anesthetic Market 2019" Global Inhalation Anesthetic Market 2019 AstraZeneca, Fresenius-Kabi ... The Global Inhalation Anesthetic Market 2018 Research Report is an extensive Inhalation Anesthetic Market research report ... The Global Inhalation Anesthetic Market 2018 Research Report is an extensive Inhalation Anesthetic Market research report ... The "Inhalation Anesthetic Market" report contains wide-extending factual assessment for Inhalation Anesthetic, which enables ...
Inhalation anesthetics induce apoptosis in normal peripheral lymphocytes in vitro. H. Matsuoka, S. Kurosawa, T. Horinouchi, M. ... Inhalation anesthetics induce apoptosis in normal peripheral lymphocytes in vitro. / Matsuoka, H.; Kurosawa, S.; Horinouchi, T ... title = "Inhalation anesthetics induce apoptosis in normal peripheral lymphocytes in vitro",. abstract = "Background: The ... Matsuoka H, Kurosawa S, Horinouchi T, Kato M, Hashimoto Y. Inhalation anesthetics induce apoptosis in normal peripheral ...
antifertility effects; inhalation anaesthetics; exposure; expectant mothers; veterinary services. Descriptors (secondary). ... Effect of waste anesthetic gas and vapor exposure on reproductive outcome in veterinary personnel. ...
Male and female Fischer-344 rats were exposed to N2O and halothane mixtures in inhalation chambers, 7 hours/day, 5 days/week ... NIOSH-Contract; Contract-099-74-0046; Anesthetics; Analgesics; Ethanes; Laboratory-animals; Reticuloendothelial-system- ... Male and female Fischer-344 rats were exposed to N2O and halothane mixtures in inhalation chambers, 7 hours/day, 5 days/week ...
... anesthetic gases, high level disinfectants, surgical smoke, aerosolized medications (pentamidine, ribavirin, and antibiotics), ... Anesthetics; Gases; Disinfectants; Aerosol-particles; Medicinal-chemicals; Medical-treatment; Antibiotics; Smoke-inhalation; ... and anesthetic gases (56%, n=3,604). Conclusions: Training and having procedures in place to minimize exposure to these ... anesthetic gases, high level disinfectants, surgical smoke, aerosolized medications (pentamidine, ribavirin, and antibiotics), ...
Inhalation of Anesthetic Isoflurane and Alzheimers Disease Neuropathogenesis. Zhongcong Xie, M.D., Ph.D.. Massachusetts ... Studies in animals have suggested that inhaled anesthetics may increase the number of amyloid plaques, one of the key ... It is currently unknown whether this effect occurs in humans or whether inhaled anesthetics increase the risk of Alzheimers ... have found evidence that the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane can cause biochemical changes associated with Alzheimer pathology. ...
Some of the anesthetics may be used for certain procedures in a medical doctors or dentists office. ... However, for obstetrics (labor and delivery) or certain minor procedures, an anesthetic may be given in small amounts to ... General anesthetics normally are used to produce loss of consciousness before and during surgery. ... General anesthetics are usually given by inhalation or by injection into a vein. However, certain anesthetics may be given ...
announced it has received approval from the FDA to market Sojourn (Sevoflurane) inhalation anesthetic. ...
  • Inhalation Anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of Anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Drugs packages from 1 to 59 fluids for nutrition, gel anesthetic catheters, human albumin, vaccines different serums Pharmaceutical, Antibiotics different radiologic contrast, narcotics different test strips for measuring blood glucose, liquid inhalation anesthetics , lime anesthesia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effect of Inhalation Anesthetic on Barnoreflex and Maxillofacial Blood Flow under Hypotention Anesthesia. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Regardless of the patient's age, anesthesia is often maintained with inhalation agents. (mhmedical.com)
  • Some important constraints of anesthesia must be taken into consideration when the pharmacological properties of modern anesthetics are discussed. (springer.com)
  • At the beginning of the 1970's anesthesia was commonly delivered by inhalation, with only very few exceptions. (springer.com)
  • The clinical understanding of that time considered anesthesia as a unique state achieved by any of the inhalation anesthetics, in- pendent of their specific molecular structure. (springer.com)
  • Sevoflurane, USP is an inhalational anesthetic agent for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. (drugs.com)
  • Three groups of patients are going to have minor surgery under general anesthesia with inhaled anesthetics and different ventilatory setting (Tidal volume: 8, 10, 12 ml/kg, respiratory rate: 10/min each). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • General anesthetics elicit a state of general anesthesia . (wikipedia.org)
  • While general anesthesia induction may be facilitated by one general anesthetic, others may be used in parallel or subsequently to achieve and maintain the desired anesthetic state. (wikipedia.org)
  • An anesthetic (or anaesthetic , see spelling differences ) is a drug that causes anesthesia -reversible loss of sensation. (thefullwiki.org)
  • general anesthetics , which cause a reversible loss of consciousness ( general anesthesia ), and local anesthetics , which cause a reversible loss of sensation for a limited region of the body while maintaining consciousness. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Adverse effects of local anesthesia are generally referred to as local anesthetic toxicity . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Epidural and spinal anesthesia is a shot of anesthetic near the spinal cord and the nerves that connect to it. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Volatile agents are specially formulated organic liquids that evaporate readily into vapors, and are given by inhalation for induction and/or maintenance of general anesthesia. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Inhalational anesthetics are gases or volatile liquids that produce general anesthesia when inhaled. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Intravenous anesthetics are sedative hypnotic drugs that produce anesthesia in large doses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • these can be used alone for brief surgical procedures or for rapid induction of anesthesia maintained by inhalational anesthetics. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • local anesthetic an agent, e.g., lidocaine, procaine, or tetracaine, that produces anesthesia by paralyzing sensory nerve endings or nerve fibers at the site of application. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • these are preferred because they lead to faster onset of anesthesia and faster emergence from anesthesia once application of the anesthetic is stopped. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common anesthesia and physiological monitoring equipment include gas tanks, anesthetic vaporizers and stands, warming controllers and pads, mechanical ventilators, and pulse oximeters. (jove.com)
  • The global inhalation anesthesia market size is projected to reach USD 1.42 billion by 2015, at a lucrative CAGR of 3.5% over the forecast period. (reportlinker.com)
  • On the basis of product, the inhalation anesthesia market is classified into sevoflurane, isoflurane, and desflurane.These products are used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia for patients during surgical procedures. (reportlinker.com)
  • The waste anesthetic gases and vapors of concern involved in animal surgery are liquid halogenated inhalation agents (vapors) such as halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, and desflurane. (upenn.edu)
  • Several studies, including some performed Zhongcong Xie, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues, have found evidence that the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane can cause biochemical changes associated with Alzheimer pathology. (alz.org)
  • When used as an anesthetic for an abortion, enflurane, halothane, or isoflurane may cause increased bleeding. (thedrugslist.com)
  • Isoflurane is an inhalation anesthetic. (medscape.com)
  • Firstly the enormous present cost to develop new drugs can only be justified if they are better than existing drugs Secondly, if isoflurane is indexed close to the ideal inhalation anaesthetic , there is little point in developing another which will give only marginal improvement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 5) studied the possible genotoxic properties of two inhalation anaesthetics , namely sevoflurane and isoflurane, in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients before, during and after anaesthesia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The volatile anesthetic isoflurane attenuates Ca++ mobilization in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • 5-27 A sample of the inhalation anesthetic gas Halothane, C 2 HBrCIF 3 , in a 500-mL cylinder has a pressure of 2.3 atm at 0°C. What will be the pressure of the gas if its temperature is warmed to 37 °C (body temperature)? (bartleby.com)
  • The efferent sympathetic activity of aortic nerve was decreased by 1% halothane inhalation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Decrease of systemic blood pressure induced by halothane inhalation did not cause decrease of afferent baro-activity of aortic nerve. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Patients exposed to multiple halothane anesthetics at short intervals, middle-aged obese women, and persons with a familial predisposition to halothane toxicity or a personal history of toxicity are considered to be at increased risk. (mhmedical.com)
  • Inhalation anesthetics, notably halothane and sevoflurane, are particularly useful in the induction of pediatric patients in whom it may be difficult to start an intravenous line. (mhmedical.com)
  • Inhalation toxicity study of nitrous oxide and halothane in rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Male and female Fischer-344 rats were exposed to N2O and halothane mixtures in inhalation chambers, 7 hours/day, 5 days/week for 104 weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • Barbiturate anesthetics (methohexital and thiopental), halothane, and propofol pass into the breast milk. (thedrugslist.com)
  • Cytogenetic evaluation of bone marrow cells in the rat following long-term inhalation exposure to nitrous oxide plus halothane. (cdc.gov)
  • General anesthetics are usually given by inhalation or by injection into a vein. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Anesthetics given by inhalation and ketamine have been tested in children and have not been shown to cause different side effects or problems in children than they do in adults. (pharmacypedia.org)
  • Elderly people are especially sensitive to the effects of the barbiturate anesthetics (methohexital and thiopental), etomidate, propofol, and anesthetics given by inhalation. (thedrugslist.com)
  • The global Inhalation Anesthetic market report also sheds light on the type of product, its applications, customer, prime players, and other factors aligning with finance. (technologynewsextra.com)
  • The report recommends a careful investigation of the various factors and movements influencing the growth course of the global Inhalation Anesthetic market. (technologynewsextra.com)
  • Anesthetic vapors that leak into the surrounding room during animal surgeries are called Waste Anesthetic Gases (WAG). (upenn.edu)
  • It is estimated that more than 250,000 health care professionals who work in hospitals, operating rooms, dental offices and veterinary clinics, are potentially exposed to waste anesthetic gases and are at risk of occupational illness. (upenn.edu)
  • Background: The Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers describes current practices used to minimize chemical exposures and barriers to using recommended personal protective equipment for the following: antineoplastic drugs, anesthetic gases, high level disinfectants, surgical smoke, aerosolized medications (pentamidine, ribavirin, and antibiotics), and chemical sterilants. (cdc.gov)
  • Reported employer procedures for minimizing exposure was lowest for surgical smoke (32%, n=4,746) and anesthetic gases (56%, n=3,604). (cdc.gov)
  • Operating room professionals are scarcely aware of their individual occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases (WAGs). (unesp.br)
  • Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mice lack a subunit of mitochondrial complex I and are strikingly hypersensitive to VAs yet resistant to the intravenous anesthetic ketamine [7]. (nih.gov)
  • Propofol takes the largest amount of usage in Chinese intravenous anesthetic market, the market size is around 770 million in 2014.AZN is the largest supplier of propofol in China, Fresenius ranks the sencond.Due to the fierce competition status, the growth of propofol will probably slow down. (sbwire.com)
  • In the second part of this article, we present original research findings from our laboratory that demonstrate the distinct electrophysiological characteristics of burst suppression induced by the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane and the intravenous anesthetic propofol. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, we report the results of our new study showing clear electrophysiological differences in burst suppression patterns induced by two common general anesthetics, sevoflurane and propofol. (frontiersin.org)
  • The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of an inhaled anesthetic is the alveolar concentration that prevents movement in 50% of patients in response to a standardized stimulus (eg, surgical incision). (mhmedical.com)
  • The interaction of anesthetic agents and adrenergic drugs to produce cardiac arrhythmias. (webmd.com)
  • The medical products business, with 2013 annual sales of more than $9 billion, has a portfolio of intravenous (IV) solutions and nutritional therapies, drug delivery systems and administration sets, premixed and other injectable drugs, as well as inhalation anesthetics and hospital-based biosurgery products. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There has also been a greater concern for the impact of drugs and anesthetic agents on experimental results. (springer.com)
  • The present invention relates to the delivery of erectile dysfunction drugs through an inhalation route. (google.com.au)
  • Specifically, it relates to aerosols containing erectile dysfunction drugs that are used in inhalation therapy. (google.com.au)
  • 12-14-2016 ] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning that repeated or lengthy use of general anesthetic and sedation drugs during surgeries or procedures in children younger than 3 years or in pregnant women during their third trimester may affect the development of children's brains. (fda.gov)
  • Consistent with animal studies, recent human studies suggest that a single, relatively short exposure to general anesthetic and sedation drugs in infants or toddlers is unlikely to have negative effects on behavior or learning. (fda.gov)
  • To better inform the public about this potential risk, we are requiring warnings to be added to the labels of general anesthetic and sedation drugs (see List of General Anesthetic and Sedation Drugs Affected by this Label Change). (fda.gov)
  • Anesthetic and sedation drugs are necessary for infants, children, and pregnant women who require surgery or other painful and stressful procedures, especially when they face life-threatening conditions requiring surgery that should not be delayed. (fda.gov)
  • Discuss with parents, caregivers, and pregnant women the benefits, risks, and appropriate timing of surgery or procedures requiring anesthetic and sedation drugs. (fda.gov)
  • Published studies in pregnant animals and young animals have shown the use of general anesthetic and sedation drugs for more than 3 hours caused widespread loss of nerve cells in the brain. (fda.gov)
  • FDA has been investigating the potential adverse effects of general anesthetic and sedation drugs on children's brain development since the first animal study on this topic was published in 1999. (fda.gov)
  • We urge health care professionals, patients, parents, and caregivers to report side effects involving anesthetic and sedation drugs or other medicines to the FDA MedWatch program, using the information in the "Contact FDA" box at the bottom of the page. (fda.gov)
  • A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic practice. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Local anesthetic drugs are toxic to the heart (where they cause arrhythmia ) and brain (where they may cause unconsciousness and seizures ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Local anesthetics are drugs that block nerve conduction in the region where they are applied. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The greater the uptake of anesthetic agent, the greater the difference between inspired and alveolar concentrations, and the slower the rate of induction. (mhmedical.com)
  • Many of the factors that speed induction also speed recovery: elimination of rebreathing, high fresh gas flows, low anesthetic-circuit volume, low absorption by the anesthetic circuit, decreased solubility, high cerebral blood flow, and increased ventilation. (mhmedical.com)
  • The course of a general anesthetic can be divided into three phases: (1) induction, (2) maintenance, and (3) emergence. (mhmedical.com)
  • Although adults are usually induced with intravenous agents, the nonpungency and rapid onset of sevoflurane make inhalation induction practical for them as well. (mhmedical.com)
  • MINRAD International also manufactures and markets generic inhalation anesthetics for use in connection with human and veterinary surgical procedures. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • May 7, 2007 - MINRAD International Inc. announced it has received approval from the FDA to market Sojourn (Sevoflurane) inhalation anesthetic. (itnonline.com)
  • These constraints were already recognised 35 years ago, when in 1972 Volume XXX entitled "Modern Inhalation Anesthetics" appeared in this Handbook Series. (springer.com)
  • Prolonged exposure to anesthetic concentrations of nitrous oxide can result in bone marrow depression (megaloblastic anemia) and even neurological deficiencies (peripheral neuropathies). (mhmedical.com)
  • However, further research is needed to fully characterize how early life anesthetic exposure affects children's brain development. (fda.gov)
  • It manifests in susceptible individuals in response to exposure to Inhalant anesthetics, depolarizing muscle relaxants or extreme physical activity in hot environments. (scielo.br)
  • Inhalation exposure in the home to volatile organic contaminants of drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • Following inhalation exposure, absorption of chloroform appears to be rapid and extensive. (cdc.gov)
  • 44 shortly after inhalation exposure (Danielsson et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Following oral exposure in animal studies, distribution of chloroform appears to be similar to following inhalation exposure, with the primary concentrations in lipophilic tissues (Brown et al. (cdc.gov)
  • The alveolar venous anesthetic gradient is determined by the amount of tissue uptake of an inhalation agent anesthetic . (anesthesiageneral.com)
  • Three factors affect anesthetic uptake: solubility in the blood, alveolar blood flow, and the difference in partial pressure between alveolar gas and venous blood. (mhmedical.com)
  • Nonpungency and rapid increases in alveolar anesthetic concentration make sevoflurane an excellent choice for smooth and rapid inhalation inductions in pediatric and adult patients. (mhmedical.com)
  • This was previously supported by the observation that the anesthetic potency of inhalation agents correlates directly with their lipid solubility (Meyer-Overton rule). (mhmedical.com)
  • MURPHY, M. R., HUG, C. C.: The anesthetic potency of fentanyl in terms of its reduction of enflurane MAC. (springer.com)
  • The potency of an anesthetic is associated with its lipid solubility, which is measured by its oil/gas partition coefficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • simplified, it is the exhaled gas concentration required to produce anaesthetic effects - an inverse indicator of anesthetic gas potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • During a crisis of MH, inhalational anesthetics, muscle relaxants depolarizing (succinylcholine) or extreme physical activity in hot environments trigger a massive accumulation of calcium (Ca 2+ ) in myoplasm, which leads to an accelerated metabolism and skeletal muscle contractile activity. (scielo.br)
  • The mechanism of action of all inhalational anesthetics is thought to involve uptake of the gas in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes and interaction with the membrane proteins, resulting in inhibition of synaptic transmission of nerve impulses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Comprehensively covers the various types of anesthetic agents to be anticipated in the PACU. (elsevier.com)
  • There are two common types of anesthetic vaporizer commonly used for small animal surgery. (jove.com)
  • The first evidence of local anesthetic toxicity involves the nervous system, including agitation, confusion, dizziness, blurred vision, tinnitus, a metallic taste in the mouth, and nausea that can quickly progress to seizures and cardiovascular collapse. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Toxicity can occur with any local anesthetic as an individual reaction by that patient. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The information in the virtual logbook about the operation of a vaporizer with respect to a particular provision of anesthetic vapor to a particular patient may be communicated to a location outside of the vaporizer for storage along with other related medical records. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The ideal anesthetic vapor or gas should be non-flammable, non-explosive, and lipid-soluble. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Nitrous oxide, chloroform, and ether were the first universally accepted general anesthetics. (mhmedical.com)
  • The Effects of Spinal, Inhalation, and T. (ktu.edu.tr)
  • How You'll Make a Difference: Assembles necessary supplies and equipment, and administers intravenous, spinal, and other anesthetics prior to surgical or. (simplyhired.com)
  • General anesthetics normally are used to produce loss of consciousness before and during surgery. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Although most general anesthetics can be used by themselves in producing loss of consciousness, some are often used together. (mayoclinic.org)
  • General anesthetics are given only by or under the immediate supervision of a medical doctor or dentist trained to use them. (mayoclinic.org)
  • If you will be receiving a general anesthetic during surgery, your doctor or anesthesiologist will give you the medicine and closely follow your progress. (mayoclinic.org)
  • General anesthetics may cause unwanted effects, such as drowsiness, in the newborn baby if large amounts are given to the mother during labor and delivery. (thedrugslist.com)
  • However, general anesthetics have not been reported to cause problems in nursing babies. (thedrugslist.com)
  • General anaesthetics (or anesthetics , see spelling differences ) are often defined as compounds that induce a loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] General anesthetics, however, typically elicit several key reversible effects: immobility, analgesia , amnesia , unconsciousness, and reduced autonomic responsiveness to noxious stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual general anesthetics vary with respect to their specific physiological and cognitive effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • General anesthetics that agonize them are typically used to induce a state of sedation and/or unconsciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • This foremost data grants major competitors and its executives a precise picture of general Inhalation Anesthetic market. (technologynewsextra.com)
  • It has general anesthetic properties when administered intravenously. (medscape.com)
  • We elected to given him a general inhalation anaesthetic , managing his airway with a classical size 4 LMA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Blood-gas partition coefficient, also known as Ostwald coefficient for blood-gas, is a term used in pharmacology to describe the solubility of inhaled general anesthetics in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our data suggest that the circuit mechanisms that generate burst suppression activity may differ among general anesthetics. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also describe clinical applications of burst suppression induced by general anesthetics. (frontiersin.org)
  • In patients undergoing GA, end-tidal inhalation anaesthetic concentrations are measured to aid in monitoring anaesthetic depth and preventing awareness. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The LMA was inserted after steady state end-tidal anesthetic concentrations had been maintained for 15 min. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Local anesthetics are agents that prevent transmission of nerve impulses without causing unconsciousness. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Local anesthetics can be either ester or amide based. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Ester local anesthetics (e.g., procaine, amethocaine, cocaine) are generally unstable in solution and fast-acting, and allergic reactions are common. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Comfort: Not only are the dental chairs and the dentistry office environment more comfortable and pleasant, improvements in the use of local anesthetics and new equipment provide more comfort than ever before. (1stsedationdentist.com)
  • following the wide usage of A.C.E. mixture as an anesthetic , one doctor found patients were more relaxed when he used Eau de Cologne and chloroform for dental operations? (thefullwiki.org)
  • On the basis of pharmacokinetic results obtained in rats and mice exposed to chloroform by inhalation, and of enzymatic studies in human tissues in vitro , in vivo metabolic rate constants (VmaxC = 15.7 mg/hour/kg, Km = 0.448 mg/L) were defined for humans (Corley et al. (cdc.gov)
  • however, because of low perfusion in fat, the inhalation agent anesthetic concentration rises slowly. (anesthesiageneral.com)
  • In contrast, all volatile anesthetics concentration-dependently enhanced the GABA-induced extrasynaptic currents. (nih.gov)
  • Also, inhibition of GABA uptake by volatile anesthetics results in higher extracellular GABA concentration, which may lead to prolonged activation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. (nih.gov)
  • the concentration ability of Augustine Fangi reportedly allowed him to undergo an operation without anesthetic and feel nothing? (thefullwiki.org)
  • The concentration of the anesthetic in blood includes the portion that is undissolved in plasma and the portion that is dissolved (bound to plasma proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Anesthetic modulation of protein function firstly depends upon the presence of an agent in sufficient concentration to desolvate, displace weakly-bound water molecules within an allosteric binding site, and only then bind to the allosteric site. (springer.com)
  • The target effects, such as unconsciousness, are pot- tially life-threatening, as are the side effects of modern anesthetics, such as respi- tory and cardiovascular depression. (springer.com)
  • The mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics (VAs) produce their effects (loss of consciousness, analgesia, amnesia, and immobility) remain an unsolved mystery. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of volatile anesthetics on Ca++ mobilization in rat hepatocytes. (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesized that other anesthetic-sensitive ion channels exhibit distinct cut-off effects associated with hydrocarbon molar water solubility, and that cut-off values are comparatively similar between related receptors than phylogenetically distant ones. (springer.com)
  • distinct cut-off effects may exist for all cell surface receptors that are sensitive to volatile anesthetics. (springer.com)
  • The anesthetic used to sedate mice for scanning can have major effects on physiology. (bireme.br)
  • Effects of inhalation anesthetics on regional myocardial functions. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Studies comparing the physiological effects of anesthetic agents have shown a drastic depression of body temperature, cardiac function, and respiratory function 23 , 24 , 25 . (jove.com)
  • Growing penetration of universal health insurance coverage to wider population and constant improvements in healthcare infrastructure in various developing countries are expected to positively impact the number of surgeries performed thus, increasing the usage rates of inhalation anesthetics over the next seven years. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dallas, TX -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 06/24/2015 -- With the increasing numbers of domestic surgeries, the market size of Chinese anesthetic also increased a lot. (sbwire.com)
  • Each anesthetic showed somewhat different GABA-induced response and these results suggest that GABA-induced synaptic transmission cannot have a uniformly common site of action as suggested for volatile anesthetics. (nih.gov)
  • If an anesthetic has a high coefficient, then a large amount of it will have to be taken up in the body's blood before being passed on to the fatty (lipid) tissues of the brain where it can exert its effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Status of organ systems: Cardiovascular system: whereas the hypotensive effect of most anesthetics is sometimes desirable, ischemic injury of tissues could follow reduced perfusion pressure. (slideshare.net)
  • Clinical pharmacists rarely are involved in the selection and dosing of anesthetic agents. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The unitary hypothesis proposes that all inhalation agents share a common mechanism of action at the molecular level. (mhmedical.com)
  • Along with the growing awareness of the practicing veterinarian in the greater use of newer anesthetic agents and techniques, has been an increased interest on the part of the experimental surgeon and research worker in better anesthetic methods. (springer.com)
  • 1 ] When a combination of anesthetic agents is used for a procedure, follow the recommendations for the most problematic medication used during the procedure. (nih.gov)
  • 2 ] It is possible that requirements for other anesthetic agents would be affected similarly. (nih.gov)
  • Only preservative -free local anesthetic agents may be injected intrathecally . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage. (nih.gov)
  • Sevoflurane is able to do so and that is why this inhalation anaesthetic was the drug of choice in our case. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Intraoperative events, both surgical and anesthetic, induce several profound homeostatic changes that have diverse manifestations in different organs, including the heart. (medscape.com)
  • However, certain anesthetics may be given rectally to help produce sleep before surgery or certain other procedures. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This prospective, randomized study will be conducted over a 36-month period to investigate whether commonly used anesthetics (volatile versus intravenous) have an effect on the changes or occurrence of CTC in patients suffering from primary pancreatic cancer undergoing curative surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Are there any specific sites of action on the mechanism of volatile anesthetics? (nii.ac.jp)
  • ANDREEN, M.: Inhalation versus intravenous anaesthesia. (springer.com)
  • [3] [5] It is possible to deliver anaesthesia solely by inhalation or injection, but most commonly the two forms are combined, with an injection given to induce anaesthesia and a gas used to maintain it. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is currently unknown whether this effect occurs in humans or whether inhaled anesthetics increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease or its rate of onset. (alz.org)
  • Inhalation anaesthetics are one of the subgroups of these substances which have been widely used in medical field. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Low-flow digital vaporizers commonly utilize a syringe pump to directly administer volatile anesthetics into a stream of carrier gas. (jove.com)
  • Many compounds have been used for inhalation anaesthesia, but only a few are still in widespread use. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. Status of organ systems: Respiratory system: All inhaled anesthetics depress the respiratory system. (slideshare.net)
  • We examined how volatile anesthetics modulate GABA release by measuring spontaneous or miniature GABA-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs, sIPSCs) or by measuring action potential-evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) at individual synapses. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, a single inhaled anesthetic can allosterically modulate function of a large number of structurally diverse and phylogenetically unrelated ion channels-including many different ligand-gated ion channels, voltage-gated ion channels, and leak channels-and cell surface receptors-including many different channel-linked receptors, enzyme-linked receptors, and G protein-coupled receptors. (springer.com)
  • How does cardiac output affect inhalation anesthetics? (brainscape.com)