Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
The period during a surgical operation.
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.
The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Specially trained personnel to assist in routine technical procedures in the operating room.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients in the recovery room following surgery and/or anesthesia.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.
The functions of the professional nurse in the operating room.

Effect of remifentanil on the auditory evoked response and haemodynamic changes after intubation and surgical incision. (1/302)

We have observed the effect of intubation and incision, as measured by the auditory evoked response (AER) and haemodynamic variables, in 12 patients undergoing hernia repair or varicose vein surgery who received remifentanil as part of either an inhaled anaesthetic technique using isoflurane or as part of a total i.v. technique using propofol. Anaesthesia was induced with remifentanil 1 microgram kg-1 and propofol, neuromuscular block was achieved with atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 before intubation, and anaesthesia was maintained with a continuous infusion of remifentanil in combination with either a continuous infusion of propofol or inhaled isoflurane. The AER and haemodynamic variables were measured before and after intubation and incision. The effects of intubation and incision on the AER and haemodynamic variables were not significantly different between the remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-isoflurane groups. However, the study had a low power for this comparison. When the data for the two anaesthetic combinations were pooled, the only significant effects were increases in diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate immediately after intubation; these were not seen 5 min after intubation. There were no cardiovascular responses to incision. There were no significant changes in the AER after intubation or incision.  (+info)

Concentration and second-gas effects in the water analogue. (2/302)

The water analogue provides a visual model of the process of anaesthetic exchange. In the standard version, a single pipe connects the mouth container to the lung container and the conductance of this mouth-lung pipe is proportional to alveolar ventilation. This implies that inspired and expired ventilations are equal. In fact, with high inspired concentrations of nitrous oxide, early rapid uptake of gas by solution leads to a substantial difference between inspired and expired ventilation which in turn leads to concentration and second-gas effects. It is shown that by representing inspired and expired ventilations separately, and keeping one of them constant while varying the other to compensate for rapid uptake, concentration and second-gas effects are reproduced in the water analogue. Other means of reproducing the effects are reported but we believe that the first method is the most realistic and the most appropriate for teaching.  (+info)

Recovery after halothane anaesthesia induced with thiopental, propofol-alfentanil or halothane for day-case adenoidectomy in small children. (3/302)

We studied recovery from halothane anaesthesia in 93 children, aged 1-3 yr, undergoing day-case adenoidectomy. Children were allocated randomly to receive thiopental 5 mg kg-1 (group TH), alfentanil 10 micrograms kg-1 and propofol 3 mg kg-1 (group PAH) or 5% halothane (group HH) for induction of anaesthesia. In group TH, tracheal intubation was facilitated with succinylcholine (suxamethonium) 1.5 mg kg-1. In groups PAH and HH, tracheal intubation was performed without neuromuscular block, and succinylcholine was used only if required. Anaesthesia was maintained with 1-3% halothane during spontaneous respiration. Times to achieving predetermined recovery end-points were recorded. Quality of recovery was assessed using a score of 1-9 (best to worst) for sedation, crying, restlessness and agitation. A postoperative questionnaire was used to determine the well-being of the child at home, 24 h after operation. Emergence from anaesthesia (response to non-painful stimuli) occurred earlier in group HH (mean 9 (SD 6) min) than in groups PAH (13 (6) min, P < 0.01) and TH (18 (14) min, P < 0.01). Sitting up, walking and home readiness were achieved earlier in groups PAH and HH than in group TH (P < 0.05 for each variable). Children in group TH were more sedated during the first 30 min after anaesthesia than those in the two other groups (P < 0.05) while emergence-related delirium was more common in group HH than in group TH (P < 0.01). Well-being at home was similar in all groups. We conclude that induction of halothane anaesthesia with propofol-alfentanil or halothane provided more rapid recovery and earlier discharge than that with thiopental.  (+info)

Haemodynamic stability and ketamine-alfentanil anaesthetic induction. (4/302)

We have determined if alfentanil could obtund the haemodynamic instability commonly seen at induction of anaesthesia with ketamine. Five groups of ASA I and II patients received ketamine 1 mg kg-1 i.v., preceded by saline (group 1) or alfentanil 10, 20, 30 or 40 micrograms kg-1 (groups 2-5, respectively). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (AP), postoperative patient complaints and dysphoria were noted. All groups showed increases (P < 0.05) in both HR and AP after administration of ketamine, which were progressively smaller as the dose of alfentanil increased. After tracheal intubation, all groups showed further increases in HR and AP, with groups 3-5 (alfentanil 20-40 micrograms kg-1) showing significant obtundation (P < 0.05) of these increases compared with group 1. No patient in any group reported postoperative dysphoria or dissatisfaction with their anaesthetic. Ketamine 1 mg kg-1 with alfentanil 20-40 micrograms kg-1 provided statistically significant obtundation of the haemodynamic instability that is common with ketamine alone.  (+info)

Comparison of recovery of propofol and methohexital sedation using an infusion pump. (5/302)

Two sedative anesthetic agents administered by an infusion pump were compared during third molar surgery. Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I or II volunteers were randomly allocated to two groups. All subjects received supplemental oxygen via a nasal hood, fentanyl (0.0007 mg/kg intravenous [i.v.] bolus), and midazolam (1 mg/2 min) titrated to effect. Patients then received either 0.3 mg/kg of methohexital or 0.5 mg/kg of propofol via an infusion pump. Upon completion of the bolus, a continuous infusion of 0.05 mg/kg/min methohexital or 0.066 mg/kg/min propofol was administered throughout the procedure. Hemo-dynamic and respiratory parameters and psychomotor performance were compared for the two groups and no significant differences were found. The continuous infusion method maintained a steady level of sedation. Patients receiving propofol had a smoother sedation as judged by the surgeon and anesthetist.  (+info)

Bone marrow harvesting using EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics) cream, local anaesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia with alfentanil. (6/302)

Bone marrow harvesting (BMH) was performed on 40 consecutive allogeneic or autologous donors using EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics), local anaesthesia (LA) and patient-controlled analgesia with alfentanil (PCA-A). The effect of alkalinizing the LA solution on reducing pain during LA infiltration in the presence of EMLA was also investigated. EMLA 10 g with occlusive dressing was applied to the harvest sites at least 60 min before BMH. The PCA device was programmed to deliver an intravenous loading dose of 15 microg/kg alfentanil, followed by a background alfentanil infusion of 0.05 microg/kg/min. Demand dose was 4 microg/kg and lockout time was 3 min. Donors were randomized to receive either alkalinized (n = 19) or non-alkalinized (n=21) LA solution (lignocaine 1% with 1:100000 adrenaline). While post-operative nausea and vomiting were the only side-effects, all donors in both groups reported satisfactory pain scores during LA infiltration and satisfactory overall intra-operative comfort scores. They completed BMH using either regimen successfully, found this technique acceptable and would recommend this form of anaesthesia to others. Alkalinizing the LA solution did not significantly improve the pain scores during LA infiltration in the presence of EMLA. In conclusion, BMH can be performed safely using EMLA, LA and PCA-A without major complications.  (+info)

Effects of propofol, propofol-nitrous oxide and midazolam on cortical somatosensory evoked potentials during sufentanil anaesthesia for major spinal surgery. (7/302)

Recording of cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (CSEP) enables monitoring of spinal cord function. We studied the effects of propofol, propofol-nitrous oxide or midazolam during sufentanil anaesthesia on CSEP monitoring during major spinal surgery. Thirty patients with normal preoperative CSEP were allocated randomly to one of the following anaesthesia regimens: propofol (2.5 mg kg-1 followed by 10-6 mg kg-1 h-1) with or without nitrous oxide, or midazolam (0.3 mg kg-1 followed by 0.15 mg kg-1 h-1) combined with sufentanil 0.5 microgram kg-1 h-1 in the propofol and midazolam groups, or 0.25 microgram kg-1 h-1 in the propofol-nitrous oxide group. CSEP were elicited by alternate right and left tibial posterior nerve stimulation and recorded before and after induction (15 min, 1, 2 and 3 h), and during skin closure. CSEP latencies were not significantly modified in the three groups. CSEP amplitude decreased significantly in the propofol-nitrous oxide group (from mean 2.0 (SEM 0.3) to 0.6 (0.1) microV; P < 0.05) but not in the propofol (from 1.8 (0.6) to 2.2 (0.3) microV) or midazolam (1.7 (0.5) to 1.6 (0.5) microV) groups. The time to the first postoperative voluntary motor response (recovery) delay was significantly greater in the midazolam group (115 (19) min) compared with the propofol and propofol-nitrous oxide groups (43 (8) and 41 (3) min, respectively). Consequently, the use of propofol without nitrous oxide can be recommended during spinal surgery when CSEP monitoring is required.  (+info)

Anaesthetic effects of pregnanolone in combination with allopregnanolone, thiopental, hexobarbital and flurazepam: an EEG study in the rat. (8/302)

The anaesthetic interactions of the steroid, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one, in male rats were investigated in different fixed binary combinations with the steroid allopregnanolone (3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one), two barbiturates (thiopental and hexobarbital) and the benzodiazepine, flurazepam. Anaesthetic effects were determined using an EEG threshold method. Interactions were assessed using an isobolographic method. The interaction between the two steroids, pregnanolone and allopregnanolone, showed an anaesthetic effect significantly less than additive (antagonistic). The interactions between pregnanolone and the two barbiturates and the benzodiazepine showed an anaesthetic effect significantly greater than additive (potentiation) in all tests performed. These results could be explained by a pharmacodynamic interaction at the hypothetical GABA-benzodiazepine-barbiturate-steroid complex in the CNS.  (+info)

The interaction index has been discussed by several authors, such as Berenbaum (9), Tallarida (14), and Meadows and colleagues (15). The definition of the interaction index coincides with Chou and Talalays definition of the combination index for mutually exclusive drugs, published in 1984 (16). The field of drug combination research spans more than 100 years and has been addressed within many disciplines. Chou and Talalays seminal article has made important contributions and has been widely cited in the literature. However, this article was not the first nor the only one that generates concepts supporting Eqs. 1 and 2 and applies these equations to study drug interactions. Lee and colleagues directed the reader to reviews of these methods, with proper citation of the appropriate references therein (17), and derived the confidence interval estimation for the interaction index and compared its performance with four methods based on response surface models. Although several equations are indeed ...
Publications » Use of optimal mixture-process designs and response surface models to study properties of calcium silicate units ...
1987-1988 - David Sorin. 1988-1989 - Skip Schwarzman. 1989-1990 - Lou Weingrad. 1990-1991 - Judy Johnson. 1991-1992 - Joy Bowman. 1992-1993 - Sharon Moore. 1993-1997 - Michael Young. 1997-1998 - Michael Cerelli. 1998-1999 - Eric Walker, CSEP. 1999-2000 - Kevin White, CSEP. 2000-2001 - Barbara Jo Saler. 2001-2002 - Kathleen DeLuca, CSEP, CMP. 2002-2003 - Kristina Sumey, CSEP. 2003-2004 - Sue Werb, CSEP. 2004-2006 - David Buckley, CSEP. 2006-2007 - Phyllis Jablonowski, CSEP. 2007-2008 - Dave Dickson. 2008-2009 - Nancy Bauman (Chapter of the Year!). 2009-2010 - Larry Ott. 2010-2011 - Sharon Dachino. 2011-2012 - Thomas Presti. 2012-2013 - Jason Cataldi, CTS. 2013-2014 - Bob Mills. 2014-2016 - Sarah Mainhart. 2016-2017 - Melissa Irwin. 2017-2018 - Beth Koenig. 2018-2019 - Erin ...
Atıf İçin Kopyala Toklu S., Iyilikci L., Gonen C. , Ciftci L., Gunenc F., Sahin E., et al. European journal of anaesthesiology, cilt.26, ss.370-6, 2009 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) ...
This study was performed are in little man to investigate the influence notions of sex and concomitant with treatment of bimatoprost on answer the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of benmoxin, and boatmen to validate a previously described in indirect response surface model. Preferred pharmaceuticals inc. is simultaneously making packaging and or sale of a series of various drugs in
Application of A-line autoregressive model with exogenous input index during the wake-up test in spinal surgery under propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia.:
The increase of Corrected QT (QTc) interval is associated with age. It is known that most inhalation anesthetics or intravenous anesthetics can influence the QTc. In addition, tracheal intubation during induction can stimulates sympathetic activity, which, as a results, prolong the QTc interval. Therefore, the aim of study is to find out the effect site concentration of remifentanil for preventing QTc interval prolongation during intubation under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia in elderly patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Visual acuity and pupillary reactions after peribulbar anaesthesia. AU - Talks, S.J.. AU - Chong, N.H.. AU - Gibson, J M. AU - Francis, I.R.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - The effect of peribulbar anaesthesia on optic nerve function in 20 patients, before and after cataract surgery, was measured. All the patients had decreased visual acuity. Five (25%) had no perception of light. Seventeen (85%) developed a relative afferent pupil defect (RAPD). No patients saw the operating instruments. Seven (35%) had improved visual acuity immediately postoperatively. Patients should be warned that they may lose vision completely on being given a peribulbar anaesthetic; however their vision will improve, but not necessarily immediately, postoperatively. Examination for an RAPD is a good method of providing reassurance that the operating instruments will not be seen.. AB - The effect of peribulbar anaesthesia on optic nerve function in 20 patients, before and after cataract surgery, was measured. ...
A Quatro sensor (Aspect Medical Systems, Newton, MA) was mounted on the forehead according to the manufacturers guidelines, with another Quatro sensor mounted ipsilaterally according to Shiraishi et al .4 proposed occipital placement. The occipital process was considered the midline guide point with electrode 1 placed few centimeters cranially, electrodes 2 and 4 placed slanting, and electrode 3 placed laterally (fig. 1). The Quatro sensors were connected to two BIS-Vista™ monitors with the clocks synchronized to the exact hour: minute: second. The raw electroencephalography signals were band-pass filtered to 2-70 Hz and processed in real time using BIS-Vista™ version 1.4 algorithm. In addition, the BIS-Vista™ monitor calculates the electromyography power in the 70-110 Hz frequency band displayed in decibels. BIS recordings were started after verifying a signal quality index more than 95% and electrodes impedance less than 5 kΩ. With the help of the USB-A port, electroencephalographic ...
BACKGROUND: The aepEX Plus monitor (aepEX) utilizes a mid-latency auditory evoked potential-derived index of depth of hypnosis (DoH). OBJECTIVE: This observational study evaluates the performance of the aepEX as a DoH monitor for pediatric patients receiving propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. METHODS: aepEX and BIS values were recorded simultaneously during surgery in three groups of 25 children (aged 1-3, 3-6 and 6-16 years). Propofol was administered by target-controlled infusion. The University of Michigan Sedation Scale (UMSS) was used to clinically assess the DoH during emergence ...
ABSTRACT: Response surface methodology based on a 3-variable, 5-level central composite rotatable design matrix was used to optimize the synthesis. The influence of selected variables, namely, enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratio, substrate concentration, and temperature was investigated. E/S ratio and temperature had a strong effect on esterification, while substrate concentration did not. Reaction time did not show significant effect on ester yields, and conversions could be completed in less than 24 h. The response surface model has been found to describe the experimental results adequately. Product yield at optimum conditions (24 g/mol E/S ratio, 1.5 M substrate concentration 20 °C) was 1.4 M, representing 93% conversion, which is in good agreement with the predicted one. ...
My preliminary communication to the Lancet was published in 1961. While according to dictionary definition I was the inventor of a premixed N2O/O2 gas mixture, subsequently called Entonox, BOC did not involve me with the patent. I was too unsophisticated for the matter even to enter my mind at that time. It is worth noting that BOC avoided listing the first published paper on premixed gas (in the Lancet) in their promotional booklet, published in September 1970, called the Entonox Digest. The digest was a 35 page summary of articles, correspondence and papers. There were extracts of various publications in the medical literature on the clinical uses of Entonox ...
Effects of nitrous oxide on cardiovascular parameters in pigs anesthetized with propofol and subjected to pressure-controlled ...
BACKGROUND: The Narcotrend is a new electroencephalographic monitor designed to measure depth of anesthesia, based on a six-letter classification from A (awake) to F (increasing burst suppression) including 14 substages. This study was designed to investigate the impact of Narcotrend monitoring on recovery times and propofol consumption in comparison to Bispectral Index (BIS) monitoring or standard anesthetic practice.. METHODS: With institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 120 adult patients scheduled to undergo minor orthopedic surgery were randomized to receive a propofol-remifentanil anesthetic controlled by Narcotrend, by BIS(R), or solely by clinical parameters. Anesthesia was induced with 0.4 micro x kg-1 x min-1 remifentanil and a propofol target-controlled infusion at 3.5 microg/ml. After intubation, remifentanil was reduced to 0.2 micro x kg-1 x min-1, whereas the propofol infusion was adjusted according to clinical parameters or to the following target values: ...
The clinical studies demonstrate more powerful analgesic effect among female to both μ- and κ-opioid agonist (Fillingim et al. 2004). The antitussive effect of opioid is mediated predominantly by μ-, κ-opioid receptors (Kamei J. 1996). Therefore, the investigators hypothesized that there are sex differences in the antitussive responses to opioid.. It has been reported that target-controlled infusion (TCI) of remifentanil can reduce cough against endotracheal tube during emergence from general anesthesia. Some studies, reporting the EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI for preventing cough during emergence in different sex and surgeries (B. Lee et al. 2009, E.M.Choi et al. 2012), showed differences in EC50 and EC95.. The purpose of this study was to find out EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI for preventing cough during emergence in each sex and to evaluate whether there were sex differences in EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil in effect-site TCI or not. ...
What is a eutectic mixture? Eutectic comes from the Greek eutektos for easily melted(any resemblence to tectonic is, I believe, purely accidental - tectonic also comes from the Greek, but for building, not melting!). An eutectic mixture is one in which the melting point of the mix is lower than the melting point of either of the components. The binary phase diagram has a eutectic point. EMLA is a mixture of equal weights of lidocaine and prilocaine, made into an emulsion ...
Teng WN, Tsou MY, Chen PT, Liou JY, Yu L, Westenskow DR, Ting CK, A desflurane and fentanyl dosing regimen for wake-up testing during scoliosis surgery: Implications for the time-course of emergence from anesthesia. J Formos Med Assoc 2017 Aug;116(8):606-612. Hsu WC, Orr J, Lin SP, Yu L, Tsou MY, Westenskow DR, Ting CK, Efficiency of oxygen delivery through different oxygen entrainment devices during sedation under low oxygen flow rate: a bench study. J Clin Monit Comput 2017 May 2;:. Chang KC, Orr J, Hsu WC, Yu L, Tsou MY, Westenskow DR, Ting CK, Accuracy of CO2 monitoring via nasal cannulas and oral bite blocks during sedation for esophagogastroduodenoscopy. J Clin Monit Comput 2016 Apr;30(2):169-73. Ting CK, Johnson KB, Teng WN, Synoid ND, Lapierre C, Yu L, Westenskow DR, Response surface model predictions of wake-up time during scoliosis surgery. Anesth Analg 2014 Mar;118(3):546-53. Yu L, Ting CK, Hill BE, Orr JA, Brewer LM, Johnson KB, Egan TD, Westenskow DR, Using the Entropy of Tracheal ...
MATA, Lukiya Birungi Silva Campos et al. Anestesia por infusão contínua de propofol associado ao remifentanil em gatos pré-tratados com acepromazina. Rev. Ceres [online]. 2010, vol.57, n.2, pp.198-204. ISSN 0034-737X. O presente trabalho avaliou a associação anestésica do propofol, um anestésico geral de ação ultracurta e metabolismo rápido, ao remifentanil, opioide de grande poder analgésico, que potencializa os anestésicos gerais. O objetivo principal foi desenvolver um protocolo anestésico de uso intravenoso, por infusão contínua, que proporcione conforto ao paciente, segurança, com grande relaxamento muscular e analgesia em gatos submetidos a cirurgias eletivas como a ovariosalpingoisterectomia e orquiectomia. Foram utilizados 30 gatos, aleatoriamente distribuídos em 3 grupos de 10 animais. Em todos eles realizou-se a tranquilização com acepromazina (0,1 mg/kg, IM) e indução anestésica com propofol (6 mg/kg, IV). No ...
The combination midazolam-remifentanil presented a lower synergistic effect compared with propofol-remifentanil. The first fact documented a mean BIS of 62.5 +3 vs. 64.7 +4 midazolam-remifentanil association and has finally, although sporadic, incidents of desaturation content and never , 30%. The evaluation of the kinetic values of BIS, the interesting fact that emerges concerns the values, 70, which represented a significant predictor in the study to better recovery of consciousness, which has helped the fast-traking ongoing day-surgery. ...
Neuro-anesthetic contri- bution to the impedance of complications caused nearby perfunctory cerebral retraction: concept of a chemical thought retractorAge-at-death diagnosis and firmness of life-history param- eters past incremental lines in vulnerable dental cementum as an fingering helpDispensation of N2 O alone or adding it to a fentanyl-midazolam anes- thetic ,,05] or a propofol-remifentanil anesthetic did not interchange the BIS in rhyme study ,,06]If epidemiological statistics put up with inferences about clinical data, 2029 3039 4049 5059 Grow older 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Men Women Ubiquity(%) 6069 ,70 REPRESENTATION 5.1 Age-specific ubiquitousness of metabolic syndrome ,a href=,purchase fluoxetine 10mg with visa,/a,. The convert an eye to developing engagement amelioration plans in the direction of each core program involves realization of an corroboration reassessment hardened to notify the phenomenon ...
An easy to read guide about remifentanil abuse, addiction, and treatment options. Get help for remifentanil addiction today at Nova.
EMLA 5% (30 g cream) Buy online on Filler Supplies USA - EMLA Patches is a brand of medicine Do not use EMLA if you are pregnant or Be sure to follow the instructions in the pack on how to apply EMLA cream or
A eutectic is a mixture that contains two or more components in proportions that allow them to solidify at the same temperature...
Malling 26 was bred at East Malling from a cross between M-9 and the very vigorous rootstock M-16 (Metziner Ideal). A virus-indexed EMLA clone was introduced by East Malling in 1969 / 1970.
This meeting will highlight and detail the development obstacles and features of propofol that have led to its wide range of applications.
Leser om anestesimidler blant annet propofol. Der står det misbruk og avhengighet av propofol (først og fremst hos helsepersonell). Ante ikke at noen ...
Who knew after having our coffee this morning we would end up at the Auto Club Speedway for the Petty Driving Experience....HOLY SHIT! is what I thought when Celi call this morning and asked how Marco was doing...I told her he was feeling better slowly but surely. She asked if I thought he would be willing to meet at the track and I told her I didnt know. So I went to ask Marco what he thought and he said YES! Well we left the house like bats out of hell ...
BACKGROUND We evaluated the anesthetic efficacy and the postoperative analgesic effects of 0.75% levobupivacaine versus 0.75% ropivacaine for peribulbar anesthesia in patients undergoing primary vitreoretinal surgery. METHODS We investigated 120 patients subjected to vitreoretinal surgery under peribulbar anesthesia. They were randomized into two equal groups according to the local anesthetic (LA) used, namely, 0.75% levobupivacaine or 0.75% ropivacaine, both with the addition of hyaluronidase. Nerve block was carried out by injection of 5-7 mL of the LA using single injection percutaneous peribulbar anesthesia with a short needle. RESULTS When compared with 0.75% ropivacaine, 0.75% levobupivacaine provided more successful akinesia at 10 min after block (P=0.026), fewer supplementary injections (P=0.026), and less volume (mL) was used (P=0.031). Also, levobupivacaine provided significantly longer motor block duration (342±27 min versus 206±40 min, P=0.001) and significantly longer sensory block
A caudal block is a special type of anesthesia. The doctor injects a small amount of numbing medicine near the tailbone to decrease feeling below the umbilicus (belly button) for a short time. The caudal block is done while the child is asleep, before the surgery starts. The medicine bathes and numbs the nerves that carry feelings to the spinal cord. It is a safe and effective way to decrease pain after surgery. Caudal blocks can be given to patients as young as one week of age to adulthood. The final decision as to whether or not your child may have a caudal is made by your childs anesthesiologist and surgeon.
The aim of our study is to see if a new combination of anaesthetic drugs results in a better long-term developmental outcome than the current standard of care
SIMONI, Ricardo Francisco; PEREIRA, Antônio Márcio Sanfim Arantes; BOREGA, Renato dos Santos and SIMOES, Daniel Caldeira Pereira. Remifentanil versus Sufentanil em infusão contínua em intervenções cirúrgicas videolaparoscópicas: estudo comparativo. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2008, vol.58, n.3, pp.193-201. ISSN 0034-7094. JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A infusão contínua (IC) de remifentanil na técnica de anestesia venosa total é prática comum. Já o sufentanil em IC para cirurgias de curta/média duração tem sido pouco utilizado. O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar duas técnicas de anestesia venosa total, utilizando remifentanil ou sufentanil em IC, quanto ao comportamento anestésico no intra-operatório e às características da recuperação anestésica em pacientes submetidos à videolaparoscopia. MÉTODO: Participaram desse estudo 60 pacientes divididos em 2 grupos iguais (GR e GS). O GR foi induzido com remifentanil IC ...
AbstractFor a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial Response Surface Model (RSM) design was employed and compared to Artificial Neural Networks coupled with Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA). Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A), bead load (B), cell load (C) and run time (D), were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v), cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN coupled with GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h): 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v): 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm): 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch
Sodium fluoride solution was injected i.p. to three groups of rats at a dose equivalent to 0.1 LD50 three times a week up to 18 injections. Two out of these groups and two out of three groups were sham-injected with normal saline and were exposed to the whole body impact of a 25 mT static magnetic field (SMF) for 2 or 4 hr a day, 5 times a week. Following the exposure, various functional and biochemical indices were evaluated along with histological examination and morphometric measurements of the femur in the differently exposed and control rats. The mathematical analysis of the combined effects of the SMF and fluoride based on the a response surface model demonstrated that, in full correspondence with what we had previously found for the combined toxicity of different chemicals, the combined adverse action of a chemical plus a physical agent was characterized by a tipological diversity depending not only on particular effects these types were assessed for but on the dose and effect levels as ...
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Travelling from Rutland Road, there are two lanes, one left (a sliplane), one combined straight on and right, there is no ASLs and no cycle facilities. All of these movements score zero, left turn because of the left turn slip lane, straight on because of the need to move out into the outside lane to use the junction and because of the lack of separation, and the right turn for the same reason with the added risk of having to sit in the middle of the junction with traffic passing on the left going straight ahead, and oncoming traffic on your right.. Travelling from Pitsmoor Road South, there is a 1.5m wide feeder lane to a 5m deep ASL. There is a single general traffic lane. The speed limit is 30mph and there are , 1000vph, a critical failure. Turning left, the radius is being increased, theres no dedicated space in the junction for cycling. Going straight on, there is no protection from left turning traffic and there will be conflict with vehicles trying to overtake cycles while oncoming ...
Travelling from Rutland Road, there are two lanes, one left (a sliplane), one combined straight on and right, there is no ASLs and no cycle facilities. All of these movements score zero, left turn because of the left turn slip lane, straight on because of the need to move out into the outside lane to use the junction and because of the lack of separation, and the right turn for the same reason with the added risk of having to sit in the middle of the junction with traffic passing on the left going straight ahead, and oncoming traffic on your right.. Travelling from Pitsmoor Road South, there is a 1.5m wide feeder lane to a 5m deep ASL. There is a single general traffic lane. The speed limit is 30mph and there are , 1000vph, a critical failure. Turning left, the radius is being increased, theres no dedicated space in the junction for cycling. Going straight on, there is no protection from left turning traffic and there will be conflict with vehicles trying to overtake cycles while oncoming ...
The International Live Events Association announced recognition of the following event professionals who recently earned the Certified Special Events Professional designation.. ILEA endorses and manages the voluntary CSEP program for those who meet standards. Earning the CSEP designation demonstrates a continuous dedication to enhance individual and professional performance. ...
The total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is a commonly used technique in humans and has been instituted in anesthesia of small animals. The use of this technique only became popular in the last decade, due to lack of drugs ...
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Vpliv anestezije s propofolom in sevofluranom na oksidativni stres pri psih z miksomatozno degeneracijo mitralne zaklopke. Preberi več ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Menthol-based eutectic mixtures. T2 - Hydrophobic low viscosity solvents. AU - Ribeiro, Bernardo D.. AU - Florindo, Catarina. AU - Iff, Lucas C.. AU - Coelho, Maria A Z. AU - Marrucho Ferreira, Isabel Maria. PY - 2015/9/10. Y1 - 2015/9/10. N2 - Inspired by one of the major problems in the pharmaceutical industry, we advantageously used the formation of eutectic mixtures to synthesize new solvents. The aim of this work is to identify low viscosity, cheap, biodegradable and hydrophobic eutectic solvents from natural resources. Consequently, novel eutectic mixtures based on DL-menthol and naturally occurring acids, namely pyruvic acid, acetic acid, L-lactic acid, and lauric acid, were synthesized and are here reported for the first time. The obtained DLmenthol-based eutectic mixtures were analyzed using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy in order to check their structures and purities and to confirm the interaction of the two compounds leading to the eutectic formation. Important solvent ...
This project was designed to compare the dose requirements and the development of tolerance on the sedative/analgesic effect of propofol versus propofol plus remifentanil administered in rabbits under prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV).. Eight male, clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits were intubated under xylazine-ketamine-isoflurane anesthesia. After isoflurane discontinuation, the animals received either propofol (group P, n=4) or propofol plus remifentanil (group P/R, n=4) by continuous intravenous infusion for a maximum period of 38 hours. Arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), electrocardiograph (ECG) and spO2 were continuously measured while arterial blood gases were analysed periodically. Initial doses were adjusted in order to achieve adequate level of sedation and analgesia based on reflexes, HR, arterial pressure and attempt for spontaneous breathing. Tolerance on the sedative/analgesic effect of the agents was indicated by the increase of their ...
No definitive outcomes study has explored whether administering a total intravenous anesthetic via TCI or with conventional continuous infusion rates impacts emergence. One might hypothesize that if administering a lengthy anesthetic, TCI would provide a more economical anesthetic and avoid unnecessary drug delivery that would perhaps delay emergence. Figure 30-1 presents a simulation of 2 intravenous techniques: one using TCI and the other set infusion rates for 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. Both approaches used a high-dose remifentanil and low dose propofol technique. In fact the TCI target effect-site concentrations were selected to be near the effect-site concentrations that resulted from propofol infusions of 100 mcg/kg/min and remifentanil 0.2 mcg/kg/min. In general, with increasing duration of the anesthetic, the simulation predicted the time to emergence would become longer. Time to emergence was defined as the time required for the model of loss of responsiveness to predict that only 1 out of ...
The aim of this study was to determine the combined effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water SAEW (pH range 5.06.5, oxidationreduction potential 6501000 mV, available chlorine concentration 1080 mg/L) containing 0, 15, and 30 ppm chlorine and 0, 50, and 100 min of ultrasound US (37 kHz, 380 W) using the central composite design (CCD) on the reductions of Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (initial value, approximately 67 log10 colony forming unit (CFU) of E. coli or V. parahaemolyticus/g) and the sensory properties on freshly sliced shad (Konosirus punctatus), in comparison with SAEW or US alone. Another aim was to develop the response surface model for E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus in the shad treated with the combination of SAEW and US. Single treatments with SAEW (chlorine 15 ppm), SAEW (chlorine 30 ppm), or US for 50 min caused a much-less-than-1-log10 reduction in the number of both E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus in the shad. In contrast, the combination of SAEW (15 or 30 ...
Background and study aims : In endoscopic procedures, propofol can be safely administered either alone or in conjunction with remifentanil. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of the administration of propofol alone and the administration of remifentanil in addition to propofol on patient and endoscopist satisfaction, preoperative hemodynamic response, and propofol consumption. ...
METHODS: We recruited 15 patients. For each patient of our study we defined a skin area of 3 cm2 from two forearms: on one side, we used skin needling first and immediately thereafter applied the EMLA in occlusion for 60 minutes; on the other one, we only applied EMLA in occlusion for 60 minutes. Then, pain was induced in each patients forearm by introducing a 27 G needle into the skin 4 mm deep three times. Lastly, pain sensation measures were registered and a middle value was calculated ...
This Excel workbook is designed to calculate the properties of eutectic mixtures of organic phase change materials (PCMs). It contains data for 15 fatty acid PCMs that are used to generate the compositions, latent heats of fusion and melting temperatures of 105 binary mixtures of fatty acids. Default values can be modified by the user and the current database can be expanded to include other PCMs and generate properties of their mixtures. More details can be found in the worksheet Disclaimer and Workbook Info included in the workbook and in the published manuscript: S. Kahwaji, M.A. White, Prediction of the Properties of Eutectic Organic Phase Change Materials, Thermochim. Acta. 660 (2017) 94-100.
Background The aim of this study was to identify the best model to describe pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in prepubertal children and therefore to calculate the corresponding pharmacodynamic parameters. In addition, and to confirm our method, a group of postpubertal subjects was also studied. Methods Sixteen children (9.5 yr, range 6-12) and 13 adults (22 yr, range 13-35) were included. Induction was performed by plasma target-controlled infusion of propofol (6 microg/ml) based on the Kataria model in children and on the Schnider model in adults. The relationship of bispectral index to predicted concentrations was studied during induction using the Kataria, pediatric Marsh, Schüttler, and Schnider models in children. Because the best performance was obtained, strangely enough, with the Schnider model, the two groups were pooled to investigate influence of puberty on pharmacodynamic parameters (kE0 [plasma effect-site equilibration rate constant] and Ce50 [effect-site concentration ...
EMLA Patch (lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5%) is a topical anesthetic which causes a temporary numbness to the skin area. This combination product contains two medications: lidocaine and prilocaine. Both of these medications belong to the family of topical anesthetics. Together, they are used to reduce the pain or di
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4. Kurita TUraoka MMorita KSuzuki MMorishima YSato S: Influence of haemorrhage on the pseudo-steady-state remifentanil concentration in a swine model: a comparison with propofol and the effect of haemorrhagic shock stage. Br J Anaesth 107:719-7252011. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of ECMO assistance during mechanical ventilation: effects induced on energetic and haemodynamic variables. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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We compared anesthetic protocols with different doses of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) combined with medetomidine (M) for 288 yearling brown bear (Ursus arctos) immobilizations with the objective of finding a combination of ...
FARMACOCINETICA PROPOFOL PDF - Key words: Intravenous anesthesia, remifentanyl, propofol, infusion pump, .. Aguilera L. Conceptos básicos de farmacocinética farmacodinámia en TIVA.
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Sometimes, LAs are combined, e.g.: Lidocaine/prilocaine (EMLA, eutectic mixture of local anesthetic) Lidocaine/tetracaine ( ... Amylocaine Anesthetic General anesthetic List of cocaine analogues List of local anesthetics Ryan T, Hodge A, Holyoak R, Vlok R ... A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes absence of pain sensation. In the context of surgery, a local anesthetic ... Anesthetic deposition is recommended at 0.2 mL, per root or site, over minimally 20 seconds. For its success, the anesthetic ...
Because of its low potency, it cannot produce anesthesia on its own but is frequently combined with other agents. Halothane, an ... Local anesthetics can be either ester- or amide-based. Ester local anesthetics (such as procaine, amethocaine, cocaine, ... Anesthetics are distinct from analgesics, which block only sensation of painful stimuli.[citation needed] Local anesthetic ... they are frequently used along with other agents such as intravenous non-opioid anesthetics or inhalational anesthetics. ...
... an anesthetic process that involves combining a major antipsychotic/neuroleptic or tranquilizer with a potent opioid analgesic ... Efforts were also made to develop compounds which combined both types of activity in a single molecule. Neuroleptanalgesia ... Iorio, M. A.; Paszkowska Reymer, T.; Frigeni, V. (1987). "Combined analgesic/neuroleptic activity in N-butyrophenone prodine- ... 644 Anesthetics Sedation Twilight sleep Moby's Medical Dictionary. Elsevier. ...
... and a weak anesthetic. As well as nappy rash, it can also be used to treat eczema, bedsores, minor burns, surface wounds, ... and combined with, Actavis plc. On March 17, 2015 (2015-03-17), Actavis completed the acquisition of Allergan, creating a $23 ...
Treatment consists of several such anesthetic injections, sometimes combined with corticosteroids. Such an approach yields ... Confirmation of a diagnosis of ACNES is warranted using an abdominal wall infiltration with a local anesthetic agent near the ... This involves a repeated exploration combined with a posterior neurectomy. This procedure has been shown to be beneficial in 50 ...
Injections of local anesthetic, sometimes combined with steroids, into the muscles (e.g. the temoralis muscle or its tendon) ... Local anesthetics may provide temporary pain relief, and steroids inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines. Steroids and other ... This may occur during dental treatment, with oral intubation whilst under a general anesthetic, during singing or wind ...
Anesthetics were not regularly used in medicine or dentistry until decades after Davy's death. Davy threw himself energetically ... At one point the gas was combined with wine to judge its efficacy as a cure for hangover (his laboratory notebook indicated ... His respiration of nitric oxide which may have combined with air in the mouth to form nitric acid (HNO3), severely injured the ...
These are connected by cables to a machine which has the combined functions of an ECG display screen and the electrical ... see details on pad placement below). The anesthesiology team will then administer a general anesthetic (e.g., Propofol) in ... Opioid analgesics (e.g., Fentanyl) may be combined with Propofol, although anesthesiology must weight the benefits against ...
Epinephrine is frequently combined with local anesthetic and can cause panic attacks. Epinephrine is mixed with cocaine to form ... When epinephrine is mixed with local anesthetics, such as bupivacaine or lidocaine, and used for local anesthesia or ... "Benefit and Harm of Adding Epinephrine to a Local Anesthetic for Neuraxial and Locoregional Anesthesia: A Meta-analysis of ... intrathecal injection, it prolongs the numbing effect and motor block effect of the anesthetic by up to an hour. ...
These drugs are often combined with adjuvants, drugs that boost the effect of each other, with the end goal of increasing the ... Local anesthetic nerve block (local anesthetic regional nerve blockade, or often simply nerve block) is a short-term nerve ... Since the plexus is located deep, there is an increased risk of local anesthetic toxicity, so less toxic anesthetics like ... The local anesthetic bathes the nerve and numbs the area of the body that is supplied by that nerve. The goal of the nerve ...
This makes it similar to breathing exercises during labor cramps before epidural administration of anesthetics. The theme is ... but it is inadequate analgesia unless combined with pain relief medications. ...
The term is most commonly used to refer to epidural administration of analgesics and anesthetics. It may also refer to: ... Epidural blood patch Caudal epidural Combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia (CSE) Epidural steroid injection Patient- ...
The veins are filled with the anesthetic, with the anesthetic setting into local tissue after approximately 6-8 minutes, after ... as well as dual-bladder tourniquet cuffs combined with dedicated safety lockouts that reduce human error. Additionally, IVRA ... or Bier's block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique on the body's extremities where a local anesthetic is injected ... The type of anesthetic agent, improper equipment use or selection, and technical error are prominent factors in most cases of ...
It can be used as a local anesthetic, especially with epinephrine. As a dye solvent, it enhances the process of dying wool, ... Thus it can be used in paint strippers, especially when combined with compatible viscosity enhancers to encourage the mixture ... "Benzyl alcohol as an alternative local anesthetic". Annals of Emergency Medicine. 33 (5): 495-499. doi:10.1016/s0196-0644(99) ...
The leaves, or extracts from them, are used to heal wounds and as a local anesthetic. Extracts and leaves have been used to ... Herb-drug interactions may result when kratom is combined with alcohol, sedatives, benzodiazepines, opioids, caffeine, cocaine ... The herb is bitter and is generally combined with a sweetener. As of 2018[update], there have been no formal trials to study ...
Xenon has anesthetic properties when delivered in a high dose; therefore, it is being investigated not as a device, but as a ... These combination of increasing scarcity and increasing demand have combined to make 3He highly expensive, up to more than $ ... One potential area of concern is 129Xe's anesthetic properties when a large volume is inhaled. Xenon shows blood and tissue ...
Likewise, combining injected tobramycin with other nephrotoxic or ototoxic drugs can lead to more adverse effects; examples ... Methoxyflurane, when used as an inhalational anesthetic, can aggravate the nephrotoxic effects of injected tobramycin. ... Combining tobramycin with betalactam antibiotics can be desirable because of their synergistic effects. However, when they are ... Eye drops and ointments (tobramycin only, Tobrex, or combined with dexamethasone, sold as Tobradex) and nebulised formulations ...
Combining different NMBAs can result in different degrees of neuromuscular block and management should be guided with the use ... Inhaled anesthetics inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and potentiate neuromuscular blockage with ... Combining two nondepolarising NMBAs of the same chemical class (e.g. rocuronium and vecuronium) produces an additive effect, ... It depends on the type of volatile anesthetic (desflurane > sevoflurane > isoflurane > nitrous oxide), the concentration and ...
Previous anesthetic approaches had utilized alcohol or even a simple blow to the jaw that would render the patient unconscious ... All the above-mentioned features were combined with knowledge gained after practice using this inhaler-such as that the slot ... It was the site of the first public demonstration of the use of inhaled ether as a surgical anesthetic on October 16, 1846, ... When the condensation is mixed with the ether and is inhaled, it develops the chemical properties of an anesthetic. The hot- ...
The lipedema fat is removed using a fan-shaped jet of water, which includes the anesthetic. In contrast to tumescent ... Note that techniques can be combined; for instance one could refer to the procedure as "lymph-sparing, tumescent liposuction ... Paik, AM; Daniali, LN; Lee, ES; Hsia, HC (2014). "Local anesthetic use in tumescent liposuction: an American Society of Plastic ... Lidocaine was also added as a local anesthetic. Fournier also advocated using compression after the operation, and travelled ...
This is called combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSE). The spinal anesthetic may be administered in one location, and ... This may result in a high block, or, more rarely, a total spinal, where anesthetic is delivered directly to the brainstem, ... For some procedures where both the rapid onset of a spinal anesthetic and the post-operative analgesic effects of an epidural ... Stark P (February 1979). "The effect of local anesthetic agents on afferent and motor nerve impulses in the frog". Archives ...
It suppresses breathing much less than most other available anesthetics. When used at anesthetic doses, ketamine usually ... It appears most conventional antidepressants can be safely combined with ketamine. Antagonism of the NMDA receptor is ... At lower sub-anesthetic doses, psychiatric side effects are prominent. Most people feel strange, spacey, woozy, or a sense of ... At sub-anesthetic doses ketamine produces a dissociative state, characterised by a sense of detachment from one's physical body ...
The name mafeisan combines ma (麻; "cannabis; hemp; numbed"), fei (沸; "boiling; bubbling") and san (散; "break up; scatter; ... The Records of the Three Kingdoms and the Book of the Later Han both credit him as creating this anesthetic during the Eastern ... Hua Tuo was an older contemporary of the physician Zhang Zhongjing (150-219). The name Hua Tuo combines the Chinese surname Hua ... He used a general anaesthetic combining wine with a herbal concoction called mafeisan (麻沸散; literally "cannabis boil powder"). ...
... many factors are reported as contributing to the relative risk of the procedure and anesthetic combined. For instance, an ... and the type of anesthetic (regional anesthetics are lower risk than general anesthetics).: 984 Obstetrical, the very young and ... Because of the large amount of local anesthetic required to affect the nerve, the maximum dose of local anesthetic has to be ... The purpose of the anesthetic machine is to provide anesthetic gas at a constant pressure, oxygen for breathing and to remove ...
Topical anesthetics can be used to desensitize the area where the injection will take place to reduce pain and discomfort. For ... Techniques include: distraction, hypnosis, combined cognitive behavioral therapy, and breathing techniques. Cannula Catheter ...
... or combining with) sodium dibromofluorescein. Because of its anionic character, it is chemically incompatible with acids, the ... majority of alkaloid salts and most local anesthetics. Merbromin is sold under the trade name Mercurochrome (where the suffix ... Merbromin is synthesized by combining dibromofluorescein with mercuric acetate and sodium hydroxide or alternatively, through ...
... anesthetic effect of barbiturates in high doses when used in anesthetic concentration. Drug interactions with barbiturates are ... The middle two classes of barbiturates are often combined under the title "short/intermediate-acting." These barbiturates are ... However, barbiturates are still used as anticonvulsants (e.g., phenobarbital and primidone) and general anesthetics (e.g., ... However, while GABAA receptor currents are increased by barbiturates (and other general anesthetics), ligand-gated ion channels ...
... no contraction occurred due to the anesthetic effect of the drugs. When the anesthetic effect was weakened and lost by time, ... Chloralose is a substance obtained by combining chloral hydrate and glucose. His work on chloralose passed into world ... The time interval between the loss and the recurrence of the reflex pointed to the activity period of the anesthetic drug. Thus ... In 1909, Akil Muhtar conducted animal experiments to search for the local anesthetic effects of opium alkaloids; and during his ...
About his dental research a long list of inventions have made him famous among professionals of his time, such as combine ... It was published in 1875 under the title "The air an anesthetic" and presented at the Franklin Institute. Bonwill invented an ... The Bonwill Brace is a support bracket - by combining two brackets, which includes two adjacent teeth. Erich Göhler, Bonwill ...
It is the active ingredient in many over-the-counter anesthetic ointments such as products for oral ulcers. It is also combined ... Overapplication of oral anesthetics such as benzocaine can increase the risk of pulmonary aspiration by relaxing the gag-reflex ... Benzocaine, sold under the brand name Orajel amongst others, is an ester local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain ... Demare, Patricia; Regla, Ignacio (2012). "Synthesis of Two Local Anesthetics from Toluene: An Organic Multistep Synthesis in a ...
The play combined plot ideas from Fahrenheit 451 and Nineteen Eighty-Four. Bradbury sued and eventually won on appeal. A film ... As Montag escapes the scene, the Mechanical Hound attacks him, managing to inject his leg with an anesthetic. He destroys the ... Elements of both "Bright Phoenix" and "The Pedestrian" would be combined into "The Fireman", a novella published in 1951. ...
Although barbiturates fell out of favor, they continue to serve as a short-acting anesthetic and anti-epileptic drugs. ... Barbiturates were synthesized in 1864 by Adolf von Baeyer by combining urea and malonic acid (Figure 5). A synthesis process ... In a rat brain slice preparation, the synthetic steroidal anesthetic alphaxalone (5α-pregnan-3α-ol-11,20 dione) enhanced both ... Structure- activity studies (SAR) showed that the 3alpha-OH group is essential for the anesthetic actions of these steroids, ...
Next it combines the processed information with information about the current needs of the animal and with memory of past ... Some general anesthetics act by reducing the effects of glutamate; most tranquilizers exert their sedative effects by enhancing ... combined with the theoretical speculations of René Descartes and those who followed him. Descartes, like Galen, thought of the ... and came to the conclusion that some neurons in the tectum of the frog are wired to combine elementary responses in a way that ...
This complication is related to the impact that alpha and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists have on blood vessels combined with the ... or during anesthetic induction. While the above symptoms are classic, other common clinical manifestations have been reported ... Newer reports have detailed the utility of combining 90Y-DOTATATE with the traditionally studied 177Lu analog and the various ... of the combined levels of normetanephrine and metanephrine, an adrenal tumor or a recurrence of an adrenal tumor that had ...
"Studies on Local Anesthetics. XX. Synthesis of Some alpha-Monoalkylamino-2-methylpropionanilides. A New Useful Local Anesthetic ... It is also often combined with lidocaine as a topical preparation for dermal anesthesia (lidocaine/prilocaine or EMLA), for ... Prilocaine (/ˈpraɪləˌkeɪn/) is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Löfgren. In ... "Topical Anesthesia Use in Children: Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics". Retrieved 2014-01-07. The United ...
The lack of evidence supporting the vaccine overload hypothesis, combined with these findings directly contradicting it, has ... and the use of anæsthetics". A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom. New York: Appleton. Bazin H ( ... combined vaccinations) and an oral vaccine") may be more acceptable to parents than "we're going to vaccinate against seven ... Combined vaccines are like a sudden onslaught to the body's immune system': parental concerns about vaccine 'overload' and ' ...
The use of the birth control pill is common in western countries, and two forms of combined oral contraceptives are on the ... "Anesthetic Gases - Reproductive Health , NIOSH , CDC". 2021-11-10. Retrieved 2022-03-17. "Hazardous Drug Exposures ... When taken correctly, the combined oral contraceptive pill is over 99% effective at preventing pregnancy. However, it does not ... Another type of contraception is the birth control pill, which stops ovulation from occurring by combining the chemicals ...
Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; El-Bosraty, Hussam (2010). ""Nasal encephalocele: Endoscopic excision with anesthetic consideration"". ... MSAFP screening combined with routine ultrasonography has the best detection rate although detection by ultrasonography is ... vulnerable to folate deficiency due to differences of the functional enzymes in this pathway during embryogenesis combined with ...
These components combine to create the feelings that are typically recognized as fear, apprehension, or worry. Drug abuse, ... Temporary lesions - Neural tissue is temporarily disabled by cooling or by the use of anesthetics such as tetrodotoxin. ... Synapto-pHluorin is a technique that relies on a fusion protein that combines a synaptic vesicle membrane protein and a pH ...
In patients with acute endophthalmitis, combined steroid treatment with antibiotics have been found to improve visual outcomes ... topical anesthetics, intraocular lens, autoclave solution, and cotton wool swabs. Late-onset endophthalmitis is mostly caused ...
A recent study documented in the AANA Journal discussed the use of volatile anesthetic agents, such as sevoflurane, to be used ... Thermal injury combined with inhalation injury compromises pulmonary function, producing microvascular hyperpermeability that ... It has been established that combined burn and smoke inhalation injury impairs hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), the ...
Ascaris have an aversion to some general anesthetics and may exit the body, sometimes through the mouth, when an infected ... Thiabendazole may cause migration of the worm into the esophagus, so it is usually combined with piperazine.[citation needed] ...
It is the most popular benzodiazepine in the intensive care unit (ICU) because of its short elimination half-life, combined ... As of 2010[update], it is the most commonly used benzodiazepine in anesthetic medicine. In acute medicine, midazolam has become ... Olkkola KT, Ahonen J (2008). "Midazolam and other benzodiazepines". Modern Anesthetics. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. ... the toxicity of benzodiazepines increases when they are combined with other CNS depressants such as alcohol, opioids, or ...
The convulsant properties of flurothyl pose a challenge to unifying theories of general anesthetics such as the Meyer-Overton ... Karliner WJ, Padina LJ (1959). "Indoklon combined with Pentothal and Anectine". Am. J. Psychiatry. 115 (11): 1041-1042. doi: ... Koblin DD, Eger EI, Johnson BH, Collins P, Terrell RC, Speers L (July 1981). "Are convulsant gases also anesthetics?". ... Wakamori M, Ikemoto Y, Akaike N (December 1991). "Effects of two volatile anesthetics and a volatile convulsant on the ...
Combining the MPI characterization of the person with their IASP five-category pain profile is recommended for deriving the ... Acute pain is usually managed with medications such as analgesics and anesthetics. Caffeine when added to pain medications such ... Phantom limb pain may accompany urination or defecation.: 61-9 Local anesthetic injections into the nerves or sensitive areas ... "Pain can be treated not only by trying to cut down the sensory input by anesthetic block, surgical intervention and the like, ...
If the pain does not resolve in the first 1-2 weeks, then the patient may benefit from a steroid and anesthetic mixture ... insights gained from a study comparing standard intra-articular injection with a technique combining intra- and peri-articular ... emanating within the joint is sacroiliac joint injection confirmed under fluoroscopy or CT-guidance using a local anesthetic ...
RISUG is similar to vasectomy in that a local anesthetic is administered, an incision is made in the scrotum, and the vasa ... when combined with sodium, it becomes sodium chloride - the basic salt that people consume in their diets. When it did not ...
... including the anesthetic ketamine. He appeared on The Montel Williams Show in the early 1990s to defend the use of nootropic ... "a modern-day messiah who combined all of the powers of Jesus and Freud and Einstein and Marx and, oh why the heck not, Timothy ...
"Side effects of SSRIs and NRIs include nausea, anorexia, insomnia, loss of libido, and when combined with MOAIs, tremors, ... The client is then given a short-acting anesthetic, such as methohexital, and also given a muscle relaxant, such as ... combined with its negative stigma in the modern world. This negative stigma in the modern world has created little importance ...
Ernest Fourneau synthesizes and patents Amylocaine, the first synthetic local anesthetic, under the name Stovaine at the ... April 9 - Gregory Goodwin Pincus (died 1967), American biologist, co-inventor of the combined oral contraceptive pill. April 25 ...
Anesthetic gases used for surgery, such as nitrous oxide or enflurane, are believed to induce anesthesia primarily by acting as ... The effects of inhalant use are also modified by the combined use of inhalants and alcohol or other drugs. In the short term, ... This makes inhaled anesthetic gases different from other NMDA antagonists, such as ketamine, which bind to a regulatory site on ... Several medical anesthetics are used as recreational drugs, including diethyl ether (a drug that is no longer used medically, ...
There is a hybrid procedure combining step back and crown down: after the canal's patency check, the coronal third is prepared ... The worst pain of endodontic therapy was reported with the initial anesthetic injection. Some patients receiving implants also ... Pain control can be difficult to achieve at times because of anesthetic inactivation by the acidity of the abscess around the ...
Lanolin-induced Lipstick-induced Local anesthetic-induced Makassar ebony dermatitis Marine plant-induced Mechanical irritant ... Omenn syndrome Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency Severe combined immunodeficiency (alymphocytosis, Glanzmann-Riniker ... Familial amyloid polyneuropathy Familial apoprotein CII deficiency Familial combined hyperlipidemia (multiple-type ...
... chlorphenamine is combined with the cough suppressant dextromethorphan. In the drug Cêgripe, chlorphenamine is combined with ... Local anesthetics, Muscarinic antagonists, 2-Pyridyl compounds, Serotonin reuptake inhibitors, Sigma receptor ligands, Sodium ... Chlorphenamine is often combined with phenylpropanolamine to form an allergy medication with both antihistamine and ... Chlorphenamine may be combined with the opioid hydrocodone. Chlorphenamine/dihydrocodeine immediate-release syrups are also ...
Nord-Ost Tragedy Goes On, Moscow News 2004 N.41 - a discussion of the long-term effects of the anesthetic on the surviving ... "combined special groups" (svodnye spetsialnye gruppy, SSGs), considered death squads by human rights groups and outside ... The assault on Tajbeg Palace was given the name Operation Storm-333 and involved a combined force of Soviet Airborne ...
Potentially serious anesthetic risks are important to note, so the presence of this disorder should be brought to the attention ... Further research is required to determine if combined strength and aerobic training at moderate intensity is safe for people ...
A paracervical block is an anesthetic procedure used in obstetrics and gynecology, in which a local anesthetic is injected into ... Cansino, Catherine; Edelman, Alison; Burke, Anne; Jamshidi, Roxanne (December 2009). "Paracervical Block With Combined ... according to a study on women undergoing vacuum aspiration with lidocaine as anesthetic agent. Addition of ketorolac may offer ...
The relatively weak binding combined with a low concentration of PA in the membrane allows the channel to turn off. The local ... "Polymodal Mechanism for TWIK-Related K+ Channel Inhibition by Local Anesthetic". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 129 (4): 973-982. ... The bulk low concentration of PA combined with high local bursts is the opposite of PIP2 signaling. PIP2 is kept relatively ... combined with the lack of a role for choline, suggests that PA is important in signaling. However, PA is rapidly converted to ...
... is sometimes combined with acetaminophen. Trade names include Darvocet-N, Di-Gesic, and Darvon with APAP ( ... Local anesthetic activity appears to be responsible for the arrhythmias and cardiovascular depression seen in propoxyphene ... Seizures may result from either opioid or local anesthetic effects. Pulmonary edema may result from direct pulmonary toxicity, ... Norpropoxyphene is a more potent local anesthetic than propoxyphene, and they are both more potent than lidocaine. ...
... additional pharmacologic blockade of Ca entry could potentially enhance anesthetic-induced depression. The depressant effects ... Because the volatile anesthetics depress the entry of calcium (Ca) into myocardial cells and also alter release of ... Combined depressant effects of diltiazem and volatile anesthetics on contractility in isolated ventricular myocardium C Lynch ... Combined depressant effects of diltiazem and volatile anesthetics on contractility in isolated ventricular myocardium C Lynch ...
A new review explores the possible relationship between total anesthetic time and the development of postoperative surgical ... Anterior - 347 (30%), Posterior - 788 (68%), Combined - 21 (2%). NS. ASA indicates American Society of Anesthesiologists; BMI, ... Increasing total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation), not just operative time, is independently associated with higher ... Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions. ...
Anesthetics, Topical. Class Summary. Local anesthetics stabilize the neuronal membrane so that the neuron is less permeable to ...
Anesthetics. Anesthetics block all feeling, including pain.. *General anesthesia causes the patient to go to sleep. The patient ... A combined spinal-epidural block, also called a "walking epidural," gives the benefits of an epidural block and a spinal block ... Pain-relief drugs fall into two categories: analgesics (pronounced an-uhl-JEE-ziks) and anesthetics (pronounced an-uhs-THET-iks ... Some women may be able to walk around after a combined spinal-epidural block. ...
New Anesthetic Made from Natural Gas Compounds By Science News. April 14, 1934. ... Inert Krypton Gas Made to Combine with Chlorine By Science News. October 15, 1932. ...
Anesthetic Agents Patients taking Marplan should not undergo elective surgery requiring general anesthesia. Also, they should ... The possible combined hypotensive effects of Marplan and spinal anesthesia should be kept in mind. Marplan should be ... When Marplan is combined with phenothiazine derivatives or other compounds known to cause hypotension, the possibility of ... sedative or anesthetic drugs, buproprion HCL, buspirone HCL, dextromethorphan, cheese or other foods with a high tyramine ...
This case report describes the successful use of a combined spinal-epidural techn … ... Anesthetic management of an obstetric patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a case study Macy Brock et al. AANA J. 2009 Oct ... Anesthetic management of an obstetric patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a case study Macy Brock 1 , Cherry Guinn, ... A case for combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for Cesarean section in a patient with aortic stenosis. Boso EB. Boso EB. W V ...
Anesthetic Fill Rate Drops from 95% to 63% Meanwhile, Vizients Kistner said their data show that the combined fill rate for ... six ventilator-associated anesthetics together is now 63% (down from 95%). Those drugs include dexmedetomidine, etomidate, ...
... were administrated as the pre-anesthetic agents and thereafter, propofol (8 mg/kg,-IV) was injected as the main anesthetic drug ... The aim of this study was to determine a safe injectable anesthetic agent that had more compatibility with the avian features. ... "Histopathological and Serum Enzyme Changes of Propofol Combined with Pre-Anesthetic Agents in Domestic Pigeons (Columba livia ... Histopathological and Serum Enzyme Changes of Propofol Combined with Pre-Anesthetic Agents in Domestic Pigeons (Columba livia) ...
The procedures were performed under one anesthetic. In all cases the … ... were subjected to a combined extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass procedure and endovascular ICA occlusion during 1987 and ... and all nine patients showed significant improvement following the combined procedure. A combined EC-IC bypass procedure and ... Nine patients with giant internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms (greater than 2.5 cm in diameter) were subjected to a combined ...
M1.3 Inhaled Anesthetics 1) Carrier gas inconsistency between page 21 and page 26 Advantages-(1) Inhaled anesthetics are ... M1.6 Carbon Dioxide, Page 26: If animals need to be combined, they should be of the same species... S2.2.2.1 Inhaled Agents, ... Inhaled halocarbon anesthetics have been proposed as alternatives to CO2 for rodent euthanasia. However, inhaled anesthetics ... anesthetic. Requested change/clarification: clarify that rabbits can be euthanized with an overdose of inhalant anesthetic ...
Do not combine with certain substances -Be sure to tell your doctor about all of the medications, both prescription and ... Anesthetics, including dental anesthetics. *Antiseizure medications. *Tricyclic antidepressants. *Opioid pain relievers. * ... Hypnotics can have potentially dangerous interactions when combined with certain other substances, such as the following: * ...
Anesthetics. These medicines block all feeling. Local anesthesia causes loss of feeling in a specific body area. It may be used ... Combined spinal-epidural block. This provides immediate pain relief that may continue throughout labor. ...
... lidocaine anesthetic), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... Medscape prescription drug monographs are based on FDA-approved labeling information, unless otherwise noted, combined with ... encoded search term (lidocaine anesthetic (Xylocaine%2C Zingo)) and lidocaine anesthetic (Xylocaine, Zingo) What to Read Next ... Local anesthetics prevent generation/conduction of nerve impulses by reducing sodium permeability and increasing action ...
9. Combined intention for the six days of Shawwal and missed fasts from Ramadan ... Do anesthetic for the teeth, insulin injections, inhalers for asthma patients nullify. publish date : 2014-08-26 , Views : 2545 ... Does this anesthetic break fasting or not? Is it permissible for diabetic people to take the insulin injection before Maghrib? ... Does this anesthetic break fasting or not? Is it permissible for diabetic people to take the insulin injection before Maghrib? ...
Topical local anesthetics. Topical local anesthetics act by inhibiting the generation and transmission of pain impulses across ... Combining strategies has been shown to improve pain relief. Refer to Table 4 for a listing of pain management strategies for ... Topical anesthetics are effective in reducing vaccine injection pain and should be applied before vaccine administration. ... There is no evidence that the application of a topical local anesthetic poses a risk of decreased immune response to vaccines ...
Because of its low potency (high MAC value), it is not used as a sole general anesthetic. However, it is often combined with ... The mechanism of action for gaseous anesthetics is still poorly understood. Anesthetic potency is correlated to drug ... General anesthetics. In: Brody TM, Larner J, Minneman KP, Neu HC, eds. Human pharmacology molecular to clinical, 2nd ed. St. ... Because N2O is a weak anesthetic agent, it is generally considered a safe drug. Although N2O may be safe for acute effects of ...
For hysteroscopes of larger diameter, injectable local anesthetics combined with preoperative vaginal misoprostol (Cytotec) is ... pain can be decreased with a topical anesthetic or by infiltrating the area of placement with local anesthetic using a 22-gauge ... 11] Topical anesthetics typically do not provide long-lasting relief but may be sufficient for the nonanesthetized patient. [9 ... 6] Many anesthetic options are available to patients undergoing hysteroscopy. A Cochrane review supports the use of local ...
As a General Anesthetic. As a technique to attenuate the responses to surgical stress without the use of additional anesthetic ... A direct cause and effect relationship between the combined use of these drugs and the reported cases of methemoglobinemia has ... use as an anesthetic agent with oxygen in selected high risk patients, such as those undergoing open heart surgery or certain ... In certain cases, doses up to 150 mcg/kg (0.15 mg/kg) (3 mL/kg) may be necessary to produce this anesthetic effect. It has been ...
If hernia or structural disease is excluded, injection of a local anesthetic with or without a corticosteroid into the pain ... LOCAL ANESTHETIC AND STEROID. For more permanent relief of pain, it is often useful to inject a mixture of local anesthetic and ... Thus, when combined with other clinical criteria, a positive Carnetts sign is valuable as a sign of abdominal wall pain. ... TRIAL OF LOCAL ANESTHETIC. Much has been written about the treatment of idiopathic myofascial pain.20,21 The trigger point for ...
Simultaneous determination of the residues of anesthetics and sedatives in fish using LC-QLIT-MS/MS combined with DSPE. Huang Q ...
Low-dose combined spinal epidural (CSE) anesthesia is a common technique to ane ... Low-dose combined spinal epidural (CSE) anesthesia is a common technique to anesthetize women for cesarean section. It is used ... to reduce the incidence of hypotension while providing excellent anesthetic conditions.. Recent findings Low spinal doses ... cesarean section\r, hypotension\r, intraoperative pain\r, low-dose combined spinal epidural\r, spinal anesthesia. ...
Topical anesthetic gel can be used, if necessary, and it should be sterile and applied after sterile preparation.20,21 ... The fiberoptic telescope and irrigation channel are combine in a single unit.1 ... Typically, xylocaine gel is used as an anesthetic, instilled in the urethra. Rigid cystoscopy can be performed under local ... We suggest use of flexible cystoscopes when no anesthesia, topical anesthetic or conscious sedation is used and rigid ...
Which of the following drugs is often combined in cartridges with local anesthetics? ... Which of the following drugs is often combined with analgesics and decongestants in OTC cold medications? ...
Based on the number of personal exposures above the NIOSH Criteria, it is concluded that waste anesthetic gases are not being ... Fourteen of the 46 halothane breathing zone measurements exceeded the 0.5ppm combined gas criteria, and 4 of the 14 exceeded ... The survey was prompted by a request from the management regarding the exposure of 13 affected employees to anesthetic gases. ... Nitrous-oxide (10024972), halothane (151677) and occasionally, enflurane were the anesthetics used in all procedures. Forty of ...
The intent of pre-anesthetic fasting is to reduce anesthetic complications, specifically GER, esophagitis, and aspiration ... iVET360s Pulse digital dashboard combines operational data from practice management software, financial programs, and other ... The intent of pre-anesthetic fasting is to reduce anesthetic complications, specifically gastroesophageal reflux (GER), ... Pre-anesthetic fasting: Whats the right number?. It is common to withhold food for some period prior to sedation, however, ...
In most circumstances, your surgeon - not an anesthesiologist - will inject a local anesthetic or apply cream or gel to the ... For some procedures, you may receive local anesthesia combined with monitored anesthesia care. In this case, your surgeon ... applies local anesthetic while the anesthesiologist provides light sedation. During the procedure, the anesthesiologist both ...
anesthetics care dentistry education emphasize flea food heartworm houston humane medication medicine neuter orthopedic our ... We also offer integrated medicine, combining eastern and western medicine to treat the many different conditions that occur ... We use safe predictable anesthetics, medications, and monitoring equipment to ensure the best possible care for your pet.. We ... We use safe predictable anesthetics, medications, and monitoring equipment to ensure the best possible care for your pet.. ...
  • Hypoxemia and metabolic acidosis may potentiate the cardiovascular toxicity of lidocaine and other local anesthetics. (
  • This powerful 5% Lidocaine liquid anesthetic is for use during procedures. (
  • Lidocaine is a local anesthetic of the amide type. (
  • Lidocaine stabilizes the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses, thereby effecting local anesthetic action. (
  • Topical anesthetic creams with lidocaine are used to alleviate the irritation of contact dermatitis due to poison oak and poison ivy, bug bites and stings, and sunburns. (
  • Lidocaine is an anesthetic drug commonly used to relieve pain during tattoos and minor surgeries. (
  • This type of topical anesthetic is made with a higher percentage of lidocaine and other active anesthetics, which allows them to achieve greater results. (
  • BLT cream, also called benzocaine, lidocaine, and tetracaine cream is a compounded topical anesthetic that has been around for years. (
  • Emla cream is another topical anesthetic that contains lidocaine. (
  • A new study has found that combining glucocorticoids with the local anesthetic lidocaine in epidural injections did not provide any additional benefit in reducing pain. (
  • Lidocaine is an amide local anesthetic used in a 0.5-1% concentration in combination with bupivacaine (50:50 mixture). (
  • Epinephrine prolongs the duration of the anesthetic effects from lidocaine by causing vasoconstriction of the blood vessels surrounding the nerve axons. (
  • Topical 1% lidocaine (Xylocaine) is a commonly used anesthetic. (
  • The solution varies, however, it most commonly contains a long-acting local anesthetic combined with a steroid anti-inflammatory drug. (
  • Patients with ANUG should be given a strong analgesic along with topical anesthetics and NSAIDs because pain control is very important in allowing the patient to eat and carry out toothbrushing, flossing, and other oral hygiene maneuvers necessary to eradicate the disease. (
  • Check with client for history of allergic reactions to topical anesthetics before applying. (
  • Dermal Source's New & Improved Blue Gel is a gel-based topical anesthetic in a 1 oz flip top squeeze bottle, for use during a pain sensitive procedure. (
  • This product combines two topical anesthetics with a vascular constrictor for reduction of swelling, bruising and bleeding. (
  • Although treatments are relatively painless, they might cause a mild stinging or pinching feeling, for which topical anesthetics are available. (
  • Numbing creams are typically a topical anesthetic that is applied to the skin before a medical procedure. (
  • For this reason, most professional aesthetic providers use a compounded topical anesthetic. (
  • This topical anesthetic is effective for many different types of skin procedures. (
  • ProFractional therapy is widely regarded as a comfortable procedure, usually tolerated with the use of a topical numbing cream or a local anesthetic, depending on the depth of treatment. (
  • session with no topical anesthetic required for most treatments. (
  • Combined spinal-epidural block. (
  • Anesthetic maintenance was performed using sevoflurane and nitrous oxide combined with epidural anesthesia. (
  • Regarding type of anesthetic, CDC data reveal that, among the 27 women whose deaths were attributed to complications of general anesthesia, the type of anesthetic used was known only in 23 cases. (
  • Thus, vigorous preclinical studies are needed to define the role of anesthesia in cancer and to unravel the molecular mechanism of anesthetics in cancer metastasis. (
  • administration with a neuroleptic as an anesthetic premedication, for the induction of anesthesia and as an adjunct in the maintenance of general and regional anesthesia. (
  • This group comprises various plain and combined drugs used to produce anesthesia/analgesia, which cannot be classified in the preceeding groups. (
  • For some procedures, you may receive local anesthesia combined with monitored anesthesia care. (
  • Neither drug is very pain-relieving by itself and yet, when combined, they lead to an extremely effective sedation that approximates complete anesthesia. (
  • Regional anesthesia refers to the focused delivery of anesthetic agent(s) to a given part of the body. (
  • Regional anesthesia is used extensively for various purposes, including as a primary anesthetic technique for surgery, as an analgesic modality to manage pain in the perioperative period, and as an analgesic modality for various other forms of acute and/or chronic pain. (
  • Regional anesthesia can reduce operative anesthetic requirements and in some cases allow avoidance of general anesthesia altogether. (
  • Intrathecal (IT), often referred to as "spinal," anesthesia refers to the delivery of anesthetic agents to the subarachnoid layer of the spinal column into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the spinal cord. (
  • IT opioids can be administered as an adjunct to general anesthesia (e.g., for scoliosis surgery) or combined with local anesthetics and administered during spinal anesthesia (e.g., for total hip arthroplasty). (
  • It is often, but not always, combined with epinephrine for better anesthesia and to control bleeding. (
  • Comparison of unilateral spinal anesthesia and L1 paravertebral block combined with psoas compartment and sciatic nerve block in patients to undergo partial hip prosthesis. (
  • In this study, we show that the mice receiving volatile anesthetic sevoflurane during surgical removal of primary tumor develop more lung metastases than those receiving propofol. (
  • Anesthetic induction was performed using propofol and fentanyl, and tracheal intubation was facilitated by the use of vecuronium. (
  • Cancer recurrence after surgery may be affected by immunosuppressive factors such as surgical stress, anesthetic drugs, and opioids. (
  • Surgical treatment included a wide exposure of the pathology with a detailed electrocorticography under optimal anesthetic conditions. (
  • LipoSelection® by VASER® combines new patented technology with advanced surgical techniques to break up and melt fatty tissue by gentle ultrasonic sound waves. (
  • Commonly used IT analgesic agents specifically in the perioperative setting include local anesthetics, opioids, and adjuncts such as epinephrine. (
  • With central neural blockade these changes may be attributable to block of autonomic fibers, a direct depressant effect of the local anesthetic agent on various components of the cardiovascular system and/or the beta-adrenergic receptor stimulating action of epinephrine when present. (
  • Current guidelines recommend the intravenous (IV) infusion of lipid emulsion to reverse the cardiac and neurologic effects of local anesthetic toxicity. (
  • Fentanyl Citrate Injection should be administered only by persons specifically trained in the use of intravenous anesthetics and management of the respiratory effects of potent opioids. (
  • Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic which is most often combined with valium to produce the same effect as tiletamine/zolezepam. (
  • Ketamine , a longstanding anesthetic currently under study in depression, strengthens nerve-cell communication and seems to pave a pathway out of the fear response traumatized patients are stuck in. (
  • Ketamine has been used safely as a sedation for surgery and is a well-known and widely used anesthetic. (
  • Kalypso promotes ketamine, long used as an anesthetic during surgery and more recently as a club drug, as a treatment for more than two dozen conditions, including depression, chronic pain, and migraines. (
  • Treatments, Mechanisms, and Adverse Reactions of Anesthetics and Analgesics is an essential read for anyone working in pain management. (
  • The etiology of pain is complex and multi-factorial, which is made more complex with the use of analgesics and local or general anesthetics. (
  • Academic libraries that covers the neuroscience of pain, anesthetics and analgesics. (
  • In the patient with suspected local anesthetic toxicity, the initial step is stabilization of potential threats to life. (
  • The nature of retrospective studies and inconsistent reports precludes the conclusion on the role of anesthetics in patient outcome. (
  • The combined wavelengths provide greater flexibility for lighter and darker skin types, meaning greater customization for each patient. (
  • Local anesthetic agents are used to increase patient comfort during the procedure. (
  • The Carescape B650 patient monitor combines advanced data communication with smart design. (
  • Pocket reduction surgery may be performed under local or general anesthetic depending on the preferences of the patient. (
  • We combine experience with the latest in dental technology to deliver the best patient experience possible. (
  • Dr. Khan designs a customized approach for each patient, often combining liposuction techniques in order to achieve the best fat removal, skin tightening, and overall body sculpting results. (
  • due to anesthetic and sedation, the most a patient may feel is mild discomfort. (
  • For example, medication prescribed for a medical condition might produce a problem during the administration of a local anesthetic, or it could interact with pain medication prescribed post intervention. (
  • Ultrasound guidance might decrease the incidence of local anesthetics systemic toxicity (LAST) for many peripheral nerve blocks compared with nerve stimulator guidance. (
  • Cardiac arrest due to local anesthetic toxicity is a rare but well recognized complication that may occur in cases of large overdose, especially those involving inadvertent intravascular injection. (
  • Cardiopulmonary bypass and veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) have been used effectively to treat cardiac arrest due to local anesthetic toxicity. (
  • [ 14 ] Case reports support the early use of lipid emulsion at the first sign of arrhythmia, prolonged seizure activity, or rapid progression of toxic manifestations in patients with suspected local anesthetic toxicity. (
  • Finally, the prevention of local anesthetic toxicity should always be the primary consideration. (
  • Street dealers generally dilute it with inert substances such as cornstarch, talcum powder, or sugar, or with active drugs such as procaine (a chemically related local anesthetic) or amphetamine (another stimulant). (
  • It is especially effective when combined with intensive psychotherapy , as is another agent with psychedelic properties-MDMA, commonly known as Ecstasy. (
  • The local anesthetics used in these injections numb the area around the injection site. (
  • The effects of local anesthetic injections usually wear off after a few hours. (
  • In this case, your surgeon applies local anesthetic while the anesthesiologist provides light sedation. (
  • Although all adverse reactions cannot be anticipated, complications can be minimized by strict adherence to the guidelines of anesthetic dosing, identification of patients at increased risk, and implementation of appropriate anesthetic application techniques to avoid unintentional intravascular injection. (
  • Combined electrochemical nerve block reduced pain in 80% of patients with neuropathies and 50% of patients with intractable back pain. (
  • This DURING PROCEDURE anesthetic spray has a vascular constrictor for fast acting pain relief, and reduced bleeding and swelling. (
  • [ 1 ] The use of regional anesthetic and analgesic techniques can offer superior overall pain control and reduced postoperative opioid requirements. (
  • Local anesthetics are used for local pain relief. (
  • Kank-A combines the maximum allowable level of anesthetic for fast, temporary pain relief, with a film forming agent for long-lasting protection. (
  • Then there's the synonym "ether," which in the mid-1800s was used as an anesthetic alongside nitrous oxide, not only to dull the pain but also to create heightened states of awareness. (
  • Remember to always remove anesthetics before continuing with your procedure. (
  • Right heart catheterization may be combined with this procedure. (
  • A typical root canal procedure is performed with local anesthetics, and doesn't cause any more discomfort than having a filling. (
  • Nitrous-oxide (10024972), halothane (151677) and occasionally, enflurane were the anesthetics used in all procedures. (
  • Peri‑operative management issues, particularly, the anesthetic challenges and the role of transesophageal echocardiography are discussed. (
  • The survey was prompted by a request from the management regarding the exposure of 13 affected employees to anesthetic gases. (
  • We used typical anesthetic techniques for anesthetic management of patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) undergoing abdominal and gynecological surgery. (
  • We think that 1) the symptoms and physical findings were well controlled and 2) the avoidance of tachycardia by removal of noxious stimuli and limited administration of positive chronotropic agents are important for anesthetic management of patients with known ARVD/C. (
  • Although arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is known to be one of the main causes of sudden unexpected perioperative death, few studies have reported the anesthetic management of patients with known ARVD/C because of its rare prevalence [1-3]. (
  • We performed anesthetic management of 2 patients by using typical anesthetic techniques to prevent lethal arrhythmia during surgery. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Left atrial ball thrombus with acute mesenteric ischemia: Anesthetic management and role of transesophageal echocardiography. (
  • Acute Lung Injury in aortic dissection : new insights in anesthetic management strategies. (
  • Given the public health burden of AAD combined with ALI, we reviewed the anesthetic management advances and highlighted potential areas for clinical practice. (
  • The overall abortion-related mortality rate in New York City between 1972 and 1981 was higher (though not statistically significantly) than in the other parts of the country for white women, for women of black and other races, and for women of all races combined. (
  • However, based on available information, a drug-specific mortality rate could not be estimated, nor could a general-anesthetic-specific mortality rate be calculated. (
  • analgesic action of short duration during the anesthetic periods, premedication, induction and maintenance, and in the immediate postoperative period (recovery room) as the need arises. (
  • 17 showed that osteoporosis is signiûcantly combined with severe alveolar crestal bone loss and prevalence of periodontitis cases in postmenopausal Jordanian women. (
  • The role of anesthetics used during surgery in cancer metastasis and the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. (
  • An on-going controversy is whether anesthetics used during surgery substantially influence the outcome of cancer patients 2 . (
  • use as an anesthetic agent with oxygen in selected high risk patients, such as those undergoing open heart surgery or certain complicated neurological or orthopedic procedures. (
  • In most circumstances, your surgeon - not an anesthesiologist - will inject a local anesthetic or apply cream or gel to the skin at the site of surgery. (
  • It is an anesthetic used in epidurals, dental procedures, and minor surgery where local and regional anesthetics are appropriate. (
  • Hemodynamic changes during a combined psoas compartment-sciatic nerve block for elective orthopedic surgery. (
  • Dental surgery uses a local anesthetic that numbs the tooth and surrounding tissues. (
  • The effective implementation of an Enhanced Recovery guidelines presented here are meant to be tested and After Surgery (ERASÒ) program, when combined with a evaluated within this context. (
  • Candela Profound Matrix system combines three unique modalities of radiofrequency to correct, maintain and restore a patient's skin across the aging journey. (
  • Some cosmetic surgeons may also combine body-jet lipo with facial rejuvenation treatments using fat grafts. (
  • Finally, a dental scaling under a general anesthetic is the best way for us to keep teeth and gums healthy in the long run. (
  • This technique combined with multimodal analgesia reduces the doses of morphine consumed, including these side effects. (
  • It combines several useful applications: a local anesthetic disinfectant, and clotting agent all in one. (
  • Always check to see what the mechanism of action is in a drug before combining it with another serotonergic agent or using it soon after the use of a serotonergic agent because the combination of two can cause the potentially fatal reaction known as Serotonin Syndrome. (
  • If the signs and symptoms develop during administration of the local anesthetic, stop the injection immediately and prepare to treat the reaction. (
  • While reviewing pregnancy-related deaths in New York City since 1980, the New York City Bureau of Maternity Services and Family Planning noted that seven deaths were associated with the administration of an ultrashort-acting barbiturate anesthetic (Brevital) for termination of pregnancy. (
  • Your physician can personalize a plan based on your specific needs and may choose to combine ProFractional Therapy with other aesthetic procedures to further personalize your treatment. (
  • They are frequently used by dentists because of their longevity, and because they combine the strength of a metal base with the aesthetic appeal of a porcelain surface. (
  • Five-Star Vasocaine is a highly effective secondary anesthetic for use during painful procedures. (
  • For patients infected with HBV or female patients receiving LPBs and SNBs, we recommended that combined ultrasound and nerve stimulator guidance should be used to improve the safety. (
  • Furthermore, the effects of anesthetics in cancer metastasis and potential mechanism remains largely unknown and difficult to be addressed in clinical studies, partially due to the heterogeneity in both patients and diseases. (
  • Câu hỏi 9 Identify the author's implication of underlined words in the sentence below?Well into this century it was usual for "free" patients at the big hospitals to have their teeth extracted with no anesthetic. (
  • For example, the binary combination of 1,1-dichloro ethylene and trichloroethylene is the 3rd most often found in contaminated waters and was reported at 62 sites (at 70 sites in all exposure media combined). (
  • Nonobese diabetic (NOD) severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse is chosen for the successful application of this model to evaluate drug anti-metastases effects 15 . (
  • Infrequently, local anesthetics may provoke an allergic or hematologic reaction. (
  • In general, it is perfectly fine to combine procedures and I do it all of the time. (
  • Facial procedures are often combined, like eyelids and facelifts . (
  • So I will combine procedures if I can do my best work in less than about 6 hours. (
  • Procedures included resection either alone or combined with multiple subpial transactions when extending into the eloquent areas. (
  • SmartLipo™ can also be combined with cellulite treatment, augmentation or other cosmetic procedures. (
  • Anesthetics can also fall into this group as well as drugs used for other purposes. (
  • Wait until anesthetic effect occurs (2-5 minutes). (
  • It remains an open question which change in membrane properties is responsible for a potential anesthetic effect or if anesthetics act by binding to direct targets. (
  • We studied the effect of ethanol, diethyl ether and isoflurane on the water distribution in lipid bilayers by combining all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and neutron diffraction experiments. (
  • The amount of intramembrane water molecules was experimentally determined by selectively deuterium labeling lipids, anesthetic drug and water molecules in neutron diffraction experiments. (
  • Tiletamine is technically considered a dissociative anesthetic and zolazepam is a valium-like anti-anxiety drug. (
  • Students discuss several human reproductive technologies available today - pregnancy ultrasound, amniocentesis, in-vitro fertilization and labor anesthetics. (
  • Technologies such as ultrasound, amniocentesis, in-vitro fertilization and anesthetics improve medical care and increase the rate of successful births, thus protecting the human species. (
  • Define four reproductive technologies: pregnancy ultrasound, amniocentesis, in-vitro fertilization and labor anesthetics. (
  • Student teams learn about and devise technical presentations on four reproductive technology topics-pregnancy ultrasound, amniocentesis, in-vitro fertilization or labor anesthetics. (
  • This is the anesthetic of choice for fast onset and reduction of swelling in areas such as lips or inner arms, where bruising and bleeding are a problem. (
  • Lasers have been used in dentistry for several years and provide additional benefits when combined with regular cleanings or therapy for gum disease. (
  • However, the pathogenesis of AAD combined with ALI remains largely unknown. (