Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
The period during a surgical operation.
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.
The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Specially trained personnel to assist in routine technical procedures in the operating room.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients in the recovery room following surgery and/or anesthesia.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.
The functions of the professional nurse in the operating room.

Effect of remifentanil on the auditory evoked response and haemodynamic changes after intubation and surgical incision. (1/302)

We have observed the effect of intubation and incision, as measured by the auditory evoked response (AER) and haemodynamic variables, in 12 patients undergoing hernia repair or varicose vein surgery who received remifentanil as part of either an inhaled anaesthetic technique using isoflurane or as part of a total i.v. technique using propofol. Anaesthesia was induced with remifentanil 1 microgram kg-1 and propofol, neuromuscular block was achieved with atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 before intubation, and anaesthesia was maintained with a continuous infusion of remifentanil in combination with either a continuous infusion of propofol or inhaled isoflurane. The AER and haemodynamic variables were measured before and after intubation and incision. The effects of intubation and incision on the AER and haemodynamic variables were not significantly different between the remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-isoflurane groups. However, the study had a low power for this comparison. When the data for the two anaesthetic combinations were pooled, the only significant effects were increases in diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate immediately after intubation; these were not seen 5 min after intubation. There were no cardiovascular responses to incision. There were no significant changes in the AER after intubation or incision.  (+info)

Concentration and second-gas effects in the water analogue. (2/302)

The water analogue provides a visual model of the process of anaesthetic exchange. In the standard version, a single pipe connects the mouth container to the lung container and the conductance of this mouth-lung pipe is proportional to alveolar ventilation. This implies that inspired and expired ventilations are equal. In fact, with high inspired concentrations of nitrous oxide, early rapid uptake of gas by solution leads to a substantial difference between inspired and expired ventilation which in turn leads to concentration and second-gas effects. It is shown that by representing inspired and expired ventilations separately, and keeping one of them constant while varying the other to compensate for rapid uptake, concentration and second-gas effects are reproduced in the water analogue. Other means of reproducing the effects are reported but we believe that the first method is the most realistic and the most appropriate for teaching.  (+info)

Recovery after halothane anaesthesia induced with thiopental, propofol-alfentanil or halothane for day-case adenoidectomy in small children. (3/302)

We studied recovery from halothane anaesthesia in 93 children, aged 1-3 yr, undergoing day-case adenoidectomy. Children were allocated randomly to receive thiopental 5 mg kg-1 (group TH), alfentanil 10 micrograms kg-1 and propofol 3 mg kg-1 (group PAH) or 5% halothane (group HH) for induction of anaesthesia. In group TH, tracheal intubation was facilitated with succinylcholine (suxamethonium) 1.5 mg kg-1. In groups PAH and HH, tracheal intubation was performed without neuromuscular block, and succinylcholine was used only if required. Anaesthesia was maintained with 1-3% halothane during spontaneous respiration. Times to achieving predetermined recovery end-points were recorded. Quality of recovery was assessed using a score of 1-9 (best to worst) for sedation, crying, restlessness and agitation. A postoperative questionnaire was used to determine the well-being of the child at home, 24 h after operation. Emergence from anaesthesia (response to non-painful stimuli) occurred earlier in group HH (mean 9 (SD 6) min) than in groups PAH (13 (6) min, P < 0.01) and TH (18 (14) min, P < 0.01). Sitting up, walking and home readiness were achieved earlier in groups PAH and HH than in group TH (P < 0.05 for each variable). Children in group TH were more sedated during the first 30 min after anaesthesia than those in the two other groups (P < 0.05) while emergence-related delirium was more common in group HH than in group TH (P < 0.01). Well-being at home was similar in all groups. We conclude that induction of halothane anaesthesia with propofol-alfentanil or halothane provided more rapid recovery and earlier discharge than that with thiopental.  (+info)

Haemodynamic stability and ketamine-alfentanil anaesthetic induction. (4/302)

We have determined if alfentanil could obtund the haemodynamic instability commonly seen at induction of anaesthesia with ketamine. Five groups of ASA I and II patients received ketamine 1 mg kg-1 i.v., preceded by saline (group 1) or alfentanil 10, 20, 30 or 40 micrograms kg-1 (groups 2-5, respectively). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (AP), postoperative patient complaints and dysphoria were noted. All groups showed increases (P < 0.05) in both HR and AP after administration of ketamine, which were progressively smaller as the dose of alfentanil increased. After tracheal intubation, all groups showed further increases in HR and AP, with groups 3-5 (alfentanil 20-40 micrograms kg-1) showing significant obtundation (P < 0.05) of these increases compared with group 1. No patient in any group reported postoperative dysphoria or dissatisfaction with their anaesthetic. Ketamine 1 mg kg-1 with alfentanil 20-40 micrograms kg-1 provided statistically significant obtundation of the haemodynamic instability that is common with ketamine alone.  (+info)

Comparison of recovery of propofol and methohexital sedation using an infusion pump. (5/302)

Two sedative anesthetic agents administered by an infusion pump were compared during third molar surgery. Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I or II volunteers were randomly allocated to two groups. All subjects received supplemental oxygen via a nasal hood, fentanyl (0.0007 mg/kg intravenous [i.v.] bolus), and midazolam (1 mg/2 min) titrated to effect. Patients then received either 0.3 mg/kg of methohexital or 0.5 mg/kg of propofol via an infusion pump. Upon completion of the bolus, a continuous infusion of 0.05 mg/kg/min methohexital or 0.066 mg/kg/min propofol was administered throughout the procedure. Hemo-dynamic and respiratory parameters and psychomotor performance were compared for the two groups and no significant differences were found. The continuous infusion method maintained a steady level of sedation. Patients receiving propofol had a smoother sedation as judged by the surgeon and anesthetist.  (+info)

Bone marrow harvesting using EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics) cream, local anaesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia with alfentanil. (6/302)

Bone marrow harvesting (BMH) was performed on 40 consecutive allogeneic or autologous donors using EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics), local anaesthesia (LA) and patient-controlled analgesia with alfentanil (PCA-A). The effect of alkalinizing the LA solution on reducing pain during LA infiltration in the presence of EMLA was also investigated. EMLA 10 g with occlusive dressing was applied to the harvest sites at least 60 min before BMH. The PCA device was programmed to deliver an intravenous loading dose of 15 microg/kg alfentanil, followed by a background alfentanil infusion of 0.05 microg/kg/min. Demand dose was 4 microg/kg and lockout time was 3 min. Donors were randomized to receive either alkalinized (n = 19) or non-alkalinized (n=21) LA solution (lignocaine 1% with 1:100000 adrenaline). While post-operative nausea and vomiting were the only side-effects, all donors in both groups reported satisfactory pain scores during LA infiltration and satisfactory overall intra-operative comfort scores. They completed BMH using either regimen successfully, found this technique acceptable and would recommend this form of anaesthesia to others. Alkalinizing the LA solution did not significantly improve the pain scores during LA infiltration in the presence of EMLA. In conclusion, BMH can be performed safely using EMLA, LA and PCA-A without major complications.  (+info)

Effects of propofol, propofol-nitrous oxide and midazolam on cortical somatosensory evoked potentials during sufentanil anaesthesia for major spinal surgery. (7/302)

Recording of cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (CSEP) enables monitoring of spinal cord function. We studied the effects of propofol, propofol-nitrous oxide or midazolam during sufentanil anaesthesia on CSEP monitoring during major spinal surgery. Thirty patients with normal preoperative CSEP were allocated randomly to one of the following anaesthesia regimens: propofol (2.5 mg kg-1 followed by 10-6 mg kg-1 h-1) with or without nitrous oxide, or midazolam (0.3 mg kg-1 followed by 0.15 mg kg-1 h-1) combined with sufentanil 0.5 microgram kg-1 h-1 in the propofol and midazolam groups, or 0.25 microgram kg-1 h-1 in the propofol-nitrous oxide group. CSEP were elicited by alternate right and left tibial posterior nerve stimulation and recorded before and after induction (15 min, 1, 2 and 3 h), and during skin closure. CSEP latencies were not significantly modified in the three groups. CSEP amplitude decreased significantly in the propofol-nitrous oxide group (from mean 2.0 (SEM 0.3) to 0.6 (0.1) microV; P < 0.05) but not in the propofol (from 1.8 (0.6) to 2.2 (0.3) microV) or midazolam (1.7 (0.5) to 1.6 (0.5) microV) groups. The time to the first postoperative voluntary motor response (recovery) delay was significantly greater in the midazolam group (115 (19) min) compared with the propofol and propofol-nitrous oxide groups (43 (8) and 41 (3) min, respectively). Consequently, the use of propofol without nitrous oxide can be recommended during spinal surgery when CSEP monitoring is required.  (+info)

Anaesthetic effects of pregnanolone in combination with allopregnanolone, thiopental, hexobarbital and flurazepam: an EEG study in the rat. (8/302)

The anaesthetic interactions of the steroid, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one, in male rats were investigated in different fixed binary combinations with the steroid allopregnanolone (3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one), two barbiturates (thiopental and hexobarbital) and the benzodiazepine, flurazepam. Anaesthetic effects were determined using an EEG threshold method. Interactions were assessed using an isobolographic method. The interaction between the two steroids, pregnanolone and allopregnanolone, showed an anaesthetic effect significantly less than additive (antagonistic). The interactions between pregnanolone and the two barbiturates and the benzodiazepine showed an anaesthetic effect significantly greater than additive (potentiation) in all tests performed. These results could be explained by a pharmacodynamic interaction at the hypothetical GABA-benzodiazepine-barbiturate-steroid complex in the CNS.  (+info)

The interaction index has been discussed by several authors, such as Berenbaum (9), Tallarida (14), and Meadows and colleagues (15). The definition of the interaction index coincides with Chou and Talalays definition of the combination index for mutually exclusive drugs, published in 1984 (16). The field of drug combination research spans more than 100 years and has been addressed within many disciplines. Chou and Talalays seminal article has made important contributions and has been widely cited in the literature. However, this article was not the first nor the only one that generates concepts supporting Eqs. 1 and 2 and applies these equations to study drug interactions. Lee and colleagues directed the reader to reviews of these methods, with proper citation of the appropriate references therein (17), and derived the confidence interval estimation for the interaction index and compared its performance with four methods based on response surface models. Although several equations are indeed ...
Publications » Use of optimal mixture-process designs and response surface models to study properties of calcium silicate units ...
1987-1988 - David Sorin. 1988-1989 - Skip Schwarzman. 1989-1990 - Lou Weingrad. 1990-1991 - Judy Johnson. 1991-1992 - Joy Bowman. 1992-1993 - Sharon Moore. 1993-1997 - Michael Young. 1997-1998 - Michael Cerelli. 1998-1999 - Eric Walker, CSEP. 1999-2000 - Kevin White, CSEP. 2000-2001 - Barbara Jo Saler. 2001-2002 - Kathleen DeLuca, CSEP, CMP. 2002-2003 - Kristina Sumey, CSEP. 2003-2004 - Sue Werb, CSEP. 2004-2006 - David Buckley, CSEP. 2006-2007 - Phyllis Jablonowski, CSEP. 2007-2008 - Dave Dickson. 2008-2009 - Nancy Bauman (Chapter of the Year!). 2009-2010 - Larry Ott. 2010-2011 - Sharon Dachino. 2011-2012 - Thomas Presti. 2012-2013 - Jason Cataldi, CTS. 2013-2014 - Bob Mills. 2014-2016 - Sarah Mainhart. 2016-2017 - Melissa Irwin. 2017-2018 - Beth Koenig. 2018-2019 - Erin ...
Atıf İçin Kopyala Toklu S., Iyilikci L., Gonen C. , Ciftci L., Gunenc F., Sahin E., et al. European journal of anaesthesiology, cilt.26, ss.370-6, 2009 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) ...
This study was performed are in little man to investigate the influence notions of sex and concomitant with treatment of bimatoprost on answer the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of benmoxin, and boatmen to validate a previously described in indirect response surface model. Preferred pharmaceuticals inc. is simultaneously making packaging and or sale of a series of various drugs in
Application of A-line autoregressive model with exogenous input index during the wake-up test in spinal surgery under propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia.:
The increase of Corrected QT (QTc) interval is associated with age. It is known that most inhalation anesthetics or intravenous anesthetics can influence the QTc. In addition, tracheal intubation during induction can stimulates sympathetic activity, which, as a results, prolong the QTc interval. Therefore, the aim of study is to find out the effect site concentration of remifentanil for preventing QTc interval prolongation during intubation under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia in elderly patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Visual acuity and pupillary reactions after peribulbar anaesthesia. AU - Talks, S.J.. AU - Chong, N.H.. AU - Gibson, J M. AU - Francis, I.R.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - The effect of peribulbar anaesthesia on optic nerve function in 20 patients, before and after cataract surgery, was measured. All the patients had decreased visual acuity. Five (25%) had no perception of light. Seventeen (85%) developed a relative afferent pupil defect (RAPD). No patients saw the operating instruments. Seven (35%) had improved visual acuity immediately postoperatively. Patients should be warned that they may lose vision completely on being given a peribulbar anaesthetic; however their vision will improve, but not necessarily immediately, postoperatively. Examination for an RAPD is a good method of providing reassurance that the operating instruments will not be seen.. AB - The effect of peribulbar anaesthesia on optic nerve function in 20 patients, before and after cataract surgery, was measured. ...
A Quatro sensor (Aspect Medical Systems, Newton, MA) was mounted on the forehead according to the manufacturers guidelines, with another Quatro sensor mounted ipsilaterally according to Shiraishi et al .4 proposed occipital placement. The occipital process was considered the midline guide point with electrode 1 placed few centimeters cranially, electrodes 2 and 4 placed slanting, and electrode 3 placed laterally (fig. 1). The Quatro sensors were connected to two BIS-Vista™ monitors with the clocks synchronized to the exact hour: minute: second. The raw electroencephalography signals were band-pass filtered to 2-70 Hz and processed in real time using BIS-Vista™ version 1.4 algorithm. In addition, the BIS-Vista™ monitor calculates the electromyography power in the 70-110 Hz frequency band displayed in decibels. BIS recordings were started after verifying a signal quality index more than 95% and electrodes impedance less than 5 kΩ. With the help of the USB-A port, electroencephalographic ...
BACKGROUND: The aepEX Plus monitor (aepEX) utilizes a mid-latency auditory evoked potential-derived index of depth of hypnosis (DoH). OBJECTIVE: This observational study evaluates the performance of the aepEX as a DoH monitor for pediatric patients receiving propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. METHODS: aepEX and BIS values were recorded simultaneously during surgery in three groups of 25 children (aged 1-3, 3-6 and 6-16 years). Propofol was administered by target-controlled infusion. The University of Michigan Sedation Scale (UMSS) was used to clinically assess the DoH during emergence ...
ABSTRACT: Response surface methodology based on a 3-variable, 5-level central composite rotatable design matrix was used to optimize the synthesis. The influence of selected variables, namely, enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratio, substrate concentration, and temperature was investigated. E/S ratio and temperature had a strong effect on esterification, while substrate concentration did not. Reaction time did not show significant effect on ester yields, and conversions could be completed in less than 24 h. The response surface model has been found to describe the experimental results adequately. Product yield at optimum conditions (24 g/mol E/S ratio, 1.5 M substrate concentration 20 °C) was 1.4 M, representing 93% conversion, which is in good agreement with the predicted one. ...
My preliminary communication to the Lancet was published in 1961. While according to dictionary definition I was the inventor of a premixed N2O/O2 gas mixture, subsequently called Entonox, BOC did not involve me with the patent. I was too unsophisticated for the matter even to enter my mind at that time. It is worth noting that BOC avoided listing the first published paper on premixed gas (in the Lancet) in their promotional booklet, published in September 1970, called the Entonox Digest. The digest was a 35 page summary of articles, correspondence and papers. There were extracts of various publications in the medical literature on the clinical uses of Entonox ...
Effects of nitrous oxide on cardiovascular parameters in pigs anesthetized with propofol and subjected to pressure-controlled ...
BACKGROUND: The Narcotrend is a new electroencephalographic monitor designed to measure depth of anesthesia, based on a six-letter classification from A (awake) to F (increasing burst suppression) including 14 substages. This study was designed to investigate the impact of Narcotrend monitoring on recovery times and propofol consumption in comparison to Bispectral Index (BIS) monitoring or standard anesthetic practice.. METHODS: With institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 120 adult patients scheduled to undergo minor orthopedic surgery were randomized to receive a propofol-remifentanil anesthetic controlled by Narcotrend, by BIS(R), or solely by clinical parameters. Anesthesia was induced with 0.4 micro x kg-1 x min-1 remifentanil and a propofol target-controlled infusion at 3.5 microg/ml. After intubation, remifentanil was reduced to 0.2 micro x kg-1 x min-1, whereas the propofol infusion was adjusted according to clinical parameters or to the following target values: ...
The clinical studies demonstrate more powerful analgesic effect among female to both μ- and κ-opioid agonist (Fillingim et al. 2004). The antitussive effect of opioid is mediated predominantly by μ-, κ-opioid receptors (Kamei J. 1996). Therefore, the investigators hypothesized that there are sex differences in the antitussive responses to opioid.. It has been reported that target-controlled infusion (TCI) of remifentanil can reduce cough against endotracheal tube during emergence from general anesthesia. Some studies, reporting the EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI for preventing cough during emergence in different sex and surgeries (B. Lee et al. 2009, E.M.Choi et al. 2012), showed differences in EC50 and EC95.. The purpose of this study was to find out EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI for preventing cough during emergence in each sex and to evaluate whether there were sex differences in EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI or not. ...
What is a eutectic mixture? Eutectic comes from the Greek eutektos for easily melted(any resemblence to tectonic is, I believe, purely accidental - tectonic also comes from the Greek, but for building, not melting!). An eutectic mixture is one in which the melting point of the mix is lower than the melting point of either of the components. The binary phase diagram has a eutectic point. EMLA is a mixture of equal weights of lidocaine and prilocaine, made into an emulsion ...
Teng WN, Tsou MY, Chen PT, Liou JY, Yu L, Westenskow DR, Ting CK, A desflurane and fentanyl dosing regimen for wake-up testing during scoliosis surgery: Implications for the time-course of emergence from anesthesia. J Formos Med Assoc 2017 Aug;116(8):606-612. Hsu WC, Orr J, Lin SP, Yu L, Tsou MY, Westenskow DR, Ting CK, Efficiency of oxygen delivery through different oxygen entrainment devices during sedation under low oxygen flow rate: a bench study. J Clin Monit Comput 2017 May 2;:. Chang KC, Orr J, Hsu WC, Yu L, Tsou MY, Westenskow DR, Ting CK, Accuracy of CO2 monitoring via nasal cannulas and oral bite blocks during sedation for esophagogastroduodenoscopy. J Clin Monit Comput 2016 Apr;30(2):169-73. Ting CK, Johnson KB, Teng WN, Synoid ND, Lapierre C, Yu L, Westenskow DR, Response surface model predictions of wake-up time during scoliosis surgery. Anesth Analg 2014 Mar;118(3):546-53. Yu L, Ting CK, Hill BE, Orr JA, Brewer LM, Johnson KB, Egan TD, Westenskow DR, Using the Entropy of Tracheal ...
MATA, Lukiya Birungi Silva Campos et al. Anestesia por infusão contínua de propofol associado ao remifentanil em gatos pré-tratados com acepromazina. Rev. Ceres [online]. 2010, vol.57, n.2, pp.198-204. ISSN 0034-737X. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-737X2010000200010.. O presente trabalho avaliou a associação anestésica do propofol, um anestésico geral de ação ultracurta e metabolismo rápido, ao remifentanil, opioide de grande poder analgésico, que potencializa os anestésicos gerais. O objetivo principal foi desenvolver um protocolo anestésico de uso intravenoso, por infusão contínua, que proporcione conforto ao paciente, segurança, com grande relaxamento muscular e analgesia em gatos submetidos a cirurgias eletivas como a ovariosalpingoisterectomia e orquiectomia. Foram utilizados 30 gatos, aleatoriamente distribuídos em 3 grupos de 10 animais. Em todos eles realizou-se a tranquilização com acepromazina (0,1 mg/kg, IM) e indução anestésica com propofol (6 mg/kg, IV). No ...
The combination midazolam-remifentanil presented a lower synergistic effect compared with propofol-remifentanil. The first fact documented a mean BIS of 62.5 +3 vs. 64.7 +4 midazolam-remifentanil association and has finally, although sporadic, incidents of desaturation content and never , 30%. The evaluation of the kinetic values of BIS, the interesting fact that emerges concerns the values, 70, which represented a significant predictor in the study to better recovery of consciousness, which has helped the fast-traking ongoing day-surgery. ...
Neuro-anesthetic contri- bution to the impedance of complications caused nearby perfunctory cerebral retraction: concept of a chemical thought retractorAge-at-death diagnosis and firmness of life-history param- eters past incremental lines in vulnerable dental cementum as an fingering helpDispensation of N2 O alone or adding it to a fentanyl-midazolam anes- thetic ,,05] or a propofol-remifentanil anesthetic did not interchange the BIS in rhyme study ,,06]If epidemiological statistics put up with inferences about clinical data, 2029 3039 4049 5059 Grow older 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Men Women Ubiquity(%) 6069 ,70 REPRESENTATION 5.1 Age-specific ubiquitousness of metabolic syndrome ,a href=http://eiendomnorge.no/wp-content/notations/c/purchase-fluoxetine-online-no-rx/,purchase fluoxetine 10mg with visa,/a,. The convert an eye to developing engagement amelioration plans in the direction of each core program involves realization of an corroboration reassessment hardened to notify the phenomenon ...
An easy to read guide about remifentanil abuse, addiction, and treatment options. Get help for remifentanil addiction today at Nova.
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A eutectic is a mixture that contains two or more components in proportions that allow them to solidify at the same temperature...
Malling 26 was bred at East Malling from a cross between M-9 and the very vigorous rootstock M-16 (Metziner Ideal). A virus-indexed EMLA clone was introduced by East Malling in 1969 / 1970.
This meeting will highlight and detail the development obstacles and features of propofol that have led to its wide range of applications.
Leser om anestesimidler blant annet propofol. Der står det misbruk og avhengighet av propofol (først og fremst hos helsepersonell). Ante ikke at noen ...
Who knew after having our coffee this morning we would end up at the Auto Club Speedway for the Petty Driving Experience....HOLY SHIT! is what I thought when Celi call this morning and asked how Marco was doing...I told her he was feeling better slowly but surely. She asked if I thought he would be willing to meet at the track and I told her I didnt know. So I went to ask Marco what he thought and he said YES! Well we left the house like bats out of hell ...
BACKGROUND We evaluated the anesthetic efficacy and the postoperative analgesic effects of 0.75% levobupivacaine versus 0.75% ropivacaine for peribulbar anesthesia in patients undergoing primary vitreoretinal surgery. METHODS We investigated 120 patients subjected to vitreoretinal surgery under peribulbar anesthesia. They were randomized into two equal groups according to the local anesthetic (LA) used, namely, 0.75% levobupivacaine or 0.75% ropivacaine, both with the addition of hyaluronidase. Nerve block was carried out by injection of 5-7 mL of the LA using single injection percutaneous peribulbar anesthesia with a short needle. RESULTS When compared with 0.75% ropivacaine, 0.75% levobupivacaine provided more successful akinesia at 10 min after block (P=0.026), fewer supplementary injections (P=0.026), and less volume (mL) was used (P=0.031). Also, levobupivacaine provided significantly longer motor block duration (342±27 min versus 206±40 min, P=0.001) and significantly longer sensory block
A caudal block is a special type of anesthesia. The doctor injects a small amount of numbing medicine near the tailbone to decrease feeling below the umbilicus (belly button) for a short time. The caudal block is done while the child is asleep, before the surgery starts. The medicine bathes and numbs the nerves that carry feelings to the spinal cord. It is a safe and effective way to decrease pain after surgery. Caudal blocks can be given to patients as young as one week of age to adulthood. The final decision as to whether or not your child may have a caudal is made by your childs anesthesiologist and surgeon.
The aim of our study is to see if a new combination of anaesthetic drugs results in a better long-term developmental outcome than the current standard of care
SIMONI, Ricardo Francisco; PEREIRA, Antônio Márcio Sanfim Arantes; BOREGA, Renato dos Santos and SIMOES, Daniel Caldeira Pereira. Remifentanil versus Sufentanil em infusão contínua em intervenções cirúrgicas videolaparoscópicas: estudo comparativo. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2008, vol.58, n.3, pp.193-201. ISSN 0034-7094. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942008000300001.. JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A infusão contínua (IC) de remifentanil na técnica de anestesia venosa total é prática comum. Já o sufentanil em IC para cirurgias de curta/média duração tem sido pouco utilizado. O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar duas técnicas de anestesia venosa total, utilizando remifentanil ou sufentanil em IC, quanto ao comportamento anestésico no intra-operatório e às características da recuperação anestésica em pacientes submetidos à videolaparoscopia. MÉTODO: Participaram desse estudo 60 pacientes divididos em 2 grupos iguais (GR e GS). O GR foi induzido com remifentanil IC ...
AbstractFor a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial Response Surface Model (RSM) design was employed and compared to Artificial Neural Networks coupled with Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA). Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A), bead load (B), cell load (C) and run time (D), were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v), cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN coupled with GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h): 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v): 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm): 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch
Sodium fluoride solution was injected i.p. to three groups of rats at a dose equivalent to 0.1 LD50 three times a week up to 18 injections. Two out of these groups and two out of three groups were sham-injected with normal saline and were exposed to the whole body impact of a 25 mT static magnetic field (SMF) for 2 or 4 hr a day, 5 times a week. Following the exposure, various functional and biochemical indices were evaluated along with histological examination and morphometric measurements of the femur in the differently exposed and control rats. The mathematical analysis of the combined effects of the SMF and fluoride based on the a response surface model demonstrated that, in full correspondence with what we had previously found for the combined toxicity of different chemicals, the combined adverse action of a chemical plus a physical agent was characterized by a tipological diversity depending not only on particular effects these types were assessed for but on the dose and effect levels as ...
Travelling from Rutland Road, there are two lanes, one left (a sliplane), one combined straight on and right, there is no ASLs and no cycle facilities. All of these movements score zero, left turn because of the left turn slip lane, straight on because of the need to move out into the outside lane to use the junction and because of the lack of separation, and the right turn for the same reason with the added risk of having to sit in the middle of the junction with traffic passing on the left going straight ahead, and oncoming traffic on your right.. Travelling from Pitsmoor Road South, there is a 1.5m wide feeder lane to a 5m deep ASL. There is a single general traffic lane. The speed limit is 30mph and there are , 1000vph, a critical failure. Turning left, the radius is being increased, theres no dedicated space in the junction for cycling. Going straight on, there is no protection from left turning traffic and there will be conflict with vehicles trying to overtake cycles while oncoming ...
The International Live Events Association announced recognition of the following event professionals who recently earned the Certified Special Events Professional designation.. ILEA endorses and manages the voluntary CSEP program for those who meet standards. Earning the CSEP designation demonstrates a continuous dedication to enhance individual and professional performance. ...
The total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is a commonly used technique in humans and has been instituted in anesthesia of small animals. The use of this technique only became popular in the last decade, due to lack of drugs ...
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Notes: Production, means the output of Propofol Revenue, means the sales value of Propofol This report studies Propofol in Global market, especially in Nor
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Vpliv anestezije s propofolom in sevofluranom na oksidativni stres pri psih z miksomatozno degeneracijo mitralne zaklopke. Preberi več ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Menthol-based eutectic mixtures. T2 - Hydrophobic low viscosity solvents. AU - Ribeiro, Bernardo D.. AU - Florindo, Catarina. AU - Iff, Lucas C.. AU - Coelho, Maria A Z. AU - Marrucho Ferreira, Isabel Maria. PY - 2015/9/10. Y1 - 2015/9/10. N2 - Inspired by one of the major problems in the pharmaceutical industry, we advantageously used the formation of eutectic mixtures to synthesize new solvents. The aim of this work is to identify low viscosity, cheap, biodegradable and hydrophobic eutectic solvents from natural resources. Consequently, novel eutectic mixtures based on DL-menthol and naturally occurring acids, namely pyruvic acid, acetic acid, L-lactic acid, and lauric acid, were synthesized and are here reported for the first time. The obtained DLmenthol-based eutectic mixtures were analyzed using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy in order to check their structures and purities and to confirm the interaction of the two compounds leading to the eutectic formation. Important solvent ...
This project was designed to compare the dose requirements and the development of tolerance on the sedative/analgesic effect of propofol versus propofol plus remifentanil administered in rabbits under prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV).. Eight male, clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits were intubated under xylazine-ketamine-isoflurane anesthesia. After isoflurane discontinuation, the animals received either propofol (group P, n=4) or propofol plus remifentanil (group P/R, n=4) by continuous intravenous infusion for a maximum period of 38 hours. Arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), electrocardiograph (ECG) and spO2 were continuously measured while arterial blood gases were analysed periodically. Initial doses were adjusted in order to achieve adequate level of sedation and analgesia based on reflexes, HR, arterial pressure and attempt for spontaneous breathing. Tolerance on the sedative/analgesic effect of the agents was indicated by the increase of their ...
No definitive outcomes study has explored whether administering a total intravenous anesthetic via TCI or with conventional continuous infusion rates impacts emergence. One might hypothesize that if administering a lengthy anesthetic, TCI would provide a more economical anesthetic and avoid unnecessary drug delivery that would perhaps delay emergence. Figure 30-1 presents a simulation of 2 intravenous techniques: one using TCI and the other set infusion rates for 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. Both approaches used a high-dose remifentanil and low dose propofol technique. In fact the TCI target effect-site concentrations were selected to be near the effect-site concentrations that resulted from propofol infusions of 100 mcg/kg/min and remifentanil 0.2 mcg/kg/min. In general, with increasing duration of the anesthetic, the simulation predicted the time to emergence would become longer. Time to emergence was defined as the time required for the model of loss of responsiveness to predict that only 1 out of ...
The aim of this study was to determine the combined effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water SAEW (pH range 5.06.5, oxidationreduction potential 6501000 mV, available chlorine concentration 1080 mg/L) containing 0, 15, and 30 ppm chlorine and 0, 50, and 100 min of ultrasound US (37 kHz, 380 W) using the central composite design (CCD) on the reductions of Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (initial value, approximately 67 log10 colony forming unit (CFU) of E. coli or V. parahaemolyticus/g) and the sensory properties on freshly sliced shad (Konosirus punctatus), in comparison with SAEW or US alone. Another aim was to develop the response surface model for E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus in the shad treated with the combination of SAEW and US. Single treatments with SAEW (chlorine 15 ppm), SAEW (chlorine 30 ppm), or US for 50 min caused a much-less-than-1-log10 reduction in the number of both E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus in the shad. In contrast, the combination of SAEW (15 or 30 ...
Background and study aims : In endoscopic procedures, propofol can be safely administered either alone or in conjunction with remifentanil. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of the administration of propofol alone and the administration of remifentanil in addition to propofol on patient and endoscopist satisfaction, preoperative hemodynamic response, and propofol consumption. ...
METHODS: We recruited 15 patients. For each patient of our study we defined a skin area of 3 cm2 from two forearms: on one side, we used skin needling first and immediately thereafter applied the EMLA in occlusion for 60 minutes; on the other one, we only applied EMLA in occlusion for 60 minutes. Then, pain was induced in each patients forearm by introducing a 27 G needle into the skin 4 mm deep three times. Lastly, pain sensation measures were registered and a middle value was calculated ...
This Excel workbook is designed to calculate the properties of eutectic mixtures of organic phase change materials (PCMs). It contains data for 15 fatty acid PCMs that are used to generate the compositions, latent heats of fusion and melting temperatures of 105 binary mixtures of fatty acids. Default values can be modified by the user and the current database can be expanded to include other PCMs and generate properties of their mixtures. More details can be found in the worksheet Disclaimer and Workbook Info included in the workbook and in the published manuscript: S. Kahwaji, M.A. White, Prediction of the Properties of Eutectic Organic Phase Change Materials, Thermochim. Acta. 660 (2017) 94-100. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0040603117303428
Background The aim of this study was to identify the best model to describe pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in prepubertal children and therefore to calculate the corresponding pharmacodynamic parameters. In addition, and to confirm our method, a group of postpubertal subjects was also studied. Methods Sixteen children (9.5 yr, range 6-12) and 13 adults (22 yr, range 13-35) were included. Induction was performed by plasma target-controlled infusion of propofol (6 microg/ml) based on the Kataria model in children and on the Schnider model in adults. The relationship of bispectral index to predicted concentrations was studied during induction using the Kataria, pediatric Marsh, Schüttler, and Schnider models in children. Because the best performance was obtained, strangely enough, with the Schnider model, the two groups were pooled to investigate influence of puberty on pharmacodynamic parameters (kE0 [plasma effect-site equilibration rate constant] and Ce50 [effect-site concentration ...
EMLA Patch (lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5%) is a topical anesthetic which causes a temporary numbness to the skin area. This combination product contains two medications: lidocaine and prilocaine. Both of these medications belong to the family of topical anesthetics. Together, they are used to reduce the pain or di
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4. Kurita TUraoka MMorita KSuzuki MMorishima YSato S: Influence of haemorrhage on the pseudo-steady-state remifentanil concentration in a swine model: a comparison with propofol and the effect of haemorrhagic shock stage. Br J Anaesth 107:719-7252011. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of ECMO assistance during mechanical ventilation: effects induced on energetic and haemodynamic variables. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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We compared anesthetic protocols with different doses of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) combined with medetomidine (M) for 288 yearling brown bear (Ursus arctos) immobilizations with the objective of finding a combination of ...
FARMACOCINETICA PROPOFOL PDF - Key words: Intravenous anesthesia, remifentanyl, propofol, infusion pump, .. Aguilera L. Conceptos básicos de farmacocinética farmacodinámia en TIVA.
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... an anesthetic process that involves combining a major neuroleptic tranquilizer/antipsychotic with a potent opioid analgesic to ... Anesthetics Sedation Twilight sleep Moby's Medical Dictionary. Elsevier. Iorio, M. A.; Paszkowska Reymer, T.; Frigeni, V. (1987 ... Efforts were also made to develop compounds which combined both types of activity in a single molecule. Neuroleptanalgesia ... "Combined analgesic/neuroleptic activity in N-butyrophenone prodine-like compounds". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 30 (10): ...
Treatment consists of several such anesthetic injections, sometimes combined with corticosteroids. Such an approach yields ... Confirmation of a diagnosis of ACNES is warranted using an abdominal wall infiltration with a local anesthetic agent near the ... This involves a repeated exploration combined with a posterior neurectomy. This procedure has been shown to be beneficial in 50 ...
Epinephrine is frequently combined with local anesthetic and can cause panic attacks. Epinephrine is mixed with cocaine to form ... When epinephrine is mixed with local anesthetic, such as bupivacaine or lidocaine, and used for local anesthesia or intrathecal ... "Benefit and Harm of Adding Epinephrine to a Local Anesthetic for Neuraxial and Locoregional Anesthesia: A Meta-analysis of ... injection, it prolongs the numbing effect and motor block effect of the anesthetic by up to an hour. ...
... and a weak anesthetic. As well as nappy rash, it can also be used to treat eczema, bedsores, minor burns, surface wounds, ... and combined with, Actavis plc. On March 17, 2015 (2015-03-17), Actavis completed the acquisition of Allergan, creating a $23 ...
Injections of local anesthetic, sometimes combined with steroids, into the muscles (e.g. the temoralis muscle or its tendon) ... Local anesthetics may provide temporary pain relief, and steroids inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines. Steroids and other ... This may occur during dental treatment, with oral intubation whilst under a general anesthetic, during singing or wind ...
Anesthetics were not regularly used in medicine or dentistry until decades after Davy's death. Davy threw himself energetically ... At one point the gas was combined with wine to judge its efficacy as a cure for hangover (his laboratory notebook indicated ... His respiration of nitric oxide which may have combined with air in the mouth to form nitric acid (HNO3), severely injured the ...
The lipedema fat is removed using a fan-shaped jet of water, which includes the anesthetic. In contrast to tumescent ... Note that techniques can be combined; for instance one could refer to the procedure as "lymph-sparing, tumescent liposuction ... Paik, AM; Daniali, LN; Lee, ES; Hsia, HC (2014). "Local anesthetic use in tumescent liposuction: an American Society of Plastic ... Lidocaine was also added as a local anesthetic. Fournier also advocated using compression after the operation, and travelled ...
This is called combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSE). The spinal anesthetic may be administered in one location, and ... This may result in a high block, or, more rarely, a total spinal, where anesthetic is delivered directly to the brainstem, ... For some procedures where both the rapid onset of a spinal anesthetic and the post-operative analgesic effects of an epidural ... In addition to blocking nerves which carry pain signals, local anesthetics may block nerves which carry other signals, though ...
It suppresses breathing much less than most other available anesthetics. When used at anesthetic doses, ketamine usually ... Hence, it appears most conventional antidepressants can be safely combined with ketamine. Antagonism of the NMDA receptor is ... At lower sub-anesthetic doses, psychiatric side effects are prominent. A majority of patients feel strange, spacey, woozy or ... At lower, sub-anesthetic doses, ketamine is a promising agent for pain and treatment-resistant depression. However, the ...
Previous anesthetic approaches had utilized alcohol or even a simple blow to the jaw that would render the patient unconscious ... All the above-mentioned features were combined with knowledge gained after practice using this inhaler-such as that the slot ... It was the site of the first public demonstration of the use of inhaled ether as a surgical anesthetic on October 16, 1846, ... When the condensation is mixed with the ether and is inhaled, it develops the chemical properties of an anesthetic. The hot- ...
The term is most commonly used to refer to epidural administration of analgesics and anesthetics. It may also refer to: ... Epidural blood patch Caudal epidural Combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia (CSE) Epidural steroid injection Patient- ...
Topical anesthetics can be used to desensitize the area where the injection will take place to reduce pain and discomfort. For ... Techniques include: distraction, hypnosis, combined cognitive behavioral therapy, and breathing techniques. Cannula Catheter ...
... anesthetic effect of barbiturates in high doses when used in anesthetic concentration. Barbituric acid was first synthesized ... The middle two classes of barbiturates are often combined under the title "short/intermediate-acting." These barbiturates are ... However, barbiturates are still used as anticonvulsants (e.g., phenobarbital and primidone) and general anesthetics (e.g., ... However, while GABAA receptor currents are increased by barbiturates (and other general anesthetics), ligand-gated ion channels ...
The veins are filled with the anesthetic, with the anesthetic setting into local tissue after approximately 6-8 minutes, after ... as well as dual-bladder tourniquet cuffs combined with dedicated safety lockouts that reduce human error. Additionally, IVRA ... or Bier's block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique on the body's extremities where a local anesthetic is injected ... The type of anesthetic agent, improper equipment use or selection, and technical error are prominent factors in most cases of ...
It has also been shown to have therapeutic use in polysubstance use when combined with anesthetics, opioids, ethanol, cocaine, ... Rohypnol lowers the side effects of the anesthetic (ketamine), resulting in less confusion in awakening states, less negative ...
About his dental research a long list of inventions have made him famous among professionals of his time, such as combine ... It was published in 1875 under the title "The air an anesthetic" and presented at the Franklin Institute. Bonwill invented an ... The Bonwill Brace is a support bracket - by combining two brackets, which includes two adjacent teeth. Erich Göhler, Bonwill ...
It is the active ingredient in many over-the-counter anesthetic ointments such as products for oral ulcers. It is also combined ... Overapplication of oral anesthetics such as benzocaine can increase the risk of pulmonary aspiration by relaxing the gag-reflex ... Benzocaine, sold under the brand name Orajel amongst others, is an ester local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain ... Demare, Patricia; Regla, Ignacio (2012). "Synthesis of Two Local Anesthetics from Toluene: An Organic Multistep Synthesis in a ...
Leake predicted that vinyl ether would combine the properties of two anesthetic agents, ethyl ether, and ethylene. As an ... Vinyl ether is a potent anesthetic giving it a large safety margin; the ratio of the anesthetic to lethal does for vinyl ether ... The anesthetic product was inhibited with .01% phenyl-α-napthylamine which gave it a faint violet fluorescence. Vinyl ether ... Anesthetic machines of the time could suitably contain vinyl ether's potency, however, via the open drop technique smooth ...
The leaves or extracts from them are used to heal wounds and as a local anesthetic. Extracts and leaves have been used to treat ... The herb is bitter and is generally combined with a sweetener. As of 2018[update], there have been no formal trials to study ...
The steps may be described as follows: Anaesthesia; Topical anesthetic agents are most commonly used and may be placed on the ... The patients with retinal detachment may be scheduled for a combined vitreo-retinal procedure, along with PC-IOL implantation. ... Anesthetic injection techniques include sub-conjunctival injections and or injections posterior to the globe (retrobulbar block ... In cases of uncontrolled glaucoma, a combined cataract-glaucoma procedure (phaco-trabeculectomy) can be planned and performed. ...
It should therefore be used with caution if combined with other drugs that affect blood pressure, such as sedatives and ... anesthetic drugs. Isoxsuprine is most commonly used to treat hoof-related problems in the horse, most commonly for laminitis ...
Combining different NMBAs can result in different degrees of neuromuscular block and management should be guided with the use ... Inhaled anesthetics inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and potentiate neuromuscular blockage with ... Combining two nondepolarising NMBAs of the same chemical class (e.g. rocuronium and vecuronium) produces an additive effect, ... It depends on the type of volatile anesthetic (desflurane > sevoflurane > isoflurane > nitrous oxide), the concentration and ...
If vasoconstriction is desired for a procedure (as it reduces bleeding), the anesthetic is combined with a vasoconstrictor such ... Benzoyl-CoA then combines the two units to form cocaine. The biosynthesis begins with L-Glutamine, which is derived to L- ... This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under ... There is also evidence that these cultures used a mixture of coca leaves and saliva as an anesthetic for the performance of ...
The name mafeisan combines ma (麻; "cannabis; hemp; numbed"), fei (沸; "boiling; bubbling") and san (散; "break up; scatter; ... The Records of the Three Kingdoms and the Book of the Later Han both credit him as creating this anesthetic during the Eastern ... Hua Tuo was an older contemporary of the physician Zhang Zhongjing (150-219). The name Hua Tuo combines the Chinese surname Hua ... He used a general anaesthetic combining wine with a herbal concoction called mafeisan (麻沸散; literally "cannabis boil powder"). ...
When combined therapy is contemplated, the dose of one or both agents should be reduced. Hydromorphone is a semi-synthetic μ- ... CNS depressants may enhance the depressant effects of hydromorphone, such as other opioids, anesthetics, sedatives, hypnotics, ... Simultaneous use of hydromorphone with other opioids, muscle relaxants, tranquilizers, sedatives, and general anesthetics may ...
When combined together into the holoprotein peditoxin, even low doses resulted in anaphylaxis-like shock and death. UT841, a ... and anesthetic coma. At higher doses it resulted in convulsions and death. Pedin itself is non-toxic, but it magnifies the ...
John Arderne (1307-1392) was an English physician and surgeon who invented his own anesthetic that combined hemlock, henbane, ... He combined Platonic philosophy with Christian doctrine and initiated a renewal of Byzantine classical learning that later ...
Currently, data on combined usage of general anesthesia and interscalene blocks are limited. Some indications for combined ... A mixture of short and long-acting local anesthetics is used to prolong the duration as well as reduce the onset of the nerve ... One example of a commonly used regional anesthetic is an interscalene brachial plexus block and it has been used in a number of ... The following anesthetics are methods commonly used to assist with post-operative shoulder replacement pain management: Three ...
Neuraxial (regional) anesthetic and analgesia techniques: (e.g. epidural, spinal, combined spinal-epidural) are used most ... Following Morton's use of ether as an anesthetic, James Simpson conducted his own obstetric anesthetic trial on January 19, ... The inhalation of anesthetic agents do not affect the act of labor or the mechanism by which uterine contractions occur, but ... With this finding, along with the statistical records of safely executed anesthetic administrations, the medical opposition to ...
... and combined some of his chemicals with some of his mother's bathroom cleaning solutions and developed an anesthetic. Testing ...
Some herbal remedies can cause dangerous interactions with chemotherapy drugs, radiation therapy, or anesthetics during surgery ... of extravagant claims by the alternative medical community combined with inadequate media scrutiny and attacks on critics.[122] ...
"Combined chiropractic interventions for low-back pain". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD005427. doi:10.1002/ ... involves sedation or local anesthetic and is done by a team that includes an anesthesiologist; a 2008 systematic review did not ... who attempt to combine the materialistic reductionism of science with the metaphysics of their predecessors and with the ... Chiropractic combines aspects from mainstream and alternative medicine, and there is no agreement about how to define the ...
Selye H (1 January 1941). "Anesthetic Effect of Steroid Hormones". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 46 (1): 116-121. doi: ... Barbiturates were synthesized in 1864 by Adolf von Baeyer by combining urea and malonic acid (Figure 5). A synthesis process ... Although barbiturates fell out of favor, they continue to serve as a short-acting anesthetic and anti-epileptic drugs. ... Fig 2. Schematic diagram of a GABAA receptor protein ((α1)2(β2)2(γ2)) which illustrates the five combined subunits that form ...
Combined with methods in debriefing, it is now also used to train students in anatomy, physiology, and communication during ... isoflurane and other anesthetic gases. PediaSIM HPS also responds to drug administration with a unique Drug Recognition System ... By combining these systems together, trainees can be contained to their respective areas of study while also studying the ...
The veins are filled with the anesthetic, with the anesthetic setting into local tissue after approximately 6-8 minutes, after ... as well as dual-bladder tourniquet cuffs combined with dedicated safety lockouts that reduce human error.[9] Additionally, IVRA ... or Bier's block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique on the body's extremities where a local anesthetic is injected ... Cardiotoxic local anesthetic agents like bupivacaine and etidocaine are strictly contraindicated.[1][2][7] ...
A recent study documented in the AANA Journal discussed the use of volatile anesthetic agents, such as sevoflurane, to be used ... Thermal injury combined with inhalation injury compromises pulmonary function, producing microvascular hyperpermeability that ... It has been established that combined burn and smoke inhalation injury impairs hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), the ...
NREM stage 2 and REM, which combined are 70% of an average person's total sleep time, are more associated with mental recovery ... RFA is usually performed in an outpatient setting, using either local anesthetics or conscious sedation anesthesia, the ... In this chromosomal abnormality, several features combine to make the presence of obstructive sleep apnea more likely. The ...
Some combine a pacemaker and defibrillator in a single implantable device. Others have multiple electrodes stimulating ... A pacemaker is typically inserted into the patient through a simple surgery using either local anesthetic or a general ... Weirich WL, Gott VL, Lillehei CW (1957). "The treatment of complete heart block by the combined use of a myocardial electrode ... CRT can be combined with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD): such devices, known as CRT-D (for defibrillation), ...
Alcohol: It has been reported that combined use of alcohol and kava extract can have additive sedative effects.[36][79] ... The root of the plant is used to produce a drink with sedative, anesthetic, and euphoriant properties. Its active ingredients ... The ground root/bark is combined with only a little water, as the fresh root releases moisture during grinding. Pounding is ...
So you can see that the volatile anesthetic agents of today are really a spin-off of the technology developed during the ... The 2010 WikiCup is over! It has been a long journey, but what has been achieved is impressive: combined, participants have ... All of the currently used volatile anesthetic agents, including methoxyflurane, are fluorinated haloalkanes. With the exception ...
Cocaine: used as a topical anesthetic and to stop severe epistaxis. *Codeine (pure) and any drug for non-parenteral ... Paregoric, an antidiarrheal and anti-tussive, which contains opium combined with camphor (which makes it less addiction-prone ... The CSA not only combined existing federal drug laws and expanded their scope, but it also changed the nature of federal drug ... Ketamine, a drug originally developed as a safer, shorter-acting replacement for PCP (mainly for use as a human anesthetic) but ...
... partial and combined. To stimulate the facial muscles and capture these "idealized" expressions of his patients, Duchenne ... and furthermore said that because the patient was suffering from an anesthetic condition of the face, he could experiment upon ...
A combined study of open cases and a meta-analysis". Revista de Psiquiatria y Salud Mental. 6 (4): 144-9. doi:10.1016/j.rpsm. ... Local anesthetics (e.g., lidocaine). *Mexiletine. *TCAs (e.g., amitriptyline, nortriptyline, desipramine) ...
"Patient considerations in cataract surgery - the role of combined therapy using phenylephrine and ketorolac". Patient ... Local anesthetics (e.g., cocaine, lidocaine). *Mexiletine. *Nefopam. *Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline#) ...
Owen, Gail N.; Parnell, Holly; De Bruin, Eveline A.; Rycroft, Jane A. (2008). "The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine ...
Laughing gas, anesthetic (used in a combination with diatomic oxygen (O2) to make Nitrous oxide and oxygen anesthesia), ... form when oxygen combines with other elements ...
Papakostas GI, Thase ME, Fava M, Nelson JC, Shelton RC (December 2007). "Are antidepressant drugs that combine serotonergic and ... Local anesthetics (e.g., lidocaine). *Mexiletine. *TCAs (e.g., amitriptyline, nortriptyline, desipramine) ... Papakostas GI, Thase ME, Fava M, Nelson JC, Shelton RC (December 2007). "Are antidepressant drugs that combine serotonergic and ... Several studies have shown that antidepressant drugs which have combined serotonergic and noradrenergic activity are generally ...
These topical anesthetics contain anesthetic drugs such as lidocaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, and prilocaine in a cream, ... Smith, Howard S.; Raffa, Robert B.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Taylor, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J. (2014-07-01). "Combining opioid ... Lidocaine, an anesthetic, and steroids may be injected into joints for longer-term pain relief. Lidocaine is also used for ... They are distinct from anesthetics, which temporarily affect, and in some instances completely eliminate, sensation. Analgesics ...
In one study the risk of anesthetic-related death (not limited to neutering procedures) was estimated at 0.05% for healthy dogs ... However, the incidence of adverse reactions for neutered and intact dogs combined is only 0.32%.[48] ... As with any surgical procedure, immediate complications of neutering include the usual anesthetic and surgical complications, ...
... and cocaine combined[clarification needed] is between 0.8% and 2.1%.[4] ... nasal congestion and as anesthetics.[24] Drugs used to treat obesity are called anorectics and generally include drugs that ... although it sees clinical use as a local anesthetic, in particular in ophthalmology. Most cocaine use is recreational and its ...
Maher, T.J. (2013). Anesthetic agents: General and local anesthetics. In: T.L. Lemke & D.A. Williams (editors). Foye's ... Activation of NMDA receptors results in the opening of the ion channel that is nonselective to cations, with a combined ... Antagonists of the NMDA receptor are used as anesthetics for animals and sometimes humans, and are often used as recreational ... Motor Discoordination Results from Combined Gene Disruption of the NMDA Receptor NR2A and NR2C Subunits, But Not from Single ...
These four issues combined with Koop's personality and his willingness to make use of mass media brought to the office of ... He invented anesthetic and surgical techniques for small bodies and metabolisms and participated in the separation of several ...
The J-Tip is being used as a prenumber for needle procedures by giving an anesthetic effect within 1-2 minutes. It is being ... Researchers developed a new jet injection design by combining the drug reservoir, plunger and nozzle into a single-use ...
An example of a niche use is as an anesthetic agent (in an 85% ethylene/15% oxygen ratio).[15] It can also be used to hasten ... This group also discovered that ethylene could be combined with chlorine to produce the oil of the Dutch chemists, 1,2- ... ethylene was used as an anesthetic.[55][5] It remained in use through the 1940s use even while chloroform was being phased out ... "Advantages of Ethylene-Oxygen as an anesthetic". California and Western Medicine. 27 (2): 216-218. PMC 1655579. PMID 18740435 ...
Water privation combined with diuretic block does not produce as much risk of CPM as saline administration does; however, it ... antibiotics or topical anesthetics. Eye drops sometimes do not have medications in them and are only lubricating and tear- ...
Combined modality chemotherapy is the use of drugs with other cancer treatments, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or ... Electrochemotherapy is the combined treatment in which injection of a chemotherapeutic drug is followed by application of high- ... In regard to the potential benefit that drug-resistant cells can be recruited for effective therapy by combining chemotherapy ... Anemia in cancer patients can be a combined outcome caused by myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and possible cancer-related causes ...
Epinephrine/adrenaline is frequently combined with dental and spinal anesthetics and can cause panic attacks in susceptible ... Local anesthetics[edit]. Adrenaline is added to injectable forms of a number of local anesthetics, such as bupivacaine and ... Some of the adverse effects of local anesthetic use, such as apprehension, tachycardia, and tremor, may be caused by adrenaline ... Due to epinephrine's vasoconstricting abilities, the use of epinephrine in localized anesthetics also helps to diminish the ...
Requirements for anesthetics may be reduced in sepsis. Inhalational anesthetics can reduce the level of proinflammatory ... or broad-spectrum carbapenem combined with fluoroquinolones, macrolides, or aminoglycosides) are recommended. The choice of ... "Sepsis pathophysiology and anesthetic consideration". Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets. 15 (1): 57-69. ... Usually, inhalational and intravenous anesthetics are used. ...
... and an 8-fold increase in heart attacks and strokes combined compared to both control groups.[15][37] Although this was a ... Local anesthetics (e.g., cocaine, lidocaine). *Mexiletine. *Nefopam. *Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline#) ...
... , either by itself or in a combined formulation, effectively treats certain types of a headache, but its efficacy may be ... Local anesthetics (e.g., cocaine, lidocaine). *Mexiletine. *Nefopam. *Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline#) ... aspirin is combined with an ADP receptor inhibitor, such as clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor to prevent blood clots. This ... Combining aspirin with other NSAIDs has also been shown to further increase this risk.[94] Using aspirin in combination with ...
Combined electrochemical nerve block reduced pain in 80% of patients with neuropathies and 50% of patients with intractable ... New Technique Combines Electrical Currents and Local Anesthetic for Pain Management. As Originally published by Practical Pain ... In addition, we have combined the new EST with local anesthetic injections (bupivacaine 0.25%) with clinical success. This ... Combined electrochemical nerve block reduced pain in 80% of patients with neuropathies and 50% of patients with intractable ...
Patient underwent combined right atrial thrombectomy and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in the same setting. ... Perioperative anesthesia management and perioperative concerns of two major combined procedures are discussed.... ... Perioperative anesthetic management of a combined right atrial thrombectomy with living donor liver transplantation. *. ... Patient underwent combined right atrial thrombectomy and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in the same setting. ...
Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity after Combined Psoas Compartment-Sciatic Nerve Block Analysis of Decision Factors and ... Vadi, M.G., Patel, N. and Stiegler, M.P. (2014) Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity after Combined Psoas Compartment-Sciatic ... Features and Principles the Spread of Local Anesthetic Blockade of the Sciatic Nerve at Depends on the Amount of Anesthetic ... Pressure of Local Anesthetic Solution While Performing Sciatic Nerve Blockade in Human Subgluteal Area ...
Purpose : To determine the feasibility and safety of outpatient combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy for ... Novel anesthetic technique for combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy for cervix cancer in an outpatient setting ... "Novel anesthetic technique for combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy for cervix cancer in an outpatient setting ... "Novel anesthetic technique for combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy for cervix cancer in an outpatient setting ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Combined (local and general) anaesthesia or Balanced (intravenous analgesics and inhalational ...
Anesthetics, Local. Anesthetics. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Sensory System Agents. ... A Safety and Tolerability of PSD502 (a Topical Anesthetic) in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation. This study has been ... Known drug sensitivity to amide-type local anesthetics. *Unlikely to understand or be able to comply with study procedures, for ... The study drug is a metered-dose anesthetic spray, which is being developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). ...
LA drugs are also often combined with other agents such as opioids for synergistic analgesic action.[1] Low doses of LA drugs ... List of local anesthetics. References[edit]. *^ Ryan, T (2019). "Tramadol as an adjunct to intra‐articular local anaesthetic ... of Wisconsin, Local Anesthesia and Regional Anesthetics *^ a b Weinberg GL, VadeBoncouer T, Ramaraju GA, Garcia-Amaro MF, Cwik ... A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes absence of pain sensation. When it is used on specific nerve pathways ( ...
12093-20 COMBINED SPINAL/EPIDURAL 18G TUOHY/27G HIGH FLOW WHITACRE () kit NDC Code(s): 0409-1209-65, 0409-7241-61, 51688-9913-2 ... SEARCH RESULTS for: Amide Local Anesthetic [Drug Class] (2214 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark ...
Receiving Set Combines Hearing Aid Radio October 26, 1946 by Science News ...
... wherein the anesthetic comprises from about 0.5 to about 2.0% by weight of the composition, the composition further containing ... the composition containing a local parenteral anesthetic which in normal doses gives an acid pH of from about 2.5 to about 6.9 ... An aqueous composition for reducing pain at the site of injection of local parenteral anesthetic material, for improving the ... Combined mixing syringe and container. US3978212 *. Dec 13, 1974. Aug 31, 1976. Chemo Drug Company. Electrolyte solutions ...
... then a lower dose of intrathecal local anesthetic was selected and alternative options such as combined-spinal epidural and ... the most influential factors determining further anesthetic management were the category of cesarean section (92%), dermatomal ... factors influencing the management and selection of anesthetic technique. Differences in management options between respondents ... Further administration of local anesthetic can moreover increase the risk of local anesthetic systemic toxicity [18], a ...
Our anesthesia group routinely performs 10-hour outpatient pediatric anesthetics for combined atresia-microtia ear ... 3 thoughts on "10-HOUR OUTPATIENT PEDIATRIC ANESTHETICS FOR COMBINED ATRESIA-MICROTIA (CAM) EAR RECONSTRUCTION" * bank post ... The surgical-anesthetic team to date has successfully performed the combined procedure on 55 patients, 90% of who were of the ... This combined atresia and microtia repair, requiring a total anesthetic time approaching ten hours, is a new procedure being ...
Pancoast Tumors and Combined Spinal Resections Andrew Kaufman, David Amar, Valerie W. Rusch ... Anesthetic Considerations for Infectious, Congenital, and Acquired Pulmonary Disorders Peter Slinger, Rebecca Jacob ...
Anesthetics, Local. Anesthetics. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Sensory System Agents. ... Anesthetics, Intravenous. Anesthetics, General. Central Nervous System Stimulants. Sympathomimetics. Autonomic Agents. ... The Effect of Combined Ephedrine and Lidocaine Pretreatment on Pain and Hemodynamic Changes Due to Propofol Injection. This ... Title: The Effect of Combined Ephedrine and Lidocaine Pretreatment on Pain Due to Propofol Injection in Patients Undergoing ...
... analgesics and anesthetics, explains this ACOG patient FAQ. ... Anesthetics: Drugs that relieve pain by loss of sensation.. ... They include the epidural block, spinal block, and combined spinal-epidural (CSE) block. The medication includes an anesthetic ... Breathing problems if the anesthetic affects your breathing muscles. *Numbness, tingling, or rapid heartbeat if the anesthetic ... The anesthetic drug is injected into the area around the nerves that carry feeling to the vagina, vulva, and perineum. Local ...
Anesthetic, any agent that produces a local or general loss of sensation, including pain. Anesthetics achieve this effect by ... Not infrequently, general anesthetics are combined with drugs that block neuromuscular impulse transmission. These additional ... Anesthetic, also spelled anaesthetic, any agent that produces a local or general loss of sensation, including pain. Anesthetics ... General anesthetics. General anesthetics induce anesthesia throughout the body and can be administered either by inhalation or ...
... especially local anesthetic preparations and deals with the problem of i a obtaining a solution of a local anesthetic agent in ... This problem has been dissolved according to the present invention thereby that one local anesthetic agent in the form of its ... is provided with one other local anesthetic agent in the form of its base and as such having a melting point of above 30 C., ... It is further known to combine two or more local anesthetics in the form of acid addition salts in aqueous solutions for ...
Combined spinal/epidural block, Combined spinal/epidural local anaesthetic block, Combined spinal/epidural local anesthetic ... combined spinal epidural anesthesia, Combined spinal/epidural local anesthetic block (procedure). ... Uses a combined injection of spinal (intrathecal) and Epidural Anesthesia. *Lower dose anesthetic (bupivicaine or ropivicaine) ... Local anesthetic epidural block, Local anesthetic epidural block, Epidural anesthesia (procedure), Epidural Block. ...
Anesthetic Profile of Dexmedetomidine Identified by Stimulus-Response and Continuous Measurements in Rats. Cornelis J. J. G. ... Combined with previous results (Bol et al., 1997a), the data suggest that the proposed EEG measure may better reflect different ... Anesthetic Profile of Dexmedetomidine Identified by Stimulus-Response and Continuous Measurements in Rats. Cornelis J. J. G. ... Anesthetic Profile of Dexmedetomidine Identified by Stimulus-Response and Continuous Measurements in Rats. Cornelis J. J. G. ...
... Article information. ... Anesthetic management of combined heart-liver transplantation in a patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy and cardiac cirrhosis: ... Diaz GC, Renz JF, Nishanian E, Kinkhabwala M, Emond JC, Wagener G. Anesthetic management of combined heart-liver ... Herein, we describe the anesthetic management during the first combined heart-liver transplant (CHLT) performed in Korea. ...
Benzocaine is a local anesthetic (numbing medication). It works by blocking nerve signals in your body. It is a topical gel ... A combined spinal-epidural block during labor and delivery has the benefits of pain relief from both... ... Anesthetic Agent. Anesthetic is a drug or substance that blocks pain and causes loss of feeling. Anesthetic drugs are used on ... Topical anesthetics are medications that help soothe itchy or irritated skin. They work by numbing t... ...
J-Tip is a needle-less Food and Drug Administration approved injection system that can be used for delivery of local anesthetic ... Anesthetics, Combined / administration & dosage* * Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage* * Catheterization, Peripheral ... J-Tip is a needle-less Food and Drug Administration approved injection system that can be used for delivery of local anesthetic ... In this study, we compared the effectiveness of J-Tip versus eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) to facilitate IV ...
Anesthetics, Combined / administration & dosage* * Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage* * Antibodies / blood * Double- ...
Eastern on homemade topical anesthetic: Administration of topical anesthetics to control pain associated with procedures such ... Topical Fucidin cream combine with lightening cream is it safe? Dr. Joseph Eastern Dr. Eastern ... Anesthetic (Definition) Anestheticss are a class of drugs which cause a reversible loss of sensation. The 2 main classes are ... General anesthetics cause unconsciousness and total loss of sensation. Local anesthetics cause loss of sensation to a limited ...
Our aim was to test whether using 3 different volumes of the same local anesthetic dose i ... and concentration of local anesthetic and the quality and success of regional anesthesia remains unclear. ... 19263066 - Preoperative intravenous dexamethasone combined with glossopharyngeal nerve block: role.... 1874226 - Post-operative ... Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage*. Brachial Plexus / drug effects*. Double-Blind Method. Drug Administration ...
The excitability of neurons is determined by the combined efficacies of phasic and tonic inhibition. To explore how neurons ... 2003) General anesthetic actions in vivo strongly attenuated by a point mutation in the GABA(A) receptor β3 subunit. FASEB J 17 ... 2009) Anesthetics discriminate between tonic and phasic γ-aminobutyric acid receptors on hippocampal CA1 neurons. Anesth Analg ... In DGGCs, anesthetic concentrations of etomidate (3 μm) significantly enhanced IPSC amplitude in WT mice [control I = 28.9 ± ...
They have data from animals and exploratory studies in humans showing that combining Site-1 sodium channel blockers with ... Current local anesthetics act for less than 8 hours; when they wear off, patients generally need opioid analgesics, which cause ... "In my opinion, there has not been a truly innovative new local anesthetic medication in the last 40 to 50 years," notes study ... It is a site 1 sodium-channel blocker, part of a larger class of emerging anesthetics based on molecules derived from aquatic ...
Ocular local anesthetics currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ability ... Anesthetics, Combined. Anesthetics, Local / pharmacology*. Animals. Cell Line. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Cornea / drug effects ... 0/Anesthetics, Combined; 0/Anesthetics, Local; 0/Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; 0/Sodium Channel Blockers; 15461-38-8/ ... PURPOSE: Ocular local anesthetics currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ...
Studies show that treatment for opioid addiction using methadone at an adequate dosage level combined with behavioral therapy ... These include corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, local anesthetics, and stimulants. Opioids are only safe to ... These drugs slow down breathing, and the combined effects can result in life-threatening respiratory depression. ...
  • Perioperative anesthesia management and perioperative concerns of two major combined procedures are discussed. (medworm.com)
  • To determine the feasibility and safety of outpatient combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy for cervix cancer with sedation and local anesthesia. (termedia.pl)
  • Outpatient combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy for cervix cancer with sedation and local anesthesia is feasible and safe. (termedia.pl)
  • Sometimes, conduction anesthesia is combined with general anesthesia or sedation for the patient's comfort and ease of surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the sensory block level was higher or unilateral, then a lower dose of intrathecal local anesthetic was selected and alternative options such as combined-spinal epidural and general anesthesia were increasingly favored. (hindawi.com)
  • If a cesarean delivery is needed in a parturient with an existing labor epidural, it is common practice to convert or "top up" the epidural catheter [ 2 ], with the aim of initiating surgical anesthesia by injecting more concentrated local anesthetic, usually combined with a lipid soluble opioid. (hindawi.com)
  • Our anesthesia group routinely performs 10-hour outpatient pediatric anesthetics for combined atresia-microtia ear reconstruction surgeries. (theanesthesiaconsultant.com)
  • A 5-year-old male was with congenital atresia and microtia of the left ear was scheduled for combined atresia repair and microtia reconstruction under general anesthesia. (theanesthesiaconsultant.com)
  • General anesthetics induce anesthesia throughout the body and can be administered either by inhalation or by direct injection into the bloodstream. (britannica.com)
  • The ideal anesthetic agent allows rapid and pleasant induction (the process that brings about anesthesia), close control of the level of anesthesia and rapid reversibility, good muscle relaxation, and few toxic or adverse effects. (britannica.com)
  • These systemic anesthetics result in a rapid onset of anesthesia after a single dose, because of their high solubility in lipids and their relatively high perfusion rate in the brain. (britannica.com)
  • The intravenous anesthetics are frequently used for induction of anesthesia and are followed by an inhalational agent for maintenance of the anesthetic state. (britannica.com)
  • Local anesthetics provide restricted anesthesia because they are administered to the peripheral sensory nerves innervating a region, usually by injection . (britannica.com)
  • With the use of opioids, i.v. anesthetic agents, and their combinations, this rank order of effects can change and may even be deliberately altered in accordance with the variable goals of anesthesia. (aspetjournals.org)
  • PURPOSE: Ocular local anesthetics currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ability to delay corneal healing makes them unsuitable for long-term use. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare single injection pectoral nerve block (Pecs I and Pecs II) versus local anesthetic infiltration for ambulatory breast augmentation under monitored anesthesia care (MAC). (springeropen.com)
  • Exclusion criteria were ASA class ≥ III, contraindications to regional anesthesia (including coagulopathy and infection at the injection site), history of chronic use of opioids, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35, uncooperative patients, and patients with known allergy to local anesthetics, opioids, NSAIDs, or paracetamol. (springeropen.com)
  • General anesthetics elicit a state of general anesthesia . (wikipedia.org)
  • While general anesthesia induction may be facilitated by one general anesthetic, others may be used in parallel or subsequently to achieve and maintain the desired anesthetic state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of topical anesthetics to control pain associated with procedures such as laceration repair may avoid the need for infiltrative local anesthesia injections and associated pain from the injections. (healthtap.com)
  • Although it is evident that intravenous anesthetics are able to enhance GABA A R subtypes that mediate phasic and tonic inhibition, the relative contribution of these distinct forms of inhibition to the mechanism of anesthesia remains elusive. (jneurosci.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the application of propofol combined with sevoflurane anesthesia in associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, as ALPPS is complex and the operation time is longer than that of common hepatectomy, the anesthesia requirements for ALPPS are high, which limits the use of numerous anesthetic methods and anesthetics. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Midazolam (MDZ) is an anesthetic inducer used for general anesthesia. (mdpi.com)
  • A regional anesthetic may be combined with another type of anesthesia. (massgeneral.org)
  • Combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA) has advantages over single injection epidural or subarachnoid blockades. (scielo.br)
  • This leads to prolonged nerve exposure to local anesthetics and reduced plasma levels, in addition to the potency of intrinsic vasoconstriction being partially associated with duration of anesthesia produced by the local anesthetic [ 3 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The effect of local anesthesia depends not only on the properties and concentration of the drug, but also on the thickness of the myelin sheath of the nerve fiber that prevents the penetration of the anesthetic through the cell membrane. (moluch.ru)
  • to Study the features-actions* of modern domestic articaine-containing anesthetic «Supercain» to improve the efficiency and safety of local anesthesia by introducing into dental practice. (moluch.ru)
  • Ubistesin combined preparation for local anesthesia in dentistry. (moluch.ru)
  • general anesthesia (GA) group (group I) and combined general/epidural anesthesia group (CGEA) (group II). (who.int)
  • 2019-02-24 characteristics, anesthesia time, surgical time, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), anesthetic / analgesic requirements, the occurrence of intraoperative bradycardia and/or hypotension, time to extubation, time to post anesthesia care unit (PACU) discharge and duration of PACU stay were recorded and considered for analysis. (who.int)
  • L mostly performed under general combined general/epidural anesthesia on early anesthesia (GA) which is associated with recovery after spine surgery. (who.int)
  • Modern labor analgesia favors initiation and maintenance of analgesia with low-dose local anesthesia and opioid solutions to minimize risks of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (unintentional intravascular injection) or high- or total-spinal anesthesia (unintentional intrathecal injection). (medscape.com)
  • measured by serum cardiac troponin-T (Tn-T) in patients undergoing elective major abdominal cancer surgery with general anaesthesia or combined general and lumbar epidural anesthesia. (omicsonline.org)
  • 30 patients each to receive general anesthesia (G1) or combined general and epidural anesthesia (G2). (omicsonline.org)
  • Hemodynamic effects of epinephrine associated to an epidural clonidine-bupivacaine mixture during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. (ac.be)
  • Combined epidural and general anesthesia induced a significant decrease in arterial pressure and heart rate in both groups. (ac.be)
  • Low dose epidural epinephrine decreases arterial pressure instability during combined epidural and general anesthesia. (ac.be)
  • In few cases anaesthetist combines both general and local anesthesia techniques. (altiusdirectory.com)
  • As background information, the free esters or amides of local anesthetics such as Lidocaine, Mepivacaine and Bupivacaine are basic substances due to the presence of the amino group. (google.com)
  • J-Tip application of 1% buffered lidocaine before IV cannulation is not painful and has better anesthetic effectiveness compared with EMLA. (nih.gov)
  • Lidocaine is an anesthetic agent that acts by blocking the nerve signals between sensory nerves where it is applied or injected. (wikihow.com)
  • Cumulative concentration-response curves to local anesthetics (levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine) were obtained from isolated rat aorta. (hindawi.com)
  • Levobupivacaine and ropivacaine are long-acting aminoamide local anesthetics, whereas mepivacaine and lidocaine have an intermediate duration [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The main component of all these drugs is a local anesthetic - articaine, which determines, on the one hand, the General features of the action of all these drugs, and on the other-their distinctive features in comparison with drugs created on the basis of lidocaine or mepivacaine. (moluch.ru)
  • Anesthetics such as lidocaine or bupivacaine may be combined with narcotics such as fentanyl or morphine. (dummies.com)
  • In addition, we have combined the new EST with local anesthetic injections (bupivacaine 0.25%) with clinical success. (experts.com)
  • Combined spinal epidural (CSE) anaesthesia with bupivacaine and sufentanil was used for cesarean section under optimal monitoring . (bvsalud.org)
  • In a randomized, double-blind trial, patients given neosaxitoxin, a new local anesthetic derived from algae, had significantly less postoperative pain and recovered about two days sooner than those given the commonly used local anesthetic bupivacaine. (healthcanal.com)
  • Combined spinal epidural block was performed in the T 5 -T 6 space and 8 mg of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine with 50 µg of morphine were injected in the subarachnoid space. (scielo.br)
  • The medication includes an anesthetic that may be mixed with an opioid analgesic. (acog.org)
  • To the best of our knowledge there is no report in literature of the use of sufentanil as a neuraxial opioid in the anesthetic management of cesarean section in a patient with PPCM. (bvsalud.org)
  • Their work in rats showed that the compounds lack the side effects of existing anesthetics and opioid analgesics. (healthcanal.com)
  • Antipsychotics (a.k.a. neuroleptics or tranquilizers) were investigated by the anesthesiologists De Castro and Mundeleer who coined the term neuroleptanalgesia, an anesthetic process that involves combining a major neuroleptic tranquilizer/antipsychotic with a potent opioid analgesic to produce a detached, pain-free state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small-dose intraspinal local anesthetics, when added to either epidural or intrathecal opioids, synergistically enhance the antinociceptive effects of the opioid dose, as demonstrated by isobolographic analysis (2) , likely because of inhibition of neuronal excitability. (lww.com)
  • Moreover, temporary use of a local anesthetic alone can allow a "drug holiday" when opioid tolerance becomes a limiting factor for treatment. (lww.com)
  • In combined spinal-epidural analgesia, the epidural space is located in the same fashion, and prior to threading the epidural catheter, a small 25- to 27-gauge spinal needle is introduced through the epidural needle to puncture the dura and to bolus a single dose of local anesthetic with or without opioid. (medscape.com)
  • The study drug is a metered-dose anesthetic spray, which is being developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • LA drugs are also often combined with other agents such as opioids for synergistic analgesic action. (wikipedia.org)
  • CGEA was significantly associated with reduction of intraoperative anesthetics / analgesic requirements, shorter time to extubation, time for PACU discharge and duration of PACU stay but on the expense of higher incidence of intraoperative hypotension. (who.int)
  • It is the most widely used anesthetic in veterinary medicine and is used for some surgical procedures in humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It obtained information on factors influencing the decision to utilize an existing labor epidural for cesarean section and, if epidural top up resulted in no objective sensory block, bilateral T10 sensory block, or unilateral T6 sensory block, factors influencing the management and selection of anesthetic technique. (hindawi.com)
  • the existence of neurologic disorders (e.g., epilepsy or myasthenia gravis) influences the selection of anesthetic. (slideshare.net)
  • It's a regional anesthetic that can be given at any stage of labor to numb the abdomen and therefore block the pain of contractions, but it's typically given when the woman is at least 4 cm dilated . (familyeducation.com)
  • As of 2018, we are the only surgical/anesthetic practice in the world performing this surgery in high volume, and we are proud to have restored hearing and a cosmetic ear to hundreds of children from North America, Asia, Europe, and South America. (theanesthesiaconsultant.com)
  • The surgical team of Joseph Roberson, M.D. and John Reinisch, M.D. regularly performs Combined Atresia-Microtia (CAM) ear reconstruction surgery on children born without normal ear anatomy. (theanesthesiaconsultant.com)
  • The surgical procedure was combined atresia repair of the middle ear, reconstruction of the external auditory canal, and Medpor microtia reconstruction of an external ear. (theanesthesiaconsultant.com)
  • Advances in surgical techniques and anesthetic management have rendered simultaneous multiple organ transplantation a viable option for carefully selected patients. (ekja.org)
  • Thus, local anesthetics are useful in minor surgical procedures, such as the extraction of teeth . (britannica.com)
  • As an adjuvant, it reduces anesthetic requirements and attenuates the hemodynamic responses to tracheal intubation and surgical stimuli, providing cardiovascular stability during surgery. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Anesthetic drugs are used on patients prior to surgery to numb part of the body or to make a the patient unconscious during the surgical procedure. (sharecare.com)
  • Boston, MA - A U.S.-Chile collaboration is bringing surgical patients closer to having a long-acting local anesthetic. (healthcanal.com)
  • A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes absence of pain sensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzocaine is a local anesthetic (numbing medication). (sharecare.com)
  • In my opinion, there has not been a truly innovative new local anesthetic medication in the last 40 to 50 years," notes study coauthor Charles Berde, MD, PhD, chief of the Division of Pain Medicine at Children's Hospital Boston. (healthcanal.com)
  • The timing of IV insertion in our ED would allow for full medication effect of the currently marketed topical anesthetics in the majority of ED patients. (aappublications.org)
  • 1-4 However, it has not been common practice to use these medications in the emergency department (ED). The requirements for successful and efficient application of topical anesthetic in the ED are 1) prospective identification of patients receiving IV insertions and 2) sufficient time between triage and IV insertion for the medication to take effect. (aappublications.org)
  • Combining anesthetic ESI with anti-inflammatory medication seems to relieve neck pain better than either medication alone. (socom.mil)
  • Glen's team wanted to find a medication that possesses the anesthetic power of thiopentone, but allows rapid recovery. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • [ 14 , 15 ] A likely mechanism is the dural hole acts as a conduit to enhance epidural medication translocation into the intrathecal space, allowing enhanced coverage of sacral nerve roots while avoiding the side effects associated with conventional combined spinal-epidural analgesia. (medscape.com)
  • General anaesthetics (or anesthetics , see spelling differences ) are often defined as compounds that induce a loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] [5] It is possible to deliver anaesthesia solely by inhalation or injection, but most commonly the two forms are combined, with an injection given to induce anaesthesia and a gas used to maintain it. (wikipedia.org)
  • General anesthetics that agonize them are typically used to induce a state of sedation and/or unconsciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose that our isoflurane-2P imaging paradigm can serve as an attractive model system to dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce the anesthetic state, and it might also provide important insight into sleep-like brain states and consciousness. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aminoamide local anesthetics induce vasoconstriction in vivo and in vitro . (hindawi.com)
  • Aminoamide local anesthetics induce vasoconstriction at low doses and vasodilation at high doses [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Because of the rarity of pheochromocytoma, most data on the anesthetic management and perioperative outcomes have been reported in small case series that spanned many years. (uptodate.com)
  • An aqueous composition for reducing pain at the site of injection of local parenteral anesthetic material, for improving the onset thereof, and for increasing its duration, and a means for preparing and dispensing the same, the composition containing a local parenteral anesthetic which in normal doses. (google.com)
  • The invention also concerns a unique pH buffered, neutral or slightly basic aqueous composition containing a normally acidic parenteral anesthetic, but wherein a pH adjustment from acid to neutral or basic is made completely within a composite article in a hermetically sealed manner substantially immediately prior to injection of the composition. (google.com)
  • The acid pH ranging, for example, between 3.5 to 6.5, of intradermal or subcutaneous anesthetic solutions and of most intravenous anesthetic solutions has been implicated as a factor responsible for local irritation at the site of injection, which leads to pain or discomfort during the period of infiltration. (google.com)
  • An injection of an anesthetic drug into the space between the wall of the spinal canal and the covering of the spinal cord. (fpnotebook.com)
  • J-Tip is a needle-less Food and Drug Administration approved injection system that can be used for delivery of local anesthetic before IV cannulation. (nih.gov)
  • Combining a medium-viscosity dispersive and a viscous-cohesive viscoelastic in one syringe separated by an innovative bypass stopper system for a planned sequential injection. (zeiss.com)
  • To gain access to the brain, anesthetics must be lipid soluble, but to achieve compatibility with blood, they must be presented in an aqueous solution for injection. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Depending on the vascularity of the injection site, vasoconstriction induced by local anesthetic and the addition of epinephrine may contribute to decreased absorption of local anesthetics into systemic circulation [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Vadi, M.G., Patel, N. and Stiegler, M.P. (2014) Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity after Combined Psoas Compartment-Sciatic Nerve Block Analysis of Decision Factors and Diagnostic Delay. (scirp.org)
  • They are not addictive, have no cardiac toxicity and don't cross the blood-brain barrier, thus avoiding the risk of seizures occasionally seen with existing local anesthetics. (healthcanal.com)
  • This study characterizes the anesthetic profile of dexmedetomidine on the basis of steady-state plasma concentrations using defined stimulus-response, ventilatory, and continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) and cardiovascular effect measures in rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Recently, α 2 -adrenergic agonists, like dexmedetomidine, are being studied for potential use in anesthetic practice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To date, the anesthetic profile of dexmedetomidine has not been quantified on the basis of drug concentrations. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ultrasound-guided pectoral nerve block and local anesthetic infiltration during ambulatory breast augmentation under MAC with dexmedetomidine on postoperative morphine consumption (our primary outcome), pain scores, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and patients' satisfaction. (springeropen.com)
  • [2] General anesthetics, however, typically elicit several key reversible effects: immobility, analgesia , amnesia , unconsciousness, and reduced autonomic responsiveness to noxious stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • General anesthetics cause unconsciousness and total loss of sensation. (healthtap.com)
  • The type of drug he sought-an induction agent-is used to sedate people so they can then tolerate inhaled anesthetics that maintain unconsciousness for long procedures. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • In this study, we compared the effectiveness of J-Tip versus eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) to facilitate IV cannulation and provide adequate analgesia before IV placement. (nih.gov)
  • The development of tolerance to morphine is delayed, and the quality of analgesia can be improved because of the morphine-sparing effect of local anesthetics (3) . (lww.com)
  • Tachyphylaxis to local anesthetics is defined as a decrease in duration, segmental spread, or intensity of analgesia despite repeated constant dosages. (lww.com)
  • Labor neuraxial analgesia is usually initiated by one of two methods: epidural or combined spinal-epidural analgesia (Figure 2). (medscape.com)
  • [ 6 ] Combined spinal-epidural analgesia is often used for initiation of analgesia in advanced labor because of rapid onset of effective analgesia. (medscape.com)
  • [ 7 , 8 ] Combined spinal-epidural analgesia has faster onset (2 to 5 min) than epidural analgesia (15 to 20 min), greater uniformity in sensory blockade, and improved sacral dermatome coverage. (medscape.com)
  • [ 9 ] While some studies report greater satisfaction and sense of control associated with combined spinal-epidural analgesia, the meta-analyses do not support this observation. (medscape.com)
  • however, a 2016 study suggests that may not be the case, and favors combined spinal-epidural analgesia for earlier detection of failed epidural analgesia. (medscape.com)
  • [ 13 ] A higher risk of uterine tachysystole after combined spinal-epidural analgesia than epidural analgesia has been reported and may be attributable to the rapid decrease in circulating catecholamines (which have a tocolytic effect) that accompanies rapid-onset of labor analgesia. (medscape.com)
  • Epidural analgesia technique ( A ) versus combined spinal-epidural technique ( B ). In epidural analgesia, the epidural space is located using an epidural needle, by a loss-of-resistance technique. (medscape.com)
  • A modification of the combined spinal-epidural technique is dural puncture epidural analgesia. (medscape.com)
  • Dural puncture epidural analgesia may be associated with improved sacral analgesia compared to epidural analgesia, with less pruritus, hypotension, supplemental epidural doses, and uterine tachysystole than combined spinal-epidural analgesia. (medscape.com)
  • en] Clonidine or epinephrine are frequently combined to epidural local anesthetics to strengthen sensory block and prolong analgesia. (ac.be)
  • Collectively, these observations suggest that potentiation of tonic inhibition mediated by α4 subunit containing GABA A Rs contributes to the hypnotic and amnestic actions of the intravenous anesthetics, etomidate and propofol. (jneurosci.org)
  • In conclusion, propofol combined with sevoflurane has a good application value in ALPPS. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Propofol delivered its anesthetic effects smoothly and safely, and people recovered quickly, with minimal grogginess, nausea, or other lingering unpleasantness. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • In this case report, we focus on the specific anesthetic considerations for CHLT pertaining to the challenges associated with dual pathophysiology. (ekja.org)
  • Perioperative and anesthetic considerations in truncus arteriosus. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • Anesthetic and Perioperative Considerations for Combined Heart-Kidney Transplantation. (amedeo.com)
  • Donohue syndrome: A review of literature, case series, and anesthetic considerations. (amedeo.com)
  • Tramadol may increase central nervous system and respiratory depression when combined with alcohol, anesthetics, narcotics, tranquilizers, or sedative hypnotics. (medicinenet.com)
  • Anesthetic , also spelled anaesthetic , any agent that produces a local or general loss of sensation, including pain . (britannica.com)
  • They have data from animals and exploratory studies in humans showing that combining Site-1 sodium channel blockers with existing local anesthetics can produce nerve blockade for up to 2 to 4 days - with minimal local or systemic side effects. (healthcanal.com)
  • Mohamed SA, Fares KM, Hasan-Ali H, Bakry R (2013) The Effect of Anesthetic Technique on Cardiac Troponin-T and Systemic Inflammatory Response after Major Abdominal Cancer Surgery. (omicsonline.org)
  • The use of anesthetic in topical creams has been well established. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Could we use mild topical anesthetic creams for cancer patients? (healthtap.com)
  • Can mild topical anesthetic creams be used for cancer patients? (healthtap.com)
  • Clinical LAs belong to one of two classes: aminoamide and aminoester local anesthetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on this finding, Children's Hospital Boston, a co-investigator on the study, has signed a collaboration agreement with biotech start-up company Proteus SA (Santiago, Chile) to move the new anesthetic toward clinical adoption. (healthcanal.com)
  • We have published hundreds of Forgiveness Combined With Acetaminophen Alleviate Social Pain news stories on BioPortfolio along with dozens of Forgiveness Combined With Acetaminophen Alleviate Social Pain Clinical Trials and PubMed Articles about Forgiveness Combined With Acetaminophen Alleviate Social Pain for you to read. (bioportfolio.com)
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  • committee, this prospective, randomized, Fast-track anesthetic management was controlled, single-blinded clinical study was demonstrated to be highly safe and efficient to conducted in Zagazig University Hospitals improve patient recovery and satisfaction from 12/2016 to 12/2017. (who.int)
  • one week before operation and rechecked at Adequate anesthetic state was considered the night of surgery according to the standard when heart rate (HR) and arterial blood protocols including history taking, clinical pressure (ABP) remained stable for 10 examination, assessment of the minutes or more after the start of surgery. (who.int)
  • General Anesthetics to Treat Major Depressive Disorder: Clinical Relevance and Underlying Mechanisms. (amedeo.com)
  • In the setting of a failed epidural top up, the most influential factors determining further anesthetic management were the category of cesarean section (92%), dermatomal level of blockade (78%), and the assessment of maternal airway. (hindawi.com)
  • Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare entity, and anesthetic management for cesarean section of a patient with this condition can be challenging. (bvsalud.org)
  • We hereby present the anesthetic management of a patient with PPCM complicated with preeclampsia scheduled for cesarean section , along with a mini review of literature . (bvsalud.org)
  • Inhalational anesthetics are administered in combination with oxygen, and most are excreted by the lungs with little or no metabolism by the body. (britannica.com)
  • Except for the naturally occurring gas nitrous oxide (laughing gas), all the major inhalational anesthetics are hydrocarbons , compounds formed of carbon and hydrogen atoms. (britannica.com)
  • A previous general anesthetic for adenoidectomy at the age of 2 was unremarkable. (theanesthesiaconsultant.com)
  • In the context of surgery, a local anesthetic creates an absence of pain in a specific location of the body without a loss of consciousness, as opposed to a general anesthetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, there are two types of drugs for pain relief: 1) analgesics and 2) anesthetics . (acog.org)
  • The relationship between the amount of general anesthetic administered and the depression of the brain's sensory responsiveness is arbitrarily, but usefully, divided into four stages. (britannica.com)
  • Not infrequently, general anesthetics are combined with drugs that block neuromuscular impulse transmission. (britannica.com)
  • Individual general anesthetics vary with respect to their specific physiological and cognitive effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • General anesthetics are commonly used in animal models to study how sensory signals are represented in the brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we used two-photon (2P) calcium activity imaging with cellular resolution to investigate how neuronal activity in layer 2/3 of the mouse barrel cortex is modified under the influence of different concentrations of chemically distinct general anesthetics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each general anesthetic involves the use of many different medications. (hubpages.com)
  • May be the patient requires additional analgesics, IV sedation, or a light general anesthetic. (altiusdirectory.com)
  • Hidaka Y, Chiba-Ohkuma R, Karakida T, Onuma K, Yamamoto R, Fujii-Abe K, Saito MM, Yamakoshi Y, Kawahara H. Combined Effect of Midazolam and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 for Differentiation Induction from C2C12 Myoblast Cells to Osteoblasts. (mdpi.com)
  • Narcotics decrease the amount of local anesthetics needed to achieve adequate comfort. (dummies.com)
  • To investigate the potential for pediatric emergency department (ED) triage nurses to apply a topical anesthetic (ie, eutectic mixture of local anesthetic) for intravenous catheter (IV) insertion. (aappublications.org)
  • Topically applied local anesthetics have been shown to reduce the pain associated with intravenous catheter (IV) insertion significantly. (aappublications.org)
  • Epidural anesthetic blockade is considered an in the study. (who.int)
  • Combined electrochemical nerve block reduced pain in 80% of patients with neuropathies and 50% of patients with intractable back pain. (experts.com)
  • This technique provides a combined (electrical and chemical) nerve block that enhances treatment of a neuropathy or a painful condition (see Tables 1 and 2, page 63). (experts.com)
  • When it is used on specific nerve pathways ( local anesthetic nerve block ), paralysis (loss of muscle power) also can be achieved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patient underwent combined right atrial thrombectomy and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in the same setting. (medworm.com)
  • A nurse needs to accompany the patient to see to their medical needs en route. (aol.com)
  • Intravenous anesthetics exert a component of their actions via potentiating inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric type-A receptors (GABA A Rs). (jneurosci.org)
  • Intravenous anesthetics are known to act via γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA A Rs), which are ligand-gated ion channels assembled from multiple subunit classes. (jneurosci.org)
  • through mergers, ICI eventually became AstraZeneca) to help find new short-acting intravenous anesthetics. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • When the local anesthetic is injected, you may feel a scratching sensation and experience a very short-lived sting in the area between the vertebrae bones. (familyeducation.com)
  • Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is a commonly used inhaled anesthetic in outpatient dental procedures. (nih.gov)
  • The goals of this in vitro study were to investigate the potency of local anesthetic-induced vasoconstriction and to identify the physicochemical property (octanol/buffer partition coefficient, pKa, molecular weight, or potency) of local anesthetics that determines their potency in inducing isolated rat aortic ring contraction. (hindawi.com)
  • The potency of the vasoconstriction in the endothelium-denuded aorta induced by local anesthetics is determined primarily by lipid solubility and, in part, by other physicochemical properties including potency and pKa. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the membrane disordering efficiency of local anesthetics corresponds to their potency [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, to our knowledge, the physicochemical property of local anesthetics that is primarily responsible for determining the local anesthetic-induced vasoconstriction potency has not yet been identified. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, the aims of this in vitro study were to investigate the potency of local anesthetic-induced vasoconstriction and to determine which physicochemical property is principally involved in determining this potency in isolated rat aortic rings. (hindawi.com)
  • Leong Y, Tan K, Ai Choo B, Koh V, Tang J. Novel anesthetic technique for combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy for cervix cancer in an outpatient setting. (termedia.pl)
  • These drugs slow down breathing, and the combined effects can result in life-threatening respiratory depression . (psychologytoday.com)
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  • Study design and methodology were chosen to dissociate the state-related changes in consciousness from the effects of the anesthetic drugs. (jneurosci.org)
  • It did not cause the muscle twitching and tremors that plagued many anesthetics, and it could be combined safely with a variety of other drugs typically used for sedation. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • It may cause serotonin syndrome when combined with other drugs that also increase serotonin (see drug interactions section). (medicinenet.com)
  • Ketamine belongs to a class of drugs known as dissociative anesthetics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This case provides evidence that segmental spinal block can be the anesthetic technique used in gastrointestinal surgeries with spontaneous respiration. (scielo.br)
  • [ 10 ] Other studies have shown that epidural catheters sited as part of a combined spinal-epidural technique fail less often, both during labor and for intrapartum cesarean delivery. (medscape.com)
  • The total anesthetic time for these surgeries regularly totals 9- 10 hours. (theanesthesiaconsultant.com)
  • Surgeries are performed at California Ear Institute in East Palo Alto, CA, and Waverley Surgery Center in Palo Alto, CA. The text below describes a the anesthetic care for a typical CAM reconstruction. (theanesthesiaconsultant.com)
  • This study proved that CGEA seems to be an effective fast track anesthetic protocol in patients undergoing elective lumbar spine surgeries. (who.int)
  • Y365/7F mice exhibited a gender-specific enhancement of tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus that was more sensitive to modulation by the anesthetic etomidate, together with a deficit in long-term potentiation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Diagnostic tests such as bone marrow aspiration, lumbar puncture (spinal tap) and aspiration of cysts or other structures are made to be less painful upon administration of local anesthetic before insertion of larger needles. (wikipedia.org)
  • For painful joints anesthetic and steroid can be injected. (jefferson.edu)
  • The perfect match of two OVDs for the entire surgery, provided in two seperate syringes or combined in one syringe. (zeiss.com)
  • However, many of these products can have serious and potentially harmful side effects when combined with medications prescribed during and after surgery, according to a review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (JAAOS). (bio-medicine.org)
  • The anesthetic action extends for longer time than required and that provides pain relief for several hours after the surgery. (altiusdirectory.com)
  • This article describes a new electromagnetic device and its use in combination with local anesthetic therapy to treat pain problems. (experts.com)
  • Anesthetics relieve pain by blocking most feeling, including pain. (acog.org)
  • Local anesthetics provide relief from pain in these areas. (acog.org)
  • Measurements of success of cannulation (number of attempts for IV placement) and pain (0-10 visual analog scale) at application of local anesthetic and at cannulation were performed. (nih.gov)
  • Anesthetic is a drug or substance that blocks pain and causes loss of feeling. (sharecare.com)
  • Elma is a topical local anesthetic that aids in reducing the pain of IV placement. (healthtap.com)
  • All of these are topical anesthetics, meaning that they can be applied directly to skin or mucous membranes to treat minor pain such as teething or scrapes, or itching from poison ivy or insect bites. (healthtap.com)
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  • However, ESIs are frequently combined with various other types of treatments for chronic pain. (socom.mil)
  • Moreover, other factors of pharmacodynamic origin have been implicated, such as antagonistic effects of nucleotides or increased sodium concentration, increased afferent input from nociceptors, or receptor downregulation of the sodium channels, and often the interpretation is quite difficult because of time-dependent variations in pain or circadian changes in the duration of local anesthetic action: phenomena that are named pseudotachyphylaxis (5) . (lww.com)
  • The following are the choices of pain-relief medications are available: Analgesics and anesthetics. (mommybknowsbest.com)
  • Anesthetics block nerve transmission to pain centers, resulting in blocking the feeling of pain. (mommybknowsbest.com)
  • The anesthetic drug is given just before delivery to relieve pain during childbirth. (mommybknowsbest.com)
  • Before dehorning a cow, it is recommended that local anesthetics be injected into the corneal nerve to remove any pain that might be felt by the cow during dehorning. (wikihow.com)
  • An anesthetic procedure that involves administering pharmaceutical agents into the epidural space of the spinal canal. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Analysis of a medical term involves breaking down the term into its prefix, word root (or combining form), and suffix. (answers.com)
  • Patients under 20 years of age who were diagnosed with N 2 O-induced subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord from 2012 to 2018 were enrolled in this study. (nih.gov)
  • Eight patients had evidence of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord via neuroimaging studies. (nih.gov)
  • Local Anesthetic Switching for Intrathecal Tachyphylaxis in. (lww.com)
  • However, reduction of local anesthetic activity has also been reported with the intrathecal route, and tachyphylaxis to local anesthetics does not result from reduced drug effectiveness at the nerve itself (7,8) . (lww.com)
  • Topical anesthetics are medications that help soothe itchy or irritated skin. (sharecare.com)
  • The anesthetic drug is injected into the area around the nerves that carry feeling to the vagina , vulva , and perineum . (acog.org)
  • The application of this material with a clinically useful anesthetic presented the possibility of testing a bank of previously synthesized lipid-soluble chemicals that ICI had stored in its compound collection. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • This invention concerns the modification of materials normally employed as parenteral anesthetics in acidic solution, and particularly concerns a composite article and its method of use which provides in a very convenient manner a buffering system for addition to these acidic materials for reducing certain adverse physiological effects thereof such as burning or stinging generally resulting from injections thereof. (google.com)
  • local anesthetics combined with long-acting corticosteroid injections. (spineuniverse.com)
  • An anesthetic drug is given through an IV line or through a mask. (mommybknowsbest.com)
  • In addition to serving as a new induction agent, such a drug might maintain sedation and thus provide an injected alternative to inhaled anesthetics. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • It is a class III scheduled drug and is approved for use in hospitals and other medical settings as an anesthetic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Anesthetics achieve this effect by acting on the brain or peripheral nervous system to suppress responses to sensory stimulation. (britannica.com)
  • Expert opinion: There are arguments that the current topical therapeutics for NP rely too heavily on the use of local anesthetics and capsaicinoids, and more research is certainly needed on topical therapies that are multimodal and/or are targeted at the peripheral sources of pathology. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • It may depress cardiovascular function in particular when combined with inhalation anesthetics. (lww.com)
  • We found MEPs could be induced under both anesthetics, with no differences in the resting motor threshold or the average baseline amplitudes. (frontiersin.org)