Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Spinal DiseasesSpinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Spinal NeoplasmsLidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Muscular Atrophy, Spinal: A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Anesthesia, IntratrachealParaplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Anesthesia and Analgesia: Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood: A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.EthersSpinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Spinal Cord Regeneration: Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Neuromuscular Blockade: The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.Intraoperative Awareness: Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hypotension, Controlled: Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cordotomy: Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.Spinal Cord Stimulation: Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Nurse Anesthetists: Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.

Dose-response effects of spinal neostigmine added to bupivacaine spinal anesthesia in volunteers. (1/609)

BACKGROUND: Intrathecal adjuncts often are used to enhance small-dose spinal bupivacaine for ambulatory anesthesia. Neostigmine is a novel spinal analgesic that could be a useful adjunct, but no data exist to assess the effects of neostigmine on small-dose bupivacaine spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Eighteen volunteers received two bupivacaine spinal anesthetics (7.5 mg) in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design. Dextrose, 5% (1 ml), was added to one spinal infusion and 6.25, 12.5, or 50 microg neostigmine in dextrose, 5%, was added to the other spinal. Sensory block was assessed with pinprick; by the duration of tolerance to electric stimulation equivalent to surgical incision at the pubis, knee, and ankle; and by the duration of tolerance to thigh tourniquet. Motor block at the quadriceps was assessed with surface electromyography. Side effects (nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and sedation) were noted. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were recorded every 5 min. Dose-response relations were assessed with analysis of variance, paired t tests, or Spearman rank correlation. RESULTS: The addition of 50 microg neostigmine significantly increased the duration of sensory and motor block and the time until discharge criteria were achieved. The addition of neostigmine produced dose-dependent nausea (33-67%) and vomiting (17-50%). Neostigmine at these doses had no effect on hemodynamic or respiratory parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of 50 microg neostigmine prolonged the duration of sensory and motor block. However, high incidences of side effects and delayed recovery from anesthesia with the addition of 6.25 to 50 microg neostigmine may limit the clinical use of these doses for outpatient spinal anesthesia.  (+info)

Transdermal nitroglycerine enhances spinal sufentanil postoperative analgesia following orthopedic surgery. (2/609)

BACKGROUND: Sufentanil is a potent but short-acting spinal analgesic used to manage perioperative pain. This study evaluated the influence of transdermal nitroglycerine on the analgesic action of spinal sufentanil in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. METHODS: Fifty-six patients were randomized to one of four groups. Patients were premedicated with 0.05-0.1 mg/kg intravenous midazolam and received 15 mg bupivacaine plus 2 ml of the test drug intrathecally (saline or 10 microg sufentanil). Twenty to 30 min after the spinal puncture, a transdermal patch of either 5 mg nitroglycerin or placebo was applied. The control group received spinal saline and transdermal placebo. The sufentanil group received spinal sufentanil and transdermal placebo. The nitroglycerin group received spinal saline and transdermal nitroglycerine patch. Finally, the sufentanil-nitroglycerin group received spinal sufentanil and transdermal nitroglycerine. Pain and adverse effects were evaluated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. RESULTS: The time to first rescue analgesic medication was longer for the sufentanil-nitroglycerin group (785+/-483 min) compared with the other groups (P<0.005). The time to first rescue analgesics was also longer for the sufentanil group compared with the control group (P<0.05). The sufentanil-nitroglycerin group group required less rescue analgesics in 24 h compared with the other groups (P<0.02) and had lesser 24-h pain visual analog scale scores compared with the control group (P<0.005), although these scores were similar to the sufentanil and nitroglycerin groups (P>0.05). The incidence of perioperative adverse effects was similar among groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Transdermal nitroglycerine alone (5 mg/day), a nitric oxide generator, did not result in postoperative analgesia itself, but it prolonged the analgesic effect of spinal sufentanil (10 microg) and provided 13 h of effective postoperative analgesia after knee surgery.  (+info)

Assessing introduction of spinal anaesthesia for obstetric procedures. (3/609)

To assess the impact of introducing spinal anaesthesia for obstetric operative procedures on use of general anaesthesia and quality of regional anaesthesia in a unit with an established epidural service a retrospective analysis of routinely collected data on method of anaesthesia, efficacy, and complications was carried out. Data were collected from 1988 to 1991 on 1670 obstetric patients requiring an operative procedure. The introduction of spinal anaesthesia in 1989 significantly reduced the proportion of operative procedures performed under general anaesthesia, from 60% (234/390) in 1988 to 30% (124/414) in 1991. The decrease was most pronounced for manual removal of the placenta (88%, 48/55 v 9%, 3/34) and emergency caesarean section (67%, 129/193) v 38%, 87/229). Epidural anaesthesia decreased in use most significantly for elective caesarean section (65%, 77/118 v 3% 3/113; x2=139, p<0.0001). The incidence of severe pain and need for conversion to general anaesthesia was significantly less with spinal anaesthesia (0%, 0/207 v 3%, 5/156; p<0.05). Hypotension was not a problem, and the incidence of headache after spinal anaesthetic decreased over the period studied. Introducing spinal anaesthesia therefore reduced the need for general anaesthesia and improved the quality of regional anaesthesia.  (+info)

Incidence of bradycardia during recovery from spinal anaesthesia: influence of patient position. (4/609)

We administered 0.5% plain bupivacaine 4 ml intrathecally (L2-3 or L3-4) in three groups of 20 patients, according to the position in which they were nursed in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU): supine horizontal, 30 degrees Trendelenburg or hammock position (trunk and legs 30 degrees elevated). Patients were observed until anaesthesia descended to less than S1. The incidence of severe bradycardia (heart rate < 50 beat min-1) in the PACU was significantly higher in patients in the Trendelenburg position (60%) than in the horizontal (20%, P < 0.01) or hammock (10%, P < 0.005) position. After 90 min, following admission to the PACU, only patients in the hammock position did not have severe bradycardia. In this late phase, the incidence of severe bradycardia in the Trendelenburg group was 35% (P < 0.005) and 10% in patients in the supine horizontal position. In four patients, severe bradycardia first occurred later than 90 min after admission to the PACU. The latest occurrence of severe bradycardia was recorded 320 min after admission to the PACU. We conclude that for recovery from spinal anaesthesia, the Trendelenburg position should not be used and the hammock position is preferred.  (+info)

Hyperbaric spinal ropivacaine: a comparison to bupivacaine in volunteers. (5/609)

BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine is a newly introduced local anesthetic that may be a useful alternative to low-dose bupivacaine for outpatient spinal anesthesia. However, its relative potency to bupivacaine and its dose-response characteristics are unknown. This double-blind, randomized, crossover study was designed to determine relative potencies of low-dose hyperbaric spinal ropivacaine and bupivacaine and to assess the suitability of spinal ropivacaine for outpatient anesthesia. METHODS: Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomized into three equal groups to receive one spinal administration with bupivacaine and a second with ropivacaine, of equal-milligram doses (4, 8, or 12 mg) of 0.25% drug with 5% dextrose. The duration of blockade was assessed with (1) pinprick, (2) transcutaneous electrical stimulation, (3) tolerance to high tourniquet, (4) electromyography and isometric force dynamometry, and (5) achievement of discharge criteria. Differences between ropivacaine and bupivacaine were assessed with linear and multiple regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Ropivacaine and bupivacaine provided dose-dependent prolongation of sensory and motor block and time until achievement of discharge criteria (R2 ranges from 0.33-0.99; P values from < 0.001 through 0.01). Spinal anesthesia with ropivacaine was significantly different from bupivacaine and was approximately half as potent for all criteria studied. A high incidence of back pain (28%; P = 0.098) was noted after intrathecal ropivacaine was given. CONCLUSION: Ropivacaine is half as potent and in equipotent doses has a similar profile to bupivacaine with a higher incidence of side effects. Low-dose hyperbaric spinal ropivacaine does not appear to offer an advantage over bupivacaine for use in outpatient anesthesia.  (+info)

Sedation depends on the level of sensory block induced by spinal anaesthesia. (6/609)

We have investigated the relationship between the extent of spinal block and occurrence of sedation. In a first series of 43 patients, the distribution of sedation score (measured on the Ramsey scale) was related to the extent of spinal block (pinprick). In a second series of 33 patients, the relationship between sedation score and spinal block persisted after injection of midazolam 1 mg. This study confirmed that high spinal block was associated with increased sedation.  (+info)

Anaesthetic management of a woman who became paraplegic at 22 weeks' gestation after a spontaneous spinal cord haemorrhage secondary to a presumed arteriovenous malformation. (7/609)

A 19-yr-old woman developed a paraplegia with a T10 sensory level at 22 weeks' gestation. The spinal injury was caused by spontaneous bleed of a presumed arteriovenous malformation in the spinal cord. She presented for Caesarean section at term because of the breech position of her fetus. The successful use of a combined spinal epidural-regional anaesthetic is described and the risks of general and regional anaesthesia are discussed.  (+info)

Spinal versus epidural anesthesia for cesarean section in severely preeclamptic patients: a retrospective survey. (8/609)

BACKGROUND: Selection of spinal anesthesia for severely preeclamptic patients requiring cesarean section is controversial. Significant maternal hypotension is believed to be more likely with spinal compared with epidural anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to assess, in a large retrospective clinical series, the blood pressure effects of spinal and epidural anesthesia in severely preeclamptic patients requiring cesarean section. METHODS: The computerized medical records database was reviewed for all preeclamptic patients having cesarean section between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1996. All nonlaboring severely preeclamptic patients receiving either spinal or epidural anesthesia for cesarean section were included for analysis. The lowest recorded blood pressures were compared for the 20-min period before induction of regional anesthesia, the period from induction of regional anesthesia to delivery, and the period from delivery to the end of operation. RESULTS: Study groups included 103 women receiving spinal anesthesia and 35 receiving epidural anesthesia. Changes in the lowest mean blood pressure were similar after epidural or spinal anesthesia. Intraoperative ephedrine use was similar for both groups. Intraoperative crystalloid administration was statistically greater for patients receiving spinal versus epidural anesthesia (1780 +/- 838 vs. 1359 +/- 674 ml, respectively). Neonatal Apgar scores and incidence of maternal intensive care unit admission or postoperative pulmonary edema were also similar. CONCLUSION: Although we cannot exclude the possibility that the spinal and epidural anesthesia groups were dissimilar, the magnitudes of maternal blood pressure declines were similar after spinal or epidural anesthesia in this series of severely preeclamptic patients receiving cesarean section. Maternal and fetal outcomes also were similar.  (+info)

*List of local anesthetics

Local anesthetic toxicity Methemoglobin Sodium channel blocker Spinal anesthesia Topical anesthesia Veterinary anesthesia Büchi ... local anesthetics Dental anesthesia Dibucaine number Epidural Intravenous regional anesthesia Local anesthesia Local anesthetic ... 4-Aminobenzoic acid Amino amide Amino esters Anesthesia Anesthetic Brachial plexus block Cocaine analogues: ...

*Spinal anaesthesia

... (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal block, subarachnoid block, intradural block and intrathecal block ... This technique has some similarity to spinal anesthesia, both are neuraxial, and the two techniques may be easily confused with ... Also, injection of spinal anaesthesia higher than the level of L1 can cause damage to the spinal cord, and is therefore usually ... Differences include: A spinal anaesthetic delivers drug to the intrathecal space (the CSF), and acts on the spinal cord ...

*Local anesthetic

... epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia) Abdominal surgery (epidural anesthesia/spinal anesthesia, often combined ... spinal/epidural anesthesia) Bone and joint surgery of the pelvis, hip, and leg (spinal/epidural anesthesia, peripheral nerve ... plexus anesthesia). Spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia merge into the central nervous system. Injection of LAs is often ... topical anesthesia, field blocks, peripheral nerve blocks, or spinal/epidural anesthesia) Topical anesthesia, in the form of ...

*Local anesthesia

Topical anesthesia (surface) Infiltration Plexus block Epidural (extradural) block Spinal anesthesia (subarachnoid block) ... New York School of Regional Anesthesia Anesthesia Books General information and tutorials in peripheral regional anesthesia [1 ... Regional anesthesia is aimed at anesthetizing a larger part of the body such as a leg or arm. Conduction anesthesia encompasses ... The following terms are often used interchangeably: Local anesthesia, in a strict sense, is anesthesia of a small part of the ...

*August Bier

He was the first to perform spinal anesthesia and intravenous regional anesthesia. After professorships in Greifswald and Bonn ... On 16 August 1898, Bier performed the first operation under spinal anesthesia at the Royal Surgical Hospital of the University ... Therefore, Bier suggested "cocainization" of the spinal cord as an alternative to general anesthesia. Bier injected 15 mg of ... Wulf, HFW (1998). "The centennial of spinal anesthesia". Anesthesiology. 89 (2): 500-6. doi:10.1097/00000542-199808000-00028. ...

*Bezold-Jarisch reflex

ISBN 0-7817-1548-2. Tsai, Tony; Greengrass, Roy (2007). "Spinal Anesthesia". In Hadzic, Admir. Textbook of Regional Anesthesia ... Miller's Anesthesia Ch.52 Pg. 1642 Koji Kashihara (Nov 2009). "Roles of Arterial Baroreceptor Reflex During Bezold-Jarisch ... reflex has been suggested as a possible cause of profound bradycardia and circulatory collapse after spinal anesthesia. Also, ...

*Sergei Yudin (surgeon)

In 1925, Yudin published the book "Spinal Anesthesia". In 1926 this book was awarded the F.A. Rein prize by the All-Soviet ... Yudin S. Spinal anesthesia. Serpukhov: Nabat; 1922. Yudin S. A guest of American surgeons. Novi Khirurgichesky Archiv (Russian ...

*Uterine myomectomy

Either a general or a spinal anesthesia is administered. Traditionally a myomectomy is performed via a laparotomy with a full ...

*Cocaine

... and James Leonard Corning demonstrated peridural anesthesia. 1898 saw Heinrich Quincke use cocaine for spinal anesthesia. Today ... 1935, 518, 1. Yentis SM, Vlassakov KV (1999). "Vassily von Anrep, forgotten pioneer of regional anesthesia". Anesthesiology. 90 ... In 1885, William Halsted demonstrated nerve-block anesthesia, ...

*Percutaneous nephrolithotomy

It is usually done under general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia. A retrograde pyelogram is done to locate the stone in the ...

*Urinary retention

Spinal anesthesia results in a blockade of the micturition reflex. Spinal anesthesia shows a higher risk of postoperative ... Anesthesia: General anesthetics during surgery may cause bladder atony by acting as a smooth muscle relaxant. General ... Tethered spinal cord syndrome Psychogenic causes (psychosocial stresses, fear associated with urination, Paruresis ("shy ... Nerve problems can occur from diabetes, trauma, spinal cord problems, stroke, or heavy metal poisoning. Medications that can ...

*E. Payne Palmer House

He was also a pioneer in the use of lumbar spinal anesthesia. In 1936, he was invited to address the Second International ...

*Ephedrine

It is often used to prevent low blood pressure during spinal anesthesia. It has also been used for asthma, narcolepsy, and ...

*James Leonard Corning

Marx, GF (1994). "The first spinal anesthesia. Who deserves the laurels?". Regional Anesthesia. 19 (6): 429-30. PMID 7848956. ... Although Bier properly deserves credit for the introduction of spinal anesthesia into the clinical practice of medicine, it was ... On August 16, 1898, German surgeon August Bier (1861-1949) performed surgery under spinal anesthesia in Kiel. Following the ... Wulf, HFW (1998). "The centennial of spinal anesthesia". Anesthesiology. 89 (2): 500-6. doi:10.1097/00000542-199808000-00028. ...

*Artificial facet replacement

Gil, K.S.L. (2013). "Chapter 12: Anesthesia for Spinal Cord Injury Surgery". In Mongan, P.D.; Soriano, S.G.; Sloan, T.B. A ... Coric, D. (2014). "Spinal technologies not available in the United States: An editorial". Neurosurgery. 61 (Supplement 1): 26- ... The prosthesis is indicated for back and leg pain caused by central or lateral spinal stenosis, degenerative disease of the ... A more comprehensive focus on re-establishing the structure and function of the human functional spinal unit may include facet ...

*Transvaginal oocyte retrieval

TVOR is usually performed under procedural sedation, general anesthesia, paracervical block, or sometimes spinal anesthesia. ... Viscomi CM, Hill K, Johnson J, Sites C (1997). "Spinal anesthesia versus intravenous sedation for transvaginal oocyte retrieval ... Sequeira PM (2011). "Anesthesia for in vitro fertilization". In Urman RD, Gross WL, Philip BK. Anesthesia outside of the ... Local anesthesia is not typically used because local anesthetic agents interfere with follicular cleavage and the technique ...

*Hypotension

... including spinal anesthesia and most inhalational agents, produce significant vasodilation. Meditation, yoga, or other mental- ... nervous system output or to increased parasympathetic activity occurring as a consequence of injury to the brain or spinal cord ...

*Dogliotti's principle

"Research and clinical observations on spinal anesthesia: with special reference to the peridural technique" (PDF). Anesthesia ... Epidural procedure History of neuraxial anesthesia Odom's indicator Dogliotti, AM (1933). " ...

*Hydrocele

Method of choice is open operation under general or spinal anesthesia, which is sufficient in adults. General anesthesia is the ... Local infiltration anesthesia is not satisfactory because it cannot abolish abdominal pain due to traction on the spermatic ... Zollinger's Atlas of Surgeries Manual of Anesthesia for Out Patient Surgical Procedures Bailey and Love-Short Practice of ...

*Louis A. Perrotta

... by procaine spinal anesthesia)". The study demonstrated that neuraxial anesthesia could be safely used to alleviate the pain of ... While spinal anesthesia would go on to be indispensable in the world of obstetrics, manual cervical dilation would fall out of ... The techniques of spinal and epidural anesthesia became common practice as they were shown to be safer for the mother and ... Spinal anesthesia is now implemented routinely in labor and cesarean section as it provides a rapid onset of sensory motor ...

*Rose Talbot Bullard

In her obstetric practice, she was among the first in Southern California to use spinal anesthesia. When the American Medical ...

*Post-dural-puncture headache

It is a common side-effect of spinal anesthesia and lumbar puncture and may occasionally accidentally occur in epidural ... However, very short-term use of IV hydrocortisone was found effective in reducing headache following spinal anesthesia. But, ... anesthesia. Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid through the dura mater puncture causes reduced fluid levels in the brain and spinal ... Bela I. Hatfalvi, M.D. (1977). "The dynamics of post-spinal headache". Headache. 17: 64-66. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.1977. ...

*History of neuraxial anesthesia

Marx, GF (1994). "The first spinal anesthesia. Who deserves the laurels?". Regional Anesthesia. 19 (6): 429-30. PMID 7848956. ... "Research and clinical observations on spinal anesthesia: with special reference to the peridural technique" (PDF). Anesthesia ... Although Bier properly deserves credit for the introduction of spinal anesthesia into the clinical practice of medicine, it was ... On August 16, 1898, German surgeon August Bier (1861-1949) performed surgery under spinal anesthesia in Kiel. Following the ...

*Obstetric anesthesia (medical specialty)

... the first clinical spinal anesthesia; Sicard and Cathlein, the caudal approach to epidural anesthesia in 1901; and Fidel Pages ... regional anesthesia, transplant anesthesia and trauma anesthesia. Obstetric anesthesiologists typically serve as consultants to ... George Pitkin is credited with popularizing obstetric spinal anesthesia in the United States. Charles B. Odom introduced lumbar ... Obstetric anesthesia or obstetric anesthesiology, also known as ob-gyn anesthesia or ob-gyn anesthesiology is a sub-specialty ...

*Tezampanel

Effect of intrathecal non-NMDA EAA receptor antagonist LY293558 in rats: a new class of drugs for spinal anesthesia. ... Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2007 Oct;105(4):1152-9. PMID 17898404 Alt A, Weiss B, Ogden AM, Li X, Gleason SD, Calligaro DO, ...

*Childbirth

Immersion in water has been found to relieve pain during the first stage of labor and to reduce the need for anesthesia and ... A number of methods can help with pain such as relaxation techniques, opioids, and spinal blocks. Most babies are born head ... They may contribute to the care of a woman in labour by performing epidurals or by providing anaesthesia (often spinal ... Popular medical pain control in hospitals include the regional anesthetics epidurals (EDA), and spinal anaesthesia. Epidural ...

*Lithotomy position

Information and research on the use of the Lithotomy Position in Childbirth Effect Of Lithotomy Position On Spinal Anesthesia. ...
Continuous Spinal Anaesthesia is a recognized technique for providing anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. It may be an alternative to general anaesthesia in high-risk elderly patients requiring emergency laparotomy. The objective was to evaluate the benefits of continuous spinal anaesthesia in providing effective anaesthesia for emergency laparotomy, in enhancing recovery after major abdominal surgery and in reducing length of stay in the intensive care unit in high-risk elderly patients. Prospective service evaluation was performed at a tertiary care university hospital. High-risk elderly patients were offered both general anaesthesia and continuous spinal anaesthesia. An 18-gauge macro catheter was inserted into the intrathecal space through a 16-gauge Tuohy needle. Sedation was maintained with remifentanil. Prophylactic anti-emetics were administered. Blood pressure was maintained with an infusion of metaraminol. Over a 27-month period, 25 high risk elderly patients were offered continuous
The level of spinal anesthesia in obstetric patients had been investigated in several studies. Increased cephalad spread of local anesthetics had been demonstrated with increased intra-abdominal pressure, changes in anteroposterior spinal curves and lumbar lordosis. Theoretically the body shape might have contribution to the above factors and might have influence on the spinal level. In this research we plan to investigate the relationship of abdominal circumference, trunk length and the level of spinal anesthesia in obstetric patients during Cesarean section. Only those C/S patients indicated and scheduled for spinal anesthesia will be observed. The spinal anesthesia will be performed as routine practice. This study will not change the clinical plan in any aspect. We will only passively record the abdominal circumference, trunk length and the level of spinal anesthesia and calculate the correlation between them ...
The level of spinal anesthesia in obstetric patients had been investigated in several studies. Increased cephalad spread of local anesthetics had been demonstrated with increased intra-abdominal pressure, changes in anteroposterior spinal curves and lumbar lordosis. Theoretically the body shape might have contribution to the above factors and might have influence on the spinal level. In this research we plan to investigate the relationship of abdominal circumference, trunk length and the level of spinal anesthesia in obstetric patients during Cesarean section. Only those C/S patients indicated and scheduled for spinal anesthesia will be observed. The spinal anesthesia will be performed as routine practice. This study will not change the clinical plan in any aspect. We will only passively record the abdominal circumference, trunk length and the level of spinal anesthesia and calculate the correlation between them ...
Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal block, subarachnoid block, intradural block and intrathecal block, is a form of regional anaesthesia involving the injection of a local anaesthetic into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually 9 cm (3.5 in) long. For obese patients longer needles are available (12.7 cm / 5 inches). The tip of the spinal needle has a point or small bevel. Recently, pencil point needles have been made available (Whitacre, Sprotte, Gertie Marx and others). Spinal anaesthesia is a commonly used technique, either on its own or in combination with sedation or general anaesthesia. Examples of uses include: Orthopaedic surgery on the pelvis, hip, femur, knee, tibia, and ankle, including arthroplasty and joint replacement Vascular surgery on the legs Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair Hernia (inguinal or epigastric) Haemorrhoidectomy Nephrectomy and cystectomy in combination with general anaesthesia Transurethral resection of the ...
Health,...Study also finds spinal anesthesia doesnt worsen pre-existing RLS ...WEDNESDAY Nov. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Spinal anesthesia wont cause o...Thats the conclusion of a new study published as a letter to the edit... Our study was designed to test the hypothesis that spinal anesthesia ...,Spinal,Anesthesia,Doesnt,Cause,Restless,Leg,Syndrome,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Accepted: 12 March 2018 Abstract. Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of ENTONOX inhalation and spinal injection on the reduction of labor pain, the Apgar score of the neonates, and their side effects on new-born children and pregnant women.. Material and Methods: The present clinical trial study is conducted among the pregnant women in the maternity ward of a child delivery hospital in Iran. All Participants were divided in two groups ENTONOX Inhalation and Spinal Anesthesia. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was implemented to measure the pain level experienced by the participants during the procedure. Moreover, the Apgar scale was used to measure the general physical health of the neonates in both groups. In addition, the participants receiving ENTONOX were asked to report the side effects they underwent during gas inhalation. However, the participants in the spinal anesthesia were checked three times. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version ...
The advantages of spinal anesthesia under certain restrictions are so obvious and the results obtained from its use so excellent that one can appreciate the popularity of this valuable anesthetic measure. However, from time to time, there have appeared in the literature reports of patients who have developed neurological complications occurring immediately after or remotely following the administration of a spinal anesthetic. The statements in the literature are extremely contradictory as to the frequency with which such nervous sequelae occur. Emmett1 reports he had no neurological sequelae in 1415 cases, and Foss and Schwalm2 state that in 3,000 cases they ...
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After obtaining patient consent, the doctor will sterilize the site of lumbar puncture for the spinal anesthesia. There are a large number of options for the anesthetic drug, including lignocaine, ropivacaine, tetracaine, and cinchocaine. Bupivacaine, or Marcaine, is the most common. The medical practitioner may also use a vasoconstrictor or an opioid to prolong the pain relieving effects of the spinal anesthesia. The physician will then select the density of the anesthetic drug to better control the way it spreads through the body. Hyperbaric solutions are the most frequently used and easily controlled substances for spinal anesthesia.. The doctor will then insert a 9 centimeter-long needle into the patients back. It must be placed just below L2 on the lumbar vertebral column. This ensures the safety of the spine since a properly positioned needle will not puncture the spinal cord at this site. The tip of the needle has a pencil point, or small bevel, to inject the anesthetic solution. For ...
Background : Recent evidence suggests that transient neurologic symptoms commonly follow lidocaine spinal anesthesia However, information concerning factors that affect their occurrence is limited. Accordingly, to evaluate many potential risk factors, the authors undertook a prospective, multicenter, epidemiologic study. Metbods : On a...
Spinal anesthesia is a type of neuraxial anesthesia; local anesthetic (LA) is injected into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the lumbar spine to anesthetize nerves that exit the spinal cord. Spinal anesthesia is most commonly used for anesthesia and/or a
In their study, Williams et al. sought to isolate the effect of surgery from that of general anesthesia by retrospectively comparing the cognitive outcomes of a cohort of infants who had undergone a brief surgical procedure under spinal anesthesia to normative data for the population of Vermont. The authors are to be commended for their contribution in assessing whether a surgical procedure may contribute to adverse cognitive outcome later in childhood. The Pediatric Anesthesia & Neurodevelopment Assessment (Columbia) and Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids (Mayo) studies, although not randomized controlled trials, will augment the insights gained from the General Anesthesia Spinal Anesthesia (GAS) study now underway at several U.S. and international sites. None, however, will report definitive outcomes for at least two or three years. In the meantime, we must content ourselves with very important but severely limited studies such as that published by Williams et al. in this issue of Anesthesia & ...
Background: To evaluate general anesthesia with sevoflurane vs spinal anesthesia with low dose lidocaine 5% onhemodynamics changes in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.Methods: In this randomized double blind trial 100 patients (50 patients in each group) older than 60 years underhip surgery were randomized in general anesthesia with sevoflurane and spinal anesthesia with lidocaine 5%.Hemodynamic changes including mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate, blood loss, pain severity, nausea andvomiting and opioids consumption were compared in two groups.Results: During surgery, difference between two groups regarding changes in mean arterial pressure was notsignificant, but the changes in heart rate were significantly different. Mean arterial pressure changes during recoverybetween two groups were significantly different. But there was no significant difference in heart rate changes. Bleedingin the sevoflurane group was significantly more than spinal group (513.ml vs. 365 ml). Moreover, AS Score
Background: Headache is the most common complication caused by spinal anesthesia. Systematic educational programs about conservative treatments could be effective in the reduction of headache after spinal anesthesiz. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients after spinal anesthesia. Method: This empirical study was conducted on 120 patients within the age range of 16-40 years who were candidates for general, orthopedic and urology surgeries in Dr. Shahidzadeh Hospital of Behbahan, Iran in 2015. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. Scheduled training was provided for the intervention group, and the control group received routine training. Intensity of headache was recorded using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.14 using Chi-square and independent T-test. Results: In this study, Chi-square test showed a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of
Among the complications of spinal anaesthesia, 6th cranial nerve palsy occurs rarely. There is a possibility of encountering nerve injury during subarachnoid injections due to a long extracranial course. The symptoms appear as a result of ocular muscle paralysis. These symptoms often begin after the 4th day and spontaneous recovery lasts for weeks to months. We present a case in which Nervous Abducens palsy occurred following spinal anaesthesia for double j ureteral catheter placement surgery.. Keywords: Abducens nerve, spinal anaesthesia, diplopia, double j stent, ...
One of the potential risks of spinal anesthesia is that it fails to achieve adequate surgical anesthesia.(7) More importantly, planning for the management of patients with a failed spinal is arguably one of the most important considerations for the pre-operative discussion and intra-operative management. At Vermont, patients are counseled that in the event that the spinal is not successful, the procedure will be canceled and re-scheduled for a later date. This decision has been reached unanimously between surgeons, anesthesiologists, perioperative nurses, pediatricians and neonatologists. Pediatric anesthesiologists must always be prepared to provide respiratory support to infants following spinal anesthesia. Dr. Williams commented that an important finding of the GAS trial is infant spinal anesthesia can be achieved effectively throughout the world. Regarding the practical aspects, Dr. Williams described experience with tetracaine, ropivacaine, hyperbaric and isobaric bupivacaine. He did not ...
Baricity refers to the density of a substance compared to the density of human cerebrospinal fluid. Baricity is used in anesthesia to determine the manner in which a particular drug will spread in the intrathecal space. Solutions that have a baricity approaching 1.000 are referred to as isobaric, as the density of the cerebrospinal fluid is approximately 1.0003+/- 0.0003. Solutions with a baricity less than 0.999 are termed hypobaric, and are usually created by mixing the local anesthetic with distilled water. Hyperbaric solutions are created by mixing dextrose 5-8% with the desired local anesthetic. Hyperbaric solutions will flow in the direction of gravity and settle in the most dependent areas of the intrathecal space. Conversely, hypobaric mixtures will rise in relation to gravitational pull. These properties allow the anesthesia provider to preferentially control the spread of the block by choice of mixture and patient positioning. Barash, Paul G.; Cullen, Bruce F.; Stoelting, Robert K. F ...
Epidural and spinal blocks are types of anesthesia in which a local anesthetic is injected near the spinal cord and nerve roots. It blocks pain from an entire region of the body, such as the belly, the hips, the legs, or the pelvis. Epidural and spinal anesthesia are used mainly for surgery of the lower belly and the legs. Epidural anesthesia is often used in childbirth. But it can also be used to help control pain after major surgery to the belly or chest.. Epidural anesthesia involves the insertion of a hollow needle and a small, flexible catheter into the space between the spinal column and outer membrane of the spinal cord (epidural space) in the middle or lower back. The area where the needle will be inserted is numbed with a local anesthetic. Then the needle is inserted and removed after the catheter has passed through it. The catheter remains in place. The anesthetic medicine is injected into the catheter to numb the body above and below the point of injection as needed. The catheter is ...
Background: Observational studies on pediatric anesthesia neurotoxicity have been unable to distinguish long-term effects of general anesthesia (GA) from factors associated with the need for surgery. A recent study on elementary school children who had received a single GA during the first year of life demonstrated an association in otherwise healthy children between the duration of anesthesia and diminished test scores and also revealed a subgroup of children with "very poor academic achievement" (VPAA), scoring below the fifth percentile on standardized testing. Analysis of postoperative cognitive function in a similar cohort of children anesthetized with an alternative to GA may help to begin to separate the effects of anesthesia from other confounders.. Methods: We used a novel methodology to construct a combined medical and educational database to search for these effects in a similar cohort of children receiving spinal anesthesia (SA) for the same procedures. We compared former patients ...
Introduction: Co-administration of phenylephrine prevents oxytocin-induced hypotension during caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia (SA), but higher doses cause reflex bradycardia. This study compares the effects of co-administration of two different doses of phenylephrine on oxytocin-induced hypotension during caesarean section under SA. Methods: In this prospective, double-blind study, 90 parturients belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2, undergoing caesarean section under SA were randomised into Group A: oxytocin 3U and phenylephrine 50 μg, Group B: oxytocin 3U and phenylephrine 75 μg, Group C: oxytocin 3U and normal saline, administered intravenously over 5 min after baby extraction ...
Over the period 2010-2012, maternal mortality linked to anesthesia accounted for 2% of maternal deaths, with no significant change since 2007-2009. Of the 7 maternal deaths analyzed by the expert committee, anesthetic complications were in 5 cases the main cause of death: 4 attributed to direct causes related to anesthetic procedures during childbirth and 1 to indirect cause in connection with an ENT complication during pregnancy. The anesthetic causes of maternal mortality were for the 2010-2012 period: cardiac arrest under spinal anesthesia during caesarean section, local anesthetic intoxication with unsuccessful resuscitation after cardiac arrest without intralipid administration, acute respiratory distress syndrome in the postpartum period after pulmonary aspiration during caesarean section, cardiac arrest during caesarean section under general anesthesia in a context of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with mediastinal syndrome, unsuccessful endotracheal intubation in a context of cellulitis of the ...
Andrea Cortegiani, Giuseppe Accurso, Cesare Gregoretti. Should We Use Dexmedetomidine for Sedation in Parturients Undergoing Caesarean Section Under Spinal Anaesthesia?. Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. 2017; 45(5): 249- ...
PubMed journal article Crystalloid Coload Reduced the Incidence of Hypotension in Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery, When Compared to Crystalloid Preload: A Meta-Analysi were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
METHODS: Women undergoing elective repeat cesarean section with subarachnoid anesthesia (0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 8-10 mg and sufentanil 5 μg) were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized study. Patients in the S-Ketamine group (N.=28) received i.v. midazolam 0.02 mg/kg and S-Ketamine 0.5 mg/kg i.m. bolus 10 minutes after birth followed by a 2 μg/kg/min i.v. continuous infusion for 12 h. The control group (N.=28) received placebo. Paracetamol and patient controlled analgesia with intravenous morphine were given postoperatively. Von Frey filaments were used to assess pain threshold on the inner forearm and T10-T11 dermatomes (supposed hyperalgesic area ...
PEARLS Probably the most important factor contributing to success with spinal anesthesia in the day-to-day life of an anesthesiologist is the time efficiency of the technique. Use of spinal anesthesia cannot measurably add to the surgical day if nurses and surgeons are to be co-advocates of this technique. Thus, one should plan ahead to maximize efficiency. Often overlooked in this maxim is the fact that patient preparation for the operation can begin almost as soon as the block is administered if the patient is properly sedated.. Intraoperatively, during high spinal anesthesia (often during cesarean section) patients occasionally complain excessively of dyspnea. This often appears to be a result of loss of chest wall sensation rather than of significantly decreased inspiratory capacity. The loss of chest wall sensation does not allow the patient to experience the reassurance of a deep breath. This impediment to patient acceptance can often be overcome simply by asking the patient to raise a ...
Epidural and Spinal Anesthesia are called "neuraxial anesthesia" and are commonly used for surgery, for pain relief after surgery, and for women in labor.. Epidural - An Epidural is given into your back (outside the spinal cord) by means of a very fine plastic tube, also called a catheter, which is inserted through an epidural needle (the needle is removed after the tubing is in place). Local anesthetic and other pain relieving medications are given through the tubing near the nerves in your back to decrease pain. It works by blocking the pain signals from reaching your brain. The fine plastic tube is taped onto your back and drugs can be given through this fine tube for anywhere from hours to days.. You may have a continuous slow infusion or you may be given a button to push to give yourself a dose of the pain relief medication as you need it. This is called Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia (PCEA).. Spinal - A spinal anesthetic is performed by administering a single injection of anesthetic ...
Spinal anesthetics are commonly used for cesarean sections. This physician-authored page explains the technique of administration of spinal anesthetics for surgical delivery.
Spinals are pain medications delivered via the spinal column in one dose. The medication is fast acting and can achieve a complete block of pain in as little as 15 minutes.
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Anesthesiology Research and Practice is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of anesthesiology.
Keith J Ruskin. ICISA 2017 the International Conference about Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Pain management, Neurosurgery, ICU, CPR.
To the Editor:-Protest should be entered against the apparently commercialized exploitation of the various unscientific and irrational mixtures proposed by Geor
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A local anaesthetic used for infiltration, field block, nerve block and spinal anaesthesia. It works by reducing the nerve cells permeability to sodium...
... : Factors Associated with APGAR SCORE 5 among neonates delivered under general and Spinal anesthesia in GUH, January 1 to April 30, 2012 ...
How To Make More Xarelto Lawsuit By Doing Less. Our attorneys have filed a mass tort lawsuit on behalf of individuals who took the blood thinner Xarelto (rivaroxaban) and suffered severe bleeding events. Pharmaceutical organizations, which includes the makers of Xarelto, have a duty to ensure that their drugs are reasonably secure for use - an.... Tags: xarelto and spinal anesthesia, when should xarelto be started after surgery, is xarelto heparin. ...
Hi guys, I just wanted to ask, is there a standard/ideal or policy on how long a patient is allowed to stay in the PACU? for example, should steps be taken in case a patient given spinal anesthesia
Looking for online definition of fractional spinal anesthesia in the Medical Dictionary? fractional spinal anesthesia explanation free. What is fractional spinal anesthesia? Meaning of fractional spinal anesthesia medical term. What does fractional spinal anesthesia mean?
Looking for online definition of low spinal anesthesia in the Medical Dictionary? low spinal anesthesia explanation free. What is low spinal anesthesia? Meaning of low spinal anesthesia medical term. What does low spinal anesthesia mean?
BACKGROUND: Shivering is a frequent event during spinal anesthesia and meperidine is a well-known effective drug for prevention and treatment of shivering. Nefopam is a non-opiate analgesic and also known to have an anti-shivering effect. We compared nefopam with meperidine for efficacy of prevention of shivering during spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Sixty five patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, aged 20-65 years, scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia were investigated. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, meperidine (Group M, n = 33) and nefopam (Group N, n = 32) groups. Group M and N received meperidine 0.4 mg/kg or nefopam 0.15 mg/kg, respectively, in 100 ml of isotonic saline intravenously. All drugs were infused for 15 minutes by a blinded investigator before spinal anesthesia. Blood pressures, heart rates, body temperatures and side effects were checked before and at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after spinal anesthesia. ...
Case pain visual analog score persisted above 10 mm, patient was rejected and the same bupivacaines concentration was administered to the next patient.. Bupivacaines minimum analgesic concentration was calculated by Massey and Dixons formula 8.. Upper sensory block level and Bromage scores were compared between effective and ineffective concentrations by Mann-Whitney test. Significance level was established to 5%.. RESULTS. Demographics data of both samples are shown in table I.. Study I. Figure 1 shows the responses to different bupivacaine concentrations. Bupivacaines MAC-LA could not be calculated because data did not meet essential Massey and Dixon formulas requirements. There were 6 effective responses, 15 ineffective and 7 rejections. Mean bupivacaine concentration in this sample was 0.18% ±0.05%. Mean effective bupivacaine concentration was 0.19% ±0.07% and mean ineffective concentration was 0.18% ±0.055% (p,0.05). Median pain visual analog score (extremes) before bupivacaine ...
The use of neuraxial anesthesia in patients with type I ACM with or without syringomyelia has been reported in several cases of obstetric deliveries (8-12) and in one small retrospective case series (13). In two case reports, the ACM was unknown at the time of delivery and only diagnosed subsequently because of adverse neurological outcomes (8,10). In the first case, spinal anesthesia was performed for Cesarean delivery; a postdural puncture headache was unsuccessfully treated with a blood patch on Day 6 postpartum, and subsequent MRI resulted in the diagnosis of type I ACM. After prolonged steroid therapy, the postdural puncture headache resolved (10). In the second case, an inadvertent dural puncture during labor analgesia was complicated two weeks later by nystagmus and oscillopsia; a type I ACM was diagnosed and treated with decompressive surgery (8). Since then, two publications reported the uneventful use of epidural anesthesia for Cesarean deliveries in women with diagnosed type 1 ACM: ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Transurethral prostatectomy is routinely performed under spinal anaesthesia. This technique can cause hypotension, which is particularly undesirable in the elderly. The objective was to compare spinal anaesthesia for transurethral prostatectomy using hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg (control group) and hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg (limiting spread by maintaining the upright position for 15 min) and fentanyl 25 microg (fentanyl group) in terms of haemodynamic and pulmonary function. METHODS: Thirty ASA I-III patients were randomly selected and underwent spinal anaesthesia with either hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg (immediately positioned supine) or hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg (upright for 15 min) and fentanyl 25 microg. RESULTS: The greatest changes in mean arterial pressure (P = 0.9), ephedrine requirements (P = 0.8) and mean maximum change in forced vital capacity (P = 0.5) were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of fentanyl 25 microg to bupivacaine 10 mg and ...
A comparative study of Lichtenstein hernioplasty performed under spinal anaesthesia versus local anaesthesia in treatment of unilateral inguinal hernia
INTRODUCTION. Even when performed with the proper technique, spinal anesthesia carries the risk of bleeding. Compression of the nervous tissue secondary to the formation of a hematoma can cause neurological damage 1,2, which, if not diagnosed and treated in a timely fashion, can result in permanent damage 3.. After regional anesthesia, bleeding disorders are the greatest risk factors for the development of spinal hematoma 2,3, although there are other known factors, such as difficult or traumatic insertion of the needle. Due to the lack of randomized clinical trials, the risk of hematoma is unknown in patients receiving antithrombotic treatment 4-6. Considering that the incidence of hematoma is extremely low, those studies would have to include a large number of patients, above 100,000, which is not feasible. The literature stresses the importance of monitoring the patient, especially taking into consideration that retrospective analysis demonstrated that the early diagnosis and surgical ...
Definition of high spinal anesthesia. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
It is important to find an effective method to prevent and treat hypotension during subarachnoid block. Hence we compare the bolus doses of Phenylephrine and Mephentermine to treat hypotension post subarachnoid block. This randomised study was conducted in 100 patients of ASA I or II physical status undergoing infraumbilical surgeries under subarachnoid block.
Cases of epidural or spinal hemorrhage and subsequent hematomas have been reported with the use of Lovenox and epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or spinal puncture procedures, resulting in long-term or permanent paralysis. The risk of these events is higher with the use of post-operative indwelling epidural catheters, with the concomitant use of additional drugs affecting hemostasis such as NSAIDs, with traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal puncture, or in patients with a history of spinal surgery or spinal deformity [see Boxed Warning, Adverse Reactions (6.2) and Drug Interactions (7)]. To reduce the potential risk of bleeding associated with the concurrent use of enoxaparin sodium and epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or spinal puncture, consider the pharmacokinetic profile of enoxaparin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Placement or removal of an epidural catheter or lumbar puncture is best performed when the anticoagulant effect of enoxaparin is low; however, the exact ...
DALBORA P, JORGE et al. Risk factors for acute urinary retention after spinal surgery. Rev Chil Cir [online]. 2008, vol.60, n.2, pp.139-144. ISSN 0718-4026. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-40262008000200010.. Background: The identified risk factors for acute urinary retention after spinal anesthesia are the dose and duration of anesthesia, old age and ano rectal surgical procedures. Aim: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of acute urinary retention in the program of ambulatory surgery with spinal anesthesia. Material and methods: Descriptive case control study. The medical records of 859 patients operated with spinal anesthesia between 2003 and 2006 were reviewed, and 18 patients aged 52 + 16 years, that had an acute urinary retention, were identified. Forty vive randomly chosen patients aged 46 + 14 years, without urinary retention were analyzed as controls. Results: The calculated prevalence of acute urinary retention was 2.8%. Male sex, an age over 50 years and hernia surgery were ...
Duration of analgesia, sensory and motor blockade and intra operative hemodynamic changes caused by intrathecal bupivacaine, bupivacaine plus clonidine and bupivacaine plus dexmedetomidine in spinal anesthesia: prospective, comparative study
The effect of varying the renal arterial pressure on kidney function has been studied before and after complete spinal anesthesia. It is concluded that an increase in renal arterial pressure between 60 and 300 mm Hg always results in an increase in renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and urine formation, and that filtration rate and urinary output are related to renal arterial pressure in a linear fashion at pressures above 120 mm Hg. Sympathetic blockade, accomplished by complete spinal anesthesia, resulted in a higher rate of urine formation and renal blood flow but not of glomerular filtration rate at each level of arterial pressure than before the spinal anesthesia was administered. Since the sympathetic blockade was not followed by an increase in glomerular filtration rate, it is concluded that the diuresis which followed this blockade resulted from a decrease in reabsorption of glomerular filtrate.. ...
Definition of spinal anesthetic. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Aim and Objectives: We sought to compare the hemodynamic effects of 5 international unit (IU) and 10 IU of intravenous (IV) boluses of oxytocin and their efficacy in reducing blood loss during cesarean section and also to determine the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and postdural puncture headache (PDPH). Patients and Methods: One hundred and ten parturients of American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II scheduled for cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomized into two groups. Group A (n = 55) received 5 IU IV bolus of oxytocin and Group B (n = 55) received 10 IU IV bolus of oxytocin after delivery. Ten milliliters per kilogram of 0.9% saline was administered to both groups as volume preload. Subarachnoid block was performed with size 24G spinal needles at L2/L3 or L3/L4 intervertebral space with the patients in sitting position. Two milliliters of 0.5% heavy bupivacaine was administered slowly intrathecally. Following delivery of the baby, IV boluses of ...
Involuntary movement during and after neuraxial anesthesia, such as spinal and epidural anesthesia, is rarely observed. In this report, we describe a case of myoclonus-like involuntary movement of the upper extremities in a patient undergoing a planned repeat cesarean section under spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine that completely subsided after 2mg midazolam administration. The myoclonus-like movement never recurred or caused any apparent neurological side effects. No abnormal sensation or spontaneous pain of the upper extremities was observed. The patient was discharged on foot on post-operative day 3.
The patient should be sitting or lying on their side. Back flexion opens the intervertebral spaces. The back is cleaned using standard antiseptic solution. The anaesthetist should adopt an aseptic technique. Aim to identify the L3/4, L4/5 or L5/S1 interspace (use Tuffiers line). The chosen interspace is infiltrated with local anaesthetic. The spinal needle is inserted in the midline, aiming slightly cranially. Resistance increases as the ligamentum flavum is entered and when the dura is encountered, with a sudden "give" as the dura is pierced. Correct placement of the needle is confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid at the hub.. The paramedian approach requires less back flexion (may be limited in certain patients). Infiltrate with local anaesthetic 1.5 cm lateral to the cranial border of the spinous process at the interspace. Aim the needle medially and cranially until the resistance of the ligamentum flavum is felt. If the lamina is engaged, walk the needle off its cranial edge.. ...
A CRNA is a licensed advanced practice nurse who administers all types of anesthesia like an anesthesiologist. CRNAs work with surgeons, dentists, podiatrists, and may work in collaboration with anesthesiologists. They have advanced training and a masters degree, are nationally certified and take a board exam. A CRNA is an anesthesia expert with a commitment to high standards in a demanding field. They administer all types of anesthesia for all types of surgical cases and provide regional anesthesia and pain management services.. ...
Combifix® Premium One® Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia Kits Spinal - Epidural Combined Anestesia Kits is comprised of Tuohy Needle, Pencil Point Spinal Needle, Spinal Needle Quincke Bevel, Episafe Standard Catheter, Episoft Atraumatic Catheter, Epiuno...
I have spread my dreams under your feet;. Tread softly because you tread on my dreams.". W. B. Yeats (1865-1939). "He Wishes For the Cloths of Heaven". From the Collected Works of W. B. Yeats. The modern practice of anesthesia is far removed from the era of manual blood pressure readings and feeling the pulse. Advancements in our specialty over the last 4 decades have considerably expanded the horizons and safety of patient care.1 Older patients and those with serious comorbidities are increasingly anesthetized for routine procedures, ambulatory, and office-based surgery. The availability of sophisticated monitoring systems and "cleaner" drugs might lead one to a somewhat smug sense of accomplishment. "Where are we now with anesthesia?" is not an unreasonable enquiry.. It is therefore a bit unsettling when findings from recent articles suggest that all may not be so positive. As well as looking forward, anesthesiologists may have to start looking more closely at their current practices, ...
The objectives were to produce clinical local electroanesthesia (EA) of the extremities, and produce electrical spinal anesthesia in monkeys. A form of anesthesia of the hand which entailed very severe muscle spasm was produced. The anesthesia was judged to be adequate for minor surgery but not enough to offset the pain of muscle spasm of the arm above the area of anesthesia. Several hundred applications were made, using current across and/or along the nerve course and in every application muscle spasm predominated. Electrode placement, current crossings, current patterns, waveforms, frequencies, and duty cycles were studied using monkeys in a great number of current applications. The authors did not produce electrical spinal anesthesia by any pattern which did not involve a puncture of the dura. Every application produced muscle spasm.*Anesthesia
مجله علمی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی و خدمات درمانی بیرجند . داراي رتبه علمي- پژوهشي از كميسيون نشريات علوم پزشكي كشور Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciencesfrom iran
What to expect Patients are sedated and given a general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia is injected in the low back into the space around the spinal cord. This numbs the spine and lower limbs. This one to three hour surgery is usually done with the patient kneeling face down in a special frame. The frame supports the patient so the abdomen is relaxed and free of pressure. This position lessens blood loss during surgery and gives the surgeon more room to work. The surgeon will make a straight incision over the desired vertebrae and down the lamina, or bony arches of the vertebrae. The doctor will then remove the ligament joining the vertebrae as well as all or part of the lamina in order to see the nerve root. The surgeon will then pull the nerve root back to the center of the spinal column and remove the disk, or part of the disk. The doctor will close the incision and the patients large back muscle will protect the spine or nerve roots. How to prepare Patients will be ...
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Anesthesia. Anesthesia involves medications that cause loss of sensation, including pudendal block, epidural anesthesia and analgesia, spinal anesthesia and analgesia, and general anesthesia. The most common anesthesia is an epidural, also called an epidural block. This anesthesia involves infusing numbing medications through a thin catheter that has been inserted into the space that surrounds the spinal cord in the lower back, causing loss of sensation of the lower body. Infusions of medications may be increased or stopped as needed. Epidural anesthesia may be used during labor and for vaginal and cesarean births. The most common complication of epidural anesthesia is low blood pressure in the mother. Because of this, most woman need to have an intravenous infusion of fluids before epidural anesthesia is given ...
Anesthesia. Anesthesia involves medications that cause loss of sensation, including pudendal block, epidural anesthesia and analgesia, spinal anesthesia and analgesia, and general anesthesia. The most common anesthesia is an epidural, also called an epidural block. This anesthesia involves infusing numbing medications through a thin catheter that has been inserted into the space that surrounds the spinal cord in the lower back, causing loss of sensation of the lower body. Infusions of medications may be increased or stopped as needed. Epidural anesthesia may be used during labor and for vaginal and cesarean births. The most common complication of epidural anesthesia is low blood pressure in the mother. Because of this, most woman need to have an intravenous infusion of fluids before epidural anesthesia is given ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Anesthesia for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) has been studied for years due to the uniqueness of the surgical procedure. This study aimed at comparing TURP anesthetic techniques and possible surgical complications in two different time periods with a ten-year interval, to detect evolution of those techniques and decrease in morbidity-mortality rates. METHODS Medical records of all patients submitted to TURP in HC-FMRP-USP in two different 4-year periods were retrospectively evaluated: GI - surgical procedures (TURP) performed between 1989 and 1992; GII - surgical procedures (TURP) performed between 1999 and 2002. Malignant prostate and bladder neoplasias were excluded. A total of 300 medical records were included: 120 in GI and 180 in GII. RESULTS Regional anesthesia was predominant in both groups and spinal anesthesia was more frequently used. Mean procedure length was higher in GII and the incidence of intraoperative adverse events such as hypotension,
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Since the outbreak of meningitis, there have been 19 reported deaths, and over 200 cases linked to contaminated spinal steroid injections. However, spinal injections have been linked to severe complications,...
SINW uses spinal injections for treating and diagnosing back pain. Injections can be used as part of a physical therapy plan and surgical treatment.
According to the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, spinal injections are injections in the spine performed under x-ray guidance. These injections are used to confirm correct placement of...
This prospective randomized controlled study was conducted on 120 patients scheduled for lower limb orthopedic surgeries under spinal anesthesia. The study population was divided into three groups with 40 patients in each group. Group I (controlled group) received 3 mL (15 mg) of 0.5% Bupivacaine heavy and 0.5 mL of normal saline. Group II received 50 μg of clonidine followed by Bupivacaine 0.5% 3 mL (15 mg) and group III received 75 μg of clonidine followed by Bupivacaine 0.5% 3 mL (15 mg) intrathecally. Time taken for onset of sensory and motor blockade, duration of anesthesia, and any perioperative and postoperative complications was noted ...
Clinical Trials - clinicaltrials.gov Hypotension is a common adverse effect of spinal anesthesia during caesarean section especially in obese patients. The aim ...
The department uses all modern methods of anesthesia and intensive therapy; all techniques of general and regional anesthesia are performed here. Spinal anesthesia is the preferred method for cesarean delivery, as this method nullifies the negative effect of drugs on fetus.
4. Comparison of 2-Chloroprocaine, Bupivacaine, and Lidocaine for Spinal Anesthesia in Patients Undergoing Knee Arthroscopy in an Outpatient Setting: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial ...
Then a friend asks me to cover for him in his theatre. Its his last case, but has to leave urgently. The intern is about to put in a spinal & will look after the patient when all is settled. (Fine, because Ive got a stable brachial plexus block on my table for ORIF etc.) The patient is apparently quite sick, renal failure, blah blah and needs a below-knee guillotine. Anaesthetic plan is unilateral spinal. So I direct the intern with the spinal, ask the surgeon (& his assistant) which side theyre working. "Left", they ALL tell me, "LEFT". Somebody checks the consent - "Left". Having used heavy bupivacaine, I turn her onto the left side. The surgeons sit watching me & the patient for 5 minutes while the spinal settles. When I flip back the sheets, I see a normal left leg & rotten right foot! Cant be! I dont know who was more shocked - me or the surgeons when I called them bloody retards and stormed out of the theatre. Feeling sorry for the patient, I went back to finish the job a few minutes ...
Then a friend asks me to cover for him in his theatre. Its his last case, but has to leave urgently. The intern is about to put in a spinal & will look after the patient when all is settled. (Fine, because Ive got a stable brachial plexus block on my table for ORIF etc.) The patient is apparently quite sick, renal failure, blah blah and needs a below-knee guillotine. Anaesthetic plan is unilateral spinal. So I direct the intern with the spinal, ask the surgeon (& his assistant) which side theyre working. "Left", they ALL tell me, "LEFT". Somebody checks the consent - "Left". Having used heavy bupivacaine, I turn her onto the left side. The surgeons sit watching me & the patient for 5 minutes while the spinal settles. When I flip back the sheets, I see a normal left leg & rotten right foot! Cant be! I dont know who was more shocked - me or the surgeons when I called them bloody retards and stormed out of the theatre. Feeling sorry for the patient, I went back to finish the job a few minutes ...
You will be given general anesthesia (asleep, pain-free) or spinal anesthesia (sedated, awake, pain-free). The procedure takes about 2 to 4 hours. Your surgeon will make a surgical cut in your lower belly, from below the belly button to just above the penis. The prostate gland is removed through this cut. The surgeon removes only the inner part of the prostate gland. The outer part is left behind (similar to scooping out the inside of an orange). After removing part of your prostate, the surgeon will close the outer shell of the prostate with stitches. A drain may be left in your belly to help remove extra fluids after surgery. ...
189 - Comparison of the Effect of Post-Operative Opioids on Respiratory Status in General Anesthesia and Spinal Anesthesia Patients Using a Non-Invasive Respiratory Volume Monitor
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After they sewed me up (this took a while; Justin heard the doctor say something like "Who has her bladder?" which was a little disconcerting, but I did get it back), they took us to a recovery room. This was probably the weirdest part of the evening. I was extremely cold and shivering uncontrollably. My temperature got down to 94.2. I didnt know it was possible to be that cold and be, like, not dead, but apparently it is. So they put a warmed blanket over me, which was nice but kind of lame under the circumstances, and then put this weird sort of inflatable blanket hooked up to an air hose with hot air coming into it, which was less lame but still didnt heat me up as quickly as I would have liked, which was immediately, or at least soon. We were in the recovery room for probably an hour and a half; the baby had to be warmed up too, although Justin got to hold her a lot. The spinal block, which was a darned good spinal block, took several hours to wear off, so I was still flat on my back at ...
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A survey from Australia suggests that the common practice of keeping patients in bed may be not only not helpful, but actually harmful. They reviewed published studies on the effects of bed rest and observed that such medical procedures as lumbar puncture, spinal anesthesia, cardiac catheterization and radiculography did not require extensive bed rest, and…
Hi, I will shortly be going in for TKR, and just today heard about Regional Anesthesia, I believe its a spinal block, has anyone had this, and is it
Increasingly, relatively young people go to doctors with complaints typical of the elderly. According to reports, in recent years the number of young...
Fourteen cases of inadvertent iatrogenic embolization of cerebral vessels occurring in a consecutive series of 3,731 angiographies in infants and children were studies. The incidence of embolization(0.9% of all patients ond 0.4% of all angiographic examinations) was about the same as has been reported in adults, but the clinical consequences were much milder, only one patient having documented transient neurologic symptoms. Also the angiographic appearance of the emboli differed from those described in adults. These differences may in part be due to the technique (general anesthesia with hyperventilation) but also to different reactions towards ischemia and to different types of emboli in children. ...
D ow j ones i ndustrial c limbing a verage c losing s tock r eport. However, may cause local ischemic knowledge level 5, system: integumental robert lueken eastern virginia medical school spinal anesthesia agents [id 131] l ittle...A differential diagnosis mnemonics handbook - and the parts of the ... A differential diagnosis mnemonics handbook - and the parts of the medical history by allan platt, pa-c, mmsc mnemonics are memory tools to help in the...
Friday morning at 10-11 am (which is Thursday night at 10-11pm for people back home) Dillon will be going to the OR for a lumbar puncture. Normally they do these in the bedroom, but they are putting Dillon under sedation for it so they are taking him to the OR. PLEASE BE PRAYING FOR HIM! He is at a HIGH risk for aspiration while he is under. Please pray he will not aspirate, and that God would dry up his secretions while he is under. Also, please pray God would be with the doctors and guide their hands as they do this procedure. We will let you know how it goes. Afterwards he will have to lay flat for at least 6 hours to prevent a spinal headache ...
I had a steroid injection after having a hip replacement, in which they tore my meniscus. I had absolutely no relief from the injection. My back did not hurt but they thought it might be the sciatic nerve. Well, my back never did hurt until after the injection and I cant do anything! For 9 days my back, hip and knee have just about killed me and the surgeon wont even call me back. I guess my only option is a second opinion. Im so sick of all this--both figuratively and literally. Ive never felt such pain in my life. I hope you can get yours to quit hurting because the pain is really debilitating. Best of luck!. ...
On the morning of my delivery, the hospital was well prepared for my arrival and my overwhelming nerves. My obstetrician had told me he had met with all hospital staff tasked with my care to ensure they explicitly, verbally explained everything they were going to do. As a pregnant, blind woman, hearing what people were doing to me was helpful. It made me feel like an equal participant in the birth of my baby, rather that just a willing bystander. My husband and I were escorted to a private triage area where my babys heartbeat was monitored. I had tested positive for Strep B, a vaginal bacterium, and required intravenous antibiotics prior to giving birth. A nurse started an IV, and I attempted to relax. Minutes before we were scheduled to go into the operating room, my anesthesiologist met with us to discuss the procedure. He asked me to open my mouth to ensure I had no loose teeth or fillings in the event I needed to be intubated. He explained he would be giving me a spinal block, which would ...
Makina, Sithembile O.; Whitacre, Lindsey K.; Decker, Jared E.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; MacNeil, Michael D.; Scholtz, Michiel M.; Van Marle-Koster, Este; Muchadeyi, Farai C.; Makgahlela, Mahlako L.; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi (BioMed Central, 2016-07-15) ...
Spinal (subarachnoid) anesthesia (SA) is a widely used general-purpose anesthesia. Postdural Puncture Headaches (PDPHs) represent one of the principal complications of spinal anesthesia. A 21-year-old man underwent inguinal herniorrhaphy and orchiectomy using spinal anesthesia. Postoperatively, our patient started to have a headache with nausea. The patient received symptomatic therapy, but the severe headache persisted even in the supine position, with his vital signs and neurological examination being normal. Cranial MRI showed a bilateral subdural hematoma from his frontal to temporal region. A postdural puncture headache is a frequent complication after spinal anesthesia. However, serious complications, such as an intracranial subdural hemorrhage, can rarely occur.. Key words: Spinal anesthesia, headache, subdural hemorrhage, complication ...
Definition of lumbar plexus block in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is lumbar plexus block? Meaning of lumbar plexus block as a legal term. What does lumbar plexus block mean in law?
A method and a system for inserting spinal catheters for administration of spinal anaesthesia are disclosed. An epidural needle having a hub is inserted into the epidural space of a patient and a cannula having a blunt end is inserted into and advanced forwardly within the epidural needle for abutment against the dura-arachnoid membrane to place the membrane in tension. The cannula is locked in place in the epidural needle by a securing means attached to the hub of the epidural needle. A flexible catheter having a wire or stylet therein with an end projecting beyond the distal end of the catheter is inserted through the cannula for piercing a hole in the tensioned dura-arachnoid membrane whereby the catheter can be inserted a predetermined distance through the dura-arachnoid membrane into the subarachnoid space. The cannula and epidural needle are removed and the wire withdrawn to allow continuous administering of an anaesthetic through the catheter. A hole can be formed in the dura-arachnoid membrane
Standardizing Management of Post-Dural Puncture Headache in Obstetric Patients: A Literature Review. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Background: A major risk with epidural analgesia is accidental dural puncture (ADP), which may result in post-dural puncture headache (PDPH). This survey was conducted to explore the incidence of ADP, the policy for management of PDPH and the educational practices in epidural analgesia during labour in the Nordic countries.. Methods: A postal questionnaire was sent to the anaesthesiologist responsible for Obstetric anaesthesia service in all maternity units (n=153) with questions relating to the year 2008.. Results: The overall response rate was 93%. About 32% (22-47%) of parturients received epidural analgesia for labour. There were databases for registering obstetric epidural complications in 13% of Danish, 24% of Norwegian and Swedish, 43% of Finnish and 100% of hospitals in Iceland. The estimated incidence of ADP was 1% (n≈900). Epidural blood patch (EBP) was performed in 86% (n≈780) of the parturients. The most common time interval from diagnosis to performing EBP was 24-48 h. The ...
The dose of local anesthetic used in spinal-epidural analgesia for external cephalic version has no influence on the success rate of the procedure, according to a randomized controlled trial. The conclusion contradicts earlier meta-analyses.. Although the trial investigators found dose-dependent changes in some secondary outcomes, they noted that these results highlight the importance of blinding in clinical trials.. "As we all know, the growing cesarean rate presents a major public health challenge in the United States," said Laurie A. Chalifoux, MD, an instructor in anesthesiology at Northwestern Universitys Feinberg School of Medicine, in Chicago. "Breech presentation is the leading cause of primary or repeat cesarean deliveries, and the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology endorses the use of external cephalic version to move the fetus to the vertex position in hopes of vaginal delivery.. "As we know, anesthesia for external cephalic version has developed from nothing to IV opiate ...
A 37-year-old woman (gravida 2, para 1, abortus 0), following an uncomplicated pregnancy except for a history of insulin-dependent gestational diabetes with good glycaemic control and a local Varicella-Zoster infection which treated successfully, underwent elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia with bupivacaine hydrochloride (10mg). Surgery was uneventful and two healthy twin-girls were delivered. Corticosteroids were at no point given. Antibiotics were given intraoperatively. Four days after the caesarean section the patient experienced a sudden decrease of visual acuity combined with a central scotoma and metamorphopsia in her right eye. At presentation, best-corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 8/20 with metamorphopsia, a central scotoma in Amslers grid and blurred vision. Funduscopy of the right eye revealed a serous elevation of the macula (Figure 1). Fluorescein angiography (FA) disclosed three expanding points of fluorescein leakage at the foveolar avascular zone. ...
Venous thrombosis rates were compared in 200 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty and randomized to receive either fixed mini-dose warfarin (1 mg daily) or adjusted-dose warfarin to maintain an international normalized prothrombin ratio (INR) of 2.0-4.0. Bilateral lower limb venography was performed between days 11 and 13 inclusive. Fixed mini-dose warfarin was associated with a significantly higher rate of total thrombosis (P less than 0.05). General anaesthesia was associated with a significantly higher rate of thrombosis than spinal anaesthesia (P less than 0.05). Adjusted-dose warfarin was associated with more bleeding complications than mini-dose warfarin although these were not attributable to excessive anticoagulation. A single death from pulmonary embolus occurred in the early postoperative period in a patient receiving adjusted-dose warfarin ...

Home - COANA - Colorado Association of Nurse AnesthetistsHome - COANA - Colorado Association of Nurse Anesthetists

Examples of regional anesthesia include spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, brachial plexus block anesthesia, Bier Block ... Is anesthesia safe?. Anesthesia is safer today than at any time in history. It has been estimated that a patient is more likely ... What is anesthesia?. Anesthesia is the art and science of reducing or eliminating pain. Each year, more than 26 million people ... AANA Nurse Anesthesia Annual Congress. September 21 - 25, 2018. Boston, MA. October 6, 2018. 2018 CoANA Fall Anesthesia Update ...
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Interview with Dawn Clark, MSN, CRNA, DNP - Certified Registered Nurse AnesthetistInterview with Dawn Clark, MSN, CRNA, DNP - Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist

Depending on the anesthesia needed either the patient receives regional anesthesia such as a spinal anesthetic or a general ... place spinal anesthesia if the patient is having a Cesarean section and sometimes I have to provide general anesthesia with an ... and how does pediatric anesthesia differ from adult anesthesia and geriatric anesthesia? What goes into developing an effective ... Intra-operative anesthesia is the anesthesia the patient receives in the OR. When the patient arrives in the OR, the monitors ...
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Use / Supervision of Certified Registered Nurse AnesthetistsUse / Supervision of Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists

A CRNA is a licensed registered nurse who has completed additional training in anesthesia in an accredited program and is ... including diagnostic spinal taps, placement of endoscopes and insertion of bronchoscopes, "Bougie" devices and epidural ... A CRNA is authorized under regulations to administer anesthesia as part of a medical regimen and, if credentialed, may perform ... Many healthcare facilities and practices utilize certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) to administer anesthesia to ...
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anesthesia spinal Protocols and Video...'anesthesia spinal' Protocols and Video...

... anesthesia spinal include Treatment of Ankle Osteoarthritis with Total Ankle Replacement Through a Lateral Transfibular ... Anesthesia, Spinal: Treatment of Ankle Osteoarthritis with Total Ankle Replacement Through a Lateral Transfibular Approach. ...
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Spinal anesthesia: TechniqueSpinal anesthesia: Technique

... in the lumbar spine to anesthetize nerves that exit the spinal cord. Spinal anesthesia is most commonly used for anesthesia and ... Spinal anesthesia is a type of neuraxial anesthesia; local anesthetic (LA) is injected into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ... in the lumbar spine to anesthetize nerves that exit the spinal cord. Spinal anesthesia is most commonly used for anesthesia and ... The Wiley Spinal Catheter-Over-Needle System for Continuous Spinal Anesthesia: A Case Series of 5 Cesarean Deliveries ...
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High spinal anesthesia definition | Drugs.comHigh spinal anesthesia definition | Drugs.com

Definition of high spinal anesthesia. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... high spinal anesthesia. Definition: spinal anesthesia in which the level of sensory denervation extends to the second or third ...
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Fractional spinal anesthesia definition | Drugs.comFractional spinal anesthesia definition | Drugs.com

Definition of fractional spinal anesthesia. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... Synonym(s): continuous spinal anesthesia. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the ...
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Spinal anesthesia | Define Spinal anesthesia at Dictionary.comSpinal anesthesia | Define Spinal anesthesia at Dictionary.com

... interruption of conduction of nerve impulses by the injection of an anesthetic into the spinal canal that reduces sensitivity ... spinal anesthesia. n.. *Anesthesia produced by injection of a local anesthetic solution into the spinal subarachnoid space. ... interruption of conduction of nerve impulses by the injection of an anesthetic into the spinal canal that reduces sensitivity ...
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Spinal Anesthesia Treatment - Book Doctor AppointmentsSpinal Anesthesia Treatment - Book Doctor Appointments

Find best Anesthesiologists for Spinal Anesthesia near you & make an appointment online instantly! Spinal Anesthesia ... Spinal Anesthesia Doctors Near You. Need to make a doctor appointment for Spinal Anesthesia this week? Use Zocdoc to find ...
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Anesthesia; Spinal - DrugBankAnesthesia; Spinal - DrugBank

This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
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Epidural and Spinal Anesthesia | HealthLink BCEpidural and Spinal Anesthesia | HealthLink BC

Epidural and spinal blocks are types of anesthesia in which a local anesthetic is injected near the spinal cord and nerve roots ... Epidural and spinal anesthesia are used mainly for surgery of the lower belly and the legs. Epidural anesthesia is often used ... Headaches are less common with epidural anesthesia.. Epidural and spinal anesthesia are usually combined with other medicines ... Spinal anesthesia numbs the body below and sometimes above the site of the injection. The person may not be able to move his or ...
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Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section | SpringerLinkSpinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section | SpringerLink

Cesarean Section Cesarean Delivery Spinal Anesthesia Intrathecal Morphine Continuous Spinal Anesthesia These keywords were ... Armstrong S. (2017) Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section. In: Capogna G. (eds) Anesthesia for Cesarean Section. Springer, ... Lidocaine disposition in mother, fetus, and neonate after spinal anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 1986;65(2):139-44.PubMedCrossRef ... Spinal anesthesia is technically simple to perform producing a rapid onset and dense block with a predictable offset. In this ...
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Bacterial Meningitis Following Spinal Anesthesia for Caesarean SectionBacterial Meningitis Following Spinal Anesthesia for Caesarean Section

We report a case of post spinal bacterial meningitis in a post partum lady who underwent spinal anaesthesia for emergency lower ... It can occur in various settings including spinal anesthesia, diagnostic lumbar puncture, epidural anesthesia or any procedures ... Spinal anesthesia complicated by meningitis is rare. It is vital that physicians remain vigilant to detect meningitis when ... Low, Q. , Teo, K. and Cheo, S. (2018) Bacterial Meningitis Following Spinal Anesthesia for Caesarean Section. Journal of ...
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Severe hypotension following spinal anesthesia in patients on amlodipine.  - PubMed - NCBISevere hypotension following spinal anesthesia in patients on amlodipine. - PubMed - NCBI

Severe hypotension following spinal anesthesia in patients on amlodipine.. Parida S1, Nawaz M, Kundra P. ...
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Spinal anesthesia for surgerySpinal anesthesia for surgery

I think spinal anesthesia would cause less nausea and/or vomiting than general anesthesia. Has anyone ever had spinal ... anesthesia or know anyone who has? One of my friends had this for a C-section, ... I think spinal anesthesia would cause less nausea and/or vomiting than general anesthesia. Has anyone ever had spinal ... I think spinal anesthesia doesnt cause as much nausea and throwing up. But you should tell them about your phobia and they ...
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Perform spinal procedures with our Spinal Anesthesia Trays, which come with a choice of componenents. The most common ... European Pencil Point Spinal Anesthesia Trays. Reorder Code. Introducer Needle. Drape. Ephedrine Sulfate. Procedural Drug(s). ... Smiths Medical offers a complete line of Spinal Anesthesia Trays, in your choice of needle size and style. All trays are ... Smiths Medical offers a complete line of Spinal Anesthesia Trays, in your choice of needle size and style. All trays are ...
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Effect of preoperative warming during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia.  - PubMed - NCBIEffect of preoperative warming during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. - PubMed - NCBI

Effect of preoperative warming during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia.. Chung SH1, Lee BS, Yang HJ, Kweon KS, Kim HH, ... Changes in core temperature after prewarming (t = 0 min) and spinal anesthesia (t = 15 min). Data are expressed as mean. The ... Changes in arm temperature after prewarming (t = 0 min) and spinal anesthesia (t = 15 min). Data are expressed as mean. The ... Changes in leg temperature after prewarming (t = 0 min) and spinal anesthesia (t = 15 min). Data are expressed as mean. There ...
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Spinal Needles Wide selection of spinal needles with Pencil-Point (Pencan®) and Quincke (Spinocan®) type bevels. ... Spinal Trays (Kits) A variety of spinal trays with different drugs, needles and other accessories. ... offer safety and reliablility that are key for successful spinal anesthesia. With a wide selection of choices you will find the ... B. Brauns spinal products, including the proprietary Pencan® and Spinocan® needles and trays, ...
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SPINAL ANESTHESIA | Anesthesiology | ASA PublicationsSPINAL ANESTHESIA | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications

SPINAL ANESTHESIA You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You can ...
more infohttp://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1978790

Anesthesia for Spinal Surgery in Children | SpringerLinkAnesthesia for Spinal Surgery in Children | SpringerLink

The evolution of pediatric anesthesia and pediatric spine surgery has had a parallel trajectory and as it stands, pediatric ... Kandil A., Rao D.S., Mahmoud M. (2018) Anesthesia for Spinal Surgery in Children. In: Goudra B. et al. (eds) Anesthesiology. ... Anesthesia for orthopedic surgery. In: Gregory GA, editor. Pediatric anesthesia. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2002. p. 617- ... Tethered spinal cord following repair of myelomeningocele. Neurosurg Focus. 2004;16(2):E7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
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www.ASAP.org • View topic - Spinal Anesthesia and SMwww.ASAP.org • View topic - Spinal Anesthesia and SM

Spinal Anesthesia and SM. Have a question about a symptom, procedure, medication, diagnosis, research, or coping? Ask questions ... Spinal Anesthesia and SM. by drummergrl » Thu Jan 05, 2012 5:27 pm ... My question is about getting a spinal- is that the same type of issue involving a spinal tap? When I was first diagnosed with ... regional anesthesia. From what I have been told so far, 2 of those options are an epidural or a spinal. Ive already been told ...
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Spinal Anesthesia Doesnt Cause Restless Le... ( Study also finds spinal anesthesia do...)Spinal Anesthesia Doesn't Cause Restless Le... ( Study also finds spinal anesthesia do...)

Our study was designed to test the hypothesis that spinal anesthesia ...,Spinal,Anesthesia,Doesnt,Cause,Restless,Leg,Syndrome, ... 19 (HealthDay News) -- Spinal anesthesia wont cause o...Thats the conclusion of a new study published as a letter to the edit ... Study also finds spinal anesthesia doesnt worsen pre-existing RLS ...WEDNESDAY Nov. ... Spinal Anesthesia Doesnt Cause Restless Leg Syndrome. ...Study also finds spinal anesthesia doesnt worsen pre-existing RLS ...
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Continuous spinal anesthesia | definition of continuous spinal anesthesia by Medical dictionaryContinuous spinal anesthesia | definition of continuous spinal anesthesia by Medical dictionary

... continuous spinal anesthesia explanation free. What is continuous spinal anesthesia? Meaning of continuous spinal anesthesia ... Looking for online definition of continuous spinal anesthesia in the Medical Dictionary? ... continuous spinal anesthesia. con·tin·u·ous spi·nal an·es·the·si·a. insertion of a catheter into the spinal subarachnoid space ... Continuous spinal anesthesia , definition of continuous spinal anesthesia by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
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Spinal Anesthesia in Cesarean Section | Anesthesiology | ASA PublicationsSpinal Anesthesia in Cesarean Section | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications

Spinal Anesthesia in Cesarean Section You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the ... Spinal Anesthesia in Cesarean Section. Anesthesiology 9 1941, Vol.2, 602. doi: ... D. H. BATTEN; Spinal Anesthesia in Cesarean Section. Anesthesiology 1941;2(5):602. ...
more infohttps://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1973581
  • Our study was designed to test the hypothesis that spinal anesthesia would worsen the symptoms of restless leg syndrome," said the study's lead author, Dr. Thomas Crozier, an associate professor of anesthesiology at the University of Gottingen Medical School in Germany. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The amount of CSF per body weight is higher in neonates and infants (4 mL/kg) compared with adults (2 mL/kg), and the CSF is localized primarily in the spinal canal. (nysora.com)
  • This paper's objective is to report a case of post spinal anesthesia bacterial meningitis with curative treatment through antibiotics therapy. (scirp.org)
  • We will discuss the strategies of diagnosis and management of bacterial meningitis post spinal anesthesia. (scirp.org)
  • A diagnosis of post spinal bacterial meningitis was made. (scirp.org)
  • We think that it is important for people suffering from restless legs syndrome to know that there is, at worst, only a very small likelihood that spinal anesthesia, which is the best choice for a number of surgical procedures, will worsen their condition," he added. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Precise placement of epidural needles for single-injection techniques and catheters for continuous epidural anesthesia ensures that the dermatomes involved in the surgical procedure are selectively blocked, allowing for lower doses of local anesthetics to be used and sparing unnecessary blockade in nondesired regions. (nysora.com)
  • After regional anesthesia, bleeding disorders are the greatest risk factors for the development of spinal hematoma 2,3 , although there are other known factors, such as difficult or traumatic insertion of the needle. (scielo.br)
  • See 'Spinal column injuries in adults: Definitions, mechanisms, and radiographs', section on 'Anatomy' . (uptodate.com)
  • For instance, in neonates and infants, the conus medullaris is located lower in the spinal column (at approximately the L3 vertebra) compared with that in adults, in whom it is situated at approximately the L1 vertebra. (nysora.com)
  • A retrospective analysis of almost 5000 spinal anesthetics by Horlocker and colleagues reported inadequate anesthesia in less than 2% of cases, and failure rates of under 1% have been described. (nysora.com)
  • Awada called the new study's findings "interesting," but said more research should be done to definitively rule out a relationship between spinal anesthesia and restless legs syndrome. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The simplicity of the procedure was succinctly described by Labat, one of the pioneers of regional anesthesia, almost 100 years ago. (nysora.com)