Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Benzocaine: A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.EthersHypnosis, Anesthetic: Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Pregnanediones: Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Ethyl EthersMidazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Tiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Malignant Hyperthermia: Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, IntratrachealSodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.CyclobutanesHemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Felypressin: A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedTooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain: Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.Propanidid: An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Thiamylal: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedDrug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Ethyl Chloride: A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Nordefrin: A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Batrachotoxins: Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Operating Room Technicians: Specially trained personnel to assist in routine technical procedures in the operating room.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Postanesthesia Nursing: The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients in the recovery room following surgery and/or anesthesia.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.GABA Modulators: Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Intraoperative Awareness: Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.CyclopropanesAdministration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.

Spinal cord-evoked potentials and muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 awake human subjects. (1/1145)

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects. In this report we provide evidence of direct and indirect activation of corticospinal neurons after TCMS. In three subjects, SCEP threshold (T) stimulus intensities recruited both the D wave (direct activation of corticospinal neurons) and the first I wave (I1, indirect activation of corticospinal neurons). In one subject, the D, I1, and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously, and in another subject, the I1 and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously. In the remaining five subjects, only the I1 wave was recruited first. More waves were recruited as the stimulus intensity increased. The presence of D and I waves in all subjects at low stimulus intensities verified that TCMS directly and indirectly activated corticospinal neurons supplying the lower extremities. Leg muscle responses were usually contingent on the SCEP containing at least four waves (D, I1, I2, and I3).  (+info)

Increased reading speed for stories presented during general anesthesia. (2/1145)

BACKGROUND: In the absence of explicit memories such as the recall and recognition of intraoperative events, memory of auditory information played during general anesthesia has been demonstrated with several tests of implicit memory. In contrast to explicit memory, which requires conscious recollection, implicit memory does not require recollection of previous experiences and is evidenced by a priming effect on task performance. The authors evaluated the effect of a standardized anesthetic technique on implicit memory, first using a word stem completion task, and then a reading speed task in a subsequent study. METHODS: While undergoing lumbar disc surgery, 60 patients were exposed to auditory materials via headphones in two successive experiments. A balanced intravenous technique with propofol and alfentanil infusions and a nitrous oxide-oxygen mixture was used to maintain adequate anesthesia. In the first experiment, 30 patients were exposed randomly to one of the two lists of 34 repeated German nouns; in the second experiment, 30 patients were exposed to one of two tapes containing two short stories. Thirty control patients for each experiment heard the tapes without receiving anesthesia. All patients were tested for implicit memory 6-8 h later: A word stem completion task for the words and a reading speed task for the stories were used as measures of implicit memory. RESULTS: The control group completed the word stems significantly more often with the words that they had heard previously, but no such effect was found in the anesthetized group. However, both the control and patient groups showed a decreased reading time of about 40 ms per word for the previously presented stories compared with the new stories. The patients had no explicit memory of intraoperative events. CONCLUSIONS: Implicit memory was demonstrated after anesthesia by the reading speed task but not by the word stem completion task. Some methodologic aspects, such as using low frequency words or varying study and test modalities, may account for the negative results of the word stem completion task. Another explanation is that anesthesia with propofol, alfentanil, and nitrous oxide suppressed the word priming but not the reading speed measure of implicit memory. The reading speed paradigm seems to provide a stable and reliable measurement of implicit memory.  (+info)

Description of local adaptation of national guidelines and of active feedback for rationalising preoperative screening in patients at low risk from anaesthetics in a French university hospital. (3/1145)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of local adaptation of national guidelines combined with active feedback and organisational analysis on the ordering of preoperative investigations for patients at low risk from anaesthetics. DESIGN: Assessment of preoperative tests ordered over one month, before and after local adaptation of guidelines and feedback of results, combined with an organisational analysis. SETTING: Motivated anaesthetists in 15 surgical wards of Bordeaux University Hospital, Region Aquitain, France. SUBJECTS: 42 anaesthetists, 60 surgeons, and their teams. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and type of preoperative tests ordered in June 1993 and 1994, and the estimated savings. RESULTS: Of 536 patients at low risk from anaesthetics studied in 1993 before the intervention 80% had at least one preoperative test. Most (70%) tests were ordered by anaesthetists. Twice the number of preoperative tests were ordered than recommended by national guidelines. Organisational analysis indicated lack of organised consultations and communication within teams. Changes implemented included scheduling of anaesthetic consultations; regular formal multidisciplinary meetings for all staff; preoperative ordering decision charts. Of 516 low risk patients studied in 1994 after the intervention only 48% had one or more preoperative tests ordered (p < 0.05). Estimated mean (SD) saving for one year if changes were applied to all patients at low risk from anaesthesia in the hospital 3.04 (1.23) mFF. CONCLUSIONS: A sharp decrease in tests ordered in low risk patients was found. The likely cause was the package of changes that included local adaptation of national guidelines, feedback, and organisational change.  (+info)

Drug-induced heart failure. (4/1145)

Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that is predominantly caused by cardiovascular disorders such as coronary heart disease and hypertension. However, several classes of drugs may induce heart failure in patients without concurrent cardiovascular disease or may precipitate the occurrence of heart failure in patients with preexisting left ventricular impairment. We reviewed the literature on drug-induced heart failure, using the MEDLINE database and lateral references. Successively, we discuss the potential role in the occurrence of heart failure of cytostatics, immunomodulating drugs, antidepressants, calcium channel blocking agents, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiarrhythmics, beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents, anesthetics and some miscellaneous agents. Drug-induced heart failure may play a role in only a minority of the patients presenting with heart failure. Nevertheless, drug-induced heart failure should be regarded as a potentially preventable cause of heart failure, although sometimes other priorities do not offer therapeutic alternatives (e.g., anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy). The awareness of clinicians of potential adverse effects on cardiac performance by several classes of drugs, particularly in patients with preexisting ventricular dysfunction, may contribute to timely diagnosis and prevention of drug-induced heart failure.  (+info)

Characterization of the electrophysiological and pharmacological effects of 4-iodo-2,6-diisopropylphenol, a propofol analogue devoid of sedative-anaesthetic properties. (5/1145)

1. Several derivatives and analogues of the general anaesthetic 2,6-diisopropylphenol (propofol) have been recently synthesised with the aim of exploring the structure-activity relationships. 2. In the present study, the effects of one such compound, 4-iodo-2,6-diisopropylphenol (4-I-Pro), on gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors in vitro were compared with its in vivo effects in rodents. Human GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and the actions of 4-I-Pro on receptor function were compared with those of propofol by two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. 3. Similar to propofol, 4-I-Pro directly activated Cl- currents in the absence of GABA at all combinations of receptor subunits tested. However, the efficacy of 4-I-Pro in inducing direct activation of alpha1beta2gamma2S receptors was markedly less than that of propofol. 4. Similarly to propofol, 4-I-Pro potentiated in a concentration-dependent manner GABA-evoked Cl- currents measured at different GABA(A) receptor constructs. 5. As expected, intraperitoneal injection of propofol induced sedation, ataxia, and loss of the righting reflex in rats. In contrast, administration of 4-I-Pro failed to produce any of these behavioural effects. 6. Administration of 4-I-Pro to rats reduced in a dose-dependent manner the incidence of tonic-clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol and induced an anticonflict effect as measured in the Vogel test. 7. Microdialysis revealed that, like propofol, administration of 4-I-Pro reduced acetylcholine release in the hippocampus of freely moving rats. 8. These results demonstrate that para-substitution of the phenol ring of propofol with iodine yields a compound that exhibits anticonvulsant and anticonflict effects, but is devoid of sedative-hypnotic and anaesthetic properties. Thus, 4-I-Pro possesses pharmacological characteristics more similar to anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs than to general anaesthetics.  (+info)

Women emerge from general anesthesia with propofol/alfentanil/nitrous oxide faster than men. (6/1145)

BACKGROUND: Recovery from general anesthesia is governed by pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic factors. Gender has not previously been recognized as a factor influencing the time to emergence from general anesthesia. METHODS: This multicenter study was originally designed to measure the effects of the bispectral index on intraoperative anesthetic management and patient recovery. We compared the wake-up and recovery times of 274 adults after propofol/alfentanil/nitrous oxide anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to have the titration of propofol performed with or without the use of bispectral index monitoring. Specific guidelines were given for the titration of drugs. The aim in all cases was to provide a safe anesthetic with the fastest possible recovery. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in propofol dose, time to eye opening, and response to verbal command when the anesthetic was titrated using the bispectral index. Unexpectedly, gender proved to be a highly significant independent predictor for recovery time. Women woke significantly faster than men: the time from end of anesthesia to eye opening was 7.05 versus 11.22 min, P < 0.05, and response to verbal command was 8.12 versus 11.67 min, P < 0.05. These differences were significant at all four study sites and in each treatment group. Men consistently had prolonged recovery times compared to women, P < 0.001. There was no difference in the dose of anesthetic used between gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender appears to be an important variable in recovery from general anesthesia. These findings may explain the increased reported incidence of awareness in women (three times more frequent) and support the need to include gender as a variable in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of anesthetic drugs.  (+info)

Ethanol directly depresses AMPA and NMDA glutamate currents in spinal cord motor neurons independent of actions on GABAA or glycine receptors. (7/1145)

Ethanol is a general anesthetic agent as defined by abolition of movement in response to noxious stimulation. This anesthetic endpoint is due to spinal anesthetic actions. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ethanol acts directly on motor neurons to inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission at glutamate receptors. Whole cell recordings were made in visually identified motor neurons in spinal cord slices from 14- to 23-day-old rats. Currents were evoked by stimulating a dorsal root fragment or by brief pulses of glutamate. Ethanol at general anesthetic concentrations (50-200 mM) depressed both responses. Ethanol also depressed glutamate-evoked responses in the presence of tetrodotoxin (300 nM), showing that its actions are postsynaptic. Block of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acidA and glycine receptors by bicuculline (50 microM) and strychnine (5 microM), respectively, did not significantly reduce the effects of ethanol on glutamate currents. Ethanol also depressed glutamate-evoked currents when the inhibitory receptors were blocked and either D, L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (40 microM) or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione disodium (10 microM) were applied to block N-methyl-D-aspartate or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainate receptors, respectively. The results show that ethanol exerts direct depressant effects on both alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate currents in motor neurons. Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acidA and glycine inhibition is not required for this effect. Direct depression of glutamatergic excitatory transmission by a postsynaptic action on motor neurons thus may contribute to general anesthesia as defined by immobility in response to a noxious stimulus.  (+info)

Alphaxalone activates a Cl- conductance independent of GABAA receptors in cultured embryonic human dorsal root ganglion neurons. (8/1145)

Whole cell and cell-attached patch-clamp techniques characterized the neurosteroid anesthetic alphaxalone's (5alpha-pregnane-3alpha-ol-11,20-dione) effects on GABAA receptors and on Cl- currents in cultured embryonic (5- to 8-wk old) human dorsal root ganglion neurons. Alphaxalone applied by pressure pulses from closely positioned micropipettes failed to potentiate the inward Cl- currents produced by application of GABA. In the absence of GABA, alphaxalone (0.1-5.0 microM) directly evoked inward currents in all dorsal root ganglion neurons voltage-clamped at negative membrane potentials. The amplitude of the current was directly proportional to the concentration of alphaxalone (Hill coefficient 1.3 +/- 0.15). The alphaxalone-induced whole cell current was carried largely by Cl- ions. Its reversal potential was close to the theoretical Cl- equilibrium potential, changing with a shift in the external Cl- concentration as predicted by the Nernst equation for Cl- ions. And because the alphaxalone-current was not suppressed by the competitive GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline or by the channel blockers picrotoxin and t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS; all at 100 microM), it did not appear to result from activation of GABAA receptors. In contrast to GABA-currents in the same neurons, the whole cell current-voltage curves produced in the presence of alphaxalone demonstrated strong inward rectification with nearly symmetrical bath and pipette Cl- concentrations. Fluctuation analysis of the membrane current variance produced by 1.0 microM alphaxalone showed that the power density spectra were best fitted to double Lorentzian functions. The elementary conductance for alphaxalone-activated Cl- channels determined by the relationship between mean amplitude of whole cell current and variance was 30 pS. Single-channel currents in cell-attached patches when the pipette solution contained 10 microM alphaxalone revealed a single conductance state with a chord conductance of approximately 29 pS. No subconductance states were seen. The current-voltage determinations for the single-channels activated by alphaxalone demonstrated a linear relationship. Mean open and shut times of single alphaxalone-activated channels were described by two exponential decay functions. Taken together, the results indicate that in embryonic human DRG neurons, micromolar concentrations of alphaxalone directly activate Cl- channels whose electrophysiological and pharmacological properties are distinct from those of Cl- channels associated with GABAA receptors.  (+info)

New life-saving treatments for Intra-abdominal surgery in clinical trial on Comparison of Intravenous Anesthetics to Volatile Anesthetics on Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction
Definition of anesthetic agent in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is anesthetic agent? Meaning of anesthetic agent as a finance term. What does anesthetic agent mean in finance?
Anesthetic Effect-Pipeline Review, H1 2017. Summary. Global Markets Directs latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Anesthetic Effect-Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides an overview of the Anesthetic Effect (Central Nervous System) pipeline landscape.. Anesthetic effect causes a loss of consciousness. The factors that can increase risk of complications include smoking, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, high blood pressure, history of adverse reactions to anesthesia and drug allergies. Report Highlights. Global Markets Directs Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Anesthetic Effect-Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Anesthetic Effect (Central Nervous System), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. The guide covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and ...
Answers to common anesthetic problems. We will discuss a vareity of anesthesia related questions such as how do you trouble shoot hypotension? When do you treat bradycardia? How do you interpret your capnograph?
GIGI ANESTHETIC NUMBING, GIGI ANESTHETIC NUMBING Uses, GIGI ANESTHETIC NUMBING side effects, GIGI ANESTHETIC NUMBING definition and search trends
Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Na(+) channels) mediate the rising phase of action potentials in neurons and excitable cells. Nine subtypes of the alpha subunit (Na(v)1.1-Na(v)1.9) have been shown to form functional Na(+) channels to date. Recently, anesthetic concentrations of volatile anesthetics and ethanol were reported to inhibit Na(+) channel functions, but it is not known whether all subtypes are inhibited by anesthetics. To investigate possible subtype-specific effects of anesthetics on Na(+) channels, mRNA of Na(v)1.2, Na(v)1.4, Na(v)1.6, and Na(v)1.8 alpha subunit-encoded genes were injected individually or together with a beta subunit mRNA into Xenopus oocytes. Na(+) currents were recorded using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Isoflurane, at clinically relevant concentrations, inhibited the currents produced by Na(v)1.2, Na(v)1.4, and Na(v)1.6 by approximately 10% at the holding potential of -90 mV and by approximately 30% at -60 mV, but it did not affect the Na(v)1.8-mediated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anesthetic inhibition in ischemic and nonischemic murine heart. T2 - Comparison with conscious echocardiographic approach. AU - Takuma, Shin. AU - Suehiro, Kotaro. AU - Cardinale, Carol. AU - Hozumi, Takeshi. AU - Yano, Hideaki. AU - Shimizu, Juichiro. AU - Mullis-Jansson, Samantha. AU - Sciacca, Robert. AU - Wang, Jie. AU - Burkhoff, Daniel. AU - Di Tullio, Marco R.. AU - Homma, Shunichi. PY - 2001/5. Y1 - 2001/5. N2 - It is well known that the level of anesthesia obtained by intraperitoneal injection is variable and may alter cardiac function. In this study, we compared the effects of different anesthetics on cardiac function with the conscious state using high-resolution two-dimensional echocardiography in nonischemic and ischemic mice. Eighty-four mice were tested before and after surgery with ligation of the coronary artery. All 84 mice were studied in the conscious state and under high-dose intraperitoneal anesthesia. Twenty-two of 84 mice were studied under low-dose ...
Principal Investigator:WATANABE Ippei, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Anesthesiology/Resuscitation studies
Looking for Anesthetics? Find out information about Anesthetics. anesthetic a substance that causes anaesthesia Explanation of Anesthetics
Thirty-three patients with unrelenting CRPS were treated using this novel approach developed by Dr. Graeme E. Correll, BE, MBBS, in Mackay, Queensland, Australia. Pain relief and the duration of this relief appeared impressive. After only one treatment, there was complete relief in 76% (25) of the group. 54% of the patients remained free of pain for more than three months, 31% for more than six months. Although the relief of pain did not last indefinitely, it was noted that following a second treatment given to 12 of the patients, the outcome was improved. In this retreated group 58% remained pain free for more than a year and almost 33% experienced relief for over three years. The most frequent side effect was a feeling of inebriation with less frequent effects including hallucinations, dizziness, light-headedness and nausea ...
There is great concern about the possible harmful effects of exposure to volatile anesthetics. The current study aimed at evaluating, for the first time, the effects of occupational exposure to anesthetic gases on physicians who work in operating rooms, by determining several inflammatory cytokines. Plasma inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, -6, -8, -10, -12, TNF-α) were investigated in 30 individuals who were allocated into two groups of 15: the exposed group, consisting of operating room medical personnel exposed to a mixture of anesthetic gases for 3 years, and a control group composed of medical personnel not exposed to anesthetic gases. The concentrations of volatile anesthetics were measured in the operating room by means of an infrared portable analyzer Our findings suggest an increase of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 (p , 0.05) in medical personnel exposed to high concentrations of anesthetic gases, even for a relatively short period.. ...
Safe and Unsafe Anesthetics: Not safe for use in MH-susceptible patients... The following anesthetic agents are known triggers of MH: Inhaled General Anesthetics Desflurane Enflurane Ether
Anesthetics are a group of drugs used for both induction and maintenance of anesthesia as well as for pre-operative sedation. These drugs possess a high potential for addiction and physical dependence and abuse of anesthetics such as propofol and lidocaine is a major issue also among health professionals. Recreational abuse of anesthetic drugs and related designer analogs including ketamine, ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and lidocaine have steadily increased around the world. The rise is attributed to their wide availability through online clandestine drug markets and their popularity as
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This article discusses the peri-operative considerations of multiple anti-epileptic medications, recent advances in anesthetic management, and important post-operative concerns....
A critical evaluation of anaesthetic agents in the puerperium is difficult because systematic, relevant studies are still lacking. Current knowledge of the effects of different agents used in labour...
An epidural anaesthetic, often referred to as an epidural, is where a local anaesthetic is continually injected through a tube into an area of the lower back called the epidural space. A spinal anaesthetic is a single injection into a similar space in the back.. Both types of anaesthetic can be used to numb large areas of the body by stopping pain signals travelling along the nerves in the spine.. Theyre often used during childbirth to ease the pain of labour, or if a caesarean section is needed.. They can also be used to reduce the amount of general anaesthesia needed during some operations and can provide pain relief afterwards. In some types of surgery, such as knee and hip replacements, they can be used in place of a general anaesthetic.. ...
An epidural anaesthetic, often referred to as an epidural, is where a local anaesthetic is continually injected through a tube into an area of the lower back called the epidural space. A spinal anaesthetic is a single injection into a similar space in the back.. Both types of anaesthetic can be used to numb large areas of the body by stopping pain signals travelling along the nerves in the spine.. Theyre often used during childbirth to ease the pain of labour, or if a caesarean section is needed.. They can also be used to reduce the amount of general anaesthesia needed during some operations and can provide pain relief afterwards. In some types of surgery, such as knee and hip replacements, they can be used in place of a general anaesthetic.. ...
Wilhelmina Childrens Hospital, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands. Background:. An increasing number of animal- and human studies indicate a potential harmful effects of general anesthesia during critical stage of neurodevelopment. Experimental and clinical studies emphasize that younger age (, 3 yr), higher dose (,1 MAC) and longer duration (,1 hr) of anesthesia are potential risk factors for anesthetic neurotoxicity. However, the translation of these risk factor to procedures potentially at risk has not been performed yet. Therefore, we tried to identify number and type of procedures potentially at risk for the anesthetic neurotoxicity.. Objective:. To quantify and to identify the type of procedures potentially at risk for the anesthetic neurotoxicity. From experimental studies we defined that the children younger than 3 years receiving 300%min sevoflurane are at risk.. Design:. We analyzed a retrospective cohort study of all patients between 0 and 18 years of age anesthetized between January ...
Anesthetic: Anesthetic, any agent that produces a local or general loss of sensation, including pain. Anesthetics achieve this effect by acting on the brain or peripheral nervous system to suppress responses to sensory stimulation. The unresponsive state thus induced is known as anesthesia. General anesthesia
Define anesthetic: of, relating to, or capable of producing anesthesia; lacking awareness or sensitivity - anesthetic in a sentence
An aqueous composition for reducing pain at the site of injection of local parenteral anesthetic material, for improving the onset thereof, and for increasing its duration, and a means for preparing and dispensing the same, the composition containing a local parenteral anesthetic which in normal doses gives an acid pH of from about 2.5 to about 6.9, wherein the anesthetic comprises from about 0.5 to about 2.0% by weight of the composition, the composition further containing sufficient NaHCO3 to maintain the pH thereof between about 7.0 and about 7.6, and further containing from about 0.0004 moles of dissolved CO2 per ml of composition up to the saturation level of dissolved CO2 at a CO2 head pressure of up to about 2.5 atmospheres.
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The possibility of anesthetic neurotoxicity was first suggested more than 15 years ago with findings of apoptosis in the brains of rodents after ethanol exposure during critical periods of neurodevelopment. A similar neuroapoptotic effect was soon identified in anesthetic agents and linked to long-term functional consequences. Since then, nearly all commonly used N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) agonists have been evaluated and were found to result in neurotoxic effects in a variety of animal species, including non-human primates.1 Hundreds of preclinical studies have now been published demonstrating effects with anesthetic doses relevant to humans and using monitoring standards similar to those used for clinical care in children. Despite the presence of this robust body of preclinical data, however, the clinical evidence is much sparser ...
Watch the video lecture Inhaled Anesthetics - Anesthetic Drugs and prepare for your medical exams with high-yield content ✓ & quiz questions ✓ now!
Learn more about IntelliVue Anesthetic Gas Modules G1 - G5 Mounting solution. View specifications, download support documents and discover related products.
Can you have surgery without a general anaesthetic? Perhaps the question should be would you want to have surgery without anaesthetic?
Clinical Case: In your first week in community practice post-residency and fellowship, youre scheduled to anesthetize a 4-year-old for a tonsillectomy. Youll start the anesthetic without an attending or a second anesthesiologist. How do you start a pediatric anesthetic alone? Discussion: During residency its standard to initiate pediatric cases with an attending at your right…
BACKGROUND: Improving operating room safety and efficiency has received much attention over the past decade. This however has been relatively minimally translated into labor and delivery operating suites. In our academic practice, we have noted that prolonged delays in surgical start times may significantly contribute to sooner anesthetic ware and subsequent maternal exposure to supplemental anesthetics/analgesics. Within the context of improving both safety and efficiency, we sought to evaluate the average time interval between intrathecal anesthetic placement and surgical start. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the average time between placement of intrathecal anesthetic to surgical incision during routine cesarean section. Secondary objectives included: (1) the frequency of supplemental anesthetic adjuncts utilized, in reference to both anesthetic technique as well as intra-operative times, and (2) the evaluation of neonatal outcomes based upon Apgar scoring at 1 and 5 minutes. METHODS: Retrospective ...
The Surgical Anesthetic is a splicable component which was added alongside the Surgical Kit as part of the Growtopia General Hospital update. The Surgical Anesthetic is used in performing surgeries to make the player fall asleep before using a Surgical Scalpel.
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The phrase anesthesia identifies any temporary, medically-induced condition which brings about any combination of amnesia, incapacity to experience pain, lack of muscle reactions, lack of responsiveness, and decreased stress response. Anesthetics may include more than one forms of medication, based on the wanted effect.. Anesthesia is frequently employed prior to medical procedures, like surgery. Therefore, patients dont feel the suffering or stress which they might well feel as if they were conscious or able to feel. It is approximated that anesthetic drugs are given around 40 million times annually.. ...
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First of all there might be a hypersensitive reaction towards the anesthetic. Common is recognized as to be more high-risk however any kind of anesthetic can bring on a poor response. Although very rare, its possible to hemorrhage post-operatively causing one more surgical treatment to control as well as drain the gathered blood. An additional likelihood is hematoma (a collection of thick blood), seroma (a collection of the watery percentage of the blood) as well as occlusion (abnormal clotting). read more ...
While there is abundant animal data concerning suspected toxicities in prolonged and multiple anesthetics, the accumulated human data suggest that one brief anesthetic is not associated with cognitive or behavioral abnormalities in children. Most but not all studies in children do however suggest an association between repeated and or prolonged exposure and subsequent difficulties with learning or behavior. It is not yet known whether the anesthetic drug or some other factor is responsible for these findings. Rigorous research to further characterize any possible associations is ongoing. Click here for full statement ...
While there is abundant animal data concerning suspected toxicities in prolonged and multiple anesthetics, the accumulated human data suggest that one brief anesthetic is not associated with cognitive or behavioral abnormalities in children. Most but not all studies in children do however suggest an association between repeated and or prolonged exposure and subsequent difficulties with learning or behavior. It is not yet known whether the anesthetic drug or some other factor is responsible for these findings. Rigorous research to further characterize any possible associations is ongoing. Click here for full statement ...
Location Details: Job Summary Administers intravenous, inhaled, regional, or other anesthetics to render patients insensible to pain during...
The Real World Anaesthetic Course (RWAC) is held annually in Australia or New Zealand to help anaesthetist prepare for short or long term placement in resource poor countries ...
Learn Anesthetics - Nervous System - Picmonic for Nursing faster and easier with Picmonics unforgettable images and stories! Picmonic is research proven to increase your memory retention and test scores. Start learning today for free!
does breed determine how much anesthetic to use? Dog health - Ask members * If your pet is vomiting-bleeding-diarrhea etc. Vet time!
Pips is having a surgery day on he 19th December - a 3 in one due to Frenchies anesthetic risks : Anal SacculectomySterlizationRemoval of a little tag on her lip I am freaking out! Because of the ane
Pips is having a surgery day on he 19th December - a 3 in one due to Frenchies anesthetic risks : Anal SacculectomySterlizationRemoval of a little tag on her lip I am freaking out! Because of the ane
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Anesthetics. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
Nearly 30% of Americans admit that they are afraid to go to the Dentist, but with our Anesthetic options, a Dental visit can now be a pleasant experience!
Hot Sauce as Anesthetic November 1, 2007 Originally posted to ydnar.vox.com in October 2007. Hot Sauc...
Breastfeeding has been shown to be beneficial in the development of infants, but sometimes, the breastfeeding mother may require anesthesia. It is important for perianesthesia caregivers to understand how the breastfed infant may be affected by the anesthetic medications received by the breastfeeding mother. This article reviews current literature on drug transfer into breast milk and specifically how anesthetic drugs may affect breastfed infants. The pharmacokinetics of drug transfer during lactation is described as well as considerations for perianesthesia providers when caring for breastfeeding patients ...
This COAX breathing device is a precisely machined apparatus which maintains the surgical plane. The fresh anesthetic gas enters the side port and then passes to the nose cone. At this point the anesthetic gas is mixed with the patient’s respiration and then passes out through a ball check valve to the gas outlet for scavenging. The positive pressure from the oxygen source and the patient’s respiration lifts the precision ball valve for scavenging. A #10 balloon acts as a diaphragm or breathing bag.
When somebody mentions anaesthetics, we probably think straight away of pain relief, but theres a lot more going on in these complex chemical compounds than the simple negation of discomfort.
If you are having surgery , your doctor will give you a drug called an anesthetic. Anesthetics reduce or prevent pain. There are four main types. L...
Information for Patients About this leaflet: More about your anaesthetic This leaflet gives a more detailed explanation of your anaesthetic. You are unlikely to wish to read all of it, but may wish to
... is a barbiturate derivative which was under development as a short-acting anesthetic. However, development was discontinued, ... Wollweber, Hartmund (2000). "Anesthetics, General". doi:10.1002/14356007.a02_289. ...
After desflurane, it is the volatile anesthetic with the fastest onset and offset. It is one of the most commonly used volatile ... Burns, William; Edmond I Eger II (August 2011). "Ross C. Terrell, PhD, an Anesthetic Pioneer". Anesth. Analg. 113 (2): 387-9. ... Vlisides, P; Xie, Z. (2012). "Neurotoxicity of general anesthetics: an update". Curr Pharm Design. 18 (38): 6232-40. doi: ... Sakai EM; Connolly LA; Klauck JA (December 2005). "Inhalation anesthesiology and volatile liquid anesthetics: focus on ...
356-. ISBN 978-3-642-46660-1. Jürgen Schüttler; Helmut Schwilden (8 January 2008). Modern Anesthetics. Springer Science & ...
Alfred Einhorn synthesises the local anesthetic novocaine. The first commercial use of the Frank-Caro process for the nitrogen ... Ritchie, J. Murdoch; Greene, Nicholas M. (1990). "Local Anesthetics". In Gilman, Alfred Goodman; Rall, Theodore W.; Nies, Alan ...
... anesthetic, and anticonvulsant effects. It was investigated for clinical use as a general anesthetic, but produced unwanted ... the fetus is sedated by the low oxygen tension of the fetal blood and the neurosteroid anesthetics pregnanolone and the sleep- ... Jürgen Schüttler; Helmut Schwilden (8 January 2008). Modern Anesthetics. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 278-. ISBN 978- ...
... and do not hydrolyze ester anesthetics such as procaine. This results in a prolonged period of high levels of the anesthetic in ... Like other local anesthetics (such as mepivacaine, and prilocaine), procaine is a vasodilator, thus is often coadministered ... Procaine, an ester anesthetic, is metabolized in the plasma by the enzyme pseudocholinesterase through hydrolysis into para- ... Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. It is used primarily to reduce the pain of intramuscular ...
It became popular as a nonflammable general anesthetic replacing other volatile anesthetics such as trichloroethylene, diethyl ... Attempts to find anesthetics with less metabolism led to halogenated ethers such as enflurane and isoflurane. The incidence of ... It is a potent anesthetic with a MAC of 0.74%. Its blood/gas partition coefficient of 2.4 makes it an agent with moderate ... Halothane, sold under the brandname Fluothane among others, is a general anesthetic. It can be used to start or maintain ...
Morton Anesthetics Case. Chapter 8. Novelty; Claude Sea-Power Case. Chapter 9. Utility. Chapter 10. Public Use and Sale; ...
If an anesthetic has a high coefficient, then a large amount of it will have to be taken up in the body's blood before being ... Newer anesthetics (such as desflurane) typically have smaller blood-gas partition coefficients than older ones (such as ether ... The concentration of the anesthetic in blood includes the portion that is undissolved in plasma and the portion that is ... The potency of an anesthetic is associated with its lipid solubility which is measured by its oil/gas partition coefficient. ...
... can also be used similarly to ether as a solvent or as an anesthetic by inhaling the fumes or orally. Early ... Solubilities of local anesthetics". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 36 (1): 17-9. doi:10.1002/jps. ... uses included using the solvent as general anesthetic for small mammals and rodents by scientists and some veterinarians. ...
Pharmacokinetics of intravenous anesthetics". In Evers, Alex S.; Maze, Mervyn; Kharasch, Evan D. Anesthetic Pharmacology: Basic ... Chiara DC, Dostalova Z, Jayakar SS, Zhou X, Miller KW, Cohen JB (2012). "Mapping general anesthetic binding site(s) in human ... In addition to its action and use as an anesthetic, etomidate has also been found to directly inhibit the enzymatic ... It was later reformulated as a single-enantiomer drug, becoming the first general anesthetic in that class to be used ...
"Most of the injectable anesthetics appear to act on a single molecular target," says Sonner. "It looks like inhaled anesthetics ... "Anesthetics have been used for 160 years, and how they work is one of the great mysteries of neuroscience," says ... John Travis, "Comfortably Numb, Anesthetics are slowly giving up the secrets of how they work," Science News. (July 3rd 2004 ... 2]. Terrell, RC (1986). "Future Development of Volatile Anesthetics". ZAK Zürich Anaesthesiologie und Intensivmedizin / ...
Topical anesthetic Drugs.com: Minims Oxybuprocaine Hydrochloride 0.4% Jasek, W, ed. (2007). Austria-Codex (in German) (2007/ ... Oxybuprocaine (INN), also known as benoxinate or BNX, is an ester-type local anesthetic, which is used especially in ... When used excessively, oxybuprocaine like any other topical anesthetic used in the eye and on mucous membranes (like for ... ISBN 978-3-85200-181-4. McGee, H. T.; Fraunfelder, F. W. (2007). "Toxicities of topical ophthalmic anesthetics". Expert Opinion ...
It has the most rapid onset and offset of the volatile anesthetic drugs used for general anesthesia due to its low solubility ... Sherman J, Le C, Lamers V, Eckelman M (May 2012). "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Anesthetic Drugs". Anesthesia and ... When a steady state hourly amount of anesthetic necessary for 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) at 2 liters per minute ( ... This estimate is extrapolated from only one U.S. institution's anesthetic practices, and this institution uses virtually no ...
Liu J, Laster MJ, Taheri S, Eger EI, Koblin DD, Halsey MJ (1993). "Is There a Cutoff in Anesthetic Potency for the Normal ... Canlas CG, Cui T, Li L, Xu Y, Tang P (September 2008). "Anesthetic modulation of protein dynamics: insights from a NMR study". ... Fang Z, Sonner J, Laster MJ, Ionescu P, Kandel L, Koblin DD, Eger EI II, Halsey MJ (1996). "Anesthetic and convulsant ... Pringle MJ, Brown KB, Miller KW (1981). "Can the Lipid Theories of Anesthesia Account for the Cutoff in Anesthetic Potency in ...
In anesthetics, Dr. Mary Botsford educated younger women in this specialty. In tuberculosis, Dr. Martha Patrick of Los Angeles ... and four women in anesthetics. There were three men and no women in the orthopedic service, and no women physicians in the ...
Maher, T.J. (2013). Anesthetic agents: General and local anesthetics. In: T.L. Lemke & D.A. Williams (editors). Foye's ... Ketamine is another example of drug with slightly shorter dwell time but still excessive and it is used as anesthetic. Chemical ... Antagonists of the NMDA receptor are used as anesthetics for animals and sometimes humans, and are often used as recreational ... and xenon are used as general anesthetics. These and similar drugs like dextromethorphan and methoxetamine also produce ...
Campagna JA, Miller KW, Forman SA (May 2003). "Mechanisms of actions of inhaled anesthetics". N. Engl. J. Med. 348 (21): 2110- ...
In a new discovery, it was determined that bees actually use 2-heptanone as an anesthetic and to paralyze intruders. After the ... ". "Honeybee Bites Can Act As Anesthetics". Medical News Today. 17 Oct 2012. "US Patent 5695383 A". google.com. Retrieved 4 ...
General Anesthetics and Therapeutic Gases". Goodman & Gilman's: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (12th ed.). New York ...
... , marketed under the trade name Duranest, is a local anesthetic given by injection during surgical procedures and ... Sisk, A. L. (1992). "Long-acting local anesthetics in dentistry". Anesthesia Progress. 39 (3): 53-60. PMC 2148750 . PMID ...
Anesthetics were used during the operation. After the patient was unconscious, Dr. Williams made a full examination of Mrs. ...
This seems like an attempt to fit the anesthetic to the anesthetist and not to the patient. Those who recommend the drop method ... Gwathmey, JT (1909). "Anesthetics in hospitals and private practice". Trans Am Gynec Soc. 34: 260-265. Betcher, Albert M. (1982 ... For one, he proposed using combinations of anesthetic agents during the same case. He also was a proponent of tailoring the ... For this and other contributions to anesthesiology, which included innovations in administering anesthetics to war wounded and ...
Ensuring the safe administration of anesthetics. Monitoring growth and development of the teeth and jaws. Performing surgical ...
... s find many applications, including: anesthetics; dimethisoquin is one example (shown below). antihypertension ...
Procaine Hcl Crystalline Powder Procaine Hydrochloride Local Anesthetic Procaine Product name : Procaine Hydrochloride Synonym ... Procaine Hcl Crystalline Powder Procaine Hydrochloride Local Anesthetic Procaine. Payment. T/T, Western Union, Money Gram, ...
CNS Pharmacology General anesthetics Dr. Hiwa K. Saaed, H.D, M.Sc, Ph.D Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology College of ... General anesthetics * 1. CNS Pharmacology General anesthetics Dr. Hiwa K. Saaed, H.D, M.Sc, Ph.D Department of Pharmacology & ... For inhaled anesthetics, higher CO removes anesthetic from the alveoli faster and thus slows the rate of rise in alveolar ... MAC is the ED50 of the anesthetic. • the inverse of MAC is an index of potency of the anesthetic. MAC expressed as the ...
List of local anesthetics. References[edit]. *^ Ryan, T (2019). "Tramadol as an adjunct to intra‐articular local anaesthetic ... of Wisconsin, Local Anesthesia and Regional Anesthetics *^ a b Weinberg GL, VadeBoncouer T, Ramaraju GA, Garcia-Amaro MF, Cwik ... A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes absence of pain sensation. When it is used on specific nerve pathways ( ... Local anesthetic drugs bind more readily to sodium channels in an activated state, thus onset of neuronal blockade is faster in ...
By discovering the ways in which general anesthetics do more than induce sleep, researchers open up opportunities to develop ... How general anesthetics affect the brain. Written by Catharine Paddock, Ph.D. on January 9, 2018. - Fact checked by Jasmin ... General anesthetics have a more widespread effect on the brain than inducing sleep, suggests a new study that could lead to ... Popular in: Pain / Anesthetics. *. What causes upper left abdominal pain under the ribs? ...
... and these bites can act as natural anesthetics which assist the bees in defending themselves against enemies, such as the wax- ... Honeybees not only sting, but bite as well, and these bites can act as natural anesthetics which assist the bees in defending ... low toxicity local anesthetic for animals and humans. Measured at the University of Athens, the natural anesthetic called 2- ... Popular in: Pain / Anesthetics. * What causes pain in the lower left abdomen? ...
4-Aminobenzoic acid Amino amide Amino esters Anesthesia Anesthetic Brachial plexus block Cocaine analogues: local anesthetics ... This is a list of local anesthetic agents. Not all of these drugs are still used in clinical practice and in research. Some are ... number Epidural Intravenous regional anesthesia Local anesthesia Local anesthetic with vasoconstrictor Local anesthetic ...
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic ... Anesthetics are categorized into two classes: general anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of consciousness, and local ... Only preservative-free local anesthetic agents may be injected intrathecally. Pethidine also has local anesthetic properties, ... they are frequently used along with other agents such as intravenous non-opioid anesthetics or inhalational anesthetics. ...
... anesthetic: Local anesthetics: …innervating a region, usually by injection. Thus, local anesthetics are useful in minor ... The first known and generally used local anesthetic was cocaine, an alkaloid (a naturally occurring organic nitrogen-containing ... In anesthetic: Local anesthetics. …innervating a region, usually by injection. Thus, local anesthetics are useful in minor ... Some anesthetics are administered via intravenous drip.. © Lim Yong Hian/Shutterstock.com. ...
... anesthetic: Local anesthetics: Local anesthetics provide restricted anesthesia because they are administered to the peripheral ... Thus, local anesthetics are useful in minor surgical procedures, such as the extraction of teeth. The first known and generally ... In anesthetic: Local anesthetics. Local anesthetics provide restricted anesthesia because they are administered to the ... In anesthetic. Local anesthesia involves loss of sensation in one area of the body by the blockage of conduction in nerves. ...
Anesthetics. Class Summary. These agents are used to reduce pain and can be used for nerve blocks in mandible reductions. ...
Deaths under Anæsthetics. Br Med J 1897; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.1906.92 (Published 10 July 1897) Cite this as: Br ...
... Lee Corbin Sun, 03 Jul 2005 09:46:08 -0700 ...
View list of generic drugs that are classified under General Anesthetics along with ICD Code. Find related prescribing ... This medication is a hydrochloride salt, used as an anesthetic.. Methohexital This medication is a barbiturate anesthetic, ... General Anesthetics. ICD Code -Y48.2 Etomidate. This medication is a hypnotic agent, used as an anesthesia during short ... This medication is a general anesthetic, prescribed for induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia. ...
GumNumb™ Topical Anesthetic Gel with 20% Benzocaine - 1 oz Jar 3% Polocaine® Dental Mepivacaine HCl injection, USP - 1.7 ml ... Cetacaine® Topical Anesthetic Liquid Clinical Kit Vivacaine® Bupivacaine HCl 0.5% and Epinephrine 1:200,000 Injection - 1.8 ml ... Patterson® Lidocaine Anesthetic HCl 2% with Epinephrine - 1.7 ml Cartridges, 50/Pkg ... Lignospan® Anesthetic - Lidocaine Hydrochloride 2% with Epinephrine, 1.7 ml Cartridge, 50/Pkg ...
The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to anesthetic administration, ... O. Giraud, S. Molliex, C. Rolland et al., "Halogenated anesthetics reduce interleukin-1 β-induced cytokine secretion by rat ... E. De Conno, M. P. Steurer, M. Wittlinger et al., "Anesthetic-induced improvement of the inflammatory response to one-lung ... In another study [20], volatile anesthetic attenuated the release of inflammatory cytokines from the alveoli in a model of ...
Anesthetic Agents. Class Summary. General anesthesia is preferred for this procedure. After anesthesia is induced, a 16-French ... It has general anesthetic properties when administered intravenously. Propofol IV produces rapid hypnosis, usually within 40 ...
Can you name the Local Anesthetics? Test your knowledge on this miscellaneous quiz to see how you do and compare your score to ... Miscellaneous Quiz / Local Anesthetics. Random Miscellaneous or Nintendo Quiz Can you name the Local Anesthetics?. by ltakehana ...
Some types of anesthetics used in humans to perform medical procedures act by blocking this receptor, raising the question of ... which act in a similar manner to some general anesthetics by blocking the NMDA receptor, can cause brain injury in immature ... whether such anesthetics could produce similar side effects in children exposed to the drugs at a young age. ...
... Natalie Kim Bjorklund umbjork1 at cc.UManitoba.CA Thu Apr 27 10:55:35 EST 1995 * ... Is there another anesthetic other than MS222 appropriate for anesthetising the axolotls for such an amputation? Your asistance ...
What Are Some Commonly Used Anesthetic Drugs?. A: Commonly used anesthetics include isoflurane, ketamine, propofol, sodium ... A: EMLA, a topical anesthetic or numbing cream containing 2.5 percent lidocaine and 2.5 percent prilocaine, is available at ... A: Engaging in activity, such as walking, makes Novocaine and other local dental anesthetics wear off more quickly, according ... Sold under a number of different brand names, these anesthetics treat minor burns and cuts, insect bite sites, and sunburns. ...
Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for UlcerEase Anesthetic Mouth Rinse ...
Definition of anesthetic leprosy. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... anesthetic leprosy. Definition: a form of leprosy chiefly affecting the nerves, marked by hyperesthesia succeeded by anesthesia ...
Waste anesthetic gases are small amounts of volatile anesthetic gases that leak from the patients anesthetic breathing circuit ... Waste anesthetic gases are small amounts of volatile anesthetic gases that leak from the patients anesthetic breathing circuit ... Waste anesthetic gases include both nitrous oxide and halogenated anesthetics such as halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, ... Waste Anesthetic Gases-Occupational Hazards in Hospitalspdf icon [PDF - 195 KB] ...
Attention: Either you have JavaScript disabled or your browser does not support JavaScript. To work properly, this site requires that you enable JavaScript.. ...
I always dread doing that since, for some reason, any of the regular anesthetics they use to numb the gums and teeth dont work ... Shelley, did thy try other -caine local anesthetics at the hospital first, or did they just go full on with the liquid coke? ... I have personally had experience, not only with my teeth, but several other parts of my body, where an injected anesthetic was ... It typically takes 6 to 7 shots of local anesthetic before Im sufficiently numb to have dental work done. I usually dont mind ...
  • LOS ANGELES (AP) - A paramedic who responded to Michael Jackson 's mansion says the doctor charged in his death never mentioned he had given the singer a powerful anesthetic. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Fournier testified that he had given the singer a relatively large dose of a powerful anesthetic and needed to know how Jackson was going to react. (sify.com)
  • AKRON, Ohio (AP) - Officials responding to a recent spike in opiate overdoses around the northeast Ohio city of Akron suspect some users are trying to increase the potency of heroin and other drugs by mixing in a powerful anesthetic that's used to sedate elephants and other large animals. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Murray told detectives that he was not the first doctor to administer the powerful anesthetic to Jackson. (latimes.com)
  • Several investigators have shown that prolonged administration of anesthetic drugs, including ketamine, isoflurane, nitrous oxide and midazolam, produced increased neurodegeneration in 7-day-old rat pups. (erowid.org)
  • The University of Iowa s Environmental Health and Safety Office states that NIOSH has a non-regulatory recommended exposure limit (REL) for halogenated agents (e.g., isoflurane) of 2 parts per million (ppm) or 15 mg/m 3 as a ceiling limit (over a sampling period not to exceed one hour) during anesthetic administration. (webwire.com)
  • If the results of a campuswide collaboration of University of Utah researchers are borne out by larger studies and trials, patients with refractory depression might one day have an alternative that is as effective as ECT but without the side effects - the surgical anesthetic drug isoflurane. (scienceblog.com)
  • If isoflurane proves to be a viable alternative to ECT, a device invented by three University of Utah anesthesiology faculty members can make the anesthetic an even more attractive therapy. (scienceblog.com)
  • 1-4 However, it has not been common practice to use these medications in the emergency department (ED). The requirements for successful and efficient application of topical anesthetic in the ED are 1) prospective identification of patients receiving IV insertions and 2) sufficient time between triage and IV insertion for the medication to take effect. (aappublications.org)
  • The halogenated anesthetics are often administered in combination with nitrous oxide. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrous oxide and some of the halogenated anesthetics may pose a hazard to hospital workers. (cdc.gov)
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) requests assistance in controlling exposures of workers to nitrous oxide (N2O) during the administration of anesthetic gas in medical, dental, and veterinary operatories. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrous Oxide, commonly known as Laughing Gas is used in dentistry and surgery as a general anesthetic but was prepared by Joseph Priestly in 1776. (preceden.com)
  • 2) Is there another anesthetic other than MS222 appropriate for anesthetising the axolotls for such an amputation? (bio.net)
  • The aim of this randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study is to evaluate the specific role of injection of local anesthetic into the intra- vs. extraarticular tissues after toal knee arthroplasty. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • An aqueous composition for reducing pain at the site of injection of local parenteral anesthetic material, for improving the onset thereof, and for increasing its duration, and a means for preparing and dispensing the same, the composition containing a local parenteral anesthetic which in normal doses. (google.com)
  • There has been an increase in use of injection of local anesthetic, either with or without ultrasound guidance, for the diagnosis or treatment of headache, migraine, and headache syndrome into the occipital nerve, greater occipital nerve, sphenopalatine ganglion (with or without the use of the SphenoCath device), stellate ganglion, supraorbital nerve or supratrochlear nerve. (wellmark.com)
  • They include all fugitive anesthetic gases and vapors that are released into anesthetizing and recovery locations, from equipment used in administering anesthetics under normal operating conditions, as well as those gases that leak from the anesthetic gas scavenging system, or are exhaled by the patient into the workplace environment. (factbites.com)
  • Anesthetics don't put you to sleep--they induce a pharmacological coma. (eurekalert.org)
  • Previous research indicates that anesthetics might interact with the cell membrane where protein receptors are housed and, by changing some unknown membrane property, indirectly alter receptor activity to induce unconsciousness and pain insensitivity. (asbmb.org)
  • Anesthetic gases are exhaled by recovering patients (who received inhalation anesthetics ) as they breathe. (factbites.com)
  • She said: "I thought there would be a business in this based on the patients I was putting to sleep before operations or women who were getting epidurals or spinal anesthetic for C sections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One hundred and twenty-two lesions caused by Leishmania braziliensis in 92 patients were treated using weekly intralesional (IL) infiltrations of a generic pentavalent antimonial compound, combined with local anesthetics. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Toronto's Faculty of Medicine have shown why anesthetics can cause long-term memory loss, a discovery that can have serious implications for post-operative patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • Patients -- and even many doctors -- think anesthetics don't have long-term consequences. (eurekalert.org)
  • The anesthetic care of severely obese patients entails particular issues, and difficulties are believed to escalate in the presence of co-morbidities. (springer.com)
  • following the wide usage of A.C.E. mixture as an anesthetic , one doctor found patients were more relaxed when he used Eau de Cologne and chloroform for dental operations? (thefullwiki.org)
  • This noninvasive test has the potential to minimize the risk of anesthetic awareness in patients and provide a much-needed tool to quickly and reliably assess anesthetic activity. (asbmb.org)
  • The acid pH ranging, for example, between 3.5 to 6.5, of intradermal or subcutaneous anesthetic solutions and of most intravenous anesthetic solutions has been implicated as a factor responsible for local irritation at the site of injection, which leads to pain or discomfort during the period of infiltration. (google.com)
  • A novel catheter apparatus for use in delivering an anesthetic agent or other fluid medicament to the portion of subcutaneous tissue through which a catheter device has been inserted into a patient, thereby allowing the catheter device to be retracted without causing pain or discomfort to the patient. (google.co.uk)
  • The delivery holes permit the anesthetic agent or fluid medicament to be delivered to the subcutaneous tissue. (google.co.uk)
  • Fournier said it was not common to administer an anesthetic during cosmetic procedures, but the ones done on Jackson were complex and involved dozens of injections. (sify.com)
  • This invention concerns the modification of materials normally employed as parenteral anesthetics in acidic solution, and particularly concerns a composite article and its method of use which provides in a very convenient manner a buffering system for addition to these acidic materials for reducing certain adverse physiological effects thereof such as burning or stinging generally resulting from injections thereof. (google.com)
  • Provides temporary relief of pain during procedures and includes local anesthetic injections, periodontal curettage, impression taking, scaling, intra-oral radiographs, root planning as well as prophylaxis. (staples.com)
  • Status of organ systems: Cardiovascular system: whereas the hypotensive effect of most anesthetics is sometimes desirable, ischemic injury of tissues could follow reduced perfusion pressure. (slideshare.net)
  • It's the flow of the anesthetic into the tissues of the mouth. (factbites.com)
  • Diagnostic tests such as bone marrow aspiration, lumbar puncture (spinal tap) and aspiration of cysts or other structures are made to be less painful upon administration of local anesthetic before insertion of larger needles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present invention relates to solvents for water and glycerine insoluble anesthetic and therapeutic compounds, and is a continuation in part of my co-pending application, Serial No. 404,047 filed July 25, 1941, which has issued as Patent No. 2,352,691. (google.es)
  • In my said co-pending application, I have described the use of concentrated water and glycerine solutions of procaine salts, and more articularly of procaine acetyl salicylate (Proco-pirin) as solvent vehicles for water insoluble and glycerine insoluble anesthetic bases and salts (based on the theory that like dissolves like). (google.es)
  • It is a further object of the present invention to provide a group of new procaine salts which are themselves valuable anesthetic substances and which are also highly suited to serve as solvents for other insoluble sulfonic and carboxylic acid derivatives of amino benzene. (google.es)
  • It is a further object of the present invention to provide new and useful anesthetic and therapeutic preparations by dissolving relatively insoluble anesthetic and therapeutic substances in procaine salt solutions. (google.es)
  • This new discovery, by a group of experts from French and Greek organizations together with Vita (Europe) Ltd., honeybee health specialists in the UK, may result in new medical advances, including the manufacturing of a natural, low toxicity local anesthetic for animals and humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • "Anesthetics and brain toxicity" Curr Opin Anaesthesiol . (erowid.org)
  • The first evidence of local anesthetic toxicity involves the nervous system, including agitation, confusion, dizziness, blurred vision, tinnitus, a metallic taste in the mouth, and nausea that can quickly progress to seizures and cardiovascular collapse. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Toxicity can occur with any local anesthetic as an individual reaction by that patient. (thefullwiki.org)