Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Benzocaine: A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.EthersHypnosis, Anesthetic: Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Pregnanediones: Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Ethyl EthersMidazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Tiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Malignant Hyperthermia: Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, IntratrachealSodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.CyclobutanesHemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Felypressin: A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedTooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain: Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.Propanidid: An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Thiamylal: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedDrug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Anoikis: APOPTOSIS triggered by loss of contact with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Ethyl Chloride: A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Nordefrin: A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Batrachotoxins: Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Compression Bandages: Strips of elastic material used to apply pressure to body parts to control EDEMA and aid circulation.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.GABA Modulators: Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Antidiarrheals: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Intraoperative Awareness: Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.CyclopropanesAdministration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.

Effect of remifentanil on the auditory evoked response and haemodynamic changes after intubation and surgical incision. (1/302)

We have observed the effect of intubation and incision, as measured by the auditory evoked response (AER) and haemodynamic variables, in 12 patients undergoing hernia repair or varicose vein surgery who received remifentanil as part of either an inhaled anaesthetic technique using isoflurane or as part of a total i.v. technique using propofol. Anaesthesia was induced with remifentanil 1 microgram kg-1 and propofol, neuromuscular block was achieved with atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 before intubation, and anaesthesia was maintained with a continuous infusion of remifentanil in combination with either a continuous infusion of propofol or inhaled isoflurane. The AER and haemodynamic variables were measured before and after intubation and incision. The effects of intubation and incision on the AER and haemodynamic variables were not significantly different between the remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-isoflurane groups. However, the study had a low power for this comparison. When the data for the two anaesthetic combinations were pooled, the only significant effects were increases in diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate immediately after intubation; these were not seen 5 min after intubation. There were no cardiovascular responses to incision. There were no significant changes in the AER after intubation or incision.  (+info)

Concentration and second-gas effects in the water analogue. (2/302)

The water analogue provides a visual model of the process of anaesthetic exchange. In the standard version, a single pipe connects the mouth container to the lung container and the conductance of this mouth-lung pipe is proportional to alveolar ventilation. This implies that inspired and expired ventilations are equal. In fact, with high inspired concentrations of nitrous oxide, early rapid uptake of gas by solution leads to a substantial difference between inspired and expired ventilation which in turn leads to concentration and second-gas effects. It is shown that by representing inspired and expired ventilations separately, and keeping one of them constant while varying the other to compensate for rapid uptake, concentration and second-gas effects are reproduced in the water analogue. Other means of reproducing the effects are reported but we believe that the first method is the most realistic and the most appropriate for teaching.  (+info)

Recovery after halothane anaesthesia induced with thiopental, propofol-alfentanil or halothane for day-case adenoidectomy in small children. (3/302)

We studied recovery from halothane anaesthesia in 93 children, aged 1-3 yr, undergoing day-case adenoidectomy. Children were allocated randomly to receive thiopental 5 mg kg-1 (group TH), alfentanil 10 micrograms kg-1 and propofol 3 mg kg-1 (group PAH) or 5% halothane (group HH) for induction of anaesthesia. In group TH, tracheal intubation was facilitated with succinylcholine (suxamethonium) 1.5 mg kg-1. In groups PAH and HH, tracheal intubation was performed without neuromuscular block, and succinylcholine was used only if required. Anaesthesia was maintained with 1-3% halothane during spontaneous respiration. Times to achieving predetermined recovery end-points were recorded. Quality of recovery was assessed using a score of 1-9 (best to worst) for sedation, crying, restlessness and agitation. A postoperative questionnaire was used to determine the well-being of the child at home, 24 h after operation. Emergence from anaesthesia (response to non-painful stimuli) occurred earlier in group HH (mean 9 (SD 6) min) than in groups PAH (13 (6) min, P < 0.01) and TH (18 (14) min, P < 0.01). Sitting up, walking and home readiness were achieved earlier in groups PAH and HH than in group TH (P < 0.05 for each variable). Children in group TH were more sedated during the first 30 min after anaesthesia than those in the two other groups (P < 0.05) while emergence-related delirium was more common in group HH than in group TH (P < 0.01). Well-being at home was similar in all groups. We conclude that induction of halothane anaesthesia with propofol-alfentanil or halothane provided more rapid recovery and earlier discharge than that with thiopental.  (+info)

Haemodynamic stability and ketamine-alfentanil anaesthetic induction. (4/302)

We have determined if alfentanil could obtund the haemodynamic instability commonly seen at induction of anaesthesia with ketamine. Five groups of ASA I and II patients received ketamine 1 mg kg-1 i.v., preceded by saline (group 1) or alfentanil 10, 20, 30 or 40 micrograms kg-1 (groups 2-5, respectively). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (AP), postoperative patient complaints and dysphoria were noted. All groups showed increases (P < 0.05) in both HR and AP after administration of ketamine, which were progressively smaller as the dose of alfentanil increased. After tracheal intubation, all groups showed further increases in HR and AP, with groups 3-5 (alfentanil 20-40 micrograms kg-1) showing significant obtundation (P < 0.05) of these increases compared with group 1. No patient in any group reported postoperative dysphoria or dissatisfaction with their anaesthetic. Ketamine 1 mg kg-1 with alfentanil 20-40 micrograms kg-1 provided statistically significant obtundation of the haemodynamic instability that is common with ketamine alone.  (+info)

Comparison of recovery of propofol and methohexital sedation using an infusion pump. (5/302)

Two sedative anesthetic agents administered by an infusion pump were compared during third molar surgery. Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I or II volunteers were randomly allocated to two groups. All subjects received supplemental oxygen via a nasal hood, fentanyl (0.0007 mg/kg intravenous [i.v.] bolus), and midazolam (1 mg/2 min) titrated to effect. Patients then received either 0.3 mg/kg of methohexital or 0.5 mg/kg of propofol via an infusion pump. Upon completion of the bolus, a continuous infusion of 0.05 mg/kg/min methohexital or 0.066 mg/kg/min propofol was administered throughout the procedure. Hemo-dynamic and respiratory parameters and psychomotor performance were compared for the two groups and no significant differences were found. The continuous infusion method maintained a steady level of sedation. Patients receiving propofol had a smoother sedation as judged by the surgeon and anesthetist.  (+info)

Bone marrow harvesting using EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics) cream, local anaesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia with alfentanil. (6/302)

Bone marrow harvesting (BMH) was performed on 40 consecutive allogeneic or autologous donors using EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics), local anaesthesia (LA) and patient-controlled analgesia with alfentanil (PCA-A). The effect of alkalinizing the LA solution on reducing pain during LA infiltration in the presence of EMLA was also investigated. EMLA 10 g with occlusive dressing was applied to the harvest sites at least 60 min before BMH. The PCA device was programmed to deliver an intravenous loading dose of 15 microg/kg alfentanil, followed by a background alfentanil infusion of 0.05 microg/kg/min. Demand dose was 4 microg/kg and lockout time was 3 min. Donors were randomized to receive either alkalinized (n = 19) or non-alkalinized (n=21) LA solution (lignocaine 1% with 1:100000 adrenaline). While post-operative nausea and vomiting were the only side-effects, all donors in both groups reported satisfactory pain scores during LA infiltration and satisfactory overall intra-operative comfort scores. They completed BMH using either regimen successfully, found this technique acceptable and would recommend this form of anaesthesia to others. Alkalinizing the LA solution did not significantly improve the pain scores during LA infiltration in the presence of EMLA. In conclusion, BMH can be performed safely using EMLA, LA and PCA-A without major complications.  (+info)

Effects of propofol, propofol-nitrous oxide and midazolam on cortical somatosensory evoked potentials during sufentanil anaesthesia for major spinal surgery. (7/302)

Recording of cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (CSEP) enables monitoring of spinal cord function. We studied the effects of propofol, propofol-nitrous oxide or midazolam during sufentanil anaesthesia on CSEP monitoring during major spinal surgery. Thirty patients with normal preoperative CSEP were allocated randomly to one of the following anaesthesia regimens: propofol (2.5 mg kg-1 followed by 10-6 mg kg-1 h-1) with or without nitrous oxide, or midazolam (0.3 mg kg-1 followed by 0.15 mg kg-1 h-1) combined with sufentanil 0.5 microgram kg-1 h-1 in the propofol and midazolam groups, or 0.25 microgram kg-1 h-1 in the propofol-nitrous oxide group. CSEP were elicited by alternate right and left tibial posterior nerve stimulation and recorded before and after induction (15 min, 1, 2 and 3 h), and during skin closure. CSEP latencies were not significantly modified in the three groups. CSEP amplitude decreased significantly in the propofol-nitrous oxide group (from mean 2.0 (SEM 0.3) to 0.6 (0.1) microV; P < 0.05) but not in the propofol (from 1.8 (0.6) to 2.2 (0.3) microV) or midazolam (1.7 (0.5) to 1.6 (0.5) microV) groups. The time to the first postoperative voluntary motor response (recovery) delay was significantly greater in the midazolam group (115 (19) min) compared with the propofol and propofol-nitrous oxide groups (43 (8) and 41 (3) min, respectively). Consequently, the use of propofol without nitrous oxide can be recommended during spinal surgery when CSEP monitoring is required.  (+info)

Anaesthetic effects of pregnanolone in combination with allopregnanolone, thiopental, hexobarbital and flurazepam: an EEG study in the rat. (8/302)

The anaesthetic interactions of the steroid, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one, in male rats were investigated in different fixed binary combinations with the steroid allopregnanolone (3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one), two barbiturates (thiopental and hexobarbital) and the benzodiazepine, flurazepam. Anaesthetic effects were determined using an EEG threshold method. Interactions were assessed using an isobolographic method. The interaction between the two steroids, pregnanolone and allopregnanolone, showed an anaesthetic effect significantly less than additive (antagonistic). The interactions between pregnanolone and the two barbiturates and the benzodiazepine showed an anaesthetic effect significantly greater than additive (potentiation) in all tests performed. These results could be explained by a pharmacodynamic interaction at the hypothetical GABA-benzodiazepine-barbiturate-steroid complex in the CNS.  (+info)

*Prilocaine

... (/ˈpraɪləˌkeɪn/) is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Löfgren. In ... It is also often combined with lidocaine as a topical preparation for dermal anesthesia (lidocaine/prilocaine or EMLA), for ... People with pseudocholinesterase deficiency may have difficulty metabolizing this anesthetic. It is given as a combination with ... "Topical Anesthesia Use in Children: Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics". Medscape.com. Retrieved 2014-01-07. The United ...

*Local anesthetic nerve block

These drugs are often combined with adjuvants (additives) with the end goal of increasing the duration of the analgesia or ... Local anesthetic nerve block (local anesthetic regional nerve blockade, or often simply nerve block) is a short-term nerve ... Most of the local anesthetics target open channels and prevent ion flow. Local anesthetics also act on potassium channels, but ... Since the plexus is located deep, there is an increased risk of local anesthetic toxicity, so less toxic anesthetics like ...

*Local anesthetic

Sometimes, LAs are combined, e.g.: Lidocaine/prilocaine (EMLA, eutectic mixture of local anesthetic) Lidocaine/tetracaine ( ... Amylocaine Anesthetic General anesthetic List of cocaine analogues List of local anesthetics Brown AR, Weiss R, Greenberg C, ... Local anesthetic solutions for injection typically consist of: The local anesthetic agent itself A vehicle, which is usually ... Zamanian, R., Toxicity, Local Anesthetics (2005) Mulroy, M., Systemic Toxicity and Cardiotoxicity From Local Anesthetics (2002 ...

*Local anesthesia

Clinical local anesthetics belong to one of two classes: aminoamide and aminoester local anesthetics. Synthetic local ... Anesthetists sometimes combine both general and local anesthesia techniques. The following terms are often used interchangeably ... Conduction anesthesia encompasses a great variety of local and regional anesthetic techniques. A local anesthetic is a drug ... lack of anesthetic effect due to infectious pus such as an abscess. Local pain management that uses other techniques than ...

*Tidal Moon

... a combined anesthetic and medicine. Other Ganymedian life-forms include the whale-like Gamma Rorqual, the tentacled land leet, ...

*Anesthesia

... many factors are reported as contributing to the relative risk of the procedure and anesthetic combined. For instance, an ... and the type of anesthetic (regional anesthetics are lower risk than general anesthetics). Obstetrical, the very young and the ... Each anesthetic produces amnesia through unique effects on memory formation at variable doses. Inhalational anesthetics will ... The purpose of the anesthetic machine is to provide anesthetic gas at a constant pressure, oxygen for breathing and to remove ...

*Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome

Treatment consists of several such anesthetic injections, sometimes combined with corticosteroids. Such an approach yields ... Confirmation of a diagnosis of ACNES is warranted using an abdominal wall infiltration with a local anesthetic agent near the ... This involves a repeated exploration combined with a posterior neurectomy. This procedure has been shown to be beneficial in 50 ...

*List of medieval European scientists

John Arderne (1307-1392) was an English physician and surgeon who invented his own anesthetic that combined hemlock, henbane, ...

*Cocaine

If vasoconstriction is desired for a procedure (as it reduces bleeding), the anesthetic is combined with a vasoconstrictor such ... Benzoyl-CoA then combines the two units to form cocaine. The biosynthesis begins with L-Glutamine, which is derived to L- ... This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under ... There is also evidence that these cultures used a mixture of coca leaves and saliva as an anesthetic for the performance of ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... anesthetics MeSH D27.505.696.277.100.017 --- anesthetics, combined MeSH D27.505.696.277.100.035 --- anesthetics, general MeSH ... anesthetics MeSH D27.505.954.427.210.100.017 --- anesthetics, combined MeSH D27.505.954.427.210.100.035 --- anesthetics, ... anesthetics, dissociative MeSH D27.505.696.277.100.200 --- anesthetics, local MeSH D27.505.696.277.350 --- hypnotics and ... anesthetics, intravenous MeSH D27.505.954.427.210.100.035.075.035 --- anesthetics, dissociative MeSH D27.505.954.427.210.100. ...

*Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Injections of local anesthetic, sometimes combined with steroids, into the muscles (e.g. the temoralis muscle or its tendon) ... Local anesthetics may provide temporary pain relief, and steroids inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines. Steroids and other ... This may occur during dental treatment, with oral intubation whilst under a general anesthetic, during singing or wind ...

*Stenosing tenosynovitis

Treatment consists of injection of methylprednisolone often combined with anesthetic (lidocaine) at the site of maximal ...

*Vinyl ether

Leake predicted that vinyl ether would combine the properties of two anesthetic agents, ethyl ether, and ethylene. (Mazurek, ... Martin, 1941) Vinyl ether is a potent anesthetic giving it a large safety margin; the ratio of the anesthetic to lethal does ... Major, 1937) The anesthetic product was inhibited with .01% phenyl-α-napthylamine which gave it a faint violet fluorescence. ( ... Anesthetic machines of the time could suitably contain vinyl ether's potency, however, via the open drop technique smooth ...

*Neuroleptanalgesic

Anesthetics Sedation Twilight sleep Moby's Medical Dictionary. Elsevier. "Combined analgesic/neuroleptic activity in N- ... an anesthetic process that involves combining a major neuroleptic tranquilizer/antipsychotic with a potent opioid analgesic to ... Efforts were also made to develop compounds which combined both types of activity in a single molecule. Neuroleptanalgesia ...

*Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

The best effect is obtained by combining a short-term local anesthetic such as lidocaine with an NSAID acting as a longer term ... NSAIDs cause decreased ability to form a blood clot, which can increase the risk of bleeding when combined with other drugs ... Nabulsi M (2009). "Is combining or alternating antipyretic therapy more beneficial than monotherapy for febrile children?". BMJ ... folklore and mythological guidance were combined in deploying the vegetable and mineral products that made up the expansive ...

*Epinephrine (medication)

Epinephrine/adrenaline is frequently combined with dental and spinal anesthetics and can cause panic attacks in susceptible ... Some of the adverse effects of local anesthetic use, such as apprehension, tachycardia, and tremor, may be caused by adrenaline ... Adrenaline is added to injectable forms of a number of local anesthetics, such as bupivacaine and lidocaine, as a ... Due to epinephrine's vasoconstricting abilities, the use of epinephrine in localized anesthetics also helps to diminish the ...

*Obstetric anesthesia (medical specialty)

Neuraxial (regional) anesthetic and analgesia techniques: (e.g. epidural, spinal, combined spinal-epidural) are used most ... Following Morton's use of ether as an anesthetic, James Simpson conducted his own obstetric anesthetic trial on January 19, ... The inhalation of anesthetic agents do not affect the act of labor or the mechanism by which uterine contractions occur, but ... With this finding, along with the statistical records of safely executed anesthetic administrations, the medical opposition to ...

*Isoxsuprine

It should therefore be used with caution if combined with other drugs that affect blood pressure, such as sedatives and ... anesthetic drugs. Isoxsuprine is most commonly used to treat hoof-related problems in the horse, most commonly for laminitis ...

*Anesthetic

Because of its low potency, it cannot produce anesthesia on its own but is frequently combined with other agents. Halothane, an ... An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic ... Anesthetics are categorized into two classes: general anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of consciousness, and local ... Only preservative-free local anesthetic agents may be injected intrathecally. Pethidine also has local anesthetic properties, ...

*Combined drug intoxication

... from the IV anesthetic propofol and other sedatives Anissa Jones, child actress, from cocaine, phencyclidine, methaqualone and ... Combined drug intoxication (CDI), also known as multiple drug intake (MDI) or lethal polydrug/polypharmacy intoxication, is an ... The deaths of Daniel Smith and Anna Nicole Smith were declared as Combined Drug Intoxication. Australian actor Heath Ledger was ... John Mendelson, a pharmacologist at the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, deaths by combined drug ...

*Barbiturate

... anesthetic effect of barbiturates in high doses when used in anesthetic concentration. Barbituric acid was first synthesized ... The middle two classes of barbiturates are often combined under the title "short/intermediate-acting." These barbiturates are ... However, barbiturates are still used as anticonvulsants (e.g., phenobarbital and primidone) and general anesthetics (e.g., ... then the combined effects of the drugs increase the channels overall function by 900%, not 600%). The longest-acting ...

*Benzocaine

It is the active ingredient in many over-the-counter anesthetic ointments such as products for oral ulcers. It is also combined ... Applying an oral anesthetic and consuming beverages before going to bed can be particularly hazardous. The topical use of ... Overapplication of oral anesthetics such as benzocaine can increase the risk of pulmonary aspiration by relaxing the gag-reflex ... Benzocaine, sold under the brand name Orajel among others, is an ester local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain ...

*Aldrete's scoring system

In 1988, he developed the famous anesthetic delivery system to be used in major operating theaters world wide, the Combined ...

*Shoulder replacement

Currently, data on combined usage of general anesthesia and interscalene blocks are limited. Some indications for combined ... A mixture of short and long-acting local anesthetics is used to prolong the duration as well as reduce the onset of the nerve ... One example of a commonly used regional anesthetic is an interscalene brachial plexus block and it has been used in a number of ... The following anesthetics are methods commonly used to assist with post-operative shoulder replacement pain management: Three ...

*Pharmacodynamics

Antacids and chelating agents combine chemically in the body. Enzyme-substrate binding is a way to alter the production or ... Hormone receptors Neuromodulator receptors Neurotransmitter receptors General anesthetics were once thought to work by ... Pharmacodynamics is sometimes abbreviated as PD and pharmacokinetics as PK, especially in combined reference (for example, when ...

*Calcific tendinitis

Under local anesthetic, the calcific deposits can be mechanically broken up by puncturing them repeatedly with a needle and ... In studies, acetic acid iontophoresis combined with ultrasound provided no better clinical results or shrinkage of the calcific ...

*Epidural (disambiguation)

The term is most commonly used to refer to epidural administration of analgesics and anesthetics. It may also refer to: ... Epidural blood patch Caudal epidural Combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia (CSE) Epidural steroid injection Patient- ...
The interaction index has been discussed by several authors, such as Berenbaum (9), Tallarida (14), and Meadows and colleagues (15). The definition of the interaction index coincides with Chou and Talalays definition of the combination index for mutually exclusive drugs, published in 1984 (16). The field of drug combination research spans more than 100 years and has been addressed within many disciplines. Chou and Talalays seminal article has made important contributions and has been widely cited in the literature. However, this article was not the first nor the only one that generates concepts supporting Eqs. 1 and 2 and applies these equations to study drug interactions. Lee and colleagues directed the reader to reviews of these methods, with proper citation of the appropriate references therein (17), and derived the confidence interval estimation for the interaction index and compared its performance with four methods based on response surface models. Although several equations are indeed ...
Comprehensive alcohol & food interactions for bupivacaine / lidocaine / triamcinolone. Includes High Blood Pressure (Hypertension), High Cholesterol (Hyperlipoproteinemia, Hypertriglyceridemia, Sitosterolemia)
The increase of Corrected QT (QTc) interval is associated with age. It is known that most inhalation anesthetics or intravenous anesthetics can influence the QTc. In addition, tracheal intubation during induction can stimulates sympathetic activity, which, as a results, prolong the QTc interval. Therefore, the aim of study is to find out the effect site concentration of remifentanil for preventing QTc interval prolongation during intubation under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia in elderly patients ...
Background It is skeptical about cardioprotective property of sevoflurane in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, especially in the elderly patients with coronary heart disease. We hypothesized that long duration of sevoflurane inhalation in noncardiac surgery could ameliorate myocardial damage in such patients. Methods This was a randomized, prospective study. One hundred twenty-one elderly patients with coronary heart disease were randomly allocated into two groups. Maintenance of anesthesia was achieved by sevoflurane inhalation (Group S) or propofol-remifentanil respectively (Group PR). Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured before anesthesia induction (T0), 8 h (T1) and 24 h (T2) after anesthesia respectively. The perioperative cardiac output, complications and postoperative 3-month follow-up from end of surgery were recorded. Results Between the two groups, there were no statistical differences in the values of cTnI and BNP during the study. ...
A Quatro sensor (Aspect Medical Systems, Newton, MA) was mounted on the forehead according to the manufacturers guidelines, with another Quatro sensor mounted ipsilaterally according to Shiraishi et al .4 proposed occipital placement. The occipital process was considered the midline guide point with electrode 1 placed few centimeters cranially, electrodes 2 and 4 placed slanting, and electrode 3 placed laterally (fig. 1). The Quatro sensors were connected to two BIS-Vista™ monitors with the clocks synchronized to the exact "hour: minute: second." The raw electroencephalography signals were band-pass filtered to 2-70 Hz and processed in real time using BIS-Vista™ version 1.4 algorithm. In addition, the BIS-Vista™ monitor calculates the electromyography power in the 70-110 Hz frequency band displayed in decibels. BIS recordings were started after verifying a signal quality index more than 95% and electrodes impedance less than 5 kΩ. With the help of the USB-A port, electroencephalographic ...
ABSTRACT: Response surface methodology based on a 3-variable, 5-level central composite rotatable design matrix was used to optimize the synthesis. The influence of selected variables, namely, enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratio, substrate concentration, and temperature was investigated. E/S ratio and temperature had a strong effect on esterification, while substrate concentration did not. Reaction time did not show significant effect on ester yields, and conversions could be completed in less than 24 h. The response surface model has been found to describe the experimental results adequately. Product yield at optimum conditions (24 g/mol E/S ratio, 1.5 M substrate concentration 20 °C) was 1.4 M, representing 93% conversion, which is in good agreement with the predicted one. ...
My preliminary communication to the Lancet was published in 1961. While according to dictionary definition I was the inventor of a premixed N2O/O2 gas mixture, subsequently called Entonox, BOC did not involve me with the patent. I was too unsophisticated for the matter even to enter my mind at that time. It is worth noting that BOC avoided listing the first published paper on premixed gas (in the Lancet) in their promotional booklet, published in September 1970, called the "Entonox Digest". The digest was a 35 page summary of articles, correspondence and papers. There were extracts of various publications in the medical literature on the clinical uses of Entonox ...
The clinical studies demonstrate more powerful analgesic effect among female to both μ- and κ-opioid agonist (Fillingim et al. 2004). The antitussive effect of opioid is mediated predominantly by μ-, κ-opioid receptors (Kamei J. 1996). Therefore, the investigators hypothesized that there are sex differences in the antitussive responses to opioid.. It has been reported that target-controlled infusion (TCI) of remifentanil can reduce cough against endotracheal tube during emergence from general anesthesia. Some studies, reporting the EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI for preventing cough during emergence in different sex and surgeries (B. Lee et al. 2009, E.M.Choi et al. 2012), showed differences in EC50 and EC95.. The purpose of this study was to find out EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI for preventing cough during emergence in each sex and to evaluate whether there were sex differences in EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI or not. ...
What is a eutectic mixture? Eutectic comes from the Greek eutektos for "easily melted"(any resemblence to tectonic is, I believe, purely accidental - tectonic also comes from the Greek, but for building, not melting!). An eutectic mixture is one in which the melting point of the mix is lower than the melting point of either of the components. The binary phase diagram has a "eutectic point". EMLA is a mixture of equal weights of lidocaine and prilocaine, made into an emulsion ...
Teng WN, Tsou MY, Chen PT, Liou JY, Yu L, Westenskow DR, Ting CK, A desflurane and fentanyl dosing regimen for wake-up testing during scoliosis surgery: Implications for the time-course of emergence from anesthesia. J Formos Med Assoc 2017 Aug;116(8):606-612. Hsu WC, Orr J, Lin SP, Yu L, Tsou MY, Westenskow DR, Ting CK, Efficiency of oxygen delivery through different oxygen entrainment devices during sedation under low oxygen flow rate: a bench study. J Clin Monit Comput 2017 May 2;:. Chang KC, Orr J, Hsu WC, Yu L, Tsou MY, Westenskow DR, Ting CK, Accuracy of CO2 monitoring via nasal cannulas and oral bite blocks during sedation for esophagogastroduodenoscopy. J Clin Monit Comput 2016 Apr;30(2):169-73. Ting CK, Johnson KB, Teng WN, Synoid ND, Lapierre C, Yu L, Westenskow DR, Response surface model predictions of wake-up time during scoliosis surgery. Anesth Analg 2014 Mar;118(3):546-53. Yu L, Ting CK, Hill BE, Orr JA, Brewer LM, Johnson KB, Egan TD, Westenskow DR, Using the Entropy of Tracheal ...
The combination midazolam-remifentanil presented a lower synergistic effect compared with propofol-remifentanil. The first fact documented a mean BIS of 62.5 +3 vs. 64.7 +4 midazolam-remifentanil association and has finally, although sporadic, incidents of desaturation content and never , 30%. The evaluation of the kinetic values of BIS, the interesting fact that emerges concerns the values, 70, which represented a significant predictor in the study to better recovery of consciousness, which has helped the fast-traking ongoing day-surgery. ...
A eutectic is a mixture that contains two or more components in proportions that allow them to solidify at the same temperature...
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Leser om anestesimidler blant annet propofol. Der står det misbruk og avhengighet av propofol (først og fremst hos helsepersonell). Ante ikke at noen ...
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BACKGROUND We evaluated the anesthetic efficacy and the postoperative analgesic effects of 0.75% levobupivacaine versus 0.75% ropivacaine for peribulbar anesthesia in patients undergoing primary vitreoretinal surgery. METHODS We investigated 120 patients subjected to vitreoretinal surgery under peribulbar anesthesia. They were randomized into two equal groups according to the local anesthetic (LA) used, namely, 0.75% levobupivacaine or 0.75% ropivacaine, both with the addition of hyaluronidase. Nerve block was carried out by injection of 5-7 mL of the LA using single injection percutaneous peribulbar anesthesia with a short needle. RESULTS When compared with 0.75% ropivacaine, 0.75% levobupivacaine provided more successful akinesia at 10 min after block (P=0.026), fewer supplementary injections (P=0.026), and less volume (mL) was used (P=0.031). Also, levobupivacaine provided significantly longer motor block duration (342±27 min versus 206±40 min, P=0.001) and significantly longer sensory block
The steady-state BIS value was 52.21 ± 9.9. After administration of propofol and remifentanil, BIS decreased significantly: 31.5 ± 15.9 vs 37.64 ± 9.1, respectively. During the first minute after suctioning, a higher increase in BIS level was observed for remifentanil (72 ± 16.28) than for propofol (63.14 ± 30). The mean duration of returning the BIS value to baseline was for propofol 23.5 ± 7 min and for remifentanil 14.2 ± 9 min (P , 0.05). Systolic arterial pressure was initially 125 ± 12.97 mmHg and decreased significantly after administration of propofol and remifentanil: 107.35 ± 22.12 mmHg vs 107.5 ± 20.53 mmHg, respectively. After suctioning SAP increased more for propofol (120 ± 20.45 mmHg) than for remifentanil (113.21 ± 24.33 mmHg). The HR initially was 95.78 ± 14.84 bpm, and changed after administration of drugs: 94.85 ± 17.61 bpm vs 95.78 ± 20.26 bpm for propofol and remifentanil, respectively, and after suctioning: 100.64 ± 16.45 vs 97.43 ± 20.62 bpm, respectively. ...
SIMONI, Ricardo Francisco; PEREIRA, Antônio Márcio Sanfim Arantes; BOREGA, Renato dos Santos and SIMOES, Daniel Caldeira Pereira. Remifentanil versus Sufentanil em infusão contínua em intervenções cirúrgicas videolaparoscópicas: estudo comparativo. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2008, vol.58, n.3, pp.193-201. ISSN 0034-7094. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942008000300001.. JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A infusão contínua (IC) de remifentanil na técnica de anestesia venosa total é prática comum. Já o sufentanil em IC para cirurgias de curta/média duração tem sido pouco utilizado. O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar duas técnicas de anestesia venosa total, utilizando remifentanil ou sufentanil em IC, quanto ao comportamento anestésico no intra-operatório e às características da recuperação anestésica em pacientes submetidos à videolaparoscopia. MÉTODO: Participaram desse estudo 60 pacientes divididos em 2 grupos iguais (GR e GS). O GR foi induzido com remifentanil IC ...
AbstractFor a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial Response Surface Model (RSM) design was employed and compared to Artificial Neural Networks coupled with Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA). Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A), bead load (B), cell load (C) and run time (D), were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v), cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN coupled with GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h): 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v): 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm): 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch
The goal of this study is to determine the optimal stimulating and recording protocol for visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during non-cranial surgery using total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). The study will also determine if VEPs remain reliably stable in amplitude and latency during non-cranial surgery using total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), and also determine what factors predict poorly reliable VEPs during non-cranial surgery using TIVA.. ...
Learn about the potential side effects of remifentanil. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
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Notes: Production, means the output of Propofol Revenue, means the sales value of Propofol This report studies Propofol in Global market, especially in Nor
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Menthol-based eutectic mixtures. T2 - Hydrophobic low viscosity solvents. AU - Ribeiro, Bernardo D.. AU - Florindo, Catarina. AU - Iff, Lucas C.. AU - Coelho, Maria A Z. AU - Marrucho Ferreira, Isabel Maria. PY - 2015/9/10. Y1 - 2015/9/10. N2 - Inspired by one of the major problems in the pharmaceutical industry, we advantageously used the formation of eutectic mixtures to synthesize new solvents. The aim of this work is to identify low viscosity, cheap, biodegradable and hydrophobic eutectic solvents from natural resources. Consequently, novel eutectic mixtures based on DL-menthol and naturally occurring acids, namely pyruvic acid, acetic acid, L-lactic acid, and lauric acid, were synthesized and are here reported for the first time. The obtained DLmenthol-based eutectic mixtures were analyzed using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy in order to check their structures and purities and to confirm the interaction of the two compounds leading to the eutectic formation. Important solvent ...
BACKGROUND: The caudal block is the most commonly performed regional anesthesia technique in pediatric patients undergoing surgical procedures, but safety concerns raised by previous reports remain to be addressed. Our main objective in current investigation was to estimate the overall and specific incidence of complications associated with the performance of caudal block in children.. METHODS: This was an observational study using the Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network database. A complication after a caudal block was defined by the presence of at least 1 of the following: block failure, vascular puncture, intravascular test dose, dural puncture, seizure, cardiac arrest, sacral pain, or neurologic symptoms. In addition, if a complication was also coded, the presence of temporary or permanent sequelae was evaluated. Additional exploratory analyses were performed to identify patterns of local anesthetic dosage.. RESULTS: Eighteen thousand six hundred-fifty children who received a caudal block ...
BACKGROUND: The caudal block is the most commonly performed regional anesthesia technique in pediatric patients undergoing surgical procedures, but safety concerns raised by previous reports remain to be addressed. Our main objective in current investigation was to estimate the overall and specific incidence of complications associated with the performance of caudal block in children.. METHODS: This was an observational study using the Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network database. A complication after a caudal block was defined by the presence of at least 1 of the following: block failure, vascular puncture, intravascular test dose, dural puncture, seizure, cardiac arrest, sacral pain, or neurologic symptoms. In addition, if a complication was also coded, the presence of temporary or permanent sequelae was evaluated. Additional exploratory analyses were performed to identify patterns of local anesthetic dosage.. RESULTS: Eighteen thousand six hundred-fifty children who received a caudal block ...
This project was designed to compare the dose requirements and the development of tolerance on the sedative/analgesic effect of propofol versus propofol plus remifentanil administered in rabbits under prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV).. Eight male, clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits were intubated under xylazine-ketamine-isoflurane anesthesia. After isoflurane discontinuation, the animals received either propofol (group P, n=4) or propofol plus remifentanil (group P/R, n=4) by continuous intravenous infusion for a maximum period of 38 hours. Arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), electrocardiograph (ECG) and spO2 were continuously measured while arterial blood gases were analysed periodically. Initial doses were adjusted in order to achieve adequate level of sedation and analgesia based on reflexes, HR, arterial pressure and attempt for spontaneous breathing. Tolerance on the sedative/analgesic effect of the agents was indicated by the increase of their ...
No definitive outcomes study has explored whether administering a total intravenous anesthetic via TCI or with conventional continuous infusion rates impacts emergence. One might hypothesize that if administering a lengthy anesthetic, TCI would provide a more economical anesthetic and avoid unnecessary drug delivery that would perhaps delay emergence. Figure 30-1 presents a simulation of 2 intravenous techniques: one using TCI and the other set infusion rates for 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. Both approaches used a high-dose remifentanil and low dose propofol technique. In fact the TCI target effect-site concentrations were selected to be near the effect-site concentrations that resulted from propofol infusions of 100 mcg/kg/min and remifentanil 0.2 mcg/kg/min. In general, with increasing duration of the anesthetic, the simulation predicted the time to emergence would become longer. Time to emergence was defined as the time required for the model of loss of responsiveness to predict that only 1 out of ...
Table of Contents. Chapter One Propofol Industry Overview. 1.1 Propofol Definition. 1.2 Propofol Classification and Application. 1.3 Propofol Industry Chain Structure. 1.4 Propofol Industry Overview. Chapter Two Propofol International and China Market Analysis. 2.1 Propofol Industry International Market Analysis. 2.1.1 Propofol International Market Development History. 2.1.2 Propofol Product and Technology Developments. 2.1.3 Propofol Competitive Landscape Analysis. 2.1.4 Propofol International Key Countries Development Status. 2.1.5 Propofol International Market Development Trend. 2.2 Propofol Industry China Market Analysis. 2.2.1 Propofol China Market Development History. 2.2.2 Propofol Product and Technology Developments. 2.2.3 Propofol Competitive Landscape Analysis. 2.2.4 Propofol China Key Regions Development Status. 2.2.5 Propofol China Market Development Trend. 2.3 Propofol International and China Market Comparison Analysis. ...
METHODS: We recruited 15 patients. For each patient of our study we defined a skin area of 3 cm2 from two forearms: on one side, we used skin needling first and immediately thereafter applied the EMLA in occlusion for 60 minutes; on the other one, we only applied EMLA in occlusion for 60 minutes. Then, pain was induced in each patients forearm by introducing a 27 G needle into the skin 4 mm deep three times. Lastly, pain sensation measures were registered and a middle value was calculated ...
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4. Kurita TUraoka MMorita KSuzuki MMorishima YSato S: Influence of haemorrhage on the pseudo-steady-state remifentanil concentration in a swine model: a comparison with propofol and the effect of haemorrhagic shock stage. Br J Anaesth 107:719-7252011. ...
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Remifentanil is a potent, short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug. It is given to patients during surgery to relieve pain and as an adjunct to an anaesthetic. Remifentanil is used for sedation as well as combined with other medications for use in general anesthesia. The use of remifentanil has made possible the use of high-dose opioid and low-dose hypnotic anesthesia, due to synergism between remifentanil and various hypnotic drugs and volatile anesthetics. Remifentanil is used as an opioid analgesic that has a rapid onset and rapid recovery time. It has been used effectively during craniotomies, spinal surgery, cardiac surgery, and gastric bypass surgery. While opiates function similarly, with respect to analgesia, the pharmacokinetics of remifentanil allows for quicker post-operative recovery. It is administered in the form remifentanil hydrochloride and in adults is given as an intravenous infusion in doses ranging from 0.1 microgram per kilogram per minute to 0.5 (µg/kg)/min. Children ...
Clinical Case: You are doing Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a healthy 40 year old woman. Midway through the surgery, the patients heart rate suddenly climbs to 160, and the blood pressure climbs to 190/110. What do you do? Discussion: Your own heart rate hits 170. You check the ABCs of…
To present a case of recall after total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol-alfentanil infusions to point out an uncommon misuse of the Bard InfusOR syringe driver. A healthy patient underwen
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Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc has released Synera (lidocaine 70 mg and tetracaine 70 mg), a topical anesthetic patch approved for use in patients aged 3 years and older (safety of Synera has been demonstrated in patients as young as 4 months old). Synera will be available in institutional settings to prevent pain from superficial venous access and superficial dermatologic procedures, such as excision, electrodessication, and shave biopsy.1 Although Synera is appropriate for use in both adult and pediatric populations, Endo Pharmaceuticals is especially aware of its need in hospitalized children. Patients less than 15 years old spend approximately 11.5 million days in the hospital. Endo Pharmaceuticals promotes Synera to prevent pain, thus increasing patient comfort and quality of care.1 Mechanism of Action Synera consists of an oil emulsion of lidocaine and tetracaine as a eutectic mixture. The active ingredients cause local anesthesia by blockade of the sodium ion channels that are required for ...
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Looking for EMLA? Find out information about EMLA. C14H22N2O A crystalline compound, used as a local anesthetic. Also known as lignocaine Explanation of EMLA
Results: 210 patients were included of whom 85 (40%) were given ketamine, 107 (51%) midazolam and 18 (9%) propofol. The median time to full orientation was 25 min for ketamine, 30 min for midazolam and 10 min for propofol. Complications occurred in 15.9% of sedations overall (14.6% of those given ketamine, 15.8% given midazolam and 22.2% given propofol). Apnoea and hypoxia most often occurred with midazolam and propofol, while hypertension and hypertonicity were encountered more frequently with ketamine. In addition, 19.5% of patients given ketamine suffered the re-emergence phenomenon. The association between deep sedation with no response to pain and adverse events encountered with midazolam does not occur with ketamine ...
The composition field in front of a growing lamellar eutectic was determined numerically, both with and without a lateral convective flow. By minimization of the interfacial undercooling it was found...
Rev Bras Anestesiol ARTIGO CIENTÍFICO 2007; 57: 5: SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE Estudo Prospectivo das Repercussões de Baixas Doses de Remifentanil na Função Sinoatrial e na Condução e Refratariedade Cardíaca*
Watch the video lecture Inhaled Anesthetics - Anesthetic Drugs and prepare for your medical exams with high-yield content ✓ & quiz questions ✓ now!
Information for Patients About this leaflet: More about your anaesthetic This leaflet gives a more detailed explanation of your anaesthetic. You are unlikely to wish to read all of it, but may wish to
Comparing the Effect of Eutectic Mixture of Lidocaine and Prilocaine (EMLA) and Capsaicin on Improving Ischemic Random Skin Flaps: An Animal Model
Eutectic systems enhance the permeation of therapeutic agents across biological barriers, but the mechanism by which this occurs has not previously been elucidated. Using human skin it has proven difficult to isolate the fundamental effects of eutectic formation on molecule diffusion and partition from those that arise as a consequence of the simultaneous application of two agents. The aim of this work was to employ a model hydrophobic membrane to understand the fundamental permeation characteristics of two agents when applied as a eutectic mixture. Lidocaine and prilocaine were selected as model agents and infinite-dose permeation studies were carried out using pre-calibrated Franz diffusion cells with two thicknesses of silicone membrane. Membrane solubility was determined by HCl solution extraction and the membrane diffusion coefficients were calculated from the permeation lag-times. The maximum permeation enhancement was achieved using a eutectic mixture at a 0.7:0.3 prilocaine/lidocaine ...
Objectives This study evaluated the effects of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on renal function of dogs with naturally acquired chronic renal failure. Materials & Methods The anesthetic procedures included: three hours using sevoflurane (1.5CAM) in O2 flow of 30mL/kg/min, in a semiclosed-circuit, after induction with propofol at 10mg/kg, in bolus (P-S group), or after induction with sevoflurane (S-S group), and for the P group it was used only propofol in the same dose employed for induction. Evaluations were performed in six sessions and included creatinine clearance, serum creatinine and ureia, protein and glucose urinary excretion. The renal function evaluations were performed 30 minutes before anesthesia, two times during anesthesia, and one, two and five days after. Results All anesthetic procedures were well succeeded and animals recovered uneventfully. No renal toxicity were observed in any of the anesthetic protocols. However, during the transanesthetic period it was observed ...
Principal Investigator:IKEDA Kazuyuki, Project Period (FY):1992 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:麻酔学
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Examples of good topical anaesthetics include lidocaine, benzocaine and prilocaine, explains Drugs.com. These medicines work by inducing numbness when individuals apply them to the skin. Sold under a...
The Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anaesthesia (ENIGMA)-II trial randomly assigned 7,112 noncardiac surgery patients at risk of perioperative cardiovascular events to 70% N2O or 70% N2 groups. The aim of this follow-up study was to determine the effect of nitrous oxide on a compo...
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By K G M De Cramer, BVSc, MMedVet(Gyn), PhD & K E. Joubert B.V.Sc M.Med Vet (Anaes) The ideal anaesthetic protocol for caesarean section (CS) should provide adequate muscle relaxation, analgesia and narcosis for optimal operating conditions, be safe for the bitch 2 and should not affect the viability and survival of the puppies 3,4. Additional recommendations… Continue Reading. ...
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An aqueous composition for reducing pain at the site of injection of local parenteral anesthetic material, for improving the onset thereof, and for increasing its duration, and a means for preparing and dispensing the same, the composition containing a local parenteral anesthetic which in normal doses gives an acid pH of from about 2.5 to about 6.9, wherein the anesthetic comprises from about 0.5 to about 2.0% by weight of the composition, the composition further containing sufficient NaHCO3 to maintain the pH thereof between about 7.0 and about 7.6, and further containing from about 0.0004 moles of dissolved CO2 per ml of composition up to the saturation level of dissolved CO2 at a CO2 head pressure of up to about 2.5 atmospheres.
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Propofol - What is propofol? Anesthesia drug. It us a drug that we use to induce anesthesia. It is not for use at home or in patients whose oxygen level is not being monitored.
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If ketamine is able to turn off a patients depression, even for one day, you have accomplished something important, whether or not you can maintain it. This is because you have at least given the patient hope . . . that in itself is very significant from a therapeutic perspective.
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Trichloroethylene is a commonly used type of anesthetic. One might also find this type of product under the name Trimar or Trilene in the market ...
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AIM: Two prospective studies were carried out in order to investigate (1) the rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) following peribulbar anaesthesia with a fixed volume of anaesthetic agent administered by a single surgeon, and (2) the efficacy of ocular compression with the Honan balloon for lowering IOP. Glaucomatous eyes were excluded from both studies. METHODS: In study group 1, 36 eyes of 36 patients undergoing cataract and/or implant surgery each received peribulbar injections consisting of 5 ml of anaesthetic from an inferotemporal site through the conjunctiva and a further 5 ml from a medial injection through the caruncle. IOP values were measured immediately before and after the injections and then after a variable period of external ocular compression. In study group 2, 20 eyes of 20 patients undergoing cataract surgery received peribulbar injections of local anaesthetic as above. IOP values were measured immediately before and after the injections and after 20 minutes without ocular ...
A topical anesthetic includes about 1-10% by weight lidocaine hydrochloride, about 0.01-0.10% by weight adrenaline, and about 0.25-4% by weight tetracaine hydrochloride, preferably in an aqueous base with about 2% benzyl alcohol or in a gel including about 3% hydroxyethyl cellulose. The topical anesthetic has been found to be at least as effective as TAC (tetracaine hydrochloride, adrenaline, cocaine), but with fewer harmful side effects and at a greatly reduced cost (about 1/10 of the cost of TAC).
Propofol is a general anesthetic commonly used in pediatric clinical practices. Experimental findings demonstrate that anesthetics induce widespread apoptosis and cognitive decline in a developing brain. Although anesthesia-mediated neurotoxicity is the most prominent during intense period of synaptogenesis, the effects of an early anesthesia exposure on the synapses are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on the expression of key proteins that participate in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and to evaluate long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities in the mature adult brain. Propofol-injected 7-day-old rats were maintained under 2-, 4-, and 6-h-long anesthesia and sacrificed 0, 4, 16, and 24 h after the termination of each exposure. We showed that propofol anesthesia strongly influenced spatiotemporal expression and/or proteolytic processing of crucial presynaptic (GAP-43, synaptophysin, α-synuclein), trans-synaptic ...
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Emla cream is a local anesthetic (numbing medication) containing lidocaine and prilocaine. It works by blocking nerve signals in your body. Emla cream is used to numb normal intact skin or the membrane surfaces of the penis or vagina. Emla is used to prepare you for minor surgery or medical procedures on these areas.. Generic Emla (Lidocaine + Prilocaine 5g) $ 19.99 pill - Mens Health, Skin Care, Surgery, Womens Health @ Fildena, Cenforce, Vidalista, Tadalista from Mydiscountpills.com. Cheap price on popular Indian brand names such as: Fildena, Cenforce, Vidalista, Tadalista and more! Full satisfaction of all Your desires :)
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A popular method of administering intravenous anesthetics is as a continuous infusion. To improve the accuracy of infusion delivery, computerized infusion pumps that use pharmacokinetic models have been developed to quickly achieve and maintain desired target effect-site concentrations. This delivery technique, known as target-controlled infusions (TCI), has become popular worldwide. Unfortunately, neither have models used to drive TCI been validated in obese patients nor has agreement regarding the correct weight to input been identified. Most models were developed with normal-sized patients or volunteers and extrapolated for use in larger patients. The main limitation is that the composition of normal size and obese patients is not the same; hence, kinetic model predictions are likely to be less accurate in the obese. ...
Product Description Medetomidine Factory Supply Pain Killer Material Medetomidine CAS86347-14-0 Water Solution Medetomidine Basic information Product Name: Medetomidine Synonyms: Medetomidine;4-[1-(2,3-Dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole;( -)-4-(alpha,2,3-Trimethylbenzyl)imidazole;(Rs)-4-(alpha,2,3-trimethylbenzyl)imidazol;1H-Imidazole, 4-(1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl)-;86347-15-1 (Hydrochloride);Medetomidina;Medetomidina [spanish] CAS: 86347-14-0 MF: C13H16N2 MW: 0 EINECS: Product Categories: Mol File: 86347-14-0.mol
Swarthmore PA Oral Surgeon Dr. Bozentka and Lee offers Intravenous Anesthesia. Swarthmore 610-328-0773 and Bryn Mawr 484-380-2393
Dinwiddie, VA. Several decades ago anesthesia (in particular) and surgery were somewhat risky businesses. Fortunately, that has changed a great deal. Modern techniques and drugs have made anesthesia and surgery generally very safe (although of course some procedures are much riskier than others). Modern anesthetic protocols have reduced complications dramatically, but I doubt that medicine will ever achieve 100% safety with anesthetic procedures.. Surgical and anesthetic safety tactics come in three stages. The first stage occurs before the procedure. The most important step to improve safety during this time is a comprehensive physical exam to assess fitness for anesthesia and surgery. Blood tests also should be run to assess the function of the liver and kidneys, as well as to assess for syndromes (such as diabetes) that can complicate anesthesia but arent always physically evident. Blood pressure measurement helps to assess the function of the heart and vascular system. Blood clotting ...
Nitrous Oxide is a sweet-smelling, non-irritating, colorless gas which you can breathe.. Nitrous Oxide has been the primary means of sedation in dentistry for many years. Nitrous oxide is safe, the patient receives 50-70% oxygen with no less than 30% nitrous oxide.. The patient is able to breathe on their own and remain in control of all bodily functions.. The patient may experience mild amnesia and may fall asleep, not remembering all of what happened during their appointment.. ...
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Dermarolling, otherwise called micro needling, is a method in which you roll minor needles over your skin, causing micro penetration.
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In the article on page 159 in the September 2013 issue, there were some incorrect data. In the fourth paragraph of the MATERIALS AND METHODS section, the following sentence should have read:. After an initial bolus of 0.5 mg/kg, propofol was given to all patients by a dose titration method (10 mg bolus for every 10 seconds until the eyelash reflex disappeared), with a mean dose of 99.5 mg (54-174 mg, min-max). ...
I thought Id post the anesthetic protocol as it worked quite well for him. He was pretty stressed when I first brought him in so we opted to sedate pretty quickly. He was at 1.113 kg and we used Ketamine - 20 mg/kg, midazolam 0.5 mg/kg, butorphanol - 0.5 mg/kg, glycopyrolate - 0.02 mg/kg in a cocktail for a total of 0.3 mls given SQ. Once he was sufficiently sedated we took a lateral abdominal xray to assess where the bladder stone was located (and that it hadnt miraculously passed on its own). We then administered 20mL of warm LRS SQ and induced using a mask and isoflurane ...
Define anesthetic: of, relating to, or capable of producing anesthesia; lacking awareness or sensitivity - anesthetic in a sentence
Learn about Alfentanil Injection (alfentanil) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
Get an answer for can we use nitrous oxide without the help of technical person ?i want to ask can a patient use nitrous oxide him self or herself? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Can you have surgery without a general anaesthetic? Perhaps the question should be would you want to have surgery without anaesthetic?

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Novel anesthetic technique for combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy for cervix cancer in an outpatient setting...Novel anesthetic technique for combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy for cervix cancer in an outpatient setting...

Purpose : To determine the feasibility and safety of outpatient combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy for ... Novel anesthetic technique for combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy for cervix cancer in an outpatient setting ... "Novel anesthetic technique for combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy for cervix cancer in an outpatient setting ... "Novel anesthetic technique for combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy for cervix cancer in an outpatient setting ...
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Perioperative anesthetic management of a combined right atrial thrombectomy with living donor liver transplantationPerioperative anesthetic management of a combined right atrial thrombectomy with living donor liver transplantation

Patient underwent combined right atrial thrombectomy and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in the same setting. ... Perioperative anesthesia management and perioperative concerns of two major combined procedures are discussed.... ... Perioperative anesthetic management of a combined right atrial thrombectomy with living donor liver transplantation. *. ... Patient underwent combined right atrial thrombectomy and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in the same setting. ...
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10-HOUR OUTPATIENT PEDIATRIC ANESTHETICS FOR COMBINED ATRESIA-MICROTIA (CAM) EAR RECONSTRUCTION - The anesthesia consultant10-HOUR OUTPATIENT PEDIATRIC ANESTHETICS FOR COMBINED ATRESIA-MICROTIA (CAM) EAR RECONSTRUCTION - The anesthesia consultant

Our anesthesia group routinely performs 10-hour outpatient pediatric anesthetics for combined atresia-microtia ear ... 3 thoughts on "10-HOUR OUTPATIENT PEDIATRIC ANESTHETICS FOR COMBINED ATRESIA-MICROTIA (CAM) EAR RECONSTRUCTION" * bank post ... The surgical-anesthetic team to date has successfully performed the combined procedure on 55 patients, 90% of who were of the ... This combined atresia and microtia repair, requiring a total anesthetic time approaching ten hours, is a new procedure being ...
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Anesthetic management during the first combined heart-liver transplant performed in Korea: a case reportAnesthetic management during the first combined heart-liver transplant performed in Korea: a case report

... Article information. ... Anesthetic management of combined heart-liver transplantation in a patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy and cardiac cirrhosis: ... Diaz GC, Renz JF, Nishanian E, Kinkhabwala M, Emond JC, Wagener G. Anesthetic management of combined heart-liver ... Herein, we describe the anesthetic management during the first combined heart-liver transplant (CHLT) performed in Korea. ...
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Anesthetics, Local. Anesthetics. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Sensory System Agents. ... A Safety and Tolerability of PSD502 (a Topical Anesthetic) in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation. This study has been ... Known drug sensitivity to amide-type local anesthetics. *Unlikely to understand or be able to comply with study procedures, for ... The study drug is a metered-dose anesthetic spray, which is being developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). ...
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Anesthetics, Local. Anesthetics. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Sensory System Agents. ... The application of local anesthetic cream may possibly increase the effectiveness of cryotherapy. ...
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Topical drug formulations for prolonged corneal anesthesia.Topical drug formulations for prolonged corneal anesthesia.

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Anaesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular morphine, medetomidine and ketamine administered to telemetered cats.Anaesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular morphine, medetomidine and ketamine administered to telemetered cats.

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Combining anesthetic ESI with anti-inflammatory medication seems to relieve neck pain better than either medication alone. ... However, ESIs are frequently combined with various other types of treatments for chronic pain. The National Institutes of ...
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US4327718A - Continuously draining trap for removal of condensate from a patient breathing circuit 
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Combined anesthetic and scavenger mask US5186167A (en) 1993-02-16. Catheter tip for intratracheal ventilation and intratracheal ... Tracheal tube and ventilator system permitting endogenously-produced NO to be combined with respiratory gas ...
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Anesthetics, Combined (4) • The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs ... Anesthetic Gases (0) see Anesthetics, Inhalation. Anesthetics (89) • Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial ... Anesthetics, General (29). Anesthetics, Inhalation (11) • Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce ... Anesthetics, Intravenous (18) • Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and ...
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Sympathectomy | definition of sympathectomy by Medical dictionarySympathectomy | definition of sympathectomy by Medical dictionary

Use of general anesthetic only vs general anesthetic combined with paravertebral block for perioperative pain management after ... A reversible ganglion block interrupts nerve impulses by means of steroid and anesthetic injected into it. If the block has a ...
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  • As of 2018, we are the only surgical/anesthetic practice in the world performing this surgery in high volume, and we are proud to have restored hearing and a cosmetic ear to hundreds of children from North America, Asia, Europe, and South America. (theanesthesiaconsultant.com)
  • The surgical team of Joseph Roberson, M.D. and John Reinisch, M.D. regularly performs Combined Atresia-Microtia (CAM) ear reconstruction surgery on children born without normal ear anatomy. (theanesthesiaconsultant.com)
  • Surgeries are performed at California Ear Institute in East Palo Alto, CA, and Waverley Surgery Center in Palo Alto, CA. The text below describes a the anesthetic care for a typical CAM reconstruction. (theanesthesiaconsultant.com)
  • The likelihood of a complication occurring is proportional to the relative risk of a variety of factors related to the patient's health, the complexity of the surgery being performed and the type of anesthetic used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mean and median durations of persistent relief were 2.4 and 1.75 months with prolotherapy vs. 1.8 and 0.75 months with anesthetics alone. (aaomed.org)
  • Central, or neuraxial, blockade administers the anesthetic in the region of the central nervous system itself, suppressing incoming sensation from outside the area of the block. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advances in surgical techniques and anesthetic management have rendered simultaneous multiple organ transplantation a viable option for carefully selected patients. (ekja.org)
  • Herein, we describe the anesthetic management during the first combined heart-liver transplant (CHLT) performed in Korea. (ekja.org)
  • In this case report, we focus on the specific anesthetic considerations for CHLT pertaining to the challenges associated with dual pathophysiology. (ekja.org)
  • By questionnaire, 66% reported excellent to good relief after prolotherapy vs. 34% after anesthetics alone. (aaomed.org)