Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Obsessive Behavior: Persistent, unwanted idea or impulse which is considered normal when it does not markedly interfere with mental processes or emotional adjustment.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Clomipramine: A tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE that selectively inhibits the uptake of serotonin in the brain. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to form its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)Obsessive Hoarding: Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of the value of these possessions. Epidemiological studies suggest that hoarding occurs in 2-5% of the population and can lead to substantial distress and disability, as well as serious public health consequences.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Trichotillomania: Compulsion to pull out one's hair.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Telepathology: Transmission and interpretation of tissue specimens via remote telecommunication, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or consultation but may also be used for continuing education.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)AxisTeaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Digital Rectal Examination: A physical examination in which the qualified health care worker inserts a lubricated, gloved finger of one hand into the RECTUM and may use the other hand to press on the lower ABDOMEN or pelvic area to palpate for abnormalities in the lower rectum, and nearby organs or tissues. The method is commonly used to check the lower rectum, the PROSTATE gland in men, and the UTERUS and OVARIES in women.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Social Work, Psychiatric: Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting.TexasAudiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Numismatics: Study of coins, tokens, medals, etc. However, it usually refers to medals pertaining to the history of medicine.Lorazepam: A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Amnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.

Mechanisms of bronchoprotection by anesthetic induction agents: propofol versus ketamine. (1/268)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and ketamine have been purported to decrease bronchoconstriction during induction of anesthesia and intubation. Whether they act on airway smooth muscle or through neural reflexes has not been determined. We compared propofol and ketamine to attenuate the direct activation of airway smooth muscle by methacholine and limit neurally mediated bronchoconstriction (vagal nerve stimulation). METHODS: After approval from the institutional review board, eight sheep were anesthetized with pentobarbital, paralyzed, and ventilated. After left thoracotomy, the bronchial artery was cannulated and perfused. In random order, 5 mg/ml concentrations of propofol, ketamine, and thiopental were infused into the bronchial artery at rates of 0.06, 0.20, and 0.60 ml/min. After 10 min, airway resistance was measured before and after vagal nerve stimulation and methacholine given via the bronchial artery. Data were expressed as a percent of baseline response before infusion of drug and analyzed by analysis of variance with significance set at P< or =0.05. RESULTS: Systemic blood pressure was not affected by any of the drugs (P>0.46). Baseline airway resistance was not different among the three agents (P = 0.56) or by dose (P = 0.96). Infusion of propofol and ketamine into the bronchial artery caused a dose-dependent attenuation of the vagal nerve stimulation-induced bronchoconstriction to 26+/-11% and 8+/-2% of maximum, respectively (P<0.0001). In addition, propofol caused a significant decrease in the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction to 43+/-27% of maximum at the highest concentration (P = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The local bronchoprotective effects of ketamine and propofol on airways is through neurally mediated mechanisms. Although the direct effects on airway smooth muscle occur at high concentrations, these are unlikely to be of primary clinical relevance.  (+info)

Acid-base disturbance during hemorrhage in rats: significant role of strong inorganic ions. (2/268)

The present study tests the hypothesis that changes in the strong inorganic ion concentrations contribute significantly to the acid-base disturbance that develops during hemorrhage in the arterial plasma of rats in addition to lactate concentration ([Lac-]) increase. The physicochemical origins for this acid-base disorder were studied during acute, graded hemorrhage (10, 20, and 30% loss of blood volume) in three groups of rats: conscious, anesthetized with ketamine, and anesthetized with urethan. The results support the hypothesis examined: strong-ion difference (SID) decreased in the arterial plasma of all groups studied because of an early imbalance in the main strong inorganic ions during initial hemorrhagic phase. Moreover, changes in plasma [Lac-] contributed to SID decrease in a later hemorrhagic phase (after 10% hemorrhage in urethan-anesthetized, after 20% hemorrhage in ketamine-anesthetized, and after 30% hemorrhage in conscious group). Inorganic ion changes were due to both dilution of the vascular compartment and ion exchange with extravascular space and red blood cells, as compensation for blood volume depletion and hypocapnia. Nevertheless, anesthetized rats were less able than conscious rats to preserve normal arterial pH during hemorrhage, mainly because of an impaired peripheral tissue condition and incomplete ventilatory compensation.  (+info)

Actions of ketamine and its isomers on contractility and calcium transients in human myocardium. (3/268)

BACKGROUND: Ketamine has a species-dependent inotropic effect on myocardium. The authors' aim was to investigate the direct inotropic effect and the corresponding intracellular Ca2+ transients of ketamine and its isomers on human myocardium. METHODS: Right auricular myocardial strips obtained during open heart surgery were exposed to increasing concentrations (73 microM, 360 microM, and 730 microM) of racemic ketamine (n = 12), S(+)-ketamine (n = 12), or R(-)-ketamine (n = 11). Isometric force, isotonic shortening, contractility, relaxation, and time to maximal isotonic and isometric force were assessed. Ten muscle strips in each group were loaded with the calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye FURA-2/AM for simultaneous measurements of calcium transients. RESULTS: Compared with the initial control maximal isometric developed force, maximal isotonic shortening amplitude, contractility, and relaxation increased by 12.5-22.4% after perfusion with S(+)-ketamine at the concentration of 73 microM (P < 0.05). In contrast, no changes were seen after addition of 73 microM R(-)-ketamine. The effect of racemic ketamine (73 microM) was between that of the two isomers. At the highest concentration (730 microM) ketamine and its isomers decreased maximal isometric developed force, maximal shortening amplitude, contractility, and relaxation by 26.8-57.4% (P < 0.05), accompanied by a significant decrease of the intracellular calcium transient (by 21.0-32.2%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to R(-)-ketamine, S(+)-ketamine increased isometric force, isotonic shortening, contractility, and relaxation at low concentrations (73 microM) compared with the initial control. At higher concentrations (730 microM) a direct negative inotropic action was observed after perfusion with ketamine and its isomers, which was accompanied by a decreased intracellular Ca2+ transient.  (+info)

Comparison of oral chloral hydrate with intramuscular ketamine, meperidine, and promethazine for pediatric sedation--preliminary report. (4/268)

Fifteen consecutive pediatric patients ranging from 3 to 5 years old were selected to receive one of three sedative/hypnotic techniques. Group 1 received oral chloral hydrate 50 mg/kg, and groups 2 and 3 received intramuscular ketamine 2 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, respectively. In addition to ketamine, patients in groups 2 and 3 received transmucosal intramuscular injections of meperidine and promethazine into the masseter muscle. Sedation for the satisfactory completion of restorative dentistry was obtained for over 40 min on average in the chloral hydrate group, but completion of dental surgery longer than 40 min was achieved in groups 2 and 3 only by intravenous supplements of ketamine.  (+info)

Effects of diazepam and ketamine administered individually or in combination on regional rates of glucose utilization in rat brain. (5/268)

The effects of diazepam, which acts at GABAA receptors to enhance the effects of GABA, and ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, on local rates of cerebral glucose utilization (ICMRglc) were examined in unrestrained rats. Four groups were studied: vehicle-injected controls; and ketamine-treated, diazepam-treated and combined ketamine- and diazepam-treated animals. Ketamine alone produced a heterogeneous pattern of changes in ICMRglc (e.g. significant increases in the corpus callosum, olfactory tubercle and the entire Papez circuit, in addition to other limbic areas, and significant decreases in lateral habenula and some components of the auditory system). Diazepam alone statistically significantly decreased ICMRglc in the brain as a whole and in most areas of the cerebral cortex, thalamus and limbic system. The most remarkable effects of the two drugs administered together on ICMRglc occurred in the limbic system where the dramatic increases observed with ketamine alone were prevented by treatment with diazepam.  (+info)

Stereospecific effects of ketamine on dopamine efflux and uptake in the rat nucleus accumbens. (6/268)

In addition to being a general anaesthetic, ketamine is a recognized drug of abuse. Many, if not all, drugs of abuse have been shown to increase dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). As ketamine is optically active, we examined if its actions on dopamine efflux in the NAc were stereoselective. Slices of rat NAc were superfused with artificial CSF at 32 degrees C. Dopamine efflux was evoked by electrical stimulation (1 or 20 pulses, 100 Hz) and measured using fast cyclic voltammetry. (+/-)-Ketamine 100 mumol litre-1 increased dopamine efflux (to mean 174 (SEM 17)% of control, P < 0.05) and slowed dopamine uptake half-time (T1/2) to 164 (17)% of control, as did (+)-ketamine 100 mumol litre-1 (efflux 236 (16)% (P < 0.001); uptake T1/2 177 (25)% (P < 0.05)). The (-)-isomer was inactive. The effect of (+)-ketamine on dopamine efflux did not correlate with its action on dopamine uptake. (+)-Ketamine increased dopamine efflux on single pulse stimulation but to a lesser extent than on 20 pulse trains (P < 0.05). (+)-Ketamine was unable to block the inhibitory effect of quinpirole on single pulse dopamine efflux. Neither MK 801 10 mumol litre-1 nor metoclopramide 1 mumol litre-1 had any effect on dopamine release after short train stimuli (20 pulses, 100 Hz). We conclude that the (+)-isomer is the active form of ketamine and increases NAc dopamine efflux not by block of dopamine uptake; autoreceptors or NMDA receptors, but by mobilization of the dopamine storage pool to releasable sites.  (+info)

Ketamine preserves and propofol potentiates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction compared with the conscious state in chronically instrumented dogs. (7/268)

BACKGROUND: The authors tested the hypothesis that ketamine and propofol anesthesia would alter the magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction compared with the conscious state. In addition, they assessed the extent to which cyclooxygenase pathway inhibition and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel inhibition modulate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in the conscious state, and whether these pathways are altered during propofol anesthesia. METHODS: Twenty conditioned, male mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented to measure the left pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationship. Pressure-flow plots were measured during normoxia and hypoxia (systemic arterial PO2 reduced to about 60 and about 50 mm Hg) on separate days in the conscious state, during ketamine anesthesia, and during propofol anesthesia. The effects of indomethacin and glibenclamide on the magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction were also assessed in the conscious and propofol-anesthetized states. RESULTS: Neither ketamine nor propofol had an effect on the baseline pressure-flow relationship during normoxia compared with the conscious state. Hypoxia resulted in stimulus-dependent pulmonary vasoconstriction (P<0.01) in the conscious state. Compared with the conscious state, the magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was preserved during ketamine but was potentiated (P<0.01) during propofol anesthesia. Indomethacin enhanced (P<0.01) hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in both the conscious and propofol-anesthetized states. In contrast, glibenclamide only enhanced (P<0.01) hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in the conscious state and had no effect during propofol anesthesia. CONCLUSION: Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is preserved during ketamine anesthesia but is potentiated during propofol anesthesia. The potentiated response during propofol anesthesia appears to be caused by inhibition of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel-mediated pulmonary vasodilation.  (+info)

Tooth pulp- and facial hair mechanoreceptor-evoked responses of trigeminal sensory neurons are attenuated during ketamine anesthesia. (8/268)

BACKGROUND: Evidence exists that ketamine, administered systemically using a dose required for inducing a state of anesthesia, may antagonize nociceptive but not innocuous input to lumbar dorsal horn neurons. However, it is unclear whether ketamine exerts this selective action on sensory inputs to trigeminal sensory neurons. The current study was undertaken to compare the responses evoked in trigeminal sensory neurons by electrical stimuli applied to the tooth pulp versus air-puff stimuli applied to facial hair mechanoreceptors (FHMs) during quiet wakefulness versus ketamine anesthesia. METHODS: Accordingly, responses of rostral trigeminal sensory nuclear complex (TSNC) and trigeminothalamic tract neurons evoked by tooth pulp (a source of small-diameter fiber input) and FHMs (a source of larger-diameter fiber input) were recorded extracellularly from chronically instrumented cats before, during, and after recovery from the anesthetic state induced by a single (2.2 mg/kg) intravenous injection of ketamine. RESULTS: Overall, tooth pulp-evoked responses of TSNC neurons were maximally suppressed by 50% within 5 min after the intravenous administration of ketamine. Ketamine also suppressed the FHM-evoked responses of TSNC and trigeminothalamic neurons by 45%. The time course of ketamine's suppressive action was equivalent for tooth pulp- and FHM-evoked responses. However, the recovery of tooth pulp-evoked TSNC neuronal responses at suprathreshold intensities was markedly prolonged compared with neuronal responses driven by threshold stimuli or FHM. CONCLUSIONS: These electrophysiologic results in the chronically instrumented cat preparation indicate that a nonselective suppression of orofacial somatosensory information occurs during ketamine anesthesia. The prolonged recovery of suprathreshold responses of TSNC neurons mediated by small-diameter afferent fiber input may partly underlie the analgesic action of ketamine that is clinically relevant at subanesthetic doses.  (+info)

*Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor

... anesthetic and dissociative drug of abuse; weak SNDRI action likely contributes to effects and abuse potential Phencyclidine ( ... discontinued anesthetic and dissociative psychostimulant drug of abuse; SNDRI action likely contributes to effects and abuse ... Esketamine (Ketanest S) - anesthetic; S-enantiomer of ketamine; weak SNDRI action likely contributes to effects and abuse ... In addition, cocaine has some serious limitations in terms of its cardiotoxicity due to its local anesthetic activity. ...

*EPE

Ephenidine, a dissociative anesthetic drug. Everyday Practical Electronics, a web-delivered hobbyist magazine; see also ...

*Tenocyclidine

It is a dissociative anesthetic drug with psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects. It is similar in effects to phencyclidine ...

*Dextromethorphan

... the dissociative states created by other dissociative anesthetics such as ketamine and phencyclidine. The metabolic pathway ... When exceeding approved dosages, dextromethorphan acts as a dissociative anesthetic. Its mechanism of action is via multiple ... Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher ... The 3-methoxymorphinan metabolite produces local anesthetic effects in rats, with potency between dextrophan and DXM. The ...

*Rolicyclidine

... (PCPy) is a dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. It is similar in effects to ... but with additional PCP-like dissociative, anaesthetic and hallucinogenic effects. Due to its similarity in effects to PCP, ...

*Etoxadrol

Traber, DL; Priano, LL; Wilson, RD (November 1970). "Effects of CL 1848C, a new dissociative anesthetic, on the canine ... a new dissociative anesthetic: studies in primates and other species". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 50 (2): 231-9. doi:10.1213/ ... a new dissociative anesthetic in normal human volunteers". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 49 (2): 236-41. doi:10.1213/00000539- ... As an anesthetic, etoxadrol is more potent than ketamine, but less potent than PCP. Etoxadrol is also a potent analgesic. ...

*Eticyclidine

... (PCE, CI-400) is a dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic effects. It is similar in effects to ... PCE was developed by Parke-Davis in the 1970s and evaluated for anesthetic potential under the code name CI-400, but research ...

*Tiletamine

... is a dissociative anesthetic and pharmacologically classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist. It is related ... as an injectable anesthetic for use in cats and dogs. It is sometimes used in combination with xylazine (Rompun) to tranquilize ...

*Memantine

Like many other NMDA antagonists, memantine behaves as a dissociative anesthetic at supratherapeutic doses. Despite isolated ... a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs". Drug Testing and Analysis. 6 (7-8): 614-32. doi:10.1002/ ...

*Complex regional pain syndrome

Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, appears promising as a treatment for complex regional pain syndrome. It may be used in low ... August 2007). "The neurocognitive effects of 5 day anesthetic ketamine for the treatment of refractory complex regional pain ...

*Phencyclamine

... or PCPr is an arylcyclohexylamine dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic and stimulant effects. It is ...

*Chemical restraint

Drugs that are often used as chemical restraints include benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, and Dissociative anesthetics. In the ...

*NPDPA

... (also known as isopropylphenidine) is a dissociative anesthetic that has been sold online as a designer drug. It was ... a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs". Drug Testing and Analysis. 6 (7-8): 614-632. doi:10.1002/ ...

*Diphenidine

... (1,2-DEP, DPD, DND) is a dissociative anesthetic that has been sold as a designer drug. The synthesis of ... Helander, Anders; Beck, Olof; Bäckberg, Matilda (28 May 2015). "Intoxications by the dissociative new psychoactive substances ... and a dissociative agent, diphenidine". Legal Medicine. 17 (5): 421-426. doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2015.06.005. PMID 26162997. ... a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs". Drug Testing and Analysis. 6 (7-8): 614-632. doi:10.1002/ ...

*Smooth pursuit

Drugs causing lack of smooth pursuit include depressants, some inhalants, and dissociative anesthetics (such as phencyclidine ...

*2-Fluorodeschloroketamine

... (also known as 2-Fl-2'-Oxo-PCM, Fluoroketamine and 2-FDCK) is a dissociative anesthetic. It is an ...

*Hydroxynorketamine

... (HNK), or 6-hydroxynorketamine, is a minor metabolite of the anesthetic, dissociative, and antidepressant ... As (2R,6R)-HNK, unlike ketamine, is not an NMDA receptor antagonist, and produces no dissociative or euphoric effects, it has ... In contrast to ketamine and norketamine, HNK is inactive as an anesthetic and psychostimulant. In accordance, it has only very ... "Sub-anesthetic concentrations of (R,S)-ketamine metabolites inhibit acetylcholine-evoked currents in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine ...

*Dizocilpine

The drug acts as a potent anti-convulsant and likely has dissociative anesthetic properties, but it is not used clinically for ... Instead, the NMDA receptor pore-blocker ketamine is used as a dissociative anesthetic in human medical procedures. While ... Users tend to report that the experience is not as enjoyable as other dissociative drugs, and it is often accompanied by strong ... Also, dizocilpine is much longer-lasting than similar dissociative drugs such as ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP), and causes ...

*Deschloroketamine

... (DXE, DCK, 2'-Oxo-PCM) is a dissociative anesthetic that has been sold online as a designer drug. It has also ...

*Vocal cord dysfunction

While Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, does not suppress respiratory drive, it has been thought to be associated with ...

*Parke-Davis

They also developed Ketalar (ketamine hydrochloride), a general anesthetic and dissociative drug, in 1962. Parke-Davis marketed ...

*Drug Recognition Expert

Dissociative anesthetics (PCP), Cannabis, hallucinogens (mushrooms), inhalants (glue), and narcotic analgesics (opiates). DREs ...

*Fluorolintane

... (also known as 2-FPPP) is a dissociative anesthetic drug that has been sold online as a designer drug. ...

*Asthma

The dissociative anesthetic ketamine is theoretically useful if intubation and mechanical ventilation is needed in people who ...

*4-MeO-PCP

4-Methoxyphencyclidine (methoxydine, 4-MeO-PCP) is a dissociative anesthetic drug that has been sold online as a research ... a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs". Drug Testing and Analysis. 6: 614-632. doi:10.1002/dta. ...

*Convention on Psychotropic Substances

... mecloqualone methaqualone Dissociatives: phencyclidine (PCP) Other: zipeprol Salts of all the substances covered by the four ... anesthetics) sodium thiopental (barbiturate) zaleplon (depressant z-drug) zopiclone (depressant z-drug) and its stereoisomer ... pyran-1-ol Dissociatives: eticyclidine (PCE) rolicyclidine (PHP, PCPy) tenocyclidine (TCP) Ergolines: LSD The stereoisomers of ... dissociative) and its stereoisomer esketamine modafinil (stimulant), its stereoisomer armodafinil, and a similar drug adrafinil ...

*Esketamine

... is a general anesthetic and a dissociative hallucinogen. It is the S(+) enantiomer of the drug ketamine, which is an anesthetic ... Esketamine is approximately twice as potent as an anesthetic as racemic ketamine. It is eliminated from the human body more ... This difference may be responsible for the fact that esketamine generally has a more dissociative or hallucinogenic effect ... and dissociative similarly. Esketamine acts primarily as a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. In ...
The Index page for the reference article: Cunningham BL, McKinney P Patient acceptance of dissociative anesthetics Plast Reconstr Surg 1983 72(1):22-6
Study Flashcards On Pharmacology 2011 - Dissociative Anesthetics (Test 3) at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Subanesthetic ketamine for pain management in hospitalized children, adolescents, and young adults: a single-center cohort study Kathy A Sheehy,1,* Caroline Lippold,1,* Amy L Rice,1 Raissa Nobrega,1 Julia C Finkel,1 Zenaide MN Quezado1,2 1Division of Anesthesiology, Pain, and Perioperative Medicine, The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children’s Research Institute, Children’s National Health System, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, 2Center for Neuroscience Research, Children’s Research Institute, Children’s National Health System, Washington, DC, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Subanesthetic doses of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist used as an adjuvant to opioid for the treatment of pain in adults with acute and chronic pain, have been shown, in some instances, to improve pain intensity and to decrease opioid intake. However, less is known about the role of ketamine
Growing more popular among teens and young adults at dance clubs, ketamine usage has risen in recent years.. Ketamine is considered a club drug, and is a dissociative anesthetic, meaning it gives users the sensation of being detached from their surroundings and pain. Ketamine causes hallucinations or delirium (and sometimes, flashbacks many weeks after taking ketamine), immobility and amnesia. Similar to other club drugs, ketamine has been used in drug-facilitated sexual assault.. Like many other medically-used drugs, ketamine has a legitimate, legal purpose but often is misused. Ketamine was created in the 1960s in a lab in Detroit, Mich. It was first marketed in 1970 as U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved anesthetic for human and animal use. By the 1990s, instances of ketamine abuse were reported in the United Kingdom and other parts of Europe (Harun and others). These reports led to ketamine, along with its salts, isomers, and isomer salts, being listed as schedule III ...
We, the investigators at Queens University, propose to conduct a randomized, double-blind, feasibility trial comparing low-dose ketamine versus fentanyl as adjuncts to Emergency Department procedural sedation with propofol. The outcomes of interest will be safety, with respect to hemodynamic and respiratory adverse effects, as well as efficacy, with respect to adequacy of sedation and analgesia, recovery profiles and patient/physician satisfaction. Our hypothesis, based on a review of existing anesthesia literature, is that low-dose ketamine may be a safer and more efficacious alternative to fentanyl when used as an adjunct to propofol-assisted procedural sedation ...
Nitrous oxide has been widely used in clinical practice for more than 150 years because of effective analgesic properties that are achieved at concentrations below those required for general anesthesia. These analgesic effects coupled with rapid onset and short duration of action have made N2O the oldest inhalational anesthetic used in clinical anesthesia and analgesia. Although great progress has been achieved in the last decade in understanding the cellular actions of other general anesthetics (Franks and Lieb, 1994), the cellular mechanisms of N2O remain less clear, mostly because of the great difficulty in working with this agent in vitro. We recently reported that like the dissociative anesthetic ketamine, N2O blocks the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors (Jevtovic-Todorovic et al., 1998) and NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic currents in hippocampal microcultures (Mennerick et al., 1998). Others have reported similar effects of N2O on currents from cloned NMDA receptors as well as ...
Ketamine is used in hospitals and by veterinarians as a dissociative anesthetic. It was originally marketed in liquid form as a tranquilizer, and is most commonly used as a tranquilizer on animals before surgery. The drug has similar characteristics to that of laughing gas. More and more veterinarians are being robbed for their supplies of ketamine. According to the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, most of the Ketamine sold illegally in the United States comes from drugs stolen from vet offices. It is becoming easier for users to locate the drug in street markets. Other uses for the medication include its ability to help control severe pain.. The medicine is a popular club drug. It is often used as a date rape drug due to its dissociative properties. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, nearly two and a half million individuals over the age of 12 have used ketamine illegally at least once in their lifetime. Because the drug is highly addictive even after the first use, ...
Palliative care patients are predisposed to complex pain, including refractory pain, neuropathic pain, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and opioid-induced neurotoxicity. Palliative care complex pain management can include use of subanesthetic parenteral ketamine. Support for subanesthetic ketamine exist
Fibromyalgia is a common disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain that affects an estimated 2% of the general population. Recent advances hav
PCP was developed in the 1950s as a surgical anesthetic. Although commonly referred to as a hallucinogen drug, PCP is actually classified as a dissociative anesthetic. Drugs in this class produce detached, dissociative, trance-like feelings that are often compared to feeling like one is out of their body, rather than the hallucinations and strange sensory experiences that occur with hallucinogens ...
If a DRE determines that a driver was too impaired to operate a vehicle in a safe manner, they will look for indications of the drug(s) suspected, by the common perceivable effects the drugs have on the human body.[2] There are seven categories of classifications a DRE is looking for, including; Central Nervous System depressants (Benzodiazepines), CNS stimulants (Methamphetamine), Dissociative anesthetics (PCP), Cannabis, hallucinogens (mushrooms), inhalants (glue), and narcotic analgesics (opiates).[2]. DREs often testify in court, where the term "expert" has important legal implications. Some jurisdictions do not allow the term Drug Recognition Expert. In these jurisdictions DREs are called Drug Recognition Evaluators, or Drug Recognition Technicians.. The acronym DRE has been used to refer not just to the DRE officers, but also to the examination they perform, the "Drug Recognition Examination," or "Drug Recognition Evaluation." The confluence of acronyms leads to confusion, and the IACP ...
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Clinical use of phencyclidine (PCP), a potent dissociative anesthetic, was abandoned as a result of reports of post-operative hallucinations and disoriented behavior; further, illicit use has substantially diminished because ...
Clinical use of phencyclidine (PCP), a potent dissociative anesthetic, was abandoned as a result of reports of post-operative hallucinations and disoriented behavior; further, illicit use has substantially diminished because ...
Dissociative Anesthetics cause a feeling of mind dissociating from the body. The mind takes a trip to a far of place wile the body remains in the current position. Of course this is just a feeling and ...
Dissociative Anesthetics cause a feeling of mind dissociating from the body. The mind takes a trip to a far of place wile the body remains in the current position. Of course this is just a feeling and ...
What is PCP? PCP, or Phencyclidine, also known as Angel Dust, is a dissociative anesthetic first synthesized in 1926 and tested after WWII as a surgical
Results: In all, 185 participants were included in the primary analysis. There was no significant difference between the proportion of positive outcomes (0.04; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.18; P = .55) in the placebo and intervention arms (response rates, 27% [25 of 92] and 31% [29 of 93]). Pain type (nociceptive v neuropathic) was not a predictor of response. There was almost twice the incidence of adverse events worse than baseline in the ketamine group after day 1 (incidence rate ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.46 to 2.61; P , .001) and throughout the study. Those receiving ketamine were more likely to experience a more severe grade of adverse event per day (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.18; P = .039). The number of patients needed to treat for one additional patient to have a positive outcome from ketamine was 25 (95% CI, six to ∞). The number needed to harm, because of toxicity-related withdrawal, was six (95% CI, four to 13 ...
Global Ketamine HCL Market 2017 Research report provides a professional study on the current state of global Ketamine HCL market report 2017. The Study of Ketamine HCL report also provides the highlights on Ketamine HCL market forecast.. At the beginning, the report Ketamine HCL covers a basic overview of the Ketamine HCL industry 2017. The report covers- Ketamine HCL definitions, classifications, Ketamine HCL industry applications and chain structure of Ketamine HCL industry. Along with this, Ketamine HCL manufacturing processes and price structures, are also covered.. Purchase Entire Report Here (To get Quick access): https://market.biz/report/global-ketamine-hcl-market-2017-scc/74025/#inquiry. Following that, 2017 Global Ketamine HCL Market report does the competitive analysis according to the key vendors.. Jincheng HEALTH Pharmaceutical, Taj Pharmaceuticals, Ebang Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Abbott, Cilag AG, Teva, Mylan, Aditya Pharma, Daiichi Sankyo, Novartis, Takeda, Sichuan Beauty Sport ...
This study will be comprised of 2 parts, Part A and Part B, both in healthy male participants.. Part A of the study will investigate the safety of intravenous (IV) ketamine administration after single oral doses of LY2979165 (capsules) or LY2140023 (tablets). Part A will be completed before starting Part B.. Part B of this study will investigate whether different dose levels of LY2979165 or LY2140023, when administered before ketamine, result in changes to the images on a brain scan seen with ketamine alone. Brain imaging is currently used for a number of reasons including understanding where in the brain medicines have their effects. Ketamine is an anesthetic used in this study to activate particular regions of the brain.. The single oral doses of LY2979165 to be used in both parts of the study are 20 and 60 mg with matching dummy drug (placebo) for each dose.. The doses for LY2140023 are 10, 40, and 160 mg with matching placebo for each dose.. Screening is required within 28 days prior to the ...
Weve already learned some of the secrets of ketamine, the trendiest dissociative analgosedative to reach a drug box near you.. As discussed, there is not (yet) much data on using ketamine for prolonged infusions at sedative doses. (Or at analgesic doses, for that matter.) We know that it packs a potent kick for short-term analgesia and sedation, but what if we leave it running for days? Will it have useful opioid-sparing effects? Will it reduce delirium-or will its famous dissociative trips put the patient at greater risk for it? We dont know.. Which is not to say it cant be used. But the main role for an ICU ketamine infusion at this point is probably either in patients with severe, refractory pain, or for sedation in patients hemodynamically unable to tolerate anything else.. This helps skirt one of its challenges, which is titration. Fixed, low-range analgesic dosing is fairly easy. However, if you increase the dose to produce ketamine sedation, you run the risk of entering the undesirable ...
Ketamine is (S)-(+) and (R)-(−)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino) cyclohexanone and exists as two optimal isomers. It has several commercial trade names including Ketalar®, Ketaject®, Ketaset®, and Vetalar®. It is occasionally used in human anesthetic applications, especially in trauma, burn, and pediatric patients. For humans, it is available commercially, as the HCl salt, 10 and 100 mg/ml base content. It can be injected or taken orally or rectally. The drug has multiple pharmacological effects, including anesthesia, analgesia, and dysphoria, and it is sympathomimetic. Ketamine has a short blood α and β t½s of about 7 min and 2-4 h, respectively. The α t½ of ketamine in plasma is not affected by diazepam, but its peak levels are increased. The metabolites of ketamine (norketamine and nordehydroketamine) appear in venous blood about 10 and 30 min after administration. Norketamine produces similar effects as ketamine. Less is known about nordehydroketamine. Both the more potent S-(+) ...
Ketamine is a rapid-acting general anesthetic producing an anesthetic state characterized by profound analgesia, normal pharyngeal-laryngeal reflexes, normal or slightly enhanced skeletal muscle tone, cardiovascular and respiratory stimulation, and occasionally a transient and minimal respiratory depression.. A patent airway is maintained partly by virtue of unimpaired pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes. (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS.). The biotransformation of ketamine includes N-dealkylation (metabolite I), hydroxylation of the cyclohexone ring (metabolites III and IV), conjugation with glucuronic acid and dehydration of the hydroxylated metabolites to form the cyclohexene derivative (metabolite II).. Following intravenous administration, the ketamine concentration has an initial slope (alpha phase) lasting about 45 minutes with a half-life of 10 to 15 minutes. This first phase corresponds clinically to the anesthetic effect of the drug. The anesthetic action is terminated by a combination of ...
low-dose ketamine clinical regimens in current use are needed. For more information, click here.. Items which should not be routinely prescribed in primary care ...
Posted on 10/06/2012 4:37:30 PM PDT by Renfield. In any given year, 7% of adults suffer from major depression, and at least 1 in 10 youth will reckon with the disorder at some point during their teenage years. But about 20% of these cases will not respond to current treatments; for those that do, relief may take weeks to months to come. There is one treatment, however, that works much faster: the anesthetic and club drug ketamine. It takes effect within hours. A single dose of ketamine produces relief of depression that has been shown in studies to last for up to 10 days; it also appears to reduce symptoms of bipolar disorder and suicidal thoughts. Now, a new research review published in Science calls the discovery of these effects of ketamine, arguably the most important discovery in half a century of depression research ...
Ketamine aka special k drug is prone to abuse and is used for pain as a sedative and an anesthetic special k ketamine may be used for depression
Ketamine is the only safe form of anaesthesia in many low and middle income countries. The World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists (WFSA) has launched a campaign to raise awareness about the threat to ketamine and allow anaesthesiologists and medical staff around the world to voice their opposition. Visit the WFSA Ketamine Campaign Resource Hub to learn more about the crisis and take action to prevent ketamine being scheduled ...
Ketamine is the only safe form of anaesthesia in many low and middle income countries. The World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists (WFSA) has launched a campaign to raise awareness about the threat to ketamine and allow anaesthesiologists and medical staff around the world to voice their opposition. Visit the WFSA Ketamine Campaign Resource Hub to learn more about the crisis and take action to prevent ketamine being scheduled ...
In recent years there has been great research interest in ketamine as an antidepressant. Ketamine, a drug better-known for its use as an anaesthetic (and a recreational drug in lower doses) is claimed to have powerful, rapid-acting antidepressant effects, even in depressed patients who have not responded to more conventional drugs. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear.. Now, in a major new Nature paper, Baltimore researchers Panos Zanos and colleagues say that ketamine itself ...
Increased heart-rate, depressed consciousness and breathing, Can lead to oxygen starvation to the muscles and brain, Vomiting, Temporary paralysis, Coma and eventually death. Ketamine is also known to be psychologically addictive; it is not uncommon to find users taking it daily.
The American College of Emergency Physicians affirms that sub dissociative dose ketamine (SDK), also referred to as low dose ketamine (LDK) is safe and effective for analgesic use in emergency departments.
Because of the gradual and regular protocol that we use, side effects are frequently predictable and they are at the milder conclusion of what ketamine might cause. A feeling of slight sedation, perhaps even some grogginess is popular since the dose increases to the assortment where by most of the people get some advantage ...
This can vary greatly between patients. Most patients who respond to ketamine find that a single infusion will provide at least several days of symptomatic relief. This means relief of the physical symptoms that make depression/bipolar/PTSD so unbearable: anxiety, fatigue, dysphoria, cognitive impairment, insomnia, etc. Patients who undergo a series of multiple infusions over 1-2 weeks often get symptomatic relief that lasts weeks and months (~2 weeks - 3 months). When physical symptoms are improved it triggers a myriad of favorable changes that dramatically improves mood and behavior. This subsequently helps you feel better, more energetic, less sense of self-negativity, and improved sleep hygiene, sometimes for the first time in as long as one can remember. Even if some of the physical symptoms return, most patients can withstand it and react more positively against it instead of regressing back to a dark place with each new stress that arises. The reason, improvement in mood and behavior seem ...
A literature review reveals limited evidence of efficacy of topical ketamine for neuropathic pain, but larger studies are needed.
If ketamine is able to turn off a patients depression, even for one day, you have accomplished something important, whether or not you can maintain it. This is because you have at least given the patient hope . . . that in itself is very significant from a therapeutic perspective.
The ketamine-tolerant patient presents a quandary to clinicians who arent familiar with this phenomenon. The first time I encountered this, I was baffled and aborted the procedure after giving 200 mg ketamine. Eventually I realized that the drug isnt failing to work, but rather we are failing to administer a sufficiently high dose.
Ketamine and propofol are two well-known, powerful anesthetic agents, yet at first sight this appears to be their only commonality. Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic agent, whose main mechanism of action is considered to be N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonism; whereas propofol is a general anesthetic agent, which is assumed to primarily potentiate currents gated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA A) receptors. However, several experimental observations suggest a closer relationship. First, the effect of ketamine on the electroencephalogram (EEG) is markedly changed in the presence of propofol: on its own ketamine increases theta (4-8 Hz) and decreases alpha (8-13 Hz) oscillations, whereas ketamine induces a significant shift to beta band frequencies (13-30 Hz) in the presence of propofol. Second, both ketamine and propofol cause inhibition of the inward pacemaker current Ih, by binding to the corresponding hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 1 (HCN1) subunit.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Vivek Jeevakumar, Christopher Driskill, Alyssa Paine, Millad Sobhanian, Haris Vakil, Brett Morris, Jeremiah Ramos, Sven Kroener].
Our warm, caring integrative center offers IV ketamine treatment for depression, anxiety, PTSD, OCD & fibromyalgia. Free phone consultations available.
Neuro-Luminance is proud to announce the latest science shows ketamine infusion can effectively treat depression, according to a new study published today by the peer-reviewed journal Neural Regeneration Research. Conducted and authored by our own co-founder Dr. Theodore Henderson, the study gives "real world" experience treating many patients with ketamine, and allays related fears. His findings, effective with patients nearly 80% of the time, stand in direct contrast to warnings from the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Read the news and study here.. This should not alarm anyone. In fact, the opposite should be true. This scientific study is the latest research performed on ketamine, written to give people suffering with depression a reason to ask their doctors, or get more information, find answers and get the help they need.. Depression is not to be taken lightly. It is a serious condition. But, there is a silver lining with depression. Once its gone, we can be even more grateful for ...
... , or ketamine hydrochloride, is a non-barbiturate, rapid-acting dissociative anaesthetic used on animals and humans. It has also been used in human medicine for paediatric burn cases and dentistry, and in experimental psychotherapy. It is being abused by an increasing number of young people as a club drug, and is often distributed at raves and parties.
Introduction: Ketamine is a General Anesthetic that activates several neurotransmitter pathways in various part of the brain. The acute effects as general anesthetic are the most well-known and sought-after: to induce loss of responsiveness and to produce immobility during invasive procedures. However, there is a concern that repeated exposure might induce behavioral changes that could outlast their acute effect. Most research in this field describes how GA affects cognition and memory. Our work is to access if general anesthesia with ketamine can disrupt the motivational behaviour trait, more specifically measuring impulsive behaviour.Methods: With the aim to evaluate the effects of exposure to repeat anesthetic procedures with ketamine in motivational behavior, we tested animals in a paradigm of impulsive behavior, the Variable Delay-to-Signal (VDS). In addition, accumbal and striatal medium spiny neurons morphology was assessed. Results: Our results demonstrated that previous exposure to ketamine
Dizocilpine (INN), also known as MK-801, is an noncompetitive antagonist of the N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate receptor, discovered by a team at Merck in 1982. Glutamate is the brains primary excitatory neurotransmitter. The channel is normally blocked with a magnesium ion and requires depolarization of the neuron to remove the magnesium and allow the glutamate to open the channel, causing an influx of calcium, which then leads to subsequent depolarization. Dizocilpine binds inside the ion channel of the receptor at several of PCPs binding sites thus preventing the flow of ions, including calcium (Ca2+), through the channel. Dizocilpine blocks NMDA receptors in a use- and voltage-dependent manner, since the channel must open for the drug to bind inside it. The drug acts as a potent anti-convulsant and likely has dissociative anesthetic properties, but it is not used clinically for this purpose due to the discovery of brain lesions, called Olneys lesions (see below), in test ...
Get a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological properties and behavioral effects of all classes of psychiatric medications and other psychotropic drugs. Review the pharmacologic and behavioral aspects of medications used in the treatment of depression, psychosis, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and other psychiatric conditions. You also review the categories of drugs having potential for abuse, such as stimulants, depressants, analgesics, marijuana, psychedelics and dissociative anesthetics. Gain a comprehensive understanding of these drugs’ history, pharmacology and behavioral effects.
Q. When I broke my leg a few years ago, I needed surgery to reset the bone correctly. The anesthesiologist gave me intravenous ketamine to put me to sleep. As I was recovering from the anesthesia, I experienced an amazing change in my mood, like a cloud lifting from my brain. I have suffered from depression almost all my life. It is cyclical and has not responded to medication for almost 50 years. The antidepressant effect of ketamine seemed to last. I have tracked my depression carefully for
We found that ketamine did not significantly increase IOP in pediatric patients undergoing PSA. Although we saw a statistically significant trend in IOP during the study period, we do not believe that this finding is clinically significant given the small changes seen in IOP (,2.5 mm Hg). Small, transient elevations in IOP in this range are not even considered clinically significant for patients with glaucoma, as diurnal fluctuations of IOP to this degree are anticipated.15,16 These findings are important because ketamine has not been traditionally used in the PED for PSA for ophthalmic exams in pediatric patients with eye injuries due to concerns that ketamine might increase IOP. The strengths of our study include stratification by age to ensure the inclusion of younger children, a noninferiority design with sample size calculations, and dosage of ketamine typical for PSA usage in the PED (i.e., 1-2 mg/kg IV). In addition, we saw no evidence of a dose-response relationship between ketamine ...
|p|Background: Pain after arthroscopic shoulder surgery is often severe, and establishing a pain treatment regimen that does not delay discharge can be challenging. The reported ability of ketamine to prevent opioid-induced hyperalgesia has not been investigated in this particular setting.|/p||p| Methods: 300 adult patients scheduled for shoulder arthroscopy under general anesthesia were recruited for this observational clinical trial and were allotted to either receive 1mg/kg IV bolus of ketamine before surgery (ketamine group, KG) or to a control group (CG) without ketamine. NRS pain scores were obtained on the operative day and on postoperative days 1 and 2 and compared between groups. Secondary variables were blood pressure, heart rate, process times, satisfaction with the anesthetic and unwanted effects.|/p||p| Results: Pain severity did not differ significantly between the groups at any time. Propofol injection rate and cumulative dose were higher in the KG. Heart rates and blood pressures were
The induction of mTOR signalling suggests that the ability of ketamine to increase synaptogenesis is mediated by stimulation of this protein synthesis regulatory pathway. To directly test this hypothesis, the influence of rapamycin, a selective inhibitor of mTOR (figure 3), on synaptogenesis was examined. Rapamycin pretreatment completely blocked ketamine-induction of spine number and function of layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC [42]. In addition, rapamycin pretreatment completely blocked the induction of the synaptic proteins PSD95, GluR1 and synapsin I, resulting from ketamine administration. These findings provide direct evidence that ketamine-induction of synaptogenesis requires mTOR signalling and synaptic protein synthesis.. Next, studies were conducted to determine whether the behavioural actions of ketamine are also dependent on mTOR signalling. Pretreatment with rapamycin completely blocked the antidepressant effects of ketamine in the FST, LH and NSF test [42]. Moreover, the rapid ...
Answers to common anesthetic problems. We will discuss a vareity of anesthesia related questions such as how do you trouble shoot hypotension? When do you treat bradycardia? How do you interpret your capnograph?
I contacted you earlier this month with information about Lidocaine and Ketamine Infusions used to treat CRPS/RSD. To show you that there is an interest in this treatment locally, I have gotten the signatures of people with CRPS/RSD in Florida who are interested in getting Ketamine treatments locally. Many of is are traveling across the country for these treatments. We hope that you have read the research that Ive sent you and will consider offering these treatments locally ...
Joseph Bundy - Molecular correlates of pre-clinical Alzheimers disease in the mouse brain. Winner of $1,500 Grant. Major Professor: Dr. Richard Nowakowski.. Lindsay Elvir - Effects of Sodium Valproate on Social Behaviors in Prairie Voles. Major Professor: Dr. Mohamed Kabbaj.. Kourtney Graham - Investigating the cellular and molecular pathways underlying schizophrenia using a genetic mouse model. Major Professor: Dr. Yi Zhou. Honorable Mention, $500 award.. Kristin Schoepfer - Sex Differences in the effects of subanesthetic ketamine in reversing isolation rearing-induced cognitive dysfunction. Major Professor: Dr. Mohamed Kabbaj.. Yiming Zheng - Regulation of autophagy and neuronal homeostasis by the microcephaly protein CDK5RAP2. Major Professor: Dr. Tim Megraw. Winner of $1,500 Grant.. BMS/COM Faculty on the Bryan W. Robinson Board include: Dr. Pradeep Bhide, Dr. Nancy Hayes, Dr. Tim Megraw, Dr. Charles Ouimet, Dr. Jacob VanLandingham, and Dr. Robert Watson ...
HURAIBI REHABI INSTITUTE offers Ketamine infusion therapy who are suffering from chronic pain syndromes and depression. We thoroughly understand everything that goes along with chronic pain and depression, including the frustration of trying everything with no success.. For depression, common treatments, like oral medications or outpatient therapy, do not work for everyone. If you have tried other options including ECT and TMS and nothing has worked for you, I most often am able to help. This next-level Katamine therapy will help people who no longer gain any benefit from existing antidepressant medications. With severe depression, you may feel like happiness is too far out of reach. There is nothing more important to me than helping those in their darkest hour. If you suffer from severely crippling depression, please contact me today.. Chronic pain can be dramatically altered or even eliminated by Ketamine infusions. Certain types of pain considered to be "neuropathic" in origin are considered ...
Newcastles favorite dance punkers have returned with yet another killer single, K Bye. A short, sweet smash up tune which will no doubt be a fun dance (mosh) along at their huge up coming national tour! Opening with some real wide muted strings, K Bye is a tune that isnt out of place in the late 90s/early naughties Brooklyn rock scene with simple screechy vocals, super wide guitar riffs and deep low bass with plenty of gain and one of the catchiest opening lines of 2017, "I dont know what you said to me but it sounds like Ketamine." I have no doubt K Bye will be on playlists for years to come.. Frontman Joab Estley describes the tune, "The track was inspired a few years ago at a Newcastle house show-when I was a much younger, much more naive version of myself. It was a Sunday night, I had work in the morning, so I was just stopping in on my way home. Its subtly opening a dialogue about the inextricable links between illicit behaviour and underground youth subcultures-all wrapped up in a ...
I might throw assistance behind the above mentioned ways of avoiding emergence phenomena. Despite the fact that we will throw a number of prescription drugs at soreness, You will find theres full lots of psychology associated with discomfort aid, and ahead of I give any person ketamine, I tell them to think of a pleasant Protected location or a favorite vacation ...
Patients received IV ketamine at three dose levels (100, 300, and 500 mg per 24 hours) over 3-5 days in inpatient palliative care settings. All other medications remained, and benzodiazepines or haloperidol could be used to minimize adverse psychotomimetic events. Maintenance doses of 24 opioids and breakthrough pain opioid dosing could be reduced as appropriate for pain control. Data were collected on pain scores and total opioid intake during ketamine infusions and for 48 hours post infusion. ...
The anesthetic ketamine (sometimes illicitly-used as a recreational drug) produced rapid alleviation of severe depression in patients with treatment-resistant bipolar illness in a small clinic trial.
Commence infusion at 1ml/hr (60mcg/kg/hr) and increase by 1ml/hr every 6hours until a maximum dose of 4ml/hr (240 mcg/kg/hr) is reached. The maximum rate should be achieved by 18 hours from commencing infusion.. If the child has difficulty tolerating the increased rate changes at 6 hourly intervals this can be extended to 12 hour intervals, this decision will be made by the complex pain service. If the child is unable to tolerate 12 hour interval increases then the rate is maintained at the highest tolerable dose.. If the child shows a reasonable response from a lower rate than the recommended maximum of 4ml/hr, then the infusion is maintained at this lower dose. This decision will be made by the complex pain service.. ...
We previously found that subanesthetic doses of ketamine administered during the dark (active) period (DP) in rats strongly increased the integrated amplitude of the delta (1-4 Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) in subsequent nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Here, we injected MK-801 into adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to test the hypothesis that such delta stimulation is characteristic of drugs that noncompetitively block the cation channel gated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Injections of 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg MK-801 in the middle of the DP produced waking intoxication for approximately 3 hr. In the following light period, NREM delta integrated amplitude was markedly increased in every rat (mean 55% increase after 0.5 mg/kg). A separate control experiment with 3-hr sleep deprivation in the mid-DP showed that the delta stimulation could not be attributed to sleep loss during MK-801 intoxication. Mechanisms by which NMDA cation channel blockade might stimulate NREM delta include a ...
We think patients treatment should be in specialist centres and formally tracked in national or international registries," said Rupert McShane, a consultant psychiatrist and researcher at Oxford who has led a series of ketamine studies.. Ketamine is a licensed medical drug, widely used as an anaesthetic and to relieve pain. But it is also used as a recreational drug - sometimes known as Special K - and can lead some people to addiction and drug abuse.. Several research teams around the world have been trialling ketamine use in chronic and recurring depression since many patients with the psychiatric condition fail to respond to currently available antidepressants such as Prozac and Seroxat.. "I have seen ketamine work where nothing has helped before," McShane said at a briefing in London.. The U.S. pharmaceutical company Johnson & Johnson is developing an intranasal form of the drug, called esketamine. Its results so far have been promising enough for Food and Drug Administration officials to ...
A study conducted by researchers from Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, UC San Diego offers confirmation of small study and anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of ketamine as an antidepressant. The research team examined the FDA Adverse Effect Reporting System (FAERS) for incidence of depression in patients taking ketamine for pain. In the 41,000 such cases, depression was reported just half as frequently as in patients on other medications for their pain. 3 additional drugs with indications other than depression were found to have antidepressant effect; Botox, diclofenac, and minocycline, an antibiotic. The findings were published last week in Scientific Reports.. Senior author Ruben Abagyan, PhD, commented, "This study extends small-scale clinical evidence that ketamine can be used to alleviate depression, and provides needed solid statistical support for wider clinical applications and possibly larger scale clinical trials." The patients who took ketamine for pain also ...
The management of six awake, spontaneously breathing patients with acute severe asthma who responded to a subanesthetic dose of an inhalational agent is described. All of these patients were on maximal medical treatment, the next intervention likely
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ketamine for analgosedation in critically ill patients. AU - Erstad, Brian L. AU - Patanwala, Asad E. PY - 2016/10/1. Y1 - 2016/10/1. N2 - Purpose The purpose of this narrative review is to provide practical and useful guidance for clinicians considering the use of intravenous ketamine for its analgosedative properties in adult, critically ill patients. Methods MEDLINE was searched from inception until January 2016. Articles related to the pharmacological properties of ketamine were retrieved. Information pertaining to pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimens, adverse effects, and outcomes was obtained from relevant studies. Results Although the primary mechanism for ketamines pharmacological effects is N-methyl-D-aspartate blockade, there are several potential mechanisms of action. It has a very large volume of distribution due to its lipophilicity, which can lead to drug accumulation with sustained infusions. Ketamine has several advantages compared with conventional ...
Catalepsy is a symptom of certain nervous disorders or conditions such as Parkinsons disease and epilepsy. It is also a characteristic symptom of cocaine withdrawal. It can be caused by schizophrenia treatment with anti-psychotics, such as haloperidol, and by the anesthetic ketamine. In some cases, isolated cataleptic instances can also be precipitated by extreme emotional shock - one well known example of this was the reaction of 1968 Olympic long jump medalist Bob Beamon on understanding that he had broken the previous world record by over 0.5 meters (2 feet). Protein kinase A has been suggested as a mediator of cataleptic behavior. Other causes of catalepsy include reuptake inhibitors of adrenergic neurotransmitters such as Reserpine. ...
Intramuscular (injected). Onset of Drug Effect(s): Ketamine was developed as a tranquilizer, or anesthetic, for veterinarians to use on animals. It was approved for animal and human use in 1970. On occasion, the drug has been used to treat children with major burns.. Ketamine has many different effects, depending on who is using it, what else is in their bodies, and what their state of mind is at the time. These effects can last up to an hour from a single dose, and a great deal longer for larger doses. Flashbacks can happen up to a year later.. Drug Action(s): In most cases, users experience hallucinations and disconnection from everything around them. They also feel numbness in the hands and feet, and loss of muscle control. In other words, they zone out, and sometimes pass out. People on Keatmine are unable to talk coherently, and they feel no pain. Occasionally, they will vomit and convulse. In some cases, people have been known to go into a coma. A full gram of Ketamine can kill you.. ...
The cardiovascular, respiratory, and anesthetic effects of medetomidine-ketamine (20 microg/kg bodyweight [BW] and 10 mg/kg BW) (MK group) or dexmedetomidine-ketamine (10 microg/kg BW and 10 mg/kg BW) (DK group) were studied in golden-headed lion tamarins. Heart rate decreased after administration of both combinations; this reduction was statistically greater in the ...
The signs of Ketamine Addiction are visual distortions, lost sense of time, senses, and identity, euphoria, confusion, smells and tastes seem muted, visual perception and sense of touch are amplified, may feel floaty - slightly or far away from your body; numbness in your extremities and k hole - comparatively similar to a near death experience, with the sensation of rising above ones body, inner peace, and radiant light.
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Amorsa Therapeutics CSO, Michael Palfreyman, discusses how the party drug Ketamine can be used to target NMDA receptors and treat depression...
There is no "guaranteed" dose to "hole" with ketamine. The "k-hole" as it is called is a state of full dissociative anesthesia in which the user is able to retain a semblance of consciousness. The effect associated with this is ego death; that is, the dissolution of the ego, the loss of the perspective of "I" in perception. It is a tricky dose to attain. Reaching too far with dosage will result in full anesthesia without memory of the experience and is worthless for recreational or psychonautical purposes. Too low a dosage will result in a mild sedation and body load, but no ego death, and redosing when anesthetized is tricky. It is posited that using a needle and a precisely measured dose is more likely to get a user to a full state of ego death, the k-hole, due to the lack of titration of dosage, rapid come-up, and exactly-metered dosage. Finding a dosage that "works for you" is important, and there will need to be a period of experimentation before such a dose is found. Assuming the user does ...
Hi all, Im writing a paper for my Pharm class on ketamine in anesthesia. Can anyone tell me who the manufacturer is? I need to get the drug monograph. I will search online, but I thought Id try
Learn about the potential side effects of ketamine. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
Have you ever wondered how a cat tranquilizer worked its way into becoming a popular party drug? Find out the history and effects of ketamine.
SWIMS really confused here does anybody no how much ketamine SWIM would need to inject to get a nice buzz.SWIM got der hands on ket. hydrocloride they only have 0.7 mls any of da sites SWIM looked...
Hey all! Anyone have any literature on Ketamine gtts? We dont use them too often, (Ive probably administered it 3 times in 3.5 years) usually as a last resort for people in status.
Pink Paper Ponders Paralytics Two weeks after the September 11 status hearing in the Robert Wone case, DCs flagship gay paper, The Washington Blade offers a summary on the day. The piece by longtime Blade scribe Lou Chibbaro was filed on… Read more →. ...
Traditional medications merely dull pain signals in the brain. Low-dose Ketamine Infusions actually reboots your neurotransmitters. Immediate and sustained relief from chronic pain is possible.
Ketamine is a widely used dissociative anesthetic which can induce some psychotic-like symptoms and memory deficits in some patients during the post-operative period. To understand its effects on neural population dynamics in the brain, we employed large-scale in vivo ensemble recording techniques to monitor the activity patterns of simultaneously recorded hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and various interneurons during several conscious and unconscious states such as awake rest, running, slow wave sleep, and ketamine-induced anesthesia. Our analyses reveal that ketamine induces distinct oscillatory dynamics not only in pyramidal cells but also in at least seven different types of CA1 interneurons including putative basket cells, chandelier cells, bistratified cells, and O-LM cells. These emergent unique oscillatory dynamics may very well reflect the intrinsic temporal relationships within the CA1 circuit. It is conceivable that systematic characterization of network dynamics may eventually lead to
Combinations of medetomidine with either propofol or ketamine were compared for the sedation and induction of anaesthesia in dogs undergoing a variety of surgical (60 per cent) and non.surgical (40 per cent) procedures. Eighty.four dogs were used at four sites. Medetomidine was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 1000 μg/m2 body surface area 10 to 15 minutes before the induction of anaesthesia by the administration of propofol (n = 44) or ketamine (n = 40) dosed to effect. The dogs became sedated by medetomidine after a mean (sd) time of 6.7 (5.4) minutes, and their heart rates and respiration rates decreased. Sixteen of the dogs suffered an adverse effect, 13 of them vomited. Anaesthesia was induced by the intravenous administration of propofol (2.1 [0.7] mg/kg) or ketamine (3.7 [1.9] mg/kg), and further doses of the anaesthetic were given, depending on the length of the operation, once in 17 per cent, twice in 11 per cent and three or more times in 24 per cent of the cases. The heart ...
Exposure of urothelium to ketamine resulted in apoptosis, with cytochrome c release from mitochondria and significant subsequent caspase 9 and 3/7 activation. The anaesthetic mode‐of‐action for ketamine is mediated primarily through N‐methyl Daspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism; however, NHU cells were unresponsive to NMDAR agonists or antagonists and no expression of NMDAR transcript was detected. Exposure to non‐cytotoxic concentrations of ketamine (≤1 mM) induced rapid release of ATP, which activated purinergic P2Y receptors and stimulated the inositol trisphosphate receptor to provoke transient release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol. Ketamine concentrations ,1 mM were cytotoxic and provoked a largeramplitude increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] that was unresolved. The sustained elevation in cytosolic [Ca2+] was associated with pathological mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP deficiency ...
Pediatric injury prevention: preparing residents for patient counseling. Intramuscular ketamine is superior to meperidine, promethazine, and chlorpromazine for pediatric emergency department sedation
Even if severe hypoxia/ischemia did occur, it could not account for the neuroapoptosis response to ketamine because 4-6 h after ketamine administration, an increase in apoptotic profiles is evident both as a caspase-3 activation response and as ultrastructurally confirmed apoptotic morphology. However, when one intentionally induces hypoxia/ischemia and examines the developing brain 4-6 h later, there is no increase in apoptotic profiles, either by caspase-3 activation or ultrastructural criteria. It is illogical to argue that anesthesia-induced apoptosis is caused by hypoxia/ischemia if one cannot demonstrate that intentionally induced hypoxia/ischemia reproduces the anesthesia-induced apoptosis phenomenon. What one does find in the brain 4-6 h after hypoxia/ischemia, as we have demonstrated previously,3 and also very recently,4 is excitotoxic neurodegeneration. (See Young et al. 4 for a detailed presentation of evidence directly addressing and clarifying this issue.) Soriano et al. challenge ...
Comment - I have been giving 10 mg ketamine IM deltoid x2 for chronic pain and x3 for chronic pain and significant depression. If on high dose opioids, elderly, or small, dose is reduce to half that. It will reduce pain by 2-3 points for 3 days and significantly improve mood. Many will say the pain comes back up the 3rd day but they dont care because their mood is still buoyed. Any severely depressed patient is given ketamine, given that it has been shown to prevent suicide ...
Mike has a clinical background in Paediatric Emergency Nursing and is one of the programme leaders for the undergraduate Nursing programme at AUT University in Auckland New Zealand. With a Postgraduate diploma in advanced Nursing practice and a Masters of Philosophy with first class honours Mike has explored paediatric ketamine sedation through stories told by the Healthcare professionals. Mike is now engaged in his Doctoral research which will explore childrens experiences of Ketamine sedation and the use of Dream Seeding as a non-pharmacological adjunct in hopes of reducing negative psychotropic events (emergence phenomena).. Mike is a contributing member of the Child Health Research Centre (CHRC) and much of his research makes visible the moral and ethical challenges faced by health care professionals in determining risk, benefit and harm. In particular, he has explored the disparate relationship between physiological and non-physiological harm, and the contextual landscape from which ...
Methamphetamine (MA), a commonly abused psychostimulant, induces the drug dependence by enhancing the dopamine-mediated neurotransmission. Ketamine (KET) is a non-competitive |i|N|/i|-meth
bnglaser at tohu0.weizmann.ac.il (Daniel Glaser) wrote: , , A question about cat anaesthesia (...) , Does anyone have experience with xylazine and standard reflexes, tens , of minutes or hours after administration ? , Im not quite sure I understand your question but offer the following comments. With ketamine anesthesia in cats, reflexes such as palpebral, gag, etc. tend to be preserved even at surgical planes of anesthesia. The only way to assess depth of anesthesia is response to pain and voluntary movement. Even this may be difficult because ketamine provides poor visceral anesthesia. The addition of xyalazine may diminishes these reflexes and increases visceral anesthesia. WB Thomas DVM,MS ...
Ketamine is a potent anesthetic employed in human and veterinary medicine, and sometimes used illegally as a recreational drug. The drug is also a promising candidate for the fast treatment of depression in patients who do not respond to other medications. New research from the RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies in Japan demonstrates using PET imaging studies on macaque monkeys that ketamine increases the activity of serotoninergic neurons in the brain areas regulating motivation. The researchers conclude that ketamines action on serotonin, often called the "feel-good neurotransmitter", may explain its antidepressant action in humans.. The study, published today in the journal Translational Psychiatry demonstrates that Positron Emission Tomography (PET) molecular imaging studies may be useful in the diagnosis of major depressive disorder in humans, as well as the development of new antidepressants.. Ketamine has recently been shown to have an antidepressant action with short onset and ...
We present a preliminary report of an anaesthetic technique for abdominal surgery involving a combination of flunitrazepam induction and continuous ketamine maintenance of anaesthesia, specifically avoiding the use of any inhalational agents.
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Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia but they have little effect on core negative symptoms or cognitive impairment. To meet the deficiencies of current treatments, novel potential compounds are emerging from preclinical research but translation to clinical success has been poor. This article evaluates the possibility that cognitive and physiological abnormalities in schizophrenia can be used as central nervous system biomarkers to predict, in healthy volunteers, the likely efficacy of entirely new pharmacological approaches to treatment. Early detection of efficacy would focus resource on rapidly developing, effective drugs. We review the relevance of selected cognitive and physiological abnormalities as biomarkers in schizophrenia and three of its surrogate populations: (i) healthy volunteers with high trait schizotypy; (ii) unaffected relatives of patients; and (iii) healthy volunteers in a state of cortical glutamate disinhibition induced by low-dose ketamine. Several
A quite common route of administration while in the clinic is IV and you will find several explanations why. One these types of motive needs to do with velocity of absorption and Yet another has to do with acquiring an accurate dose for every a presented physique pounds. IV medications are often supplied to adult people in urgent conditions where time handed might signify lifestyle or Demise ...
The rapid-acting and long-lasting antidepressant effects of (R,S)-ketamine have recently gained much attention. Although (S)-ketamine has been studied as an active isomer, recent evidence suggests that (R)-ketamine exhibits longer-lasting antidepressant effects than (S)-ketamine in rodents. However, the antidepressant potential of (R)-ketamine has not been fully addressed. In the present study, we compared the antidepressant effects of (R)-ketamine with those of (S)-ketamine in animal models of depression, including a model that is refractory to current medications. Both (R)-ketamine and (S)-ketamine exhibited antidepressant effects at 30 minutes as well as at 24 hours after administration in forced-swimming and tail-suspension tests in mice. At 48 hours after administration, however, (R)-ketamine still exerted a significant antidepressant effect in the tail-suspension test, whereas the effect of (S)-ketamine was no longer observed. Moreover, (R)-ketamine, but not (S)-ketamine, significantly ...
The ideal sedative is one that safely provides relief from pain, anxiety, and unpleasant memories for a wide variety of procedures. In reality there are few such agents; hence the need for a combination of agents. The subhypnotic administration of IV anesthetics during local or regional anesthesia is becoming more common. The technique of combining midazolam with ketamine has been termed dissociative sedation and may be considered as an alternative to other more traditional forms of conscious sedation or general anesthesia. Ketamine is a potent analgesic, and its analgesic effects continue after the sedative effects have worn off.. When used as the sole agent, ketamine at higher analgesic doses (,0.5 mgAg) is stimulating and is shown to resemble the dysphoric symptoms of psychosis as in schizophrenia. The coadministration of midazolam, however, has been clearly shown to attenuate the perceptual abnormalities and thought disorder induced by ketamine and does not affect amnesia or positive changes ...
As all veterinarians know, ketamine is an essential medicine; a remarkably safe anesthetic which has been used worldwide for more than 50 years and a drug which has particular value in the field and for spay and castration initiatives.. We were concerned last year at efforts by some countries to have the drug put under international scheduling - a move that would effectively put access to it at risk in many parts of the world.. Our campaign to promote the importance of ketamine included an online petition signed by more than 14,000 individuals - primarily veterinarians - from around the world, together with an infographic showing why ketamine is so important. We also provided regular updates to the media.. Thanks to your efforts and the efforts of others, we are pleased to report that the accessibility of ketamine is now not likely to be discussed by the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs during 2017. This means that access to ketamine is, temporarily at least, not under threat. It is encouraging ...
She was experiencing unwanted physical and emotional side effects fromusing up to 7gm of ketamine a day, but finding it extremely difficult to cut (tubes from kidneys to bladder) and ultimately lead to kidney damage. down. Sue was also seeing her GP on a regular basis for treatment for chronic cystitis, Some patients were unable to cope with the severe and frequent pain and had but as the prescribed antibiotics werent alleviating her symptoms, Sues GP referred had a catheter inserted; one patient in the South West had their bladder removed her to a urologist. At this point neither Sue nor her GP were aware that there could be as their symptoms were so bad. With patients tending to be very young (in their a link between her urinary tract problems and her ketamine use. 20s), these were not decisions to be taken lightly. The prognosis of patients who Sue was not the only service user being seen by BDP for help with problematic have bladder damage following ketamine use is unknown. Some patients ...
Hypnotherapy helps reprogram and allow positive change to occur at the subconscious level which can benefit those undergoing Ketamine treatment.
Looking for online definition of continuous caudal analgesia in the Medical Dictionary? continuous caudal analgesia explanation free. What is continuous caudal analgesia? Meaning of continuous caudal analgesia medical term. What does continuous caudal analgesia mean?
Discussion. Induction of general anaesthesia in tigers is often achieved by administering an alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonist in combination with a cyclohexamine anaesthetic agent (Curro et al. 2004; Forsyth, Machon & Walsh 1999; Ketz-Riley et al. 2004; Linnehan & Edwards 1991; Miller et al. 2003; Shilton et al. 2002; Steinmetz et al. 2010). The cubs received a single injection of a medetomidine and ketamine combination at recommended doses (Curro et al. 2004).. Both cubs experienced profound bradycardia and hypotension during anaesthesia. Multiple factors could have contributed to these effects. Bradycardia associated with hypertension was expected as a consequence of medetomidine and ketamine administration; on the contrary, the cubs were hypotensive. Thus, the bradycardia experienced in both cubs was unlikely to be due to the peripheral medetomidine effects causing vasoconstriction and hypertension. The peripheral vasoconstriction effects may have dissipated prior to measuring the blood ...
Complex regional pain syndrome requires advanced pain management treatments. Colorado Clinics Ketamine infusions are a save, proven treatment for CRPS.
Vol 67: The comparison of the effects of intravenous ketamine or dexmedetomidine infusion on spinal block with bupivacaine.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Definition of intravenous anesthetic in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of intravenous anesthetic. What does intravenous anesthetic mean? Information and translations of intravenous anesthetic in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Introduction A proportion of patients presenting to emergency centres need to undergo procedures that can be unpleasant and painful. The provision of safe and effective analgesia and procedural sedation is a critical aspect of the provision of care in an emergency centre. Given the nature of an emergency centre, which is often overwhelming and noisy and appears chaotic to patients, the entire clinical experience for the patient and ultimately outcome can be improved if appropriate and effective procedural sedation is provided. The Emergency Medicine Society of South Africa (EMSSA) recognised the lack of uniformity on this topic1 and set up an expert panel responsible for the drafting of this practice guideline. This document is intended as a guide for emergency medicine specialists and all medical practitioners involved in the provision of emergency procedural sedation in emergency centres in South Africa. Procedural sedation definition Procedural sedation refers to a technique of administering ...

The Discriminative Stimulus Properties of Hallucinogenic and Dissociative Anesthetic Drugs | SpringerLinkThe Discriminative Stimulus Properties of Hallucinogenic and Dissociative Anesthetic Drugs | SpringerLink

However, the mechanisms of the discriminative stimulus effects of hallucinogenic and dissociative anesthetic drugs are not yet ... Mori T., Suzuki T. (2016) The Discriminative Stimulus Properties of Hallucinogenic and Dissociative Anesthetic Drugs. In: ... This chapter focuses on recent findings regarding hallucinogenic and dissociative anesthetic drug-induced discriminative ... dissociative, hallucinogenic, and memory effects. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 226:381-392CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F7854_2016_29

Dissociative anesthetic legal definition of Dissociative anestheticDissociative anesthetic legal definition of Dissociative anesthetic

What is Dissociative anesthetic? Meaning of Dissociative anesthetic as a legal term. What does Dissociative anesthetic mean in ... Definition of Dissociative anesthetic in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Dissociative anesthetic legal definition of Dissociative anesthetic https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Dissociative ... anesthetic. (redirected from Dissociative anesthetic). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. See: drug, ...
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Anesthetics, Dissociative | ISHAR OnlineAnesthetics, Dissociative | ISHAR Online

We studied the interactions between a local anesthetic agent, lidocaine, and two general anesthetic drugs, propofol and ... Ketamine is an IV anesthetic with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-blocking properties. However, it is still unclear ... Changes in effective and lethal doses of intravenous anesthetics and lidocaine when used in combination in mice. ... The effect of a dissociative dose of ketamine on the bispectral index (BIS) during propofol hypnosis. ...
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Course Content - #66911: Novel Psychoactive Substances: Trends in Drug Abuse - NetCECourse Content - #66911: Novel Psychoactive Substances: Trends in Drug Abuse - NetCE

MXE and ketamine both produce dissociative anesthetic effects and act as NMDA receptor antagonists and dopamine reuptake ... 2-Methoxyphenidine (2-MXP or MXP) is an NPS dissociative and structural analog of diphenidine, introduced to meet growing ... After its 2010 Internet entrance, it became the most popular dissociative NPS. Compared with ketamine, the 3-methox substituent ... Initially showing great promise as a potent anesthetic, evidence of the alarming adverse effects delirium, hallucinations, and ...
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Drugs of Abuse Flashcards by MO ROUTH | BrainscapeDrugs of Abuse Flashcards by MO ROUTH | Brainscape

Dissociative Anesthetics Euphoria, heightened emotionality. 14 Reinforcing Effects of Drugs of Abuse. MJ ...
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Ketamine Hydrochloride and Best Pain Management in Treating Cancer Patients With Neuropathic Pain - Full Text View -...Ketamine Hydrochloride and Best Pain Management in Treating Cancer Patients With Neuropathic Pain - Full Text View -...

Anesthetics, Dissociative. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Anesthetics, General. Anesthetics. Central Nervous System Depressants. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01316744?order=217

Comparative Effects of Dexmedetomidine and Ketofol for Sedation in Patients Undergoing Trans-esophageal Echocardiography - Full...Comparative Effects of Dexmedetomidine and Ketofol for Sedation in Patients Undergoing Trans-esophageal Echocardiography - Full...

Anesthetics, Intravenous. Anesthetics, General. Anesthetics. Analgesics, Non-Narcotic. Analgesics. Sensory System Agents. ... Anesthetics, Dissociative. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists. Excitatory Amino Acid Agents. To Top ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02867930

Drugs and Receptors Quiz - By milladjsDrugs and Receptors Quiz - By milladjs

Dissociative anesthetics. alpha reductase inhibitor. used as treatment for balding and enlarged prostate. ...
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Substance Abuse and Prevention | The Evergreen State CollegeSubstance Abuse and Prevention | The Evergreen State College

Dissociative Anesthetics. increased heart rate and blood pressure, impaired motor function/memory loss; numbness; nausea/ ...
more infohttps://www.evergreen.edu/policy/substanceabuseandprevention

Substance abuse facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Substance abuseSubstance abuse facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Substance abuse

They are, more accurately, dissociative anesthetics. In 2001, almost 13 percent of high school seniors had tried some form of ... Cocaine was a valuable anesthetic, providing local, fast-acting, and long-lasting effects during some surgical procedures. ... Usually thought of as hallucinogens, PCP (phencyclidine) and ketamine were initially developed as general anesthetics for ...
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Dexmedetomidine/ketamine for diagnostic cardiac catheterization in a child with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension.Dexmedetomidine/ketamine for diagnostic cardiac catheterization in a child with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension.

Anesthetics, Dissociative / therapeutic use. Child. Dexmedetomidine / therapeutic use*. Drug Therapy, Combination. Heart ... 0/Anesthetics, Dissociative; 0/Hypnotics and Sedatives; 113775-47-6/Dexmedetomidine; 6740-88-1/Ketamine ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/diagnostic-cardiac-catheterization-in-child/19833278.html

Anaesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular morphine, medetomidine and ketamine administered to telemetered cats.Anaesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular morphine, medetomidine and ketamine administered to telemetered cats.

Anesthetics, Combined / administration & dosage. Anesthetics, Dissociative / administration & dosage. Animals. Cats / ... 0/Analgesics, Opioid; 0/Anesthetics, Combined; 0/Anesthetics, Dissociative; 0/Central Nervous System Depressants; 0/Hypnotics ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Anaesthetic-cardiopulmonary-effects-intramuscular-morphine/17198759.html

Raposo AC[au] - PubMed - NCBIRaposo AC[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Evaluation of ophthalmic and hemodynamic parameters in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.) submitted to dissociative anesthetic ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Raposo+AC%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Free Miscellaneous Flashcards about DRE CategoriesFree Miscellaneous Flashcards about DRE Categories

Dissociative Anesthetic. Pupil size normal. HGN, VGN present. Lack of smooth convergence. Elevated pulse, blood pressure, body ...
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... dissociative anesthetic. What are the indications for use of Ketamine? (4). general anesthesia, OB for patchy blocks, CV ... What are some cases where you can use Ketamine when other anesthetics are not appropriate. Cardio vascular collapse, Trauma. ...
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anesthesiology exam 2 - IV induction agents Flashcards - Course Heroanesthesiology exam 2 - IV induction agents Flashcards - Course Hero

how do dissociative anesthetics work? NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) antagonists (NMDA receptors are excitatory), dissociate the ... Vocabulary for Local Anesthetics - Exam 4✔️. Find, create, and access PDA, Local anesthetic, local anesthetic activity ... Vocabulary for General Anesthetics. Find, create, and access Pharmacology, Morphine, Anesthetic, ful general anesthesia ... Vocabulary for General Anesthetics - Exam 4✔️. Find, create, and access PDA, Morphine, Benzodiazepine, gabaa receptor ...
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PPT - Test Review:  Anesthesia PowerPoint Presentation - ID:205378PPT - Test Review: Anesthesia PowerPoint Presentation - ID:205378

Dissociative Anesthetics. Interrupts transmission from the unconscious to the conscious brain. Characterized by a cataleptic ... Barbiturate, inhalant and dissociative anesthetic doses should be lowered used in combination with alpha 2 adrenergic agonists ... Stress and anesthetic agents decrease rate of filtration. *Reduction in elimination = increase in acidity and plasma ... assess the action, uses, and modes of administration of drugs and anesthetic agents used in the care of the surgical patient ...
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Methoxetamine - Trip DatabaseMethoxetamine - Trip Database

Dissociative anesthetics such as ketamine and PCP. Full Text available with Trip Pro. 2016 Psychopharmacology * Tweet this ... 4. The novel ketamine analog methoxetamine produces dissociative-like behavioral effects in rodents (PubMed). The novel ... Methoxetamine, which was originally marketed as an alternative to the dissociative agent ketamine, shares many of its acute ... hallucinogens continue to emerge and may have effects from hallucinogenic, serotonergic, and dissociative toxidromes. These ...
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Crossroads: UNCWCrossroads: UNCW

Dissociative anesthetics separate sensation from perception. Ketamine comes in liquid form, however; is often cooked into a ... Ketamine belongs to a class of drugs known as the dissociative anesthetics. Other drugs in this category include PCP, DXM and ... Ketamine Hydrochloride was originally used as an anesthetic for humans but because of its hallucinogenic properties has been ... replaced by safer anesthetics. However; Ketamine is still occasionally used today for general anesthesia for children, people ...
more infohttps://uncw.edu/crossroads/resources_library.html

Drugs of Abuse Flashcards by Diana Plain | BrainscapeDrugs of Abuse Flashcards by Diana Plain | Brainscape

Ketamine (dissociative anesthetic) is structurally related to PCP, is also abused. • A "pyschomimetic". ➢ Phencyclidine may be ...
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PPT - TRAINERS NAME TRAINING DATE TRAINING LOCATION PowerPoint Presentation - ID:6654660PPT - TRAINER'S NAME TRAINING DATE TRAINING LOCATION PowerPoint Presentation - ID:6654660

Dissociative Anesthetics Bath Salts Neurobiological Concerns *Addiction/dependence *Dissociation *Mental state that mimics ... And Dissociatives related to ketamine and PCP and Opioids related to morphine, fentanyl, and heroin. ... At high doses, may produce dissociative hallucinations (distance from reality, visual effects with eyes open and closed; ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/mia-paul/trainer-s-name-training-date-training-location

Dissociative AnestheticsDissociative Anesthetics

Dissociative drugs, are a class of hallucinogens that can distort a persons sense of time, vision, sound and self. Call SovCal ... Dissociative anesthetics, also known as dissociatives or dissociative drugs, are a class of hallucinogens that can distort a ... Categorized as a dissociative anesthetic, ketamine is a powdered or liquid form of anesthetic which is generally used by ... Treating addiction to dissociative drugs Dissociative anesthetics are a diverse group of substances. For this reason, ...
more infohttps://www.sovcal.com/treatment-programs/addiction/dissociative-anesthetics/
  • Methoxetamine affects brain processing involved in emotional response in rats Methoxetamine (MXE) is a novel psychoactive substance that is emerging on the Internet and induces dissociative effects and acute toxicity. (tripdatabase.com)
  • It is a potent anesthetic with distinct analgesic activity and has a pharmacokinetic-dynamic profile characterized by a relatively rapid onset of action and immediate recovery. (asahq.org)
  • There have been many hospitalization of user who have taken DXM in cold and cough preparation with other toxic ingredients in it like Chlorphenarimine Maleate which is toxic in the doses which are needed to induce a Dissociative state from the DXM. (drugs-forum.com)
  • The term "dissociative" refers to the dissociation of brainstem functions from higher cortical areas, which are responsible for altering pain sensations and other stimuli during medical procedures. (sovhealth.com)