Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Benzocaine: A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.EthersEtidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Hypnosis, Anesthetic: Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Pregnanediones: Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Ethyl EthersAir Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Inhalation Spacers: A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Rats, Inbred F344Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.CarboxyhemoglobinBronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedMandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.SmokePain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedDogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Tiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Malignant Hyperthermia: Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.HydrocarbonsAnthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, IntratrachealReflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.CyclobutanesGas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Felypressin: A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.Siloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.

John Collins Warren and his act of conscience: a brief narrative of the trial and triumph of a great surgeon. (1/2307)

On examination of the correspondence among the principals involved, as well as the original patent application being prepared by Morton, it has become possible to reconstruct some of the remarkable details attending the first use of ether anesthesia at the Massachusetts General Hos pital in the autumn of 1846. At the time that Warren invited Morton to demonstrate the use of his "ethereal vapor" for anesthesia in a minor operation on Oct. 16, 1846, the exact chemical composition of the agent used was being held secret by Morton; Warren was clearly disturbed by this unethical use of a secret "nostrum." When the time arrived 3 weeks later for its possible use for a serious "capital" operation, Warren employed a simple stratagem of public confrontation to discover from Morton the true nature of the substance to be used. On being informed that it was pure unadulterated sulfuric ether, not some mysterious new discovery labeled "Letheon," Warren gave approval for its first use in a "capital" operation (low thigh amputation) on Nov. 7, 1846. Despite this revelation to the immediate participants, a veil of secrecy continued to surround the substance for many months, an anomalous situation evidently traceable to Morton's desire for personal reward from the discovery. It was this matter of secrecy, rather than priority for its discovery, that surrounded the early use of ether anesthesia with controversy and recrimination both in this country and abroad.  (+info)

A neomorphic syntaxin mutation blocks volatile-anesthetic action in Caenorhabditis elegans. (2/2307)

The molecular mechanisms underlying general anesthesia are unknown. For volatile general anesthetics (VAs), indirect evidence for both lipid and protein targets has been found. However, no in vivo data have implicated clearly any particular lipid or protein in the control of sensitivity to clinical concentrations of VAs. Genetics provides one approach toward identifying these mechanisms, but genes strongly regulating sensitivity to clinical concentrations of VAs have not been identified. By screening existing mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that a mutation in the neuronal syntaxin gene dominantly conferred resistance to the VAs isoflurane and halothane. By contrast, other mutations in syntaxin and in the syntaxin-binding proteins synaptobrevin and SNAP-25 produced VA hypersensitivity. The syntaxin allelic variation was striking, particularly for isoflurane, where a 33-fold range of sensitivities was seen. Both the resistant and hypersensitive mutations decrease synaptic transmission; thus, the indirect effect of reducing neurotransmission does not explain the VA resistance. As assessed by pharmacological criteria, halothane and isoflurane themselves reduced cholinergic transmission, and the presynaptic anesthetic effect was blocked by the resistant syntaxin mutation. A single gene mutation conferring high-level resistance to VAs is inconsistent with nonspecific membrane-perturbation theories of anesthesia. The genetic and pharmacological data suggest that the resistant syntaxin mutant directly blocks VA binding to or efficacy against presynaptic targets that mediate anesthetic behavioral effects. Syntaxin and syntaxin-binding proteins are candidate anesthetic targets.  (+info)

Causes of nitrous oxide contamination in operating rooms. (3/2307)

BACKGROUND: To reduce the ambient concentration of waste anesthetic agents, exhaust gas scavenging systems are standard in almost all operating rooms. The incidence of contamination and the factors that may increase the concentrations of ambient anesthetic gases have not been evaluated fully during routine circumstances, however. METHODS: Concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) in ambient air were monitored automatically in 10 operating rooms in Kagoshima University Hospital from January to March 1997. Ambient air was sampled automatically from each operating room, and the concentrations of N2O were analyzed every 22 min by an infrared spectrophotometer. The output of the N2O analyzer was integrated electronically regarding time, and data were displayed on a monitor in the administrative office for anesthesia supervisors. A concentration of N2O > 50 parts per million was regarded as abnormally high and was displayed with an alarm signal. The cause of the high concentration of N2O was then sought. RESULTS: During the 3-month investigation, N2O was used in 402 cases. Abnormally high concentrations of N2O were detected at some time during 104 (25.9%) of those cases. The causes were mask ventilation (42 cases, 40.4% of detected cases), unconnected scavenging systems (20 cases, 19.2%), leak around uncuffed pediatric endotracheal tube (13 cases, 12.5%), equipment leakage (12 cases, 11.5%), and others (17 cases, 16.4%). CONCLUSIONS: N2O contamination was common during routine circumstances in our operating rooms. An unconnected scavenging system led to the highest concentrations of N2O recorded. Proper use of scavenging systems is necessary if contamination by anesthetic gas is to be limited.  (+info)

Effects of anticholinergics on postoperative vomiting, recovery, and hospital stay in children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. (4/2307)

BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting are the most frequent problems after minor ambulatory surgical procedures. The agents used to induce and maintain anesthesia may modify the incidence of emesis. When neuromuscular blockade is antagonized with anticholinesterases, atropine or glycopyrrolate is used commonly to prevent bradycardia and excessive oral secretions. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of atropine and glycopyrrolate on postoperative vomiting in children. METHODS: Ninety-three patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy were studied. After inhalation induction of anesthesia with nitrous oxide, oxygen, and halothane, anesthesia was maintained with a nitrous oxide-oxygen mixture, halothane, morphine, and atracurium. Patients were randomized to receive, in a double-blinded manner, either 15 microg/kg atropine or 10 microg/kg glycopyrrolate with 60 microg/kg neostigmine to reverse neuromuscular blockade. Patient recovery, the incidence of postoperative emesis, antiemetic therapy, and the duration of postoperative hospital stay were assessed. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, gender, weight, or discharge time from the postanesthesia care unit or the hospital between the groups. Twenty-four hours after operation, the incidence of vomiting in the atropine group (56%) was significantly less than in the glycopyrrolate group (81%; P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the atropine and glycopyrrolate groups in the number of patients who required antiemetics or additional analgesics. CONCLUSIONS: In children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy, reversal of neuromuscular blockade with atropine and neostigmine is associated with a lesser incidence of postoperative emesis compared with glycopyrrolate and neostigmine.  (+info)

Functional brain imaging during anesthesia in humans: effects of halothane on global and regional cerebral glucose metabolism. (5/2307)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and isoflurane anesthesia were studied previously with functional brain imaging in humans to begin identifying key brain areas involved with mediating anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. The authors describe an additional positron emission tomography study of halothane's in vivo cerebral metabolic effects. METHODS: Five male volunteers each underwent two positron emission tomography scans. One scan assessed awake-baseline metabolism, and the other scan assessed metabolism during halothane anesthesia titrated to the point of unresponsiveness (mean +/- SD, expired = 0.7+/-0.2%). Scans were obtained using a GE2048 scanner and the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose technique. Regions of interest were analyzed for changes in both absolute and relative glucose metabolism. In addition, relative changes in metabolism were evaluated using statistical parametric mapping. RESULTS: Awake whole-brain metabolism averaged 6.3+/-1.2 mg x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (mean +/- SD). Halothane reduced metabolism 40+/-9% to 3.7+/-0.6 mg x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (P< or =0.005). Regional metabolism did not increase in any brain areas for any volunteer. The statistical parametric mapping analysis revealed significantly less relative metabolism in the basal forebrain, thalamus, limbic system, cerebellum, and occiput during halothane anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Halothane caused a global whole-brain metabolic reduction with significant shifts in regional metabolism. Comparisons with previous studies reveal similar absolute and relative metabolic effects for halothane and isoflurane. Propofol, however, was associated with larger absolute metabolic reductions, suppression of relative cortical metabolism more than either inhalational agent, and significantly less suppression of relative basal ganglia and midbrain metabolism.  (+info)

Clinical isoflurane metabolism by cytochrome P450 2E1. (6/2307)

BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that isoflurane metabolism to trifluoroacetic acid and inorganic fluoride by human liver microsomes in vitro is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). This investigation tested the hypothesis that P450 2E1 predominantly catalyzes human isoflurane metabolism in vivo. Disulfiram, which is converted in vivo to a selective inhibitor of P450 2E1, was used as a metabolic probe for P450 2E1. METHODS: Twenty-two elective surgery patients who provided institutionally-approved written informed consent were randomized to receive disulfiram (500 mg orally, N = 12) or nothing (controls, N = 10) the evening before surgery. All patients received a standard isoflurane anesthetic (1.5% end-tidal in oxygen) for 8 hr. Urine and plasma trifluoroacetic acid and fluoride concentrations were quantitated in samples obtained for 4 days postoperatively. RESULTS: Patient groups were similar with respect to age, weight, gender, duration of surgery, blood loss, and delivered isoflurane dose, measured by cumulative end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (9.7-10.2 MAC-hr). Postoperative urine excretion of trifluoroacetic acid (days 1-4) and fluoride (days 1-3) was significantly (P<0.05) diminished in disulfiram-treated patients. Cumulative 0-96 hr excretion of trifluoroacetic acid and fluoride in disulfiram-treated patients was 34+/-72 and 270+/-70 micromoles (mean +/- SD), respectively, compared to 440+/-360 and 1500+/-800 micromoles in controls (P<0.05 for both). Disulfiram also abolished the rise in plasma metabolite concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Disulfiram, a selective inhibitor of human hepatic P450 2E1, prevented 80-90% of isoflurane metabolism. These results suggest that P450 2E1 is the predominant P450 isoform responsible for human clinical isoflurane metabolism in vivo.  (+info)

Potassium channel-mediated hyperpolarization of mesenteric vascular smooth muscle by isoflurane. (7/2307)

BACKGROUND: A primary source of calcium (Ca2+) necessary for excitation contraction in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) is influx via voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Thus, force generation in VSM is coupled closely to resting transmembrane potential, which itself is primarily a function of potassium conductance. Previously, the authors reported that volatile anesthetics hyperpolarize VSM of small mesenteric resistance arteries and capacitance veins. The current study was designed to determine whether isoflurane-mediated hyperpolarization is the result of specific effects on one or more of four types of potassium channels known to exist in VSM. METHODS: Transmembrane potentials (Em) were recorded from in situ mesenteric capacitance and resistance vessels in Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g. In separate experiments, selective inhibitors of each of four types of potassium channels known to exist in VSM were administered in the superfusate of the vessel preparations to assess their effects on isoflurane-mediated hyperpolarization. RESULTS: Resting VSM Em ranged from -38 to -43 mV after local sympathetic denervation. Isoflurane produced a significant hyperpolarization (2.7-4.3 mV), whereas each potassium channel inhibitor significantly depolarized (2.8-8.5 mV) the VSM. Both 100 nM iberiotoxin (inhibitor of high conductance calcium-activated potassium channels) and 1 microM glybenclamide (inhibitor of adenosine triphosphatase-sensitive potassium channels) significantly inhibited VSM hyperpolarization induced by 1 MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) levels of inhaled isoflurane (0.1-0.9 mV Em change, which was not significant). In contrast, isoflurane hyperpolarized the VSM significantly despite the presence of 3 mM 4 aminopyridine (inhibitor of voltage-dependent potassium channels) or 10 microM barium chloride (an inhibitor of inward rectifier potassium channels) (3.7-8.2 mV change in VSM Em). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that isoflurane-mediated hyperpolarization (and associated relaxation) of VSM can be attributed in part to an enhanced (or maintained) opening of calcium-activated and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels but not voltage-dependent or inward rectifier potassium channels.  (+info)

Effects of isoflurane anesthesia on pulmonary vascular response to K+ ATP channel activation and circulatory hypotension in chronically instrumented dogs. (8/2307)

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on the pulmonary vascular responses to exogenous adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K+ ATP) channel activation and circulatory hypotension compared with responses measured in the conscious state. In addition, the extent to which K+ ATP channel inhibition modulates the pulmonary vascular response to circulatory hypotension in conscious and isoflurane-anesthetized dogs was assessed. METHODS: Fifteen conditioned, male mongrel dogs were fitted with instruments for long-term monitoring to measure the left pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relation. The dose-response relation to the K+ ATP channel agonist, lemakalim, and the pulmonary vascular response to circulatory hypotension were assessed in conscious and isoflurane-anesthetized (approximately 1.2 minimum alveolar concentration) dogs. The effect of the selective K+ ATP channel antagonist, glibenclamide, on the pulmonary vascular response to hypotension was also assessed in conscious and isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. RESULTS: Isoflurane had no effect on the baseline pulmonary circulation, but it attenuated (P<0.05) the pulmonary vasodilator response to lemakalim. Reducing the mean systemic arterial pressure to approximately 50 mm Hg resulted in pulmonary vasoconstriction (P<0.05) in the conscious state, and this response was attenuated (P<0.05) during isoflurane. Glibenclamide had no effect on the baseline pulmonary circulation, but it potentiated (P<0.05) the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypotension in conscious and isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that K+ ATP-mediated pulmonary vasodilation and the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypotension are attenuated during isoflurane anesthesia. Endogenous K+ ATP channel activation modulates the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypotension in the conscious state, and this effect is preserved during isoflurane anesthesia.  (+info)

*Patient-controlled analgesia

These are popular for administration of opioids such as fentanyl, or local anesthetics such as lidocaine. Iontocaine is one ... 2009). "PENTHROX (methoxyflurane) Inhalation: Product Information" (PDF). Springvale, Victoria, Australia: Medical Developments ... 108-9. ISBN 0-8036-1559-0. Wexler RE (1968). "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation anesthesia". ...

*Blood-gas partition coefficient

doi:10.1016/0378-3812(84)87009-0. Nagelhout, J.J. (2014). Pharmacokinetics of Inhalation Anesthetics. Nurse anesthesia (5th ed ... If an anesthetic has a high coefficient, then a large amount of it will have to be taken up in the body's blood before being ... Newer anesthetics (such as desflurane) typically have smaller blood-gas partition coefficients than older ones (such as ether ... The concentration of the anesthetic in blood includes the portion that is undissolved in plasma and the portion that is ...

*Isoflurane

"Modern inhalation anesthetics: Potent greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere". Geophysical Research Letters. 42 (5): 1606- ... Isoflurane, sold under the trade name Forane among others, is a general anesthetic. It can be used to start or maintain ... This area is important as "some of the commonly used inhaled anesthetics may cause brain damage that accelerates the onset of ... "Isoflurane (inhalation anaesthetic) - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - (eMC)". www.medicines.org.uk. 11 January 2016 ...

*Methoxypropane

Propyl methyl ether as an inhalation anesthetic in man", Anesthesiology, (1946), 7, 663-7. Merck Index, 11th edition, 6031.. ...

*Hexafluoro-2-propanol

It is both the precursor and the chief metabolite of the inhalation anesthetic sevoflurane. Hexafluoro-2-propanol is a volatile ...

*Vecuronium bromide

The neuromuscular blocking action of vecuronium is slightly enhanced in the presence of potent inhalation anesthetics. If ... vecuronium is first administered more than 5 minutes after the start of the inhalation of enflurane, isoflurane, or halothane, ...

*Halogenated ether

Inhalation anesthetics are vaporized and mixed with other gases prior to their inhalation by the patient before or during ... All inhalation anesthetics in current clinical use are halogenated ethers, except for halothane (which is a halogenated ... The first widely used inhalation anesthetic was diethyl ether, which is a non-substituted (non-halogenated) ether. This drug ... This is among the most important reasons that diethyl ether has fallen out of favor as a general anesthetic. Diethyl ether is ...

*Dental anesthesia

Dentists who have completed a training program in anesthesiology may also administer general IV and inhalation anesthetic ... A dental syringe is a syringe for the injection of a local anesthetic. It consists of a breech-loading syringe fitted with a ... Topical anesthetics benzocaine, eugenol, and forms of xylocaine are used topically to numb various areas before injections or ... Other local anesthetic agents in current use include articaine (also called septocaine or ubistesin), bupivacaine (a long- ...

*Vinyl ether

... volatile liquid which was briefly used as an inhalation anesthetic. It can be cyclopolymerized by itself and serves as a cross- ... Martin, 1941) Vinyl ether is a potent anesthetic giving it a large safety margin; the ratio of the anesthetic to lethal does ... Leake perused the usage of vinyl ether as an inhalation anesthetic. (The Science News Letter, 1934) As vinyl ether was unknown ... Major, 1937) The anesthetic product was inhibited with .01% phenyl-α-napthylamine which gave it a faint violet fluorescence. ( ...

*Organochloride

... and the inhalation anesthetic isoflurane. Rachel Carson brought the issue of DDT pesticide toxicity to public awareness with ...

*Sevoflurane

Sakai EM; Connolly LA; Klauck JA (December 2005). "Inhalation anesthesiology and volatile liquid anesthetics: focus on ... After desflurane, it is the volatile anesthetic with the fastest onset and offset. It is one of the most commonly used volatile ... Burns, William; Edmond I Eger II (August 2011). "Ross C. Terrell, PhD, an Anesthetic Pioneer". Anesth. Analg. 113 (2): 387-9. ... Vlisides, P; Xie, Z. (2012). "Neurotoxicity of general anesthetics: an update". Curr Pharm Design. 18 (38): 6232-40. doi: ...

*Propene

... has low acute toxicity from inhalation. Inhalation of the gas can cause anesthetic effects and at very high ... Intentional inhalation may also result in death via asphyxiation (sudden inhalant death). Los Alfaques Disaster Inhalant abuse ...

*Obstetric anesthesia (medical specialty)

The inhalation of anesthetic agents do not affect the act of labor or the mechanism by which uterine contractions occur, but ... Following Morton's use of ether as an anesthetic, James Simpson conducted his own obstetric anesthetic trial on January 19, ... Neuraxial (regional) anesthetic and analgesia techniques: (e.g. epidural, spinal, combined spinal-epidural) are used most ... Unconsciousness is maintained using inhalation agents, and muscle relaxing agents are used as needed. In the United States, ...

*Oxygen mask

Anesthesia masks are face masks that are designed to administer anesthetic gases to a patient through inhalation. Anesthesia ... One hose carries inhaled anesthetic gas to the mask and the other brings exhaled anesthetic gas back to the machine. Anesthesia ... inhalation is easy, but exhalation requires more effort. Aviators are trained in pressure-demand breathing in altitude chambers ... mask is a rebreather bag that collects oxygen during exhalation and as a result allows a higher flow rate during the inhalation ...

*History of general anesthesia

The composition of the anesthetic powder was not mentioned in either the Records of Three Kingdoms or the Book of the Later Han ... On 30 March 1842, he administered diethyl ether by inhalation to a man named James Venable, in order to remove a tumor from the ... Chloroform began to replace ether as an anesthetic in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. It was soon ... He went on to employ ether as a general anesthetic for limb amputations and parturition. Long however did not publish his ...

*History of tracheal intubation

Inspired by Macintosh's report, P. Hex Venn (who was at that time the anesthetic advisor to the British firm Eschmann Brothers ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)55592-5. Magill, I (1921). "Warming ether vapour for Inhalation". The Lancet. 197 (5102): 1270. doi: ... Rowbotham, ES; Magill, I (1921). "Anæsthetics in the Plastic Surgery of the Face and Jaws". Proceedings of the Royal Society of ... Ironically, the newly developed inhalational anesthetic agents and techniques of general anesthesia actually seemed to increase ...

*Proctalgia fugax

... salbutamol inhalation and sublingual nitroglycerine.For persistent cases, local anesthetic blocks, clonidine or Botox ... Eckardt VF, Dodt O, Kanzler G, Bernhard G (1996). "Treatment of proctalgia fugax with salbutamol inhalation". Am. J. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... anesthetics, general MeSH D27.505.954.427.210.100.035.060 --- anesthetics, inhalation MeSH D27.505.954.427.210.100.035.075 --- ... anesthetics, inhalation MeSH D27.505.696.277.100.035.075 --- anesthetics, intravenous MeSH D27.505.696.277.100.035.075.035 --- ... anesthetics MeSH D27.505.696.277.100.017 --- anesthetics, combined MeSH D27.505.696.277.100.035 --- anesthetics, general MeSH ... anesthetics, dissociative MeSH D27.505.696.277.100.200 --- anesthetics, local MeSH D27.505.696.277.350 --- hypnotics and ...

*Acute inhalation injury

A recent study documented in the AANA Journal discussed the use of volatile anesthetic agents, such as sevoflurane, to be used ... 1995) Toxic gas inhalation. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 1:102-8. Clark WR Jr. (1992) Smoke inhalation: diagnosis and treatment. World J ... Smoke inhalation injury, either by itself but more so in the presence of body surface burn, can result in severe lung-induced ... Inhalation of high doses of this gas causes lesions in the larynx, trachea, and large bronchi with inflammatory reactions and ...

*Anesthetic

... and are given by inhalation for induction and/or maintenance of general anesthesia. Nitrous oxide and xenon are gases at room ... An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic ... Anesthetics are categorized into two classes: general anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of consciousness, and local ... Only preservative-free local anesthetic agents may be injected intrathecally. Pethidine also has local anesthetic properties, ...

*Sulfur hexafluoride

... by contrast with inhalation of helium, which raises it. Sulfur hexafluoride has an anesthetic potency slightly lower than ... Inhalation of SF 6 causes a lowering of the timbre, or frequency of the formants, of the vocal tract, ...

*Halothane

It became popular as a nonflammable general anesthetic replacing other volatile anesthetics such as trichloroethylene, diethyl ... Its lack of airway irritation made it a common inhalation induction agent in pediatric anesthesia. Due to its cardiac ... Attempts to find anesthetics with less metabolism led to halogenated ethers such as enflurane and isoflurane. The incidence of ... It is a potent anesthetic with a MAC of 0.74%. Its blood/gas partition coefficient of 2.4 makes it an agent with moderate ...

*Anesthesia

Long, CW (1849). "An account of the first use of Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anesthetic in Surgical Operations". ... and the type of anesthetic (regional anesthetics are lower risk than general anesthetics). Obstetrical, the very young and the ... Each anesthetic produces amnesia through unique effects on memory formation at variable doses. Inhalational anesthetics will ... The purpose of the anesthetic machine is to provide anesthetic gas at a constant pressure, oxygen for breathing and to remove ...

*Desflurane

It has the most rapid onset and offset of the volatile anesthetic drugs used for general anesthesia due to its low solubility ... Sulbaek Andersen MP, Sander SP, Nielsen OJ, Wagner DS, Sanford Jr TJ, Wallington TJ (July 2010). "Inhalation anaesthetics and ... Sherman J, Le C, Lamers V, Eckelman M (May 2012). "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Anesthetic Drugs". Anesthesia and ... When a steady state hourly amount of anesthetic necessary for 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) at 2 liters per minute ( ...

*Insufflation (medicine)

Nasal inhalation of recreational drugs ("snorting") is often considered an example of insufflation, though the etymology and ... volatile anesthetic agents). Nasal insufflation is the most common method of nasal administration. Other methods are nasal ... However, the insufflation by the pump is not adequate for delivery to the lungs, necessitating an active inhalation by the ... inhalation (common in recreational use) and nasal instillation. Drugs administered in this way can have a local effect or a ...

*Inhalational anaesthetic

"Most of the injectable anesthetics appear to act on a single molecular target," says Sonner. "It looks like inhaled anesthetics ... Other gases or vapors which produce general anaesthesia by inhalation include nitrous oxide, cyclopropane and xenon. These are ... "Anesthetics have been used for 160 years, and how they work is one of the great mysteries of neuroscience," says ... John Travis, "Comfortably Numb, Anesthetics are slowly giving up the secrets of how they work," Science News. (July 3rd 2004 ...

*Veterinary anesthesia

Most anesthetic agents used in human medicine are used in veterinary medicine. Alpha-2 receptor agonist drugs such as xylazine ... and reptiles makes it difficult to induce and maintain anesthesia solely with inhalation agents such as isoflurane and ... Tranquilizer gun (Anesthetic dart gun) Grimm, Kurt; Thurmon, John Tranquilli W.J. (2007). Lumb and Jones Veterinary Anesthesia ... A one-year study in a teaching hospital shows that dogs and cats typically experience a 1 in 9 chance of anesthetic ...
Definition of Minimum alveolar concentration in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Minimum alveolar concentration? Meaning of Minimum alveolar concentration as a legal term. What does Minimum alveolar concentration mean in law?
Minimum alveolar concentration or MAC is the concentration of a vapour in the lungs that is needed to prevent movement (motor response) in 50% of subjects in response to surgical (pain) stimulus. MAC is used to compare the strengths, or potency, of anaesthetic vapours. MAC was introduced in 1965. MAC actually is a median value, not a minimum as term implies. The original paper proposed MAC as the minimal alveolar concentration, which was shortly thereafter revised to minimum alveolar concentration. A lower MAC value represents a more potent volatile anesthetic. Other uses of MAC include MAC-BAR (1.7-2.0 MAC), which is the concentration required to block autonomic reflexes to nociceptive stimuli, and MAC-awake (0.3-0.5 MAC), the concentration required to block voluntary reflexes and control perceptive awareness. The MAC is the concentration of the vapour (measured as a percentage at 1 atmosphere, i.e. the partial pressure) that prevents patient movement in response to a supramaximal stimulus ...
Search for abbreviations and long forms in lifescience, results along with the related PubMed / MEDLINE information and co-occurring abbreviations.
The regional expression and function of PSD-95/SAP90 in the mammalian brain have been investigated using a variety of experimental approaches. 25-29 PSD-95/SAP90 immunoreactivity was found mainly in cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. 40-42 In brain neurons, suppression of PSD-95/SAP90 expression that selectively disrupted physical linkage of the NMDA receptor with neuronal nitric oxide synthase has been demonstrated to attenuate excitotoxicity and Ca2+-activated nitric oxide production via NMDA receptor activation. 31 Mice carrying a targeted mutation in the PSD-95/SAP90 gene showed an enhanced NMDA-dependent long-term potentiation and impaired learning. 32 Recently, we found that the mRNA and protein of PSD-95/SAP90 also were enriched in the spinal cord and selectively distributed in the superficial dorsal horn, where PSD-95/SAP90 expression overlapped with that of the NMDA receptor. 7,8 In the spinal neurons, PSD-95/SAP90 interacted with the NMDA receptor subunits 2A and 2B. 30 Behavioral ...
Definition of inhalation anesthetic in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is inhalation anesthetic? Meaning of inhalation anesthetic as a legal term. What does inhalation anesthetic mean in law?
The loss by blood/gas (λ) partition of inhalation anesthetics can be estimated by an equation for the percentage of loss. However, because λs of inhalation anesthetics at different temperatures have not been fully determined so far, the percentage of loss at varying temperature in various headspace volumes cannot be estimated. Therefore, a novel method was developed for the determination of inhalation anesthetic λ, in this study. The method was precise, with a relative standard deviation of less than 5%. The average of λ from seven distinct blood samples at 4°C 25°C and 37°C were determined as 6.68, 2.04, and 1.32 of isoflurane; 3.47, 1.10, and 0.65 of sevoflurane; and 2.31, 0.75, and 0.46 of desflurane, respectively. In addition, increasing temperature was found to decrease λ profoundly by a secondary order mechanism. Using the obtained value of λ, the percentage of loss of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane were then predicted using a 5-mL vacuum tube as a collecting container ...
Definition of Volatile anesthetic in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Volatile anesthetic? Meaning of Volatile anesthetic as a finance term. What does Volatile anesthetic mean in finance?
This topic will review the mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, advantages, disadvantages, and techniques employed to induce and maintain general anesthesia with inhalation anesthetics, including the potent volatile agents (,,[and in some
For most of the 1900s, it was widely believed that ethanol and the volatile anesthetics exerted their effects in vivo in a nonspecific manner, through the disordering of cell membrane lipids. The Meyer-Overton correlation of anesthetic potency with lipophilicity and the observation that agents with markedly dissimilar structures could all produce the same behavioral end point made it appear unlikely that volatile anesthetic agents had discrete protein binding sites. By analogy, inhaled drugs of abuse, which also vary greatly in their chemical structures, were also thought to nonspecifically influence neuronal function (Balster, 1998). The demonstration that pharmacologically relevant concentrations of volatile anesthetic agents and alcohols affect the functioning of lipid-free proteins such as firefly luciferase (Franks and Lieb, 1984) promoted a shift in research focus toward protein sites of anesthetic action. Among these protein sites, the ligand-gated ion channels, particularly the GABAA, ...
There are a number of factors related to the animal that impact on the quality of anesthesia. These factors should be considered when the type of anesthetic agent is being chosen.. Species: Different species require different doses of anesthetic agents. This applies particularly to the injectable anesthetics. In general, the smaller animals require a higher dose in mg/kg of a given anesthetic than larger animals. Familiarity with the effects of an anesthetic agent in one species should not be assumed in another species. The volatile anesthetics are more consistent in their application between species. The mean alveolar concentration of the anesthetic agent required for anesthesia is similar among species and this is controlled by the concentration of the agent in the inspired gases. Differences in the respiratory tract in birds (fixed lungs, air sacs) and other non-mammalian species must be considered when administering inhalation anesthetics.. Strain: Strain differences have been noted even ...
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Summary: Many studies have shown that inhalation anaesthetics such as isoflurane, enflurane and halothane have potent cardioprotective effects. The cardioprotective effects can be attributed to several factors: preservation of energy levels during ischaemia; alteration of intracellular calcium concentrtations; inhibition of free radicals; and interactions with KATP channels. Potent inhalation agents also have preconditioning effects which may be beneficial, particularly in patients who are susceptible to myocardial infarction during and after surgery. The article in brief: Ischaemia and subsequent reperfusion of the myocardium can lead to reversible or irreversible injury depending on the severity and duration of the preceding ischaemia. Some anaesthetics, particularly potent inhalational agents, can afford protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury Reversible ischaemia-reperfusion injury: ...
Other Course Information A. Objectives OBJECTIVES: DURING THIS COURSE THE STUDENTS WILL HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO: 1. INTERPRET THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF UPTAKE AND DISTRIBUTION OF INHALATION ANESTHETIC AGENTS. 2. COMPARE THE PHARMACOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL USE OF THE MODERN INHALATION ANESTHETICS. 3. EVALUATE THE PHARMACOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL USAGE OF VARIOUS NARCOTIC AGENTS USED IN ANESTHESIA INCLUDING NARCOTIC ANTAGONISTS, TOLERANCE, AND ADDICTION. 4. DISTINGUISH THE PHARMACOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL USE OF NON-NARCOTIC AGENTS USED IN ANESTHESIA, INCLUDING THE BARBITURATES, BENZODIAZEPINES, AND NON-BARBITURATE INDUCTION DRUGS. 5. EXAMINE THE INDICATION FOR THE USE OF VARIOUS INDUCTION AGENTS, LOCAL ANESTHETICS, ANTICHOLINESTERASE AND ANTICHOLINERGIC DRUGS, MUSCLE RELAXANTS, AND NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS. 6. DISCUSS THE EFFECT OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGICAL THERAPY, CHEMOTHERAPY, NUTRITIONAL THERAPY AND ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS UPON ANESTHESIA CARE. 7. DISCUSS THE EFFECT AND APPROPRIATE CHOICE OF ...
Principal Investigator:SOMETY Genji, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:外科・放射線系歯学
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Volatile anesthetics not only induce anesthesia, but also render organs resistant against ischemic damage. For example, the magnitude of an experimentally induced myocardial infarct size can be reduced by more than 50% by the administration of volatile anesthetics, even if the administration has been discontinued prior to the ischemic injury (anesthetic-induced preconditioning, APC). These protective effects are also effective in other organ systems; e.g. the brain. APC is as effective as ischemic preconditioning and thus represents one of the most potent therapeutic strategies of infarct size reduction. Surgery-related temporary ischemia of the heart or the brain can be prevented using APC in the perioperative period ...
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With Mini vMac, you can set a custom screen size at build time as well; I always compile a larger resolution. For System 6 and higher, any screen resolution will work with the OS (even though the original hardware didnt support it) -- for below System 6, I try to use X2 magnification mode and divide my resolution in half, as earlier OSes can behave oddly with larger screen resolutions ...
With Mini vMac, you can set a custom screen size at build time as well; I always compile a larger resolution. For System 6 and higher, any screen resolution will work with the OS (even though the original hardware didnt support it) -- for below System 6, I try to use X2 magnification mode and divide my resolution in half, as earlier OSes can behave oddly with larger screen resolutions ...
Answers for What do doctors use during surgery to make you go to sleep:As the type of anesthetic you may require is varied, so are the medications used to produce the anesthetic state. Sodium Pentothal is the drug used that most people are f
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The conformational and structural properties of the inhalational anesthetic isoflurane (1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) have been probed in a supersonic jet expansion using Fourier-transform microwave (FT-MW) spectroscopy. Two conformers of the isolated molecule were identified from the r
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Background: In animal models, neonatal exposure to volatile anesthetics induces neuroapoptosis, leading to memory deficits in adulthood. However, effects of neonatal exposure to desflurane are largely unknown.. Methods: Six-day-old C57BL/6 mice were exposed to equivalent doses of desflurane, sevoflurane, or isoflurane for 3 or 6 h. Minimum alveolar concentration was determined by the tail-clamp method as a function of anesthesia duration. Apoptosis was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for activated caspase-3, and by TUNEL. Western blot analysis for cleaved poly-(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase was performed to examine apoptosis comparatively. The open-field, elevated plus-maze, Y-maze, and fear conditioning tests were performed to evaluate general activity, anxiety-related behavior, working memory, and long-term memory, respectively.. Results: Minimum alveolar concentrations at 1 h were determined to be 11.5% for desflurane, 3.8% for sevoflurane, and 2.7% for isoflurane in ...
Rivenes SM, Lewin MB, Stayer SA, Bent ST, Schoenig HM, McKenzie ED, et al. Cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, and fentanyl-midazolam in children with congenital heart disease: an echocardiographic study of myocardial contractility and hemodynamics. Anesthesiology. 2001; 94(2):223-9. Pagel PS. Cardioprotection by volatile anesthetics: Established scientific principle or lingering clinical uncertainty? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2009; 23(5):589-93. Regueiro-Purriños M, Fernández-Vázquez F, de Prado AP, Altónaga JR, Cuellas-Ramón C, Ajenjo-Silverio JM, et al. Ventricular arrhythmias and mortality associated with isoflurane and sevoflurane in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2011; 50(1):73-8. Eger EI. Isoflurane (Forane): a compendium and reference: Anaquest; 1985. Hornbein TF, Eger EI, Winter PM, Smith G, Wetstone D, Smith KH. The minimum alveolar concentration of nitrous oxide in man. Anesth Analg. 1982; 61(7):553-6. Cahalan MK, ...
Volatile anesthetics are used widely for achieving a state of unconsciousness, yet these agents are incompletely understood in their mechanisms of action and effects on neural development. There is mounting evidence that children exposed to anesthetic agents sustain lasting effects on learning and memory. The explanation for these behavioral changes remains elusive, although acute neuronal death after anesthesia is commonly believed to be a principal cause. Rodent models have shown that isoflurane exposure in newborns induces acute neuroapoptosis and long-term cognitive impairment. However, the assessment of predisposing factors is lacking. We investigated the role of sex by delivering isoflurane to postnatal day (P)7 male and female Sprague Dawley rats for 4 h. Brain cell death was assessed 12 h later using FluoroJade C staining in the thalamus, CA1-3 regions of hippocampus, and dentate gyrus. Behavior was assessed separately using a series of object recognition tasks and a test of social ...
INTRODUCTION. Nitrous oxide is a gaseous anesthetic agent of low potency. Its minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) is 104% (± 10), which corresponds to a partial pressure of 805 mmHg (at sea level), only experimentally obtained with a hyperbaric chamber 1 or by calculated estimates.. It is used in non-hypoxic concentrations, never above 70%. Nitrous oxide has moderate analgesic properties, weak amnesic action, minor immobilizing power and very mild hypnotic effect 2-4. Hence, its indications as sole anesthetic agent are very limited, being used mostly a coadjuvant of more potent inhalational anesthetic to decrease their doses and, as a consequence, their side-effects.. Nitrous oxide low blood and tissue solubility (blood/gas coefficient of 0.47 and brain/blood coefficient of 1.1) 5 provides it with very special and desirable pharmacokinetic properties, especially as a coadjuvant, since its uptake and distribution are very fast , as well as its excretion. Its pharmacodynamic profile indicates ...
There has been growing concern about the detrimental effects of certain anesthetic agents on the developing brain. Preclinical studies in small animal models as well as nonhuman primates suggested loss or death of brain cells and consequent impaired neurocognitive function following anesthetic exposure in neonates and late gestation fetuses. Human studies in this area are limited and currently inconclusive. On Dec. 14, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning regarding impaired brain development in children following exposure to certain anesthetic agents used for general anesthesia, namely the inhalational anesthetics isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, and the intravenous agents propofol and midazolam, in the third trimester of pregnancy ...
Numerous studies demonstrate that patients have improved immediate recovery characteristics following desflurane anesthesia compared to other volatile agents, including sevoflurane. There is limited evidence in the literature to suggest that patients undergoing sevoflurane, compared to desflurane anesthesia, may suffer from limitation in function and cognitive ability for an undetermined, but prolonged period of time following surgery. These differences are not explained pharmacokinetically and may be a result of a direct neurotoxic effect of sevoflurane. An unresolved question is the time required for the ability to return to complex tasks, such as driving, following anesthesia. Commonly, patients are advised not to drive or make important decisions for 24 hours following anesthesia, but this is not well-studied and proscribed on an empiric, rather than scientific, basis with very limited data available.This study will better define recovery characteristics and characterize the severity and ...
β-Amyloid protein (Aβ) accumulation, caspase activation, apoptosis, and hypoxia-induced neurotoxicity have been suggested to be involved in Alzheimer disease neuropathogenesis. Aβ is produced from amyloid precursor protein through proteolytic proc
Aberrant CDK5 activity is implicated in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. Isoflurane exposure leads to neuronal apoptosis, and subsequent learning and memory defects in the developing brain. The present study was designed to examine whether and how CDK5 activity plays a role in developmental isoflurane neurotoxicity. Rat pups and hippocampal neuronal cultures were exposed to 1.5% isoflurane for 4 h. The protein and mRNA levels of CDK5, p35 and p25 were detected by western blot and QReal-Time PCR. CDK5 activity was evaluated in vitro using Histone H1 as a substrate. Roscovitine (an inhibitor of CDK5) was applied before isoflurane treatment, cleaved Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, MEF2 and phospho-MEF2A-Ser-408 expressions were determined. Dominant-Negative CDK5 was transfected before isoflurane treatment. Neuronal apoptosis was evaluated by Flow cytometry (FCM) and TUNEL-staining. Cognitive functions were assessed by Morris water maze. We found that isoflurane treatment led to an aberrant CDK5 ...
Volatile anesthetics protect myocardium against reversible and irreversible ischemic injury. Experimental evidence from several in vitro and in vivo animal models demonstrates that volatile agents enhance the recovery of stunned myocardium and reduce the size of myocardial infarction after brief or prolonged coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion, respectively. This protective effect persists after the anesthetic has been discontinued, a phenomenon known as anesthetic-induced preconditioning (APC). Recent clinical data also demonstrates evidence of APC in patients during cardiac surgery. Thus, administration of volatile anesthetics may represent a novel therapeutic approach that reduces morbidity and mortality associated with perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction. The mechanisms responsible for APC appear to be similar to those implicated in ischemic preconditioning, but nonetheless have subtle differences. Accumulating evidence indicates that APC is characterized by complex signal
Living-donor kidney transplantation has been considered as the best treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney donation from living donors has been performed widely under their noble humanity and a belief that donation would not harm the donor. Although the overall evidences proposed that living kidney donor have medical outcomes similar to those in general population, several reports have demonstrated the potential risks for development of hypertension, proteinuria, and ESRD. Thus, all efforts should be concentrated on ensuring their safety and preserving the function of their remained kidney during anesthesia maintenance.. Inhaled anesthetics have been frequently used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. The metabolism of certain inhaled anesthetics can produce inorganic fluoride, which may be directly nephrotoxic through impairments of renal concentrating ability. The typical inhaled anesthetics commonly used nowadays are sevoflurane and desflurane. ...
Cardiac anesthesia is associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury. Trying to limit the extent and mitigate the consequences of ischemia could potentially improve outcome after cardiac surgery. In the last 10 to 15 years, volatile agents have been shown to improve outcome in cardiac surgery. Despite these data, volatile anesthesia is not the most widely used technique for cardiac anesthesia. In the previous issue of Critical Care, Steurer and colleagues [1] presented interesting data on sevoflurane administration following cardiac surgery. These data have to be placed in the context of already-accumulated evidence and potential clinical applications.. Anesthetic gases are fascinating drugs: First-generation anesthetic gases, especially halothane, had significant cardiac side effects, increasing the risk of malignant arrhythmia and sensitizing the heart to catecholamines. Further generations, especially sevoflurane, have been shown to have interesting neuro- and cardioprotective properties. In the ...
The use of a less-expensive, longer-acting anesthetic (isoflurane) resulted in no difference in duration of hospitalization compared to the use of a more expensive, shorter-acting anesthetic (desflurane or sevoflurane), according to a study from the July issue of Anesthesiology.
Anesthesia and surgery have been reported to induce or worsen cognitive dysfunction, and worsen Alzheimers disease. Nevertheless, every year, many people with Alzheimers disease require surgery. Zhongcong Xie, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues have obtained preliminary evidence that the commonly used anesthetic isoflurane worsened several of the biochemical features of Alzheimers-like disease in mice, and worsened cognitive function in humans. In contrast, another anesthetic, desflurane, did not have these effects.. Dr. Xie and colleagues have proposed a series of studies to extend their observations in both mice and humans. Using mice that have been genetically engineered to have Alzheimers-like disease, the researchers will compare how isoflurane and desflurane affect amyloid plaque formation, brain structure and learning and memory. They will also examine whether the breakdown products of these anesthetics reduce nerve cell function and cause nerve cell death in mice. Finally, Dr. Xies team ...
In this article, we report on the characterization of mutant recombinant GABAA-R α2 subunits that are functionally normal with the exception that they show reduced sensitivity to potentiation by isoflurane. We subsequently introduced these mutations into the mouse germ line to produce gene knockin mice. Although approximately half of the knockin mice died prematurely, those that survived seemed overtly normal and were used to investigate the role of the α2 subunit of the GABAA-R in inhaled anesthetic action. In the first generation of knockin mice that were studied, the knockins were found to be paradoxically more sensitive to isoflurane exposure and recovered more slowly from isoflurane anesthesia. However, this altered sensitivity was not observed after backcrossing to C57BL/6J for two additional generations. Other isoflurane-induced behavioral alterations (LORR, tail clamp/withdrawal, and amnesia) were unaltered by the knockin. These results must be interpreted with caution because of the ...
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Mechanism of Action of Inhaled Anesthetics Inhaled anesthetics act in different ways at the level of the central nervous system. They may disrupt normal synaptic transmission by interfering with the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic nerve terminal (enhance or depress excitatory or inhibitory transmission), by altering the re-uptake of neurotransmitters, by changing the binding of neurotransmitters to the post-synaptic receptor sites, or by influencing the ionic conductance change
There is great concern about the possible harmful effects of exposure to volatile anesthetics. The current study aimed at evaluating, for the first time, the effects of occupational exposure to anesthetic gases on physicians who work in operating rooms, by determining several inflammatory cytokines. Plasma inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, -6, -8, -10, -12, TNF-α) were investigated in 30 individuals who were allocated into two groups of 15: the exposed group, consisting of operating room medical personnel exposed to a mixture of anesthetic gases for 3 years, and a control group composed of medical personnel not exposed to anesthetic gases. The concentrations of volatile anesthetics were measured in the operating room by means of an infrared portable analyzer Our findings suggest an increase of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 (p , 0.05) in medical personnel exposed to high concentrations of anesthetic gases, even for a relatively short period.. ...
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Khan, OA, Taylor, SRJ, Swart, M and Jones, JG (1997) The effects of low dose isoflurane on inhibition of saccadic generation In: Anaesthetics Research Society Annual Meeting, 1997-04 - ?. Full text not available from this repository ...
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1. The term "anaesthetic tension," is employed to indicate the partial pressure of ether vapor that, after equilibrium is established, can, for an indefinite period, maintain the subject in the stage of ideal surgical anaesthesia.. 2. Curves are given showing that the anaesthetic tension of ether vapor for man is between 47 and 54 mm.-probably 51 mm.. 3. A working hypothesis based on the theory of Meyer and Overton is suggested to explain the mode of action of the volatile inhalation anaesthetics which can be summarized in the quantitative reversible equation. [See equation in the PDF file]. in which the percentage saturation of the susceptible molecules in the nerve cells (Mn), and, therefore, the inhibition of the cell function (the depth of anaesthesia), is dependent on the tension of the anaesthetic vapor (An) to which these susceptible molecules are exposed.. 4. To harmonize the fact that large variations occur in the amount of ether required by the usual methods of anaesthesia with the ...
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The Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anaesthesia (ENIGMA)-II trial randomly assigned 7,112 noncardiac surgery patients at risk of perioperative cardiovascular events to 70% N2O or 70% N2 groups. The aim of this follow-up study was to determine the effect of nitrous oxide on a compo...
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate. [PubChem]
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Isoflurane Market by Type (Human Series, Animal Series) Application (Hospitals, Other Medical Institutions) - Global Industry Analysis & Forecast to 2025,The isoflurane market has encountered significant development over the recent years and is anticipated to grow tremendously over the forecast period. Isoflurane is a colorless, clear, stable fluid containing no added substances or compound stabilizers.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major unresolved clinical problem with an extremely high mortality with a cost of more than 10 billion dollars per year in the Un...
Nitrous Oxide is commonly used for childbirth, dentistry and paediatric anaesthesia. It is safe, has a short half-life (meaning that the effects wear off very quickly) and is a "dissociative" drug - people disconnect with what is going on. For this reason, it is also popular at festivals, house parties and night clubs. The UK has the second highest use of Nitrous Oxide in the world. Click here to see the Global drug survey findings for Nitrous Oxide use.. ...
sevoflurane (Sevorane) CLASSIFICATION MECHANISM OF ACTION induces a state in which the CNS is altered so that varying degrees of pan relief...
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Isoflurane 100% Piramal is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Isoflurane 100% Piramal is available on the Drugs.com website.
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This is a resubmission of a competitive renewal of the R01 grant # HD 044517. The proposed experiments are extensions of earlier ones aimed at deciphering the c...
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ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΟΝΙΚΗ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑ ΦΥΣΙΚΟΘΕΡΑΠΕΙΑΣ,σωματείο μη κερδοσκοπικού χαρακτήρα. Διοργάνωση συνεδρίων, συμποσίων, ημερίδων, σεμιναρίων, μετεκπαιδευτικών μαθημάτων και διαλέξεων, εκδόσεις βιβλίων και περιοδικών σχετικά με τους φυσικοθεραπευτές.
ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΟΝΙΚΗ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑ ΦΥΣΙΚΟΘΕΡΑΠΕΙΑΣ,σωματείο μη κερδοσκοπικού χαρακτήρα. Διοργάνωση συνεδρίων, συμποσίων, ημερίδων, σεμιναρίων, μετεκπαιδευτικών μαθημάτων και διαλέξεων, εκδόσεις βιβλίων και περιοδικών σχετικά με τους φυσικοθεραπευτές.
Dyslipidemia Therapeutics Market. Products Overview. Sevoflurane. Sevoflurane is one of the most commonly used volatile anesthetic agents. It is administered to babies and children. Sevoflurane is ideal for patients with asthma or sensitive air passages. But its side-effects include delirium and agitation. It can be given quickly without the use of intravenous instruments.. Sevoflurane would capture over 70% of the worldwide sevoflurane, isoflurane and desflurane market by 2022. The agent is expected to exceed USD 1 billion by the same year. Its widely utilized for being low-priced and possessing therapeutic benefits.. Isoflurane. Isoflurane is a halogen ether utilized frequently by veterinarians. It is administered intravenously, relaxes the muscles and reduces pain. Isoflurane has also been used for inducing sleepiness for long durations during surgery. It is expected to register a CAGR of about 10% by 2022.. Desflurane. Desflurane is a halogen ether used in general anesthesia. Its ...
Extracted from text ... Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia ? March 2006 21 Spectral entropy and haemodynamic response to surgery during sevoflurane anaesthesia Introduction Apart from somatic responses, surgery also evokes autonomic responses, including haemodynamic responses. Spectral entropy has been validated as a means to monitor the hypnotic state during sevoflurane anaesthesia. Aim To investigate the relationship between spectral entropy, heart rate, and blood pressure during sevoflurane anaesthesia. FJ Smith, E Dannhauser Patients and methods The sample consisted of 43 patients scheduled for elective abdominal surgery. Patients were premedicated with oral midazolam. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved with alfentanil 15 mg/kg, ..
The aim of this study was to measure the temporal effects of intramuscular methadone administration on the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in hens, and to evaluate the effects of the isoflurane-methadone combination on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure and ventilation. Thirteen healthy adult hens weighing 1.7 ± 0.2 kg were used. The MAC of isoflurane was determined in each individual using the bracketing method. Subsequently, the reduction in isoflurane MAC produced by methadone (3 or 6 mg kg-1, IM) was determined by the up-and-down method. Stimulation was applied at 15 and 30 minutes, and at 45 minutes if the bird had not moved at 30 minutes. Isoflurane MAC reduction was calculated at each time point using logistic regression. After a washout period, birds were anesthetized with isoflurane and methadone, 6 mg kg-1 IM was administered. Heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, blood gas values and invasive blood pressure were measured at 1.0 and 0.7 isoflurane MAC, and during 45
The anti-inflammatory actions of sevoflurane postconditioning are suggested as an important mechanism of sevoflurane postconditioning-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia. Here, we determined whether the anti-inflammatory effects of sevoflurane postconditioning were mediated via inhibition of the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway after global transient cerebral ischemia in rats. Forty-five rats were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: (1) control (10 min of ischemia, n = 10); (2) sevoflurane postconditioning (two periods of sevoflurane inhalation after ischemia for 10 min with a wash period of 10 min, n = 10); (3) resatorvid (intraperitoneal injection of a selective TLR-4 antagonist (3 mg/kg) 30 min before ischemia, n = 10); (4) sevoflurane postconditioning plus resatorvid (n = 10), and sham (n = 5). The numbers of necrotic and apoptotic cells in the hippocampal CA1 region, the expression levels of TLR-4, NF-κB, cleaved caspase-3, and tumor
The objective of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamics of the anesthetic isoflurane in healthy cats given angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI). The 7 healthy young cats and 3 old cats were received placebo or enalapril 0.5 mg/kg orall
Looking for online definition of anesthetic-induced rhabdomyolysis in the Medical Dictionary? anesthetic-induced rhabdomyolysis explanation free. What is anesthetic-induced rhabdomyolysis? Meaning of anesthetic-induced rhabdomyolysis medical term. What does anesthetic-induced rhabdomyolysis mean?
BACKGROUND: Endothelial progenitor cells play a pivotal role in tissue repair, and thus are used for cell replacement therapies in "regenerative medicine." We tested whether the anesthetic sevoflurane would modulate growth or mobilization of these angiogenic cells. METHODS: In an in vitro model, mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors were preconditioned with sevoflurane (3 times 30 min at 2 vol% interspersed by 30 min of air). Colony-forming units were determined after 9 days in culture and compared with time-matched untreated control. Using magnetic cell sorting, CD133+/CD34+ endothelial progenitors were enriched from human umbilical cord blood, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGFR2 (KDR), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), STAT3, c-kit, and CXCR4 expressions were determined in sevoflurane-treated and untreated cells by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In a volunteer study with crossover design, we tested whether ...
All inhaled anesthetics increase cerebral blood flow and decrease cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). Nitrous oxide, however, will increase CMRO2. Nitrous oxide, as well as inhaled anesthetics, causes cerebral vasodilation. However, if the patients blood pressure drops, the increase in cerebral blood flow will be attenuated or abolished because volatile anesthetics inhibit autoregulation. Isoflurane causes the least cerebral vasodilation, maintaining autoregulation better than other volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane also has no effect on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and decreases resistance to CSF absorption. Desflurane increases CSF production without significantly effecting CSF reabsorption. ...
Anaesthetic chamber concentrations of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane that resulted in loss of righting reflex within 15 minutes of exposure in 50 per cent of the toads were identified. These values likely do not represent a true ED50 of these anaesthetics as it has been estimated that to achieve equilibration in anurans between the lung and the effect site (the CNS) requires 480 minutes for isoflurane and 180 minutes for desflurane (Barter and Antognini 2008). The ED50 for sevoflurane has not been determined in anurans. The time required for volatile anaesthetic equilibration in mammals is considerably shorter (approximately 15 minutes) and is based on cerebral blood flow and the brain/blood partition coefficient of the anaesthetic agent (Eger and others 1965). Anurans possess physiological and anatomical differences that cause prolonged equilibration time. Additionally, anurans also have gas exchange across the skin and buccal cavity and these can be manipulated for anaesthetic delivery ...
OBJECTIVES. Sevoflurane is an inhalant volatile anaesthetic that has been recently introduced in veterinary medicine. The advantages of sevoflurane in domestic animals have been reported in several experimental studies. The aim of this study was determine clinical effectiveness of sevoflurane in dogs with different anaesthetic risk.. MATERIALS. A total of 307 dogs (144 males and 163 females, age 3.5±3.2 years and weighing 19.3±9.7 Kg) were included in this study. 157 dogs (107 ASAI, 32 ASAII, 12 ASAIII and 5 ASAIV) were anaesthetized with sevoflurane, and 150 patients (87 ASAI, 40 ASAII, 17 ASAIII and 6 ASAIV) with isoflurane. Alfa-2 adrenoceptor agonist sedatives (medetomidine at 5-10 mg/kg IV, or romifidine at 20-40 mg/kg IV) were used as preanesthetic in all cases to exception ASAIV patients. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol (2 mg/kg IV). After tracheal intubation anaesthesia was maintenance with sevoflurane or isoflurane in oxygen via a semiclosed circuit. The following variables were ...
Background It is skeptical about cardioprotective property of sevoflurane in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, especially in the elderly patients with coronary heart disease. We hypothesized that long duration of sevoflurane inhalation in noncardiac surgery could ameliorate myocardial damage in such patients. Methods This was a randomized, prospective study. One hundred twenty-one elderly patients with coronary heart disease were randomly allocated into two groups. Maintenance of anesthesia was achieved by sevoflurane inhalation (Group S) or propofol-remifentanil respectively (Group PR). Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured before anesthesia induction (T0), 8 h (T1) and 24 h (T2) after anesthesia respectively. The perioperative cardiac output, complications and postoperative 3-month follow-up from end of surgery were recorded. Results Between the two groups, there were no statistical differences in the values of cTnI and BNP during the study. ...
The anti-inflammatory actions of sevoflurane postconditioning are suggested as an important mechanism of sevoflurane postconditioning-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia. Here, we determined whether the anti-inflammatory effects of sevoflurane postconditioning were mediated via inhibition of the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway after global transient cerebral ischemia in rats. Forty-five rats were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: (1) control (10 min of ischemia, n = 10); (2) sevoflurane postconditioning (two periods of sevoflurane inhalation after ischemia for 10 min with a wash period of 10 min, n = 10); (3) resatorvid (intraperitoneal injection of a selective TLR-4 antagonist (3 mg/kg) 30 min before ischemia, n = 10); (4) sevoflurane postconditioning plus resatorvid (n = 10), and sham (n = 5 ...
After intravenous induction, six beagles were connected to a Komesaroff machine provided with a single in-circuit vaporiser and ventilated mechanically at either nine or 14 breaths/minute while anaesthetised with either isoflurane or sevoflurane. The vaporiser was initially set at position 4/4 (fully open) and the anaesthetic concentrations were measured after one and five minutes; the vaporiser was then set at the lowest setting able to maintain anaesthesia. Cardiorespiratory variables were measured throughout the study. In most cases anaesthesia was maintained at setting 1/4 with isoflurane and at setting 1.5/4 or 2/4 with sevoflurane.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracranial elastance in isoflurane - Anesthetized horses. AU - Brosnan, Robert J. AU - Lecouteur, Richard A. AU - Steffey, Eugene. AU - Imai, Ayako. AU - Farver, Thomas B. PY - 2004/8. Y1 - 2004/8. N2 - Objective - To determine whether high intracranial pressure (ICP) during spontaneous ventilation (SV) in anesthetized horses coincides with an increase in intracranial elastance (ie, change in ICP per unit change of intracranial volume). Animals - 6 adult horses. Procedure - Vinesthesia was induced and maintained in each horse for 5 hours with isoflurane at a constant dose equal to 1.2 times the minimum alveolar concentration. Direct ICP measurements were obtained by use of a strain gauge transducer inserted in the subarachnoid space, and arterial blood pressure was measured from a carotid artery. Physiologic responses were recorded after 15 minutes of normocapnic controlled ventilation (CV) and then after 10 minutes of SV. Aliquots (3 mL) of CSF were removed from each horse ...
My project investigates the mechanism of action of the anesthetic, dexmedetomidine. One model proposes that the drug binds exclusively to receptors in the locus coeruleus, preventing norepinephrine release. Previous studies showed that absence of norepinephrine alone was sufficient for increased sensitivity to volatile anesthetics. We test the hypothesis that dexmedetomidine does not act solely at this nucleus, using transgenic mice lacking norephinephrine. With EEG recordings as a measure of anesthetic sensitivity, we compare the signals during wakefulness with those following intravenous anesthetic injection. We expect dexmedetomidine to produce no effect in the genetically-modified mice given the absence of norepinephrine.. ...
Michael A Hall, Jin Xi, Chong Lor, Shuiping Dai, Robert Pearce, William P. Dailey, Roderic G. Eckenhoff , "AziPm, photoactive analog of the intravenous general anesthetic, propofol", J. Med. Chem., 2010, 53, 5667 - 5675. Jerome Henin, William P. Dailey, Grace Brannigan, Roderic Eckenhoff, Michael L. Klein, "An Atomistic Model for Simulations of the General Anesthetic Isoflurane", J. Phys. Chem. B. 2010, 114(1), 604 - 612.. Roderic G. Eckenhoff, Jin Xi, Motomu Shimaoka, Aditya Bhattacharji, Manuel Covarrubias, William P. Dailey, "Azi-isoflurane, a photolabel analog of the commonly used inhaled general anesthetic, isoflurane", ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 2010, 1, 139 - 145.. L. Sangeetha Vedula, Grace Brannigan, Nicoleta J. Economou, Jin Xi, Michael A. Hall, Renyu Liu, Matthew J. Rossi, William P. Dailey, Kimberly C. Grasty, Michael L. Klein, Roderic G. Eckenhoff, Patrick J. Loll, "A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution" J. Biol. Chem., 2009, 284, 24176-24184.. Jin Xi, Renyu Liu, ...
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... from ischemia-reperfusion (We/R) damage. anesthetic gas monitor (Datex Capnomac Ultima Department of Instrumentarium Corp Helsinki Finland). The respiratory rate was adjusted to maintain partial pressure of carbon dioxide within physiologic limits (end-tidal carbon dioxide 35 mmHg). After exposure of the heart a 6.0 silk ligation suture was looped round the LAD for subsequent occlusion. The ligature success of the LAD was judged by a color switch at the area at risk (AAR) which was further confirmed by a QRS wave switch during electrocardiography (ECG). Ultrastructure examination Thirty minutes after reperfusion the rat hearts were removed. Two samples of new myocardial tissue (approximately 1 mm3 in size) were obtained 3 mm above the apex from your AAR of the left ventricle (LV). The tissues were fixed with 5% glutaraldehyde overnight at 4 °C washed 3 times with phosphate-buffered saline and fixed again ...
Clonidine is an α2 adrenoreceptor and imidazoline receptor agonist which has analgesic, sedative, and minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration-sparing effects.
OBJECTIVES. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anaesthetic recovery quality after sevoflurane anaesthesia in dogs. The clinical signs, anaesthetic recovery times, hypnotic component of the anaesthetic state measured by bispectral index and the autonomic nervous system reactivity (ANSr) measured by Anemon-I were studied. The influence of the kind of surgery on the anaesthetic recovery quality was also analyzed.. MATERIALS. 10 dogs treated in Veterinary Teaching Hospital for several diseases were anaesthetized with sevoflurane to perform major surgery. Soft tissue surgery was performed in 5 dogs and orthopaedic surgery was performed in the other 5. Dogs were premedicated with acepromazine (0.04 mg/kg), buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg) and atropine (0.04 mg/kg). Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane (7-8 %) by facial mask. Sevoflurane was administered for maintenance, beginning at a concentration of 3 % to rapidly achieve minimal alveolar concentration (MAC 2.36). Once MAC was reached, the ...
The global Inhalation Anesthesia Market is estimated to witness a CAGR of 3.5% between 2019 and 2025. The factors boosting the market include increasing occurrence of cancer, respiratory ailments, cardiovascular ailments, gastrointestinal problems, and neurological disorders. The latest trend in this regard is demand from the developing economies like India as it is becoming a hub of road mishaps.. These accidents ask for surgery; which, in turn, drives the demand for anesthesia. Inhalation anesthesia is preferred over injectable anesthesia as it proves to be less painful.. Full Research Report On Global Inhalation Anesthesia Market Analysis available at: https://www.millioninsights.com/industry-reports/inhalation-anesthesia-market-size. Desflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane constitute the inhalation anesthesia market in liquid form and xenon, cyclopropane, and nitrous oxide in the gaseous form. They are used to induce and maintain anesthesia during surgeries. Sevoflurane does hold the highest ...
China Oxygen Regulation and System for an Anesthesia Machine, Find details about China Medical Equipment, Anesthesia Machine from Oxygen Regulation and System for an Anesthesia Machine - Perlong Medical Equipment Co., Ltd.
Some types of anaesthetics cause an increase in the level of lactate production in unconscious childrens brains, causing delirium.. Two commonly used anaesthetics produce different metabolic patterns in the brains of children, according to a study from Anesthesiology. Researchers from Stony Brook University, New York, found the inhalant gas anaesthetic sevoflurane produced more lactate, a marker for enhanced or changed brain metabolism, compared to the intravenous anaesthetic propofol.. While past paediatric literature has reported that sevoflurane may be associated with emergence delirium, a state of consciousness in which a child is inconsolable, irritable or uncooperative, the study explored the potential association between emergence delirium and specific brain metabolites like lactate.. Applied proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) was used to investigate the metabolic consequences of general anaesthesia in the brains of rodents. Findings revealed inhalant gas anaesthetic was ...
BACKGROUND: In pre-school aged children, the occurrence of emergence delirium (ED) is increased after sevoflurane anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if intravenous inducting agents such as propofol, ketamine or thiopental sodium affected the development of ED. METHODS: A total of 62 children between 3 and 6 years of age scheduled for elective tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were divided into 3 groups in a double-blinded manner. Anesthesia was induced using one of the three drugs intravenously: 5 mg/kg of sodium thiopental, 1 mg/kg of ketamine or 2 mg/kg of propofol. Anesthesia was then maintained with sevoflurane. The development of ED was assessed in the post-anesthetic care unit. RESULTS: The propofol and ketamine group showed a significantly lower pediatric anesthesia emergence agitation (PAEA) score and a lower incidence of ED compared with the thiopental group. CONCLUSIONS: Propofol and ketamine decreased the development of emergence delirium when used as an induction ...
China Medical Equipment Anaesthesia Machine (CWM-201A) -1, Find details about China Medical Equipment, Anaesthesia Machine from Medical Equipment Anaesthesia Machine (CWM-201A) -1 - Nanjing Chenwei Medical Equipment Co., Ltd.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Short-term effects of glipizide (an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor) on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and global oxygen transport in healthy and endotoxemic sheep. AU - Lange, Matthias. AU - Szabo, Csaba. AU - Van Aken, Hugo. AU - Williams, William. AU - Traber, Daniel L.. AU - Daudel, Fritz. AU - Bröking, Katrin. AU - Salzman, Andrew L.. AU - Bone, Hans Georg. AU - Westphal, Martin. PY - 2006/11. Y1 - 2006/11. N2 - In severe sepsis and septic shock, hemodynamic support is often complicated by a tachyphylaxis against exogenous catecholamines. Because activation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hyperdynamic vasodilatory shock, we hypothesized that it may be beneficial to administer a specific KATP channel inhibitor to prevent, or at least attenuate, hemodynamic dysfunction in sepsis. The present study was designed as a prospective and controlled laboratory experiment to ...

aromatherapy | My Blogaromatherapy | My Blog

Sl = vapor inhalation; add about 3 drops of essential oil (s) in a bowl of steaming hot (not boiling) water and breath. A towel ... Aoromatherapy causes varius efficacy as antiseptic effect, anesthetic effects, and psychological impact. Aromatherapy affects ... Inhalation certain essential oils have healing effect on the mind and spirit. It is commonly used to treat emotional problems, ... Local administration and inhalation are the two most popular uses. Each has many methods that would include massage, lotions, ...
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Retrospective Comparison of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine and Oral Chloral Hydrate for Sedated Auditory Brainstem Response Exams |...Retrospective Comparison of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine and Oral Chloral Hydrate for Sedated Auditory Brainstem Response Exams |...

A potential advantage of using IN DEX for most cases and limiting propofol or general inhalation anesthesia to those who failed ... In addition, given the concerns regarding anesthetic neurotoxicity and neuroapoptosis, dexmedetomidine sedation regimens, where ...
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anesthetics inhalation Protocols and Video...'anesthetics inhalation' Protocols and Video...

Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree ... Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/anesthetics+inhalation

Anesthetics, Inhalation - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAnesthetics, Inhalation - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

Anesthetics, Inhalation. Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce Anesthesia; potency; the degree ... Inhalation Anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of Anesthesia can be changed rapidly by ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/anesthetics-inhalation.html

Interactions between Dextroamphetamine-Amphetamine Oral and sympathomimetics-selected-inhalation-anesthetic-agentsInteractions between Dextroamphetamine-Amphetamine Oral and sympathomimetics-selected-inhalation-anesthetic-agents

... provides information about interactions between Dextroamphetamine-Amphetamine Oral and sympathomimetics-selected-inhalation- ... Selected Inhalation Anesthetic Agents/Sympathomimetics. This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical ... The interaction of anesthetic agents and adrenergic drugs to produce cardiac arrhythmias. Anesthesiology 1968 Jul-Aug; 29(4): ... Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure and heart rate, which can increase the ability of anesthetics to change the rhythm ...
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Interactions between Methylphenidate Hcl Oral and sympathomimetics-selected-inhalation-anesthetic-agentsInteractions between Methylphenidate Hcl Oral and sympathomimetics-selected-inhalation-anesthetic-agents

WebMD provides information about interactions between Methylphenidate Hcl Oral and sympathomimetics-selected-inhalation- ... Selected Inhalation Anesthetic Agents/Sympathomimetics Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as ... The interaction of anesthetic agents and adrenergic drugs to produce cardiac arrhythmias. Anesthesiology 1968 Jul-Aug; 29(4): ... Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure and heart rate, which can increase the ability of anesthetics to change the rhythm ...
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Inhalation anesthetic legal definition of inhalation anestheticInhalation anesthetic legal definition of inhalation anesthetic

What is inhalation anesthetic? Meaning of inhalation anesthetic as a legal term. What does inhalation anesthetic mean in law? ... Definition of inhalation anesthetic in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Inhalation anesthetic legal definition of inhalation anesthetic https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/inhalation+ ... anesthetic. (redirected from inhalation anesthetic). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ...
more infohttp://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/inhalation+anesthetic

Effect of Inhalation Anesthetics on Cardiac Cell Membrane Potentials | Anesthesiology | ASA PublicationsEffect of Inhalation Anesthetics on Cardiac Cell Membrane Potentials | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications

Effect of Inhalation Anesthetics on Cardiac Cell Membrane Potentials Evan L. Frederickson, M.D.; Joseph V. Levy, Ph.D.; K. ... Effect of Inhalation Anesthetics on Cardiac Cell Membrane Potentials You will receive an email whenever this article is ... Effect of Inhalation Anesthetics on Cardiac Cell Membrane Potentials. Anesthesiology 1 1960, Vol.21, 100. doi: ... Evan L. Frederickson, Joseph V. Levy, K. Ichiyanagi; Effect of Inhalation Anesthetics on Cardiac Cell Membrane Potentials. ...
more infohttps://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1982638

Comparative Evaluation of New Inhalation Anesthetics | Anesthesiology | ASA PublicationsComparative Evaluation of New Inhalation Anesthetics | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications

Comparative Evaluation of New Inhalation Anesthetics You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or ... Wendell C. Stevens, Edmond I. Eger; Comparative Evaluation of New Inhalation Anesthetics. Anesthesiology 1971;35(2):125-136. ... Comparative Evaluation of New Inhalation Anesthetics. Anesthesiology 8 1971, Vol.35, 125-136. doi: ...
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Anesthetic, General (Inhalation Route, Parenteral Route, Rectal Route) Side Effects - Mayo ClinicAnesthetic, General (Inhalation Route, Parenteral Route, Rectal Route) Side Effects - Mayo Clinic

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:. ...
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KAKEN - Research Projects | Effect of Inhalation Anesthetic on Barnoreflex and Maxillofacial Blood Flow under Hypotention...KAKEN - Research Projects | Effect of Inhalation Anesthetic on Barnoreflex and Maxillofacial Blood Flow under Hypotention...

Effect of Inhalation Anesthetic on Barnoreflex and Maxillofacial Blood Flow under Hypotention Anesthesia.. Research Project ... Decrease of systemic blood pressure induced by halothane inhalation did not cause decrease of afferent baro-activity of aortic ... The efferent sympathetic activity of aortic nerve was decreased by 1% halothane inhalation.. Afferent activity of aortic nerve ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-01571090/

Fact Sheet:  Controlling Exposure to Animal Inhalation Anesthetics | PennEHRSFact Sheet: Controlling Exposure to Animal Inhalation Anesthetics | PennEHRS

The waste anesthetic gases and vapors of concern involved in animal surgery are liquid halogenated inhalation agents (vapors) ... Anesthetic vapors that leak into the surrounding room during animal surgeries are called Waste Anesthetic Gases (WAG). It is ... Some potential effects of exposure to waste anesthetic gases are nausea, dizziness, headaches, fatigue, and irritability, as ... are potentially exposed to waste anesthetic gases and are at risk of occupational illness. ...
more infohttps://ehrs.upenn.edu/health-safety/lab-safety/chemical-hygiene-plan/fact-sheets/fact-sheet-controlling-exposure-animal

Inhalation Anesthetics | Case Files: Anesthesiology | AccessAnesthesiology | McGraw-Hill MedicalInhalation Anesthetics | Case Files: Anesthesiology | AccessAnesthesiology | McGraw-Hill Medical

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you dont have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your librarys reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. OK ...
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Inhalation Anesthetics | Morgan & Mikhails Clinical Anesthesiology, 6e | AccessAnesthesiology | McGraw-Hill MedicalInhalation Anesthetics | Morgan & Mikhail's Clinical Anesthesiology, 6e | AccessAnesthesiology | McGraw-Hill Medical

Inhalation Anesthetics. In: Butterworth IV JF, Mackey DC, Wasnick JD. Butterworth IV J.F., Mackey D.C., Wasnick J.D. Eds. John ... "Inhalation Anesthetics." Morgan & Mikhails Clinical Anesthesiology, 6e Butterworth IV JF, Mackey DC, Wasnick JD. Butterworth ... Inhalation anesthetics, notably halothane and sevoflurane, are particularly useful in the induction of pediatric patients in ... This was previously supported by the observation that the anesthetic potency of inhalation agents correlates directly with ...
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Global Inhalation Anesthetic Market Insights 2018-2024: AstraZeneca, Fresenius-Kabi, BbVie Laboratories, Baxter Healthcare,...Global Inhalation Anesthetic Market Insights 2018-2024: AstraZeneca, Fresenius-Kabi, BbVie Laboratories, Baxter Healthcare,...

Tags: Global Inhalation Anesthetic Market 2018Inhalation AnestheticInhalation Anesthetic MarketInhalation Anesthetic Market ... Chapter 11, The Consumers Analysis of Global Inhalation Anesthetic ;. Chapter 12, Inhalation Anesthetic Research Findings and ... Chapter 1, Definition, Specifications and Classification of Inhalation Anesthetic, Applications of Inhalation Anesthetic, ... Inhalation Anesthetic Segment Market Analysis (by Type);. Chapter 7 and 8, The Inhalation Anesthetic Segment Market Analysis ( ...
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Inhalation agent anesthetic - Anesthesia GeneralInhalation agent anesthetic - Anesthesia General

... an increase in cardiac output and the consequent increased pulmonary blood flow removes more anesthetic from ... The alveolar venous anesthetic gradient is determined by the amount of tissue uptake of an inhalation agent anesthetic . This ... The brain has a high perfusion and equilibrates rapidly with the inhalation agent anesthetic , muscle has 1/20th perfusion of ... With respect to inhalation agent anesthetic , an increase in cardiac output and the consequent increased pulmonary blood flow ...
more infohttps://anesthesiageneral.com/inhalation-agent-anesthetic/

Detrimental effects detected in exfoliated buccal cells from anesthesiology medical residents occupationally exposed to...Detrimental effects detected in exfoliated buccal cells from anesthesiology medical residents occupationally exposed to...

... detected in exfoliated buccal cells from anesthesiology medical residents occupationally exposed to inhalation anesthetics: An ... detected in exfoliated buccal cells from anesthesiology medical residents occupationally exposed to inhalation anesthetics: An ... Operating room professionals are scarcely aware of their individual occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases (WAGs). ...
more infohttps://repositorio.unesp.br/handle/11449/176543

Anesthetic, General (Inhalation Route, Parenteral Route, Rectal Route) - Drugs & SupplementsAnesthetic, General (Inhalation Route, Parenteral Route, Rectal Route) - Drugs & Supplements

Some of the anesthetics may be used for certain procedures in a medical doctors or dentists office. ... However, for obstetrics (labor and delivery) or certain minor procedures, an anesthetic may be given in small amounts to ... General anesthetics normally are used to produce loss of consciousness before and during surgery. ... General anesthetics are usually given by inhalation or by injection into a vein. However, certain anesthetics may be given ...
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Verelan PM (Verapamil Hydrochloride): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & UsesVerelan PM (Verapamil Hydrochloride): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

Inhalation Anesthetics. Animal experiments have shown that inhalation anesthetics depress cardiovascular activity by decreasing ... When used concomitantly, inhalation anesthetics and calcium antagonists, such as verapamil, titrate slowly to avoid excessive ... Verapamil has a local anesthetic action that is 1.6 times that of procaine on an equimolar basis. It is not known whether this ...
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Modern Anesthetics | Springer for Research & DevelopmentModern Anesthetics | Springer for Research & Development

... important constraints of anesthesia must be taken into consideration when the pharmacological properties of modern anesthetics ... The clinical understanding of that time considered anesthesia as a unique state achieved by any of the inhalation anesthetics, ... These constraints were already recognised 35 years ago, when in 1972 Volume XXX entitled "Modern Inhalation Anesthetics" ... CNS Modern Anesthetics anesthesia depression drug kinetics neurotoxicity opioid pain pharmacodynamics pharmacokinetics research ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-540-74806-9

Search Results | jnsSearch Results | jns

Subthalamic deep brain stimulation after anesthetic inhalation in Parkinson disease: a preliminary study ... The authors found that MER can be adequately performed while the patient receives a desflurane anesthetic, and the results can ... The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 10 patients with PD who received a desflurane anesthetic during bilateral STN ...
more infohttps://thejns.org/search?f_0=author&q_0=Yu-Lin+Hsieh

DailyMed - ROCURONIUM BROMIDE - rocuronium bromide injection, solutionDailyMed - ROCURONIUM BROMIDE - rocuronium bromide injection, solution

7.3 Inhalation Anesthetics. Use of inhalation anesthetics has been shown to enhance the activity of other neuromuscular ... 7.3 Inhalation Anesthetics 7.4 Lithium Carbonate 7.5 Local Anesthetics 7.6 Magnesium 7.7 Nondepolarizing Muscle Relaxants 7.8 ... Certain inhalation anesthetics, particularly enflurane and isoflurane, antibiotics, magnesium salts, lithium, local anesthetics ... Inhalation anesthetics (7.3), certain antibiotics (7.1), quinidine (7.10), magnesium (7.6), lithium (7.4), local anesthetics ( ...
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These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ROCURONIUM BROMIDE INJECTION safely and effectively. See full...These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ROCURONIUM BROMIDE INJECTION safely and effectively. See full...

7.3 Inhalation Anesthetics. Use of inhalation anesthetics has been shown to enhance the activity of other neuromuscular ... 7.3 Inhalation Anesthetics 7.4 Lithium Carbonate 7.5 Local Anesthetics 7.6 Magnesium 7.7 Nondepolarizing Muscle Relaxants 7.8 ... Certain inhalation anesthetics, particularly enflurane and isoflurane, antibiotics, magnesium salts, lithium, local anesthetics ... Inhalation anesthetics (7.3), certain antibiotics (7.1), quinidine (7.10), magnesium (7.6), lithium (7.4), local anesthetics ( ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/fda/fdaDrugXsl.cfm?setid=116385ea-69fc-4f44-b463-6210291032df&type=display
  • The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 10 patients with PD who received a desflurane anesthetic during bilateral STN electrode implantation. (thejns.org)
  • The authors found that MER can be adequately performed while the patient receives a desflurane anesthetic, and the results can serve as a guide for STN electrode implantation. (thejns.org)
  • Along with the growing awareness of the practicing veterinarian in the greater use of newer anesthetic agents and techniques, has been an increased interest on the part of the experimental surgeon and research worker in better anesthetic methods. (springer.com)
  • Growing penetration of universal health insurance coverage to wider population and constant improvements in healthcare infrastructure in various developing countries are expected to positively impact the number of surgeries performed thus, increasing the usage rates of inhalation anesthetics over the next seven years. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If an anesthetic has a high coefficient, then a large amount of it will have to be taken up in the body's blood before being passed on to the fatty (lipid) tissues of the brain where it can exert its effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • the reaction of carbon dioxide with absorbents is exothermic, this temperature increase will be determined by the quantities of CO 2 absorbed, which in turn will depend on fresh gas flow in the anesthetic circle system, metabolic status of the patient and ventilation. (drugs.com)
  • Biophysical studies using state-of-the-art NMR spectroscopy has provided molecular details of how inhaled anesthetics interact with three amino acid residues (G29, A30 and I31) of amyloid beta peptide and induce aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The target effects, such as unconsciousness, are pot- tially life-threatening, as are the side effects of modern anesthetics, such as respi- tory and cardiovascular depression. (springer.com)
  • Bennett , R. R.: The clinical use of 2-(ethylamino)-2-(2-thienyl) cyclohexanone HC1 (CI 634) as an anesthetic for the cat. (springer.com)
  • This has placed a greater responsibility on the researcher for the use of better anesthetic techniques and a greater awareness on pre and postoperative care. (springer.com)
  • Boutelle , J. L., Rich , S. T.: An anesthetic chamber for prolonged immobilization of mice during tumor transplantation and radiation procedures. (springer.com)
  • The authors of this preliminary study investigated the outcome and feasibility of intraoperative microelectrode recording (MER) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) undergoing deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) after anesthetic inhalation. (thejns.org)