Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Benzocaine: A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.EthersHypnosis, Anesthetic: Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Pregnanediones: Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Ethyl EthersMidazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Tiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Malignant Hyperthermia: Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, IntratrachealSodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.CyclobutanesHemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Felypressin: A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedTooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain: Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.Propanidid: An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Thiamylal: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedDrug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Ethyl Chloride: A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Nordefrin: A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Batrachotoxins: Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Operating Room Technicians: Specially trained personnel to assist in routine technical procedures in the operating room.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Postanesthesia Nursing: The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients in the recovery room following surgery and/or anesthesia.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.GABA Modulators: Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Intraoperative Awareness: Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.CyclopropanesAdministration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.

Mechanisms of bronchoprotection by anesthetic induction agents: propofol versus ketamine. (1/268)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and ketamine have been purported to decrease bronchoconstriction during induction of anesthesia and intubation. Whether they act on airway smooth muscle or through neural reflexes has not been determined. We compared propofol and ketamine to attenuate the direct activation of airway smooth muscle by methacholine and limit neurally mediated bronchoconstriction (vagal nerve stimulation). METHODS: After approval from the institutional review board, eight sheep were anesthetized with pentobarbital, paralyzed, and ventilated. After left thoracotomy, the bronchial artery was cannulated and perfused. In random order, 5 mg/ml concentrations of propofol, ketamine, and thiopental were infused into the bronchial artery at rates of 0.06, 0.20, and 0.60 ml/min. After 10 min, airway resistance was measured before and after vagal nerve stimulation and methacholine given via the bronchial artery. Data were expressed as a percent of baseline response before infusion of drug and analyzed by analysis of variance with significance set at P< or =0.05. RESULTS: Systemic blood pressure was not affected by any of the drugs (P>0.46). Baseline airway resistance was not different among the three agents (P = 0.56) or by dose (P = 0.96). Infusion of propofol and ketamine into the bronchial artery caused a dose-dependent attenuation of the vagal nerve stimulation-induced bronchoconstriction to 26+/-11% and 8+/-2% of maximum, respectively (P<0.0001). In addition, propofol caused a significant decrease in the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction to 43+/-27% of maximum at the highest concentration (P = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The local bronchoprotective effects of ketamine and propofol on airways is through neurally mediated mechanisms. Although the direct effects on airway smooth muscle occur at high concentrations, these are unlikely to be of primary clinical relevance.  (+info)

Acid-base disturbance during hemorrhage in rats: significant role of strong inorganic ions. (2/268)

The present study tests the hypothesis that changes in the strong inorganic ion concentrations contribute significantly to the acid-base disturbance that develops during hemorrhage in the arterial plasma of rats in addition to lactate concentration ([Lac-]) increase. The physicochemical origins for this acid-base disorder were studied during acute, graded hemorrhage (10, 20, and 30% loss of blood volume) in three groups of rats: conscious, anesthetized with ketamine, and anesthetized with urethan. The results support the hypothesis examined: strong-ion difference (SID) decreased in the arterial plasma of all groups studied because of an early imbalance in the main strong inorganic ions during initial hemorrhagic phase. Moreover, changes in plasma [Lac-] contributed to SID decrease in a later hemorrhagic phase (after 10% hemorrhage in urethan-anesthetized, after 20% hemorrhage in ketamine-anesthetized, and after 30% hemorrhage in conscious group). Inorganic ion changes were due to both dilution of the vascular compartment and ion exchange with extravascular space and red blood cells, as compensation for blood volume depletion and hypocapnia. Nevertheless, anesthetized rats were less able than conscious rats to preserve normal arterial pH during hemorrhage, mainly because of an impaired peripheral tissue condition and incomplete ventilatory compensation.  (+info)

Actions of ketamine and its isomers on contractility and calcium transients in human myocardium. (3/268)

BACKGROUND: Ketamine has a species-dependent inotropic effect on myocardium. The authors' aim was to investigate the direct inotropic effect and the corresponding intracellular Ca2+ transients of ketamine and its isomers on human myocardium. METHODS: Right auricular myocardial strips obtained during open heart surgery were exposed to increasing concentrations (73 microM, 360 microM, and 730 microM) of racemic ketamine (n = 12), S(+)-ketamine (n = 12), or R(-)-ketamine (n = 11). Isometric force, isotonic shortening, contractility, relaxation, and time to maximal isotonic and isometric force were assessed. Ten muscle strips in each group were loaded with the calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye FURA-2/AM for simultaneous measurements of calcium transients. RESULTS: Compared with the initial control maximal isometric developed force, maximal isotonic shortening amplitude, contractility, and relaxation increased by 12.5-22.4% after perfusion with S(+)-ketamine at the concentration of 73 microM (P < 0.05). In contrast, no changes were seen after addition of 73 microM R(-)-ketamine. The effect of racemic ketamine (73 microM) was between that of the two isomers. At the highest concentration (730 microM) ketamine and its isomers decreased maximal isometric developed force, maximal shortening amplitude, contractility, and relaxation by 26.8-57.4% (P < 0.05), accompanied by a significant decrease of the intracellular calcium transient (by 21.0-32.2%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to R(-)-ketamine, S(+)-ketamine increased isometric force, isotonic shortening, contractility, and relaxation at low concentrations (73 microM) compared with the initial control. At higher concentrations (730 microM) a direct negative inotropic action was observed after perfusion with ketamine and its isomers, which was accompanied by a decreased intracellular Ca2+ transient.  (+info)

Comparison of oral chloral hydrate with intramuscular ketamine, meperidine, and promethazine for pediatric sedation--preliminary report. (4/268)

Fifteen consecutive pediatric patients ranging from 3 to 5 years old were selected to receive one of three sedative/hypnotic techniques. Group 1 received oral chloral hydrate 50 mg/kg, and groups 2 and 3 received intramuscular ketamine 2 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, respectively. In addition to ketamine, patients in groups 2 and 3 received transmucosal intramuscular injections of meperidine and promethazine into the masseter muscle. Sedation for the satisfactory completion of restorative dentistry was obtained for over 40 min on average in the chloral hydrate group, but completion of dental surgery longer than 40 min was achieved in groups 2 and 3 only by intravenous supplements of ketamine.  (+info)

Effects of diazepam and ketamine administered individually or in combination on regional rates of glucose utilization in rat brain. (5/268)

The effects of diazepam, which acts at GABAA receptors to enhance the effects of GABA, and ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, on local rates of cerebral glucose utilization (ICMRglc) were examined in unrestrained rats. Four groups were studied: vehicle-injected controls; and ketamine-treated, diazepam-treated and combined ketamine- and diazepam-treated animals. Ketamine alone produced a heterogeneous pattern of changes in ICMRglc (e.g. significant increases in the corpus callosum, olfactory tubercle and the entire Papez circuit, in addition to other limbic areas, and significant decreases in lateral habenula and some components of the auditory system). Diazepam alone statistically significantly decreased ICMRglc in the brain as a whole and in most areas of the cerebral cortex, thalamus and limbic system. The most remarkable effects of the two drugs administered together on ICMRglc occurred in the limbic system where the dramatic increases observed with ketamine alone were prevented by treatment with diazepam.  (+info)

Stereospecific effects of ketamine on dopamine efflux and uptake in the rat nucleus accumbens. (6/268)

In addition to being a general anaesthetic, ketamine is a recognized drug of abuse. Many, if not all, drugs of abuse have been shown to increase dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). As ketamine is optically active, we examined if its actions on dopamine efflux in the NAc were stereoselective. Slices of rat NAc were superfused with artificial CSF at 32 degrees C. Dopamine efflux was evoked by electrical stimulation (1 or 20 pulses, 100 Hz) and measured using fast cyclic voltammetry. (+/-)-Ketamine 100 mumol litre-1 increased dopamine efflux (to mean 174 (SEM 17)% of control, P < 0.05) and slowed dopamine uptake half-time (T1/2) to 164 (17)% of control, as did (+)-ketamine 100 mumol litre-1 (efflux 236 (16)% (P < 0.001); uptake T1/2 177 (25)% (P < 0.05)). The (-)-isomer was inactive. The effect of (+)-ketamine on dopamine efflux did not correlate with its action on dopamine uptake. (+)-Ketamine increased dopamine efflux on single pulse stimulation but to a lesser extent than on 20 pulse trains (P < 0.05). (+)-Ketamine was unable to block the inhibitory effect of quinpirole on single pulse dopamine efflux. Neither MK 801 10 mumol litre-1 nor metoclopramide 1 mumol litre-1 had any effect on dopamine release after short train stimuli (20 pulses, 100 Hz). We conclude that the (+)-isomer is the active form of ketamine and increases NAc dopamine efflux not by block of dopamine uptake; autoreceptors or NMDA receptors, but by mobilization of the dopamine storage pool to releasable sites.  (+info)

Ketamine preserves and propofol potentiates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction compared with the conscious state in chronically instrumented dogs. (7/268)

BACKGROUND: The authors tested the hypothesis that ketamine and propofol anesthesia would alter the magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction compared with the conscious state. In addition, they assessed the extent to which cyclooxygenase pathway inhibition and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel inhibition modulate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in the conscious state, and whether these pathways are altered during propofol anesthesia. METHODS: Twenty conditioned, male mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented to measure the left pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationship. Pressure-flow plots were measured during normoxia and hypoxia (systemic arterial PO2 reduced to about 60 and about 50 mm Hg) on separate days in the conscious state, during ketamine anesthesia, and during propofol anesthesia. The effects of indomethacin and glibenclamide on the magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction were also assessed in the conscious and propofol-anesthetized states. RESULTS: Neither ketamine nor propofol had an effect on the baseline pressure-flow relationship during normoxia compared with the conscious state. Hypoxia resulted in stimulus-dependent pulmonary vasoconstriction (P<0.01) in the conscious state. Compared with the conscious state, the magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was preserved during ketamine but was potentiated (P<0.01) during propofol anesthesia. Indomethacin enhanced (P<0.01) hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in both the conscious and propofol-anesthetized states. In contrast, glibenclamide only enhanced (P<0.01) hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in the conscious state and had no effect during propofol anesthesia. CONCLUSION: Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is preserved during ketamine anesthesia but is potentiated during propofol anesthesia. The potentiated response during propofol anesthesia appears to be caused by inhibition of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel-mediated pulmonary vasodilation.  (+info)

Tooth pulp- and facial hair mechanoreceptor-evoked responses of trigeminal sensory neurons are attenuated during ketamine anesthesia. (8/268)

BACKGROUND: Evidence exists that ketamine, administered systemically using a dose required for inducing a state of anesthesia, may antagonize nociceptive but not innocuous input to lumbar dorsal horn neurons. However, it is unclear whether ketamine exerts this selective action on sensory inputs to trigeminal sensory neurons. The current study was undertaken to compare the responses evoked in trigeminal sensory neurons by electrical stimuli applied to the tooth pulp versus air-puff stimuli applied to facial hair mechanoreceptors (FHMs) during quiet wakefulness versus ketamine anesthesia. METHODS: Accordingly, responses of rostral trigeminal sensory nuclear complex (TSNC) and trigeminothalamic tract neurons evoked by tooth pulp (a source of small-diameter fiber input) and FHMs (a source of larger-diameter fiber input) were recorded extracellularly from chronically instrumented cats before, during, and after recovery from the anesthetic state induced by a single (2.2 mg/kg) intravenous injection of ketamine. RESULTS: Overall, tooth pulp-evoked responses of TSNC neurons were maximally suppressed by 50% within 5 min after the intravenous administration of ketamine. Ketamine also suppressed the FHM-evoked responses of TSNC and trigeminothalamic neurons by 45%. The time course of ketamine's suppressive action was equivalent for tooth pulp- and FHM-evoked responses. However, the recovery of tooth pulp-evoked TSNC neuronal responses at suprathreshold intensities was markedly prolonged compared with neuronal responses driven by threshold stimuli or FHM. CONCLUSIONS: These electrophysiologic results in the chronically instrumented cat preparation indicate that a nonselective suppression of orofacial somatosensory information occurs during ketamine anesthesia. The prolonged recovery of suprathreshold responses of TSNC neurons mediated by small-diameter afferent fiber input may partly underlie the analgesic action of ketamine that is clinically relevant at subanesthetic doses.  (+info)

Subanesthetic ketamine for pain management in hospitalized children, adolescents, and young adults: a single-center cohort study Kathy A Sheehy,1,* Caroline Lippold,1,* Amy L Rice,1 Raissa Nobrega,1 Julia C Finkel,1 Zenaide MN Quezado1,2 1Division of Anesthesiology, Pain, and Perioperative Medicine, The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children’s Research Institute, Children’s National Health System, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, 2Center for Neuroscience Research, Children’s Research Institute, Children’s National Health System, Washington, DC, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Subanesthetic doses of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist used as an adjuvant to opioid for the treatment of pain in adults with acute and chronic pain, have been shown, in some instances, to improve pain intensity and to decrease opioid intake. However, less is known about the role of ketamine
Acute pain management in the emergency department with low-dose ketamine may provide pain relief comparable with morphine at 30 minutes.
Repost from the old site.. At the time I was into getting high, roughly 1973-1988, there wasnt a lot of good information that most of that stuff was bad for you, or certainly that it was bad for your brain. There was a lot of information that said that drugs could be used recreationally in moderation without problems. That was the spirit of the age. Its dead and gone now, maybe forever.. I keep thinking that if I knew then what I know now, I would not have gotten into drugs as much as I did. The drugs all seem so much worse now because our information is greater. My use was really a product of an era as opposed to just some general degenerate tendency of mine.. Cocaine.. Towards the end of the period, cocaine had turned from the Yuppie Party Drug into the Evillest Drug of Them All. A lot of us were still using it, because we couldnt seem to make sense of how this drug had gone from White Status Symbol to Black Slum Drug. I guess we just didnt believe it. We still thought we could use the ...
Growing more popular among teens and young adults at dance clubs, ketamine usage has risen in recent years.. Ketamine is considered a club drug, and is a dissociative anesthetic, meaning it gives users the sensation of being detached from their surroundings and pain. Ketamine causes hallucinations or delirium (and sometimes, flashbacks many weeks after taking ketamine), immobility and amnesia. Similar to other club drugs, ketamine has been used in drug-facilitated sexual assault.. Like many other medically-used drugs, ketamine has a legitimate, legal purpose but often is misused. Ketamine was created in the 1960s in a lab in Detroit, Mich. It was first marketed in 1970 as U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved anesthetic for human and animal use. By the 1990s, instances of ketamine abuse were reported in the United Kingdom and other parts of Europe (Harun and others). These reports led to ketamine, along with its salts, isomers, and isomer salts, being listed as schedule III ...
Because posttraumatic tension disorder (PTSD) is an extremely debilitating condition, prevention can be an important analysis topic. personnel that were treated for serious burns uncovered that those sufferers who acquired received the dissociative anesthetic ketamine during medical procedures had considerably lower prices of PTSD than those that hadnt, although their accidents had 49671-76-3 IC50 been more serious than those from the control group. Within this research, no relationship between PTSD and morphine similar units during functions was noticed [27]. Again, such as opioids, the pharmacological ramifications of ketamine (e.g., hallucinations and psychomotor retardation) make it unsuitable for principal avoidance. Although antidepressants will be the most commonly utilized medications to take care of the symptoms of PTSD, the data for feasible secondary as well as principal precautionary effects is normally scarce [28]. Tests on benzodiazepines, a course of medications that could cause ...
Ketamine was discovered in 1962 and approved for use in the United States as a battlefield anaesthetic during the Vietnam war.. Calvin L. Stevens, a professor of chemistry at Wayne State University, made ketamine when he was conducting research on phencyclidine - an anaesthetic also known as angel dust, which worked well but caused hallucinations in people as they woke up. Ketamine was named CI-581 and was one-tenth as strong as phencyclidine. After research on animals, ketamine was tested on human prisoners in 1964 and 1965. Guenter Corssen, a professor of anaesthetics, conducted experiments on CI-581 using prisoners who had volunteered. He found it was a fast-acting anaesthetic that wore off quickly. Corssen reported that some of the men it was tested on had hallucinations. These included thinking they had died, their arms and legs had been cut off, or they had been to outer space. Some refused to continue in the research. Corssen was the first to call ketamine a dissociative anaesthetic, ...
Ketamine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, a dissociative anaesthetic agent and a treatment option for major depression, treatment-resistant depression, and bipolar disorder. Its strong psychostimulant properties and easy absorption make it a favourable candidate for substance abuse. Ketamine entered Hong Kong as a club drug in 2000 and the first local report of ketamine-associated urinary cystitis was published in 2007. Ketamine-associated lower-urinary tract symptoms include frequency, urgency, nocturia, dysuria, urge incontinence, and occasionally painful haematuria. The exact prevalence of ketamine-associated urinary cystitis is difficult to assess because the abuse itself and many of the associated symptoms often go unnoticed until a very late stage. Additionally, upper-urinary tract pathology, such as hydronephrosis, and other complications involving neuropsychiatric, hepatobiliary, and gastrointestinal systems have also been reported. Gradual improvement can be expected ...
Palliative care patients are predisposed to complex pain, including refractory pain, neuropathic pain, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and opioid-induced neurotoxicity. Palliative care complex pain management can include use of subanesthetic parenteral ketamine. Support for subanesthetic ketamine exist
Dissociative anesthetics are used for anesthesia and sedation. Modern dissociatives are propofol, thiopental, and ketamine. Comparing intravenous dissociatives with inhaled dissociatives, it is necessary to state that intravenous anesthetics are. ...
Fibromyalgia is a common disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain that affects an estimated 2% of the general population. Recent advances hav
If a DRE determines that a driver was too impaired to operate a vehicle in a safe manner, they will look for indications of the drug(s) suspected, by the common perceivable effects the drugs have on the human body.[2] There are seven categories of classifications a DRE is looking for, including; Central Nervous System depressants (Benzodiazepines), CNS stimulants (Methamphetamine), Dissociative anesthetics (PCP), Cannabis, hallucinogens (mushrooms), inhalants (glue), and narcotic analgesics (opiates).[2]. DREs often testify in court, where the term "expert" has important legal implications. Some jurisdictions do not allow the term Drug Recognition Expert. In these jurisdictions DREs are called Drug Recognition Evaluators, or Drug Recognition Technicians.. The acronym DRE has been used to refer not just to the DRE officers, but also to the examination they perform, the "Drug Recognition Examination," or "Drug Recognition Evaluation." The confluence of acronyms leads to confusion, and the IACP ...
Clinical use of phencyclidine (PCP), a potent dissociative anesthetic, was abandoned as a result of reports of post-operative hallucinations and disoriented behavior; further, illicit use has substantially diminished because ...
Clinical use of phencyclidine (PCP), a potent dissociative anesthetic, was abandoned as a result of reports of post-operative hallucinations and disoriented behavior; further, illicit use has substantially diminished because ...
PCP. Learning Objectives. Select from a list the scientific name for PCP. Identify the side effects of PCP. What is PCP?. PCP, or Phencyclidine, is a dissociative anesthetic, or drug that separates perception from sensation. PCP can be found in several different forms: Crystalline Powder...
Dissociative Anesthetics cause a feeling of mind dissociating from the body. The mind takes a trip to a far of place wile the body remains in the current position. Of course this is just a feeling and ...
Dissociative Anesthetics cause a feeling of mind dissociating from the body. The mind takes a trip to a far of place wile the body remains in the current position. Of course this is just a feeling and ...
Results: In all, 185 participants were included in the primary analysis. There was no significant difference between the proportion of positive outcomes (0.04; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.18; P = .55) in the placebo and intervention arms (response rates, 27% [25 of 92] and 31% [29 of 93]). Pain type (nociceptive v neuropathic) was not a predictor of response. There was almost twice the incidence of adverse events worse than baseline in the ketamine group after day 1 (incidence rate ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.46 to 2.61; P , .001) and throughout the study. Those receiving ketamine were more likely to experience a more severe grade of adverse event per day (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.18; P = .039). The number of patients needed to treat for one additional patient to have a positive outcome from ketamine was 25 (95% CI, six to ∞). The number needed to harm, because of toxicity-related withdrawal, was six (95% CI, four to 13 ...
Global Ketamine HCL Market 2017 Research report provides a professional study on the current state of global Ketamine HCL market report 2017. The Study of Ketamine HCL report also provides the highlights on Ketamine HCL market forecast.. At the beginning, the report Ketamine HCL covers a basic overview of the Ketamine HCL industry 2017. The report covers- Ketamine HCL definitions, classifications, Ketamine HCL industry applications and chain structure of Ketamine HCL industry. Along with this, Ketamine HCL manufacturing processes and price structures, are also covered.. Purchase Entire Report Here (To get Quick access): https://market.biz/report/global-ketamine-hcl-market-2017-scc/74025/#inquiry. Following that, 2017 Global Ketamine HCL Market report does the competitive analysis according to the key vendors.. Jincheng HEALTH Pharmaceutical, Taj Pharmaceuticals, Ebang Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Abbott, Cilag AG, Teva, Mylan, Aditya Pharma, Daiichi Sankyo, Novartis, Takeda, Sichuan Beauty Sport ...
This study will be comprised of 2 parts, Part A and Part B, both in healthy male participants.. Part A of the study will investigate the safety of intravenous (IV) ketamine administration after single oral doses of LY2979165 (capsules) or LY2140023 (tablets). Part A will be completed before starting Part B.. Part B of this study will investigate whether different dose levels of LY2979165 or LY2140023, when administered before ketamine, result in changes to the images on a brain scan seen with ketamine alone. Brain imaging is currently used for a number of reasons including understanding where in the brain medicines have their effects. Ketamine is an anesthetic used in this study to activate particular regions of the brain.. The single oral doses of LY2979165 to be used in both parts of the study are 20 and 60 mg with matching dummy drug (placebo) for each dose.. The doses for LY2140023 are 10, 40, and 160 mg with matching placebo for each dose.. Screening is required within 28 days prior to the ...
The mechanism of development of postoperative pain is complex. Central and peripheral sensitization are playing an important role and this can lead to postoperative hypersensitization. Several studies have shown, that S (+) ketamine can be effective to reduce sensitization and postoperative pain. Ketamine (2-O-chlorophenyl-2-methylamino cyclohexanone) is a N-Methyl-D-Aspartat (NMDA) receptor antagonist. S (+) ketamine has a four times stronger affinity to the NMDA receptor compared to R (-) ketamine. The duration of action for S (+) ketamine is shorter than R (-) ketamine and it has fewer side-effects.. The purpose of this study is to compare the analgetic effect of pregabalin and placebo used in the perioperative period.. The hypothesis is that perioperative intravenous S (+) ketamine gives significant better analgesia than placebo without effecting cognitive function.. The study is including patients undergoing hemorrhoidectomy. ...
Weve already learned some of the secrets of ketamine, the trendiest dissociative analgosedative to reach a drug box near you.. As discussed, there is not (yet) much data on using ketamine for prolonged infusions at sedative doses. (Or at analgesic doses, for that matter.) We know that it packs a potent kick for short-term analgesia and sedation, but what if we leave it running for days? Will it have useful opioid-sparing effects? Will it reduce delirium-or will its famous dissociative trips put the patient at greater risk for it? We dont know.. Which is not to say it cant be used. But the main role for an ICU ketamine infusion at this point is probably either in patients with severe, refractory pain, or for sedation in patients hemodynamically unable to tolerate anything else.. This helps skirt one of its challenges, which is titration. Fixed, low-range analgesic dosing is fairly easy. However, if you increase the dose to produce ketamine sedation, you run the risk of entering the undesirable ...
Ketamine, HCL, Crystals, CAS, Ketamax, Ketarol, Ketasol, Ketaset, Pure Ketamine, 99.9 Percent Real Ketamine, Original Ketamine, Ketamine Powder, Ketamine Salt, Ketamine Balls, Ketamine Shredded, Ketamine Needled,
low-dose ketamine clinical regimens in current use are needed. For more information, click here.. Items which should not be routinely prescribed in primary care ...
Posted on 10/06/2012 4:37:30 PM PDT by Renfield. In any given year, 7% of adults suffer from major depression, and at least 1 in 10 youth will reckon with the disorder at some point during their teenage years. But about 20% of these cases will not respond to current treatments; for those that do, relief may take weeks to months to come. There is one treatment, however, that works much faster: the anesthetic and club drug ketamine. It takes effect within hours. A single dose of ketamine produces relief of depression that has been shown in studies to last for up to 10 days; it also appears to reduce symptoms of bipolar disorder and suicidal thoughts. Now, a new research review published in Science calls the discovery of these effects of ketamine, arguably the most important discovery in half a century of depression research ...
... is used to put you to sleep for surgery and to prevent pain and discomfort during certain medical tests or procedures. Ketamine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Ketamine is the only safe form of anaesthesia in many low and middle income countries. The World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists (WFSA) has launched a campaign to raise awareness about the threat to ketamine and allow anaesthesiologists and medical staff around the world to voice their opposition. Visit the WFSA Ketamine Campaign Resource Hub to learn more about the crisis and take action to prevent ketamine being scheduled ...
Ketamine is the only safe form of anaesthesia in many low and middle income countries. The World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists (WFSA) has launched a campaign to raise awareness about the threat to ketamine and allow anaesthesiologists and medical staff around the world to voice their opposition. Visit the WFSA Ketamine Campaign Resource Hub to learn more about the crisis and take action to prevent ketamine being scheduled ...
Beyond promising new treatments, Zarate and other researchers see ketamine as a powerful tool for probing depressions tangled neurobiology. Studies in mice and rats are a good start, but scientists need to study the drug in people to truly understand how ketamine affects the brain. Unlike traditional, slower-acting antidepressants, ketamine lends itself to short-term lab experiments.. Zarate is using neuroimaging tools such as fMRI to study the human brain on ketamine. Past studies have shown that in people with depression, communication among several key brain networks is disrupted. One network, called the default-mode network (DMN), is involved in self-referential thoughts such as ruminating about ones problems or flaws. This network tends to be hyperactive in people with depression, and less connected to more outwardly attuned brain networks such as the salience network, which helps the brain notice and respond to its surroundings.. In one recent study, Zarate and his colleagues found that ...
While reports of ketamine abuse are increasing, reports of ketamine deaths and tissue concentrations associated with fatalities are rare. We report here a case of a mixed drug fatality involving ketamine and ethanol. Ketamine analysis was carried out by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus …
In recent years there has been great research interest in ketamine as an antidepressant. Ketamine, a drug better-known for its use as an anaesthetic (and a recreational drug in lower doses) is claimed to have powerful, rapid-acting antidepressant effects, even in depressed patients who have not responded to more conventional drugs. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear.. Now, in a major new Nature paper, Baltimore researchers Panos Zanos and colleagues say that ketamine itself ...
The American College of Emergency Physicians affirms that sub dissociative dose ketamine (SDK), also referred to as low dose ketamine (LDK) is safe and effective for analgesic use in emergency departments.
Also, they usually have a free pharmacy that is ready to open to customers who ask for Ketamine with money. You can order Ketamine online from any pharmacy.
Because of the gradual and regular protocol that we use, side effects are frequently predictable and they are at the milder conclusion of what ketamine might cause. A feeling of slight sedation, perhaps even some grogginess is popular since the dose increases to the assortment where by most of the people get some advantage ...
This can vary greatly between patients. Most patients who respond to ketamine find that a single infusion will provide at least several days of symptomatic relief. This means relief of the physical symptoms that make depression/bipolar/PTSD so unbearable: anxiety, fatigue, dysphoria, cognitive impairment, insomnia, etc. Patients who undergo a series of multiple infusions over 1-2 weeks often get symptomatic relief that lasts weeks and months (~2 weeks - 3 months). When physical symptoms are improved it triggers a myriad of favorable changes that dramatically improves mood and behavior. This subsequently helps you feel better, more energetic, less sense of self-negativity, and improved sleep hygiene, sometimes for the first time in as long as one can remember. Even if some of the physical symptoms return, most patients can withstand it and react more positively against it instead of regressing back to a dark place with each new stress that arises. The reason, improvement in mood and behavior seem ...
A literature review reveals limited evidence of efficacy of topical ketamine for neuropathic pain, but larger studies are needed.
If ketamine is able to turn off a patients depression, even for one day, you have accomplished something important, whether or not you can maintain it. This is because you have at least given the patient hope . . . that in itself is very significant from a therapeutic perspective.
Ketamine has received attention recently as an agent for chronic pain. There are concerns, however, regarding the neurocognitive changes patients might ..
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Vivek Jeevakumar, Christopher Driskill, Alyssa Paine, Millad Sobhanian, Haris Vakil, Brett Morris, Jeremiah Ramos, Sven Kroener].
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adjunctive atropine is unnecessary during ketamine sedation in children. AU - Brown, Lance. AU - Christian-Kopp, Sarah. AU - Sherwin, Thomas S.. AU - Khan, Aqeel. AU - Barcega, Besh. AU - Denmark, T. Kent. AU - Moynihan, James A.. AU - Kim, Grace J.. AU - Stewart, Gail. AU - Green, Steven M.. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - Background: The prophylactic coadministration of atropine or other anticholinergics during dissociative sedation has historically been considered mandatory to mitigate ketamine-associated hypersalivation. Emergency physicians (EPs) are known to omit this adjunct, so a prospective study to describe the safety profile of this practice was initiated. Objectives: To quantify the magnitude of excessive salivation, describe interventions for hypersalivation, and describe any associated airway complications. Methods: In this prospective observational study of emergency department (ED) pediatric patients receiving dissociative sedation, treating physicians rated ...
Our warm, caring integrative center offers IV ketamine treatment for depression, anxiety, PTSD, OCD & fibromyalgia. Free phone consultations available.
Neuro-Luminance is proud to announce the latest science shows ketamine infusion can effectively treat depression, according to a new study published today by the peer-reviewed journal Neural Regeneration Research. Conducted and authored by our own co-founder Dr. Theodore Henderson, the study gives "real world" experience treating many patients with ketamine, and allays related fears. His findings, effective with patients nearly 80% of the time, stand in direct contrast to warnings from the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Read the news and study here.. This should not alarm anyone. In fact, the opposite should be true. This scientific study is the latest research performed on ketamine, written to give people suffering with depression a reason to ask their doctors, or get more information, find answers and get the help they need.. Depression is not to be taken lightly. It is a serious condition. But, there is a silver lining with depression. Once its gone, we can be even more grateful for ...
... , or ketamine hydrochloride, is a non-barbiturate, rapid-acting dissociative anaesthetic used on animals and humans. It has also been used in human medicine for paediatric burn cases and dentistry, and in experimental psychotherapy. It is being abused by an increasing number of young people as a club drug, and is often distributed at raves and parties.
Introduction: Ketamine is a General Anesthetic that activates several neurotransmitter pathways in various part of the brain. The acute effects as general anesthetic are the most well-known and sought-after: to induce loss of responsiveness and to produce immobility during invasive procedures. However, there is a concern that repeated exposure might induce behavioral changes that could outlast their acute effect. Most research in this field describes how GA affects cognition and memory. Our work is to access if general anesthesia with ketamine can disrupt the motivational behaviour trait, more specifically measuring impulsive behaviour.Methods: With the aim to evaluate the effects of exposure to repeat anesthetic procedures with ketamine in motivational behavior, we tested animals in a paradigm of impulsive behavior, the Variable Delay-to-Signal (VDS). In addition, accumbal and striatal medium spiny neurons morphology was assessed. Results: Our results demonstrated that previous exposure to ketamine
Patients in palliative care need rapid-acting pharmacological options for psychological distress. N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist ketamine is known to have a fast onset of anti-depressant and anxiolytic action. Its S-enantiomer S-ketamine (or esketamine) is an analgesic used as a routine treatment for refractory pain as an intravenous infusion (0.25 mg/kg over 45 min). This study investigates whether S-ketamine pain therapy has a positive impact on psychological distress caused by anxiety and depression in palliative care. Patient routine data from a palliative care unit of a tertiary care hospital were used in a retrospective analysis after positive ethics approval. Eight patients, who received analgesic S-ketamine treatment, were compared to a control group matched by gender and age. The main analysis was conducted using three-way mixed MANOVA followed by two-way mixed ANOVA. Target variables were the values for anxiety and depression in the state-trait anxiety-depression inventory STADI. The
Dizocilpine (INN), also known as MK-801, is an noncompetitive antagonist of the N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate receptor, discovered by a team at Merck in 1982. Glutamate is the brains primary excitatory neurotransmitter. The channel is normally blocked with a magnesium ion and requires depolarization of the neuron to remove the magnesium and allow the glutamate to open the channel, causing an influx of calcium, which then leads to subsequent depolarization. Dizocilpine binds inside the ion channel of the receptor at several of PCPs binding sites thus preventing the flow of ions, including calcium (Ca2+), through the channel. Dizocilpine blocks NMDA receptors in a use- and voltage-dependent manner, since the channel must open for the drug to bind inside it. The drug acts as a potent anti-convulsant and likely has dissociative anesthetic properties, but it is not used clinically for this purpose due to the discovery of brain lesions, called Olneys lesions (see below), in test ...
Get a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological properties and behavioral effects of all classes of psychiatric medications and other psychotropic drugs. Review the pharmacologic and behavioral aspects of medications used in the treatment of depression, psychosis, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and other psychiatric conditions. You also review the categories of drugs having potential for abuse, such as stimulants, depressants, analgesics, marijuana, psychedelics and dissociative anesthetics. Gain a comprehensive understanding of these drugs’ history, pharmacology and behavioral effects.
Q. When I broke my leg a few years ago, I needed surgery to reset the bone correctly. The anesthesiologist gave me intravenous ketamine to put me to sleep. As I was recovering from the anesthesia, I experienced an amazing change in my mood, like a cloud lifting from my brain. I have suffered from depression almost all my life. It is cyclical and has not responded to medication for almost 50 years. The antidepressant effect of ketamine seemed to last. I have tracked my depression carefully for
We found that ketamine did not significantly increase IOP in pediatric patients undergoing PSA. Although we saw a statistically significant trend in IOP during the study period, we do not believe that this finding is clinically significant given the small changes seen in IOP (,2.5 mm Hg). Small, transient elevations in IOP in this range are not even considered clinically significant for patients with glaucoma, as diurnal fluctuations of IOP to this degree are anticipated.15,16 These findings are important because ketamine has not been traditionally used in the PED for PSA for ophthalmic exams in pediatric patients with eye injuries due to concerns that ketamine might increase IOP. The strengths of our study include stratification by age to ensure the inclusion of younger children, a noninferiority design with sample size calculations, and dosage of ketamine typical for PSA usage in the PED (i.e., 1-2 mg/kg IV). In addition, we saw no evidence of a dose-response relationship between ketamine ...
|p|Background: Pain after arthroscopic shoulder surgery is often severe, and establishing a pain treatment regimen that does not delay discharge can be challenging. The reported ability of ketamine to prevent opioid-induced hyperalgesia has not been investigated in this particular setting.|/p||p| Methods: 300 adult patients scheduled for shoulder arthroscopy under general anesthesia were recruited for this observational clinical trial and were allotted to either receive 1mg/kg IV bolus of ketamine before surgery (ketamine group, KG) or to a control group (CG) without ketamine. NRS pain scores were obtained on the operative day and on postoperative days 1 and 2 and compared between groups. Secondary variables were blood pressure, heart rate, process times, satisfaction with the anesthetic and unwanted effects.|/p||p| Results: Pain severity did not differ significantly between the groups at any time. Propofol injection rate and cumulative dose were higher in the KG. Heart rates and blood pressures were
Ketamine Infusion Therapy is NOT a first-line treatment for chronic pain. However, it is very effective in patients who arent getting enough relief from their current treatment approaches, or who wish to reduce their opioid intake.
Ephenidine, a dissociative anesthetic drug. Everyday Practical Electronics, a web-delivered hobbyist magazine; see also ...
Phencyclidine: a dissociative anesthetic previously used in medicine, but its development was discontinued in the 1960s in ... Eticyclidine: a slightly more potent dissociative anesthetic than phencyclidine but with greater nausea/unpleasant taste, that ... They are used as anesthetics for animals including humans; the state of anesthesia they induce is referred to as dissociative ... Ketamine: a dissociative psychedelic with antidepressant properties used as an anesthesia in humans and animals, a possible ...
It is a dissociative anesthetic drug with psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects. It is similar in effects to phencyclidine ...
... (PCPy) is a dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. It is similar in effects to ... but with additional PCP-like dissociative, anaesthetic and hallucinogenic effects. Due to its similarity in effects to PCP, ...
Traber, DL; Priano, LL; Wilson, RD (November 1970). "Effects of CL 1848C, a new dissociative anesthetic, on the canine ... a new dissociative anesthetic: studies in primates and other species". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 50 (2): 231-9. doi:10.1213/ ... a new dissociative anesthetic in normal human volunteers". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 49 (2): 236-41. doi:10.1213/00000539- ... As an anesthetic, etoxadrol is more potent than ketamine, but less potent than PCP. Etoxadrol is also a potent analgesic. ...
... (PCE, CI-400) is a dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic effects. It is similar in effects to ... PCE was developed by Parke-Davis in the 1970s and evaluated for anesthetic potential under the code name CI-400, but research ...
Dissociatives produce analgesia, amnesia and catalepsy at anesthetic doses. They also produce a sense of detachment from the ... this does not fall under the usual classification of anesthetics in recreational doses (anesthetic doses of DXM may be ... Some dissociatives can have CNS depressant effects, thereby carrying similar risks as opioids, which can slow breathing or ... Many users of dissociatives have been concerned about the possibility of NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity (NAN). This concern is ...
... is a dissociative anesthetic and pharmacologically classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist. It is related ... as an injectable anesthetic for use in cats and dogs. It is sometimes used in combination with xylazine (Rompun) to tranquilize ...
... the dissociative states created by other dissociative anesthetics such as ketamine and phencyclidine. The metabolic pathway ... When exceeding approved dosages, dextromethorphan acts as a dissociative anesthetic. Its mechanism of action is via multiple ... Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher ... The 3-methoxymorphinan metabolite produces local anesthetic effects in rats, with potency between dextrophan and DXM. The ...
Like many other NMDA antagonists, memantine behaves as a dissociative anesthetic at supratherapeutic doses. Despite isolated ... a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs". Drug Testing and Analysis. 6 (7-8): 614-32. doi:10.1002/ ...
They also developed Ketalar (ketamine hydrochloride), a general anesthetic and dissociative drug, in 1962. Parke-Davis marketed ...
Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, appears promising as a treatment for complex regional pain syndrome. It may be used in low ... August 2007). "The neurocognitive effects of 5 day anesthetic ketamine for the treatment of refractory complex regional pain ...
... or PCPr is an arylcyclohexylamine dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic and stimulant effects. It is ...
Drugs that are often used as chemical restraints include benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, and Dissociative anesthetics. In the ...
Antagonism of the NMDA receptor confers anesthetic, anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, and dissociative effects; blockade of the ... Morris, H; Wallach, J (2014). "From PCP to MXE: a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs". Drug Test ... Morris, H.; Wallach, J. (2014). "From PCP to MXE: a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs". Drug ... Arylcyclohexylamines anesthetics were intensively investigated at Parke-Davis, beginning with the 1956 synthesis of ...
... is a general anesthetic and a dissociative hallucinogen. It is the S(+) enantiomer of the drug ketamine, which is an anesthetic ... Esketamine is approximately twice as potent as an anesthetic as racemic ketamine. It is eliminated from the human body more ... This difference may be responsible for the fact that esketamine generally has a more dissociative or hallucinogenic effect ... and dissociative similarly. Esketamine acts primarily as a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. In ...
... anesthetic and dissociative drug of abuse; weak SNDRI action likely contributes to effects and abuse potential Phencyclidine ( ... discontinued anesthetic and dissociative psychostimulant drug of abuse; SNDRI action likely contributes to effects and abuse ... Esketamine (Ketanest S) - anesthetic; S-enantiomer of ketamine; weak SNDRI action likely contributes to effects and abuse ... In addition, cocaine has some serious limitations in terms of its cardiotoxicity due to its local anesthetic activity. ...
General anesthetics are a class of psychoactive drug used on people to block physical pain and other sensations. Most ... This is especially true of certain deliriants (e.g. Jimson weed), powerful dissociatives (e.g. Salvia divinorum), and classic ... To induce unconsciousness, anesthetics affect the GABA and NMDA systems. For example, propofol is a GABA agonist, and ketamine ... Examples include anesthetics, analgesics, anticonvulsant and antiparkinsonian drugs as well as medications used to treat ...
... (also known as isopropylphenidine) is a dissociative anesthetic that has been sold online as a designer drug. It was ... a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs". Drug Testing and Analysis. 6 (7-8): 614-632. doi:10.1002/ ...
... (1,2-DEP, DPD, DND) is a dissociative anesthetic that has been sold as a designer drug. The synthesis of ... Helander, Anders; Beck, Olof; Bäckberg, Matilda (28 May 2015). "Intoxications by the dissociative new psychoactive substances ... and a dissociative agent, diphenidine". Legal Medicine. 17 (5): 421-426. doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2015.06.005. PMID 26162997. ... a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs". Drug Testing and Analysis. 6 (7-8): 614-632. doi:10.1002/ ...
Drugs causing lack of smooth pursuit include depressants, some inhalants, and dissociative anesthetics (such as phencyclidine ...
... (also known as 2-Fl-2'-Oxo-PCM, Fluoroketamine and 2-FDCK) is a dissociative anesthetic. It is an ...
... (DXE, DCK, 2'-Oxo-PCM) is a dissociative anesthetic that has been sold online as a designer drug. It has also ...
While Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, does not suppress respiratory drive, it has been thought to be associated with ...
Dissociative anesthetics (PCP), Cannabis, hallucinogens (mushrooms), inhalants (glue), and narcotic analgesics (opiates). DREs ...
Cocaine: used as a topical anesthetic and to stop severe epistaxis. *Codeine (pure) and any drug for non-parenteral ... Halpern, J.H. (2004). "Hallucinogens and dissociative agents naturally growing in the United States". Pharmacology & ... Ketamine, a drug originally developed as a safer, shorter-acting replacement for PCP (mainly for use as a human anesthetic) but ... GHB, a general anesthetic and treatment for narcolepsy-cataplexy and alcohol withdrawal with a limited safe dosage range and ...
However, the mechanisms of the discriminative stimulus effects of hallucinogenic and dissociative anesthetic drugs are not yet ... Mori T., Suzuki T. (2016) The Discriminative Stimulus Properties of Hallucinogenic and Dissociative Anesthetic Drugs. In: ... This chapter focuses on recent findings regarding hallucinogenic and dissociative anesthetic drug-induced discriminative ... dissociative, hallucinogenic, and memory effects. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 226:381-392CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
What is Dissociative anesthetic? Meaning of Dissociative anesthetic as a legal term. What does Dissociative anesthetic mean in ... Definition of Dissociative anesthetic in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Dissociative anesthetic legal definition of Dissociative anesthetic https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Dissociative ... anesthetic. (redirected from Dissociative anesthetic). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. See: drug, ...
We studied the interactions between a local anesthetic agent, lidocaine, and two general anesthetic drugs, propofol and ... Ketamine is an IV anesthetic with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-blocking properties. However, it is still unclear ... Changes in effective and lethal doses of intravenous anesthetics and lidocaine when used in combination in mice. ... The effect of a dissociative dose of ketamine on the bispectral index (BIS) during propofol hypnosis. ...
McKinney P Patient acceptance of dissociative anesthetics Plast Reconstr Surg 1983 72(1):22-6 ... "Patient acceptance of dissociative anesthetics" Plast Reconstr Surg. 1983 Jul 11;72(1):22-6. ... and patient acceptance of low-dose ketamine when used to diminish the pain of local anesthetic injections. The role of diazepam ...
MXE and ketamine both produce dissociative anesthetic effects and act as NMDA receptor antagonists and dopamine reuptake ... 2-Methoxyphenidine (2-MXP or MXP) is an NPS dissociative and structural analog of diphenidine, introduced to meet growing ... After its 2010 Internet entrance, it became the most popular dissociative NPS. Compared with ketamine, the 3-methox substituent ... Initially showing great promise as a potent anesthetic, evidence of the alarming adverse effects delirium, hallucinations, and ...
Anesthetics, Dissociative. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Anesthetics, General. Anesthetics. Central Nervous System Depressants. ... Ketamine is a medication that is used as a short acting anesthetic in pediatric and adult medicine. Subanesthetic (low) doses ...
Anesthetics, Dissociative. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Anesthetics, General. Anesthetics. Central Nervous System Depressants. ...
Anesthetics. Analgesics. Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Anesthetics, Dissociative. Excitatory Amino ... history of serious adverse effects related to anesthetics;. *refusal to consent for the study, or refusal to undergo one single ... positive psychotic symptoms.The investigators also found that subanesthetic dose of ketamine combined with other anesthetics ...
Anesthetics, Intravenous. Anesthetics, General. Anesthetics. Analgesics, Non-Narcotic. Analgesics. Sensory System Agents. ... Anesthetics, Dissociative. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists. Excitatory Amino Acid Agents. To Top ...
Anesthetics, Dissociative / pharmacokinetics* * Anesthetics, Dissociative / poisoning * Chromatography, Gas * Drug Interactions ...
They are, more accurately, dissociative anesthetics. In 2001, almost 13 percent of high school seniors had tried some form of ... Cocaine was a valuable anesthetic, providing local, fast-acting, and long-lasting effects during some surgical procedures. ... Usually thought of as hallucinogens, PCP (phencyclidine) and ketamine were initially developed as general anesthetics for ...
Dissociative anesthetics. alpha reductase inhibitor. used as treatment for balding and enlarged prostate. ...
Evaluation of ophthalmic and hemodynamic parameters in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.) submitted to dissociative anesthetic ...
IV Anesthetics Flashcards Preview Board Review CRNA (Sweat Book) , IV Anesthetics , Flashcards ... What is a s\e that is specific to Etomidate in comparison to other IV anesthetics? ... The CNS effects after bolus injection of an IV anesthetic are terminated primarily by _________. ... 0.5-1.5 hours (more rapid and complete awakening than other IV anesthetics) ...
CNS Pharmacology General anesthetics Dr. Hiwa K. Saaed, H.D, M.Sc, Ph.D Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology College of ... This dissociative anesthesia provides sedation, amnesia, and immobility. • Ketamine stimulates central sympathetic outflow, ... General anesthetics * 1. CNS Pharmacology General anesthetics Dr. Hiwa K. Saaed, H.D, M.Sc, Ph.D Department of Pharmacology & ... For inhaled anesthetics, higher CO removes anesthetic from the alveoli faster and thus slows the rate of rise in alveolar ...
Dissociative Anesthetics Euphoria, heightened emotionality. 14 Reinforcing Effects of Drugs of Abuse. MJ ...
Dissociative Anesthetics. increased heart rate and blood pressure, impaired motor function/memory loss; numbness; nausea/ ...
Ephenidine, a dissociative anesthetic drug. Everyday Practical Electronics, a web-delivered hobbyist magazine; see also ...
Anesthetics, Dissociative / therapeutic use. Child. Dexmedetomidine / therapeutic use*. Drug Therapy, Combination. Heart ... 0/Anesthetics, Dissociative; 0/Hypnotics and Sedatives; 113775-47-6/Dexmedetomidine; 6740-88-1/Ketamine ...
Anesthetics, Combined / administration & dosage. Anesthetics, Dissociative / administration & dosage. Animals. Cats / ... 0/Analgesics, Opioid; 0/Anesthetics, Combined; 0/Anesthetics, Dissociative; 0/Central Nervous System Depressants; 0/Hypnotics ...
Phencyclidine: a dissociative anesthetic previously used in medicine, but its development was discontinued in the 1960s in ... Eticyclidine: a slightly more potent dissociative anesthetic than phencyclidine but with greater nausea/unpleasant taste, that ... They are used as anesthetics for animals including humans; the state of anesthesia they induce is referred to as dissociative ... Ketamine: a dissociative psychedelic with antidepressant properties used as an anesthesia in humans and animals, a possible ...
Dissociative Anesthetic. Pupil size normal. HGN, VGN present. Lack of smooth convergence. Elevated pulse, blood pressure, body ...
... dissociative anesthetic. What are the indications for use of Ketamine? (4). general anesthesia, OB for patchy blocks, CV ... What are some cases where you can use Ketamine when other anesthetics are not appropriate. Cardio vascular collapse, Trauma. ...
It is commonly abused for its hallucinogenic and dissociative effects and, controversially, it may be prescribed to treat ... Ketamine is an anesthetic, used to induce a loss of consciousness and relieve pain. ... Ketamine belongs to a class of drugs known as dissociative anesthetics. It is also known as Ketalar, Ketanest, and Ketaset. ... Ketamine is an anesthetic drug, used in human and veterinary medicine. It is important to distinguish the valid medical uses ...
Dissociative Anesthetics. Definition. class of drugs that reduce sensitivity to pain and produce feelings of detachment and ...
  • Psychopharmacology[edit] Unlike muscimol, the main psychoactive constituent of Amanita muscaria, which produces sedative-hypnotic effects and dissociative hallucinations, ibotenic acid's psychoactivity is not completely established and does not contribute in any known way to the effects of Amanita muscaria other than serving as a prodrug to muscimol. (pearltrees.com)
  • After it was first synthesized by medicinal chemist Victor Maddox in 1956, the drug was briefly approved as an anesthetic by the FDA for its sedative properties. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Methoxetamine affects brain processing involved in emotional response in rats Methoxetamine (MXE) is a novel psychoactive substance that is emerging on the Internet and induces dissociative effects and acute toxicity. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Dissociative drugs alter your perception of sight and sound as well as produce feelings of detachment from the atmosphere around you. (casapalmera.com)
  • Dissociative drugs distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment (or dissociation) from the environment and self. (nyc.gov)
  • Animal studies further demonstrated that prolonged exposure to anesthetics and sedatives during critical stages of brain development causes neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits in both rodents and nonhuman primates ( 9 - 13 ). (sciencemag.org)