Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
Pain during the period after surgery.
The period during a surgical operation.
Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.
Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
The period following a surgical operation.
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Surgery performed on the female genitalia.
A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).
A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.
A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a rapid onset of action and a longer duration of action than procaine hydrochloride. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1017)
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.
A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Assessing introduction of spinal anaesthesia for obstetric procedures. (1/497)

To assess the impact of introducing spinal anaesthesia for obstetric operative procedures on use of general anaesthesia and quality of regional anaesthesia in a unit with an established epidural service a retrospective analysis of routinely collected data on method of anaesthesia, efficacy, and complications was carried out. Data were collected from 1988 to 1991 on 1670 obstetric patients requiring an operative procedure. The introduction of spinal anaesthesia in 1989 significantly reduced the proportion of operative procedures performed under general anaesthesia, from 60% (234/390) in 1988 to 30% (124/414) in 1991. The decrease was most pronounced for manual removal of the placenta (88%, 48/55 v 9%, 3/34) and emergency caesarean section (67%, 129/193) v 38%, 87/229). Epidural anaesthesia decreased in use most significantly for elective caesarean section (65%, 77/118 v 3% 3/113; x2=139, p<0.0001). The incidence of severe pain and need for conversion to general anaesthesia was significantly less with spinal anaesthesia (0%, 0/207 v 3%, 5/156; p<0.05). Hypotension was not a problem, and the incidence of headache after spinal anaesthetic decreased over the period studied. Introducing spinal anaesthesia therefore reduced the need for general anaesthesia and improved the quality of regional anaesthesia.  (+info)

Anaesthesia for caesarean section in the presence of severe primary pulmonary hypertension. (2/497)

We describe the case of a pregnant woman, 35 weeks' gestation, with primary pulmonary hypertension and coarctation of the aorta requiring emergency Caesarean section under general anaesthesia. The patient had a pulmonary artery catheter inserted before operation which revealed pulmonary artery pressures in excess of 80/40 mm Hg. These were lowered using an infusion of glyceryl trinitrate. After delivery of the baby and administration of oxytocin, pulmonary artery pressures were more difficult to control. An infusion of prostacyclin was substituted which stabilized pulmonary pressures. After operation, she was transferred to the intensive care unit where prostacyclin was administered by an "aerosolized" route. Her trachea was extubated after 48 h and she made an uneventful recovery.  (+info)

Anaesthetic management of a woman who became paraplegic at 22 weeks' gestation after a spontaneous spinal cord haemorrhage secondary to a presumed arteriovenous malformation. (3/497)

A 19-yr-old woman developed a paraplegia with a T10 sensory level at 22 weeks' gestation. The spinal injury was caused by spontaneous bleed of a presumed arteriovenous malformation in the spinal cord. She presented for Caesarean section at term because of the breech position of her fetus. The successful use of a combined spinal epidural-regional anaesthetic is described and the risks of general and regional anaesthesia are discussed.  (+info)

Spinal versus epidural anesthesia for cesarean section in severely preeclamptic patients: a retrospective survey. (4/497)

BACKGROUND: Selection of spinal anesthesia for severely preeclamptic patients requiring cesarean section is controversial. Significant maternal hypotension is believed to be more likely with spinal compared with epidural anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to assess, in a large retrospective clinical series, the blood pressure effects of spinal and epidural anesthesia in severely preeclamptic patients requiring cesarean section. METHODS: The computerized medical records database was reviewed for all preeclamptic patients having cesarean section between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1996. All nonlaboring severely preeclamptic patients receiving either spinal or epidural anesthesia for cesarean section were included for analysis. The lowest recorded blood pressures were compared for the 20-min period before induction of regional anesthesia, the period from induction of regional anesthesia to delivery, and the period from delivery to the end of operation. RESULTS: Study groups included 103 women receiving spinal anesthesia and 35 receiving epidural anesthesia. Changes in the lowest mean blood pressure were similar after epidural or spinal anesthesia. Intraoperative ephedrine use was similar for both groups. Intraoperative crystalloid administration was statistically greater for patients receiving spinal versus epidural anesthesia (1780 +/- 838 vs. 1359 +/- 674 ml, respectively). Neonatal Apgar scores and incidence of maternal intensive care unit admission or postoperative pulmonary edema were also similar. CONCLUSION: Although we cannot exclude the possibility that the spinal and epidural anesthesia groups were dissimilar, the magnitudes of maternal blood pressure declines were similar after spinal or epidural anesthesia in this series of severely preeclamptic patients receiving cesarean section. Maternal and fetal outcomes also were similar.  (+info)

Clinical effects and maternal and fetal plasma concentrations of 0.5% epidural levobupivacaine versus bupivacaine for cesarean delivery. (5/497)

BACKGROUND: Bupivacaine exists as a mixture of two enantiomers, levobupivacaine and dexbupivacaine. Data suggest that levobupivacaine has equal local anesthetic potency, with reduced potential for central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity. The present study compares the efficacy of 0.5% levobupivacaine with 0.5% bupivacaine for epidural anesthesia in parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery. METHODS: Sixty healthy obstetric patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery with epidural anesthesia completed the study. Patients were randomized to receive 30 ml of either 0.5% levobupivacaine or 0.5% bupivacaine in a double-blind fashion. The efficacy endpoint measures included onset, offset, and quality of anesthesia. Neonatal blood gas analyses, Apgar score determinations, and neurobehavioral examinations were performed. Venous samples for pharmacokinetic studies and serial electrocardiograms were obtained in 10 patients in each group. RESULTS: Levels of sensory block, motor block, muscle relaxation, and overall quality of anesthesia did not differ between groups. The frequency of hypotension was 84.4% in the levobupivacaine group and 100% for the bupivacaine group (P < or = 0.053). No significant difference in observed maximum concentration of drug after dosing or area under the plasma drug concentration versus time curve were seen. The maximum concentrations were 1.017 and 1.053 microg/ml, and the areas were 4.082 and 3.765 h(microg/ml) for the levobupivacaine and bupivacaine groups, respectively. Umbilical vein-to-maternal vein ratios were 0.303 for the levobupivacaine group and 0.254 for the bupivacaine group. CONCLUSIONS: The use of epidural 0.5% levobupivacaine for cesarean delivery results in equally efficacious anesthesia compared with 0.5% bupivacaine. Pharmacokinetic parameters were similar in the two groups.  (+info)

Glycopyrrolate reduces nausea during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section without affecting neonatal outcome. (6/497)

We have tested the hypotheses that glycopyrrolate, administered immediately before induction of subarachnoid anaesthesia for elective Caesarean section, reduces the incidence and severity of nausea, with no adverse effects on neonatal Apgar scores, in a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Fifty women received either glycopyrrolate 200 micrograms or saline (placebo) i.v. during fluid preload, before induction of spinal anaesthesia with 2.5 ml of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine. Patients were questioned directly regarding nausea at 3-min intervals throughout operation and asked to report symptoms as they arose. The severity of nausea was assessed using a verbal scoring system and was treated with increments of i.v. ephedrine and fluids. Patients in the group pretreated with glycopyrrolate reported a reduction in the frequency (P = 0.02) and severity (P = 0.03) of nausea. Glycopyrrolate also reduced the severity of hypotension, as evidenced by reduced ephedrine requirements (P = 0.02). There were no differences in neonatal Apgar scores between groups.  (+info)

Gastric pressure during emergency caesarean section under general anaesthesia. (7/497)

Gastric pressure and volume were measured in 20 pregnant women during emergency Caesarean section under general anaesthesia with neuromuscular block. Mean gastric pressure was 11 (range 4-19) mm Hg and we can predict that 99% of women undergoing emergency Caesarean section with neuromuscular block are likely to have gastric pressures of less than 25 mm Hg (mean + 3 SD). This has implications for the amount of cricoid pressure required during induction of anaesthesia. Gastric pressure increased during delivery to 19 mm Hg and fundal pressure caused a gastric pressure of 65 mm Hg in one woman. Gastric pressure decreased significantly after delivery (P < 0.001) to 8 mm Hg. Although we measured large gastric volumes (mean 112 (range 20-350) ml), there was no correlation between gastric volume and gastric pressure.  (+info)

French survey of anesthesia in 1996. (8/497)

BACKGROUND: To identify the growth in the number of anesthetic procedures since 1980 and the changes in the practice of anesthesia, the present survey was designed to collect and analyze the anesthetic activity performed in France in 1996, from a representative sample collected in all French hospitals and clinics. METHODS: This study, initiated by the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, collected information that included the characteristics of patients (age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists status), the techniques of anesthesia, and the nature of the procedure for which anesthesia was required. All French private, public, and military hospitals were asked to participate in the survey. In each hospital in the country, all anesthetic procedures were documented and collected during 3 consecutive days, chosen at random during a 12-month period, to obtain a representative sample of the annual activity. All data were analyzed at the INSERM (National Institute of Health and MEDICAL RESEARCH: At the conclusion of the study, 5% of hospitals were randomly assigned to be audited to check for missing data and errors. The rate of anesthetic activity was calculated as the ratio between the annual number of anesthetic procedures and the number of the general population in the same age group. RESULTS: The participation rate of hospitals was 98%. The analysis of the 62,415 collected questionnaires allowed extrapolation of the anesthetic activity to 7,937,000 anesthetic procedures (95% confidence interval, +/- 387,000) performed in France in 1996. Thus, the annual rate of anesthetic procedures was 13.5 per 100 population, varying between 5.4 per 100 in girls aged 5-14 yr and 30.2 per 100 in men aged 75-84 yr. Surgery was involved in 71% of anesthesia cases. Regional anesthesia alone was performed in 20% of all surgical cases and was combined with general anesthesia in 3% of additional cases. Anesthesia for obstetric procedures represented 9% of all cases. Seventy-six percent of all anesthetic procedures started between 12:00 A.M. and 7:00 A.M. were related to obstetric activities. CONCLUSION: In comparison with a previous study, the present survey shows that the number of anesthetic procedures has increased by 120% since 1980, and the rate of anesthetic procedures increased from 6.6 to 13.5 per 100 population, the major changes being observed in patients aged > or = 75 yr and in those with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of 3. In the same time period, the number of regional anesthetic procedures increased 14-fold. In obstetrics, the practice of epidural analgesia extended from 1.5% to 51% of all deliveries of the country.  (+info)

Some common examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding during surgery can lead to hypovolemia (low blood volume), anemia (low red blood cell count), and even death.
2. Infection: Surgical wounds can become infected, leading to sepsis or bacteremia (bacterial infection of the bloodstream).
3. Nerve damage: Surgery can sometimes result in nerve damage, leading to numbness, weakness, or paralysis.
4. Organ injury: Injury to organs such as the liver, lung, or bowel can occur during surgery, leading to complications such as bleeding, infection, or organ failure.
5. Anesthesia-related complications: Problems with anesthesia can include respiratory or cardiac depression, allergic reactions, or awareness during anesthesia (a rare but potentially devastating complication).
6. Hypotension: Low blood pressure during surgery can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs and tissues, resulting in organ damage or death.
7. Thromboembolism: Blood clots can form during surgery and travel to other parts of the body, causing complications such as stroke, pulmonary embolism, or deep vein thrombosis.
8. Postoperative respiratory failure: Respiratory complications can occur after surgery, leading to respiratory failure, pneumonia, or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
9. Wound dehiscence: The incision site can separate or come open after surgery, leading to infection, fluid accumulation, or hernia.
10. Seroma: A collection of serous fluid that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
11. Nerve damage: Injury to nerves during surgery can result in numbness, weakness, or paralysis, sometimes permanently.
12. Urinary retention or incontinence: Surgery can damage the bladder or urinary sphincter, leading to urinary retention or incontinence.
13. Hematoma: A collection of blood that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
14. Pneumonia: Inflammation of the lungs after surgery can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi and can lead to serious complications.
15. Sepsis: A systemic inflammatory response to infection that can occur after surgery, leading to organ dysfunction and death if not treated promptly.

It is important to note that these are potential complications, and not all patients will experience them. Additionally, many of these complications are rare, and the vast majority of surgeries are successful with minimal or no complications. However, it is important for patients to be aware of the potential risks before undergoing surgery so they can make an informed decision about their care.

Postoperative pain is typically managed with pain medication, which may include opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or other types of medications. The goal of managing postoperative pain is to provide effective pain relief while minimizing the risk of complications such as addiction, constipation, or nausea and vomiting.

In addition to medication, other techniques for managing postoperative pain may include breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. It is important for patients to communicate with their healthcare provider about the severity of their pain and any side effects they experience from medication, in order to provide effective pain management and minimize complications.

Postoperative pain can be categorized into several different types, including:

* Acute pain: This type of pain is intense but short-lived, typically lasting for a few days or weeks after surgery.
* Chronic pain: This type of pain persists for longer than 3 months after surgery and can be more challenging to manage.
* Neuropathic pain: This type of pain is caused by damage to nerves and can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
* Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs and can be referred to other areas of the body, such as the back or abdomen.

PONV can be caused by various factors, including:

1. Anesthesia-related factors: The type and dose of anesthesia used, as well as the duration of anesthesia exposure, can contribute to PONV.
2. Surgical factors: The type and duration of surgery, as well as any complications during the procedure, can increase the risk of PONV.
3. Patient-related factors: Factors such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and medical history can influence the likelihood of PONV.
4. Medication-related factors: Certain medications used during or after surgery, such as opioids and benzodiazepines, can increase the risk of PONV.

PONV can lead to a range of complications, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and aspiration pneumonia. It can also cause significant discomfort, pain, and distress for patients, leading to delayed recovery and increased healthcare costs.

There are several strategies to prevent or manage PONV, including:

1. Anti-nausea medications: Prophylactic medications such as ondansetron, dolasetron, and granisetron can be given before or after surgery to reduce the risk of PONV.
2. Anesthesia techniques: Techniques such as avoiding general anesthesia, using regional anesthesia, and maintaining a stable body temperature can help reduce the risk of PONV.
3. Patient positioning: Positioning patients in a way that minimizes pressure on the stomach and diaphragm can help reduce the risk of PONV.
4. Fluid management: Encouraging patients to drink fluids before and after surgery can help prevent dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
5. Deep breathing exercises: Encouraging patients to perform deep breathing exercises during the recovery period can help reduce nausea and vomiting.
6. Aromatherapy: Using aromatherapy with essential oils such as lavender and peppermint can help reduce nausea and vomiting.
7. Ginger: Ginger has anti-inflammatory properties and has been shown to reduce nausea and vomiting in some studies.
8. Vitamin B6: Some studies have suggested that taking vitamin B6 before surgery may reduce the risk of PONV.
9. Acupuncture: Acupuncture has been shown to reduce PONV in some studies.
10. Herbal remedies: Some herbal remedies such as peppermint, ginger, and chamomile have anti-nausea properties and may help reduce PONV.

It is important for patients to discuss their individual risk factors with their anesthesiologist before undergoing surgery and to follow any instructions provided by their healthcare provider regarding prevention and management of PONV.

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

Intraoperative awareness is a serious issue because it can lead to memory recall of the surgical procedure, which can be distressing for the patient. In some cases, patients may also experience pain or discomfort during the procedure, which can result in long-term psychological and emotional sequelae.

The exact incidence of intraoperative awareness is not well established, but it is estimated to occur in 1-2% of all surgical procedures. However, the phenomenon is likely underreported due to the difficulty of detecting and documenting consciousness during anesthesia.

The causes of intraoperative awareness are multifactorial and may include:

* Inadequate dosing or timing of anesthetic medications
* Drug interactions or allergies
* Technical difficulties with the anesthesia equipment
* Patient factors such as obesity, sleep apnea, or psychiatric disorders

To minimize the risk of intraoperative awareness, anesthesiologists use a variety of techniques to ensure adequate anesthesia and avoid any potential complications. These may include:

* Using multiple anesthetic drugs and monitoring devices to maintain appropriate depth of anesthesia
* Administering additional doses of anesthetics as needed during the procedure
* Regularly checking the patient's vital signs and level of consciousness during the procedure
* Providing adequate pain management during the recovery period

Overall, intraoperative awareness is a rare but potentially distressing complication of anesthesia that can have long-term psychological and emotional consequences. Anesthesiologists must be vigilant in monitoring their patients' consciousness levels throughout the surgical procedure to minimize the risk of this phenomenon.

There are several causes of hypotension, including:

1. Dehydration: Loss of fluids and electrolytes can cause a drop in blood pressure.
2. Blood loss: Losing too much blood can lead to hypotension.
3. Medications: Certain medications, such as diuretics and beta-blockers, can lower blood pressure.
4. Heart conditions: Heart failure, cardiac tamponade, and arrhythmias can all cause hypotension.
5. Endocrine disorders: Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and adrenal insufficiency can cause low blood pressure.
6. Vasodilation: A condition where the blood vessels are dilated, leading to low blood pressure.
7. Sepsis: Severe infection can cause hypotension.

Symptoms of hypotension can include:

1. Dizziness and lightheadedness
2. Fainting or passing out
3. Weakness and fatigue
4. Confusion and disorientation
5. Pale, cool, or clammy skin
6. Fast or weak pulse
7. Shortness of breath
8. Nausea and vomiting

If you suspect that you or someone else is experiencing hypotension, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include fluids, electrolytes, and medication to raise blood pressure. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

* Definition: A hernia that occurs when a part of the intestine bulges through a weakened area in the abdominal wall, typically near the inguinal region.
* Also known as: Direct or indirect inguinal hernia
* Prevalence: Common, affecting approximately 2% of adult males and 1% of adult females.
* Causes: Weakened abdominal muscles, age-related degeneration, previous surgery, or injury.

Slide 2: Types of Inguinal Hernia

* Indirect inguinal hernia: Occurs when a part of the intestine descends into the inguinal canal and protrudes through a weakened area in the abdominal wall.
* Direct inguinal hernia: Occurs when a part of the intestine protrudes directly through a weakened area in the abdominal wall, without passing through the inguinal canal.
* Recurrent inguinal hernia: Occurs when a previous hernia recurs after previous surgical repair.

Slide 3: Symptoms of Inguinal Hernia

* Bulge or lump in the groin area, often more prominent when coughing or straining.
* Pain or discomfort in the groin area, which may be exacerbated by straining or heavy lifting.
* Burning sensation or weakness in the groin area.
* Abdominal pain or nausea.

Slide 4: Diagnosis of Inguinal Hernia

* Physical examination to detect the presence of a bulge or lump in the groin area.
* Imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions.

Slide 5: Treatment of Inguinal Hernia

* Surgery is the primary treatment for inguinal hernia, which involves repairing the weakened area in the abdominal wall and returning the protruded intestine to its proper position.
* Open hernia repair: A surgical incision is made in the groin area to access the hernia sac and repair it with synthetic mesh or other materials.
* Laparoscopic hernia repair: A minimally invasive procedure in which a small camera and specialized instruments are inserted through small incisions to repair the hernia sac.

Slide 6: Prevention of Inguinal Hernia

* Maintaining a healthy weight to reduce strain on the abdominal wall.
* Avoiding heavy lifting or strenuous activities that can put additional pressure on the abdominal wall.
* Keeping the abdominal wall muscles strong through exercises such as crunches and planks.
* Avoiding smoking and other unhealthy habits that can weaken the abdominal wall.

Slide 7: Complications of Inguinal Hernia

* Strangulation: When the hernia sac becomes trapped and its blood supply is cut off, it can lead to tissue death and potentially life-threatening complications.
* Obstruction: The hernia can cause a blockage in the intestine, leading to abdominal pain, vomiting, and constipation.
* Recurrence: In some cases, the hernia may recur after initial repair.

Slide 8: Treatment of Complications

* Strangulation: Emergency surgery is necessary to release the trapped tissue and restore blood flow.
* Obstruction: Surgical intervention may be required to remove the blockage and restore intestinal function.
* Recurrence: Repeat hernia repair surgery may be necessary to prevent recurrence.

Slide 9: Prognosis and Quality of Life

* With prompt and proper treatment, the prognosis for inguinal hernia is generally good, and most people can expect a full recovery.
* In some cases, complications such as strangulation or obstruction may result in long-term health problems or impaired quality of life.
* However, with appropriate management and follow-up care, many people with inguinal hernia can lead active and healthy lives.

Slide 10: Conclusion

* Inguinal hernia is a common condition that can cause significant discomfort and complications if left untreated.
* Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
* With proper management, most people with inguinal hernia can expect a full recovery and improved quality of life.

Word origin: [O. Eng. larynx + Gr. , voice.]


1. Stuttering.
2. Hysterical stammering.
3. Spasmodic dysartria.

Note under Dysarthria: Laryngismus is a form of spasmodic dysarthria, the spasms being more sudden and violent than in the ordinary type.

Source: Stedman's Medical Dictionary (28th ed.) via

Terms popularity compared to other word forms of 'laryngismus':

Laryngismus has been less popular than other word forms such as 'laryngitis'.

Reference link:

Hypothermia can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild hypothermia is characterized by shivering and a body temperature of 95 to 97 degrees Fahrenheit (32 to 36.1 degrees Celsius). Moderate hypothermia has a body temperature of 82 to 94 degrees Fahrenheit (28 to 34 degrees Celsius), and the person may appear lethargic, drowsy, or confused. Severe hypothermia is characterized by a body temperature below 82 degrees Fahrenheit (28 degrees Celsius) and can lead to coma and even death if not treated promptly.

Treatment for hypothermia typically involves warming the person up slowly, using blankets or heating pads, and providing warm fluids to drink. In severe cases, medical professionals may use a specialized warm water bath or apply warm packs to specific areas of the body.

Preventing hypothermia is important, especially in cold weather conditions. This can be done by dressing appropriately for the weather, staying dry and avoiding wet clothing, eating regularly to maintain energy levels, and seeking shelter if you become stranded or lost. It's also essential to recognize the signs of hypothermia early on so that treatment can begin promptly.

Symptoms of pulmonary atelectasis may include chest pain, coughing up bloody mucus, difficulty breathing, fever, and chills. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections, and in severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary. In some cases, surgery may be required to remove the blockage or repair the damage to the lung.
Pulmonary atelectasis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications such as respiratory failure or sepsis. It can be diagnosed through chest X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and pulmonary function tests.

Synonyms: Bronchial Constriction, Airway Spasm, Reversible Airway Obstruction.

Antonyms: Bronchodilation, Relaxation of Bronchial Muscles.

Example Sentences:

1. The patient experienced bronchial spasms during the asthma attack and was treated with an inhaler.
2. The bronchial spasm caused by the allergic reaction was relieved by administering epinephrine.
3. The doctor prescribed corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and prevent future bronchial spasms.

There are several types of apnea that can occur during sleep, including:

1. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): This is the most common type of apnea and occurs when the airway is physically blocked by the tongue or other soft tissue in the throat, causing breathing to stop for short periods.
2. Central sleep apnea (CSA): This type of apnea occurs when the brain fails to send the proper signals to the muscles that control breathing, resulting in a pause in breathing.
3. Mixed sleep apnea (MSA): This type of apnea is a combination of OSA and CSA, where both central and obstructive factors contribute to the pauses in breathing.
4. Hypopneic apnea: This type of apnea is characterized by a decrease in breathing, but not a complete stop.
5. Hypercapnic apnea: This type of apnea is caused by an excessive buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood, which can lead to pauses in breathing.

The symptoms of apnea can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but may include:

* Pauses in breathing during sleep
* Waking up with a dry mouth or sore throat
* Morning headaches
* Difficulty concentrating or feeling tired during the day
* High blood pressure
* Heart disease

Treatment options for apnea depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Lifestyle changes, such as losing weight, avoiding alcohol and sedatives before bedtime, and sleeping on your side
* Oral appliances or devices that advance the position of the lower jaw and tongue
* Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, which involves wearing a mask during sleep to deliver a constant flow of air pressure into the airways
* Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy, which involves two levels of air pressure: one for inhalation and another for exhalation
* Surgery to remove excess tissue in the throat or correct physical abnormalities that are contributing to the apnea.

The symptoms of aspiration pneumonia may include cough, fever, chills, difficulty breathing, and chest pain. The infection can be mild, moderate, or severe and can affect people of all ages, but it is more common in older adults or those with underlying medical conditions.

The diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia is usually made based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest x-rays or CT scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care such as oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation in severe cases. In some cases, hospitalization may be required to monitor and treat the infection.

Prevention of aspiration pneumonia includes avoiding eating or drinking before lying down, taking small bites and chewing food thoroughly, and avoiding alcohol and sedatives. It is also important to maintain good oral hygiene and to avoid smoking and other forms of tobacco use. Vaccination against certain types of pneumonia may also be recommended for some individuals at high risk.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

There are several possible causes of airway obstruction, including:

1. Asthma: Inflammation of the airways can cause them to narrow and become obstructed.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): This is a progressive condition that damages the lungs and can lead to airway obstruction.
3. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchial tubes (the airways that lead to the lungs) can cause them to narrow and become obstructed.
4. Pneumonia: Infection of the lungs can cause inflammation and narrowing of the airways.
5. Tumors: Cancerous tumors in the chest or throat can grow and block the airways.
6. Foreign objects: Objects such as food or toys can become lodged in the airways and cause obstruction.
7. Anaphylaxis: A severe allergic reaction can cause swelling of the airways and obstruct breathing.
8. Other conditions such as sleep apnea, cystic fibrosis, and vocal cord paralysis can also cause airway obstruction.

Symptoms of airway obstruction may include:

1. Difficulty breathing
2. Wheezing or stridor (a high-pitched sound when breathing in)
3. Chest tightness or pain
4. Coughing up mucus or phlegm
5. Shortness of breath
6. Blue lips or fingernail beds (in severe cases)

Treatment of airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause and may include medications such as bronchodilators, inhalers, and steroids, as well as surgery to remove blockages or repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, a tracheostomy (a tube inserted into the windpipe to help with breathing) may be necessary.

In the medical field, emergencies are situations that require immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm or death. These situations may include:

1. Life-threatening injuries, such as gunshot wounds, stab wounds, or severe head trauma.
2. Severe illnesses, such as heart attacks, strokes, or respiratory distress.
3. Acute and severe pain, such as from a broken bone or severe burns.
4. Mental health emergencies, such as suicidal thoughts or behaviors, or psychosis.
5. Obstetric emergencies, such as preterm labor or placental abruption.
6. Pediatric emergencies, such as respiratory distress or dehydration in infants and children.
7. Trauma, such as from a car accident or fall.
8. Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, or floods.
9. Environmental emergencies, such as carbon monoxide poisoning or exposure to toxic substances.
10. Mass casualty incidents, such as a terrorist attack or plane crash.

In all of these situations, prompt and appropriate medical care is essential to prevent further harm and save lives. Emergency responders, including paramedics, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and other healthcare providers, are trained to quickly assess the situation, provide immediate care, and transport patients to a hospital if necessary.

There are several different types of unconsciousness, including:

1. Concussion: A mild form of traumatic brain injury that can cause temporary unconsciousness, confusion, and amnesia.
2. Coma: A more severe form of unconsciousness that can be caused by a head injury, stroke, or other medical condition. Comas can last for days, weeks, or even months.
3. Vegetative state: A condition in which a person is unaware and unresponsive, but still has some reflexes. This can be caused by a traumatic brain injury, stroke, or other medical condition.
4. Persistent vegetative state (PVS): A long-term version of the vegetative state that can last for months or years.
5. Brain death: A permanent form of unconsciousness that is caused by severe damage to the brain.

Unconsciousness can be diagnosed through a variety of medical tests, including:

1. Neurological exam: A doctor will check the patient's reflexes, muscle strength, and sensation to determine the extent of any brain damage.
2. Imaging tests: CT or MRI scans can help doctors identify any structural abnormalities in the brain that may be causing unconsciousness.
3. Electroencephalogram (EEG): A test that measures electrical activity in the brain to determine if there is any abnormal brain wave activity.
4. Blood tests: To rule out other medical conditions that may be causing unconsciousness, such as infections or poisoning.

Treatment for unconsciousness depends on the underlying cause and can range from simple observation to complex surgical procedures. Some common treatments include:

1. Medications: To control seizures, reduce inflammation, or regulate brain activity.
2. Surgery: To relieve pressure on the brain, repair damaged blood vessels, or remove tumors.
3. Rehabilitation: To help the patient regain lost cognitive and motor function.
4. Supportive care: To address any other medical conditions that may be contributing to the unconsciousness, such as infections or respiratory failure.

* Heart block: A condition where the electrical signals that control the heart's rhythm are blocked or delayed, leading to a slow heart rate.
* Sinus node dysfunction: A condition where the sinus node, which is responsible for setting the heart's rhythm, is not functioning properly, leading to a slow heart rate.
* Medications: Certain medications, such as beta blockers, can slow down the heart rate.
* Heart failure: In severe cases of heart failure, the heart may become so weak that it cannot pump blood effectively, leading to a slow heart rate.
* Electrolyte imbalance: An imbalance of electrolytes, such as potassium or magnesium, can affect the heart's ability to function properly and cause a slow heart rate.
* Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid) or anemia, can cause bradycardia.

Bradycardia can cause symptoms such as:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain or discomfort

In some cases, bradycardia may not cause any noticeable symptoms at all.

If you suspect you have bradycardia, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. They may perform tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) or stress test to determine the cause of your slow heart rate and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Treatment options for bradycardia may include:

* Medications: Such as atropine or digoxin, to increase the heart rate.
* Pacemakers: A small device that is implanted in the chest to help regulate the heart's rhythm and increase the heart rate.
* Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT): A procedure that involves implanting a device that helps both ventricles of the heart beat together, improving the heart's pumping function.

It is important to note that bradycardia can be a symptom of an underlying condition, so it is important to address the underlying cause in order to effectively treat the bradycardia.

Vomiting can be caused by a variety of factors, such as:

1. Infection: Viral or bacterial infections can inflame the stomach and intestines, leading to vomiting.
2. Food poisoning: Consuming contaminated or spoiled food can cause vomiting.
3. Motion sickness: Traveling by car, boat, plane, or other modes of transportation can cause motion sickness, which leads to vomiting.
4. Alcohol or drug overconsumption: Drinking too much alcohol or taking certain medications can irritate the stomach and cause vomiting.
5. Pregnancy: Hormonal changes during pregnancy can cause nausea and vomiting, especially during the first trimester.
6. Other conditions: Vomiting can also be a symptom of other medical conditions such as appendicitis, pancreatitis, and migraines.

When someone is vomiting, they may experience:

1. Nausea: A feeling of queasiness or sickness in the stomach.
2. Abdominal pain: Crampy or sharp pain in the abdomen.
3. Diarrhea: Loose, watery stools.
4. Dehydration: Loss of fluids and electrolytes.
5. Headache: A throbbing headache can occur due to dehydration.
6. Fatigue: Weakness and exhaustion.

Treatment for vomiting depends on the underlying cause, but may include:

1. Fluid replacement: Drinking fluids to replenish lost electrolytes and prevent dehydration.
2. Medications: Anti-inflammatory drugs or antibiotics may be prescribed to treat infections or other conditions causing vomiting.
3. Rest: Resting the body and avoiding strenuous activities.
4. Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or substances that trigger vomiting.
5. Hospitalization: In severe cases of vomiting, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat underlying conditions.

It is important to seek medical attention if the following symptoms occur with vomiting:

1. Severe abdominal pain.
2. Fever above 101.5°F (38.6°C).
3. Blood in vomit or stools.
4. Signs of dehydration, such as excessive thirst, dark urine, or dizziness.
5. Vomiting that lasts for more than 2 days.
6. Frequent vomiting with no relief.

The exact cause of malignant hyperthermia is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a genetic predisposition and exposure to certain anesthetic agents. The condition can be triggered by a variety of factors, including the use of certain anesthetics, stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, and changes in blood sugar levels.

Symptoms of malignant hyperthermia can include:

* Elevated body temperature (usually above 104°F/40°C)
* Muscle rigidity and stiffness
* Heart arrhythmias and palpitations
* Shivering or tremors
* Confusion, agitation, or other neurological symptoms
* Shortness of breath or respiratory failure

If left untreated, malignant hyperthermia can lead to serious complications such as seizures, brain damage, and even death. Treatment typically involves the immediate discontinuation of any triggering anesthetic agents, cooling measures such as ice packs or cold compresses, and medications to help regulate body temperature and reduce muscle rigidity. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support breathing.

Overall, malignant hyperthermia is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes.

In general, surgical blood loss is considered excessive if it exceeds 10-20% of the patient's total blood volume. This can be determined by measuring the patient's hemoglobin levels before and after the procedure. A significant decrease in hemoglobin levels post-procedure may indicate excessive blood loss.

There are several factors that can contribute to surgical blood loss, including:

1. Injury to blood vessels or organs during the surgical procedure
2. Poor surgical technique
3. Use of scalpels or other sharp instruments that can cause bleeding
4. Failure to control bleeding with proper hemostatic techniques
5. Pre-existing medical conditions that increase the risk of bleeding, such as hemophilia or von Willebrand disease.

Excessive surgical blood loss can lead to a number of complications, including:

1. Anemia and low blood counts
2. Hypovolemic shock (a life-threatening condition caused by excessive fluid and blood loss)
3. Infection or sepsis
4. Poor wound healing
5. Reoperation or surgical intervention to control bleeding.

To prevent or minimize surgical blood loss, surgeons may use a variety of techniques, such as:

1. Applying topical hemostatic agents to the surgical site before starting the procedure
2. Using energy-based devices (such as lasers or ultrasonic devices) to seal blood vessels and control bleeding
3. Employing advanced surgical techniques that minimize tissue trauma and reduce the risk of bleeding
4. Monitoring the patient's hemoglobin levels throughout the procedure and taking appropriate action if bleeding becomes excessive.

Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

1. Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat
2. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
3. Abdominal cramps
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Rapid heartbeat
6. Feeling of impending doom or loss of consciousness

Anaphylaxis is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, medical history, and physical examination. Treatment for anaphylaxis typically involves administering epinephrine (adrenaline) via an auto-injector, such as an EpiPen or Auvi-Q. Additional treatments may include antihistamines, corticosteroids, and oxygen therapy.

Prevention of anaphylaxis involves avoiding known allergens and being prepared to treat a reaction if it occurs. If you have a history of anaphylaxis, it is important to carry an EpiPen or other emergency medication with you at all times. Wearing a medical alert bracelet or necklace can also help to notify others of your allergy and the need for emergency treatment.

In severe cases, anaphylaxis can lead to unconsciousness, seizures, and even death. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

Types of Foreign Bodies:

There are several types of foreign bodies that can be found in the body, including:

1. Splinters: These are small, sharp objects that can become embedded in the skin, often as a result of a cut or puncture wound.
2. Glass shards: Broken glass can cause severe injuries and may require surgical removal.
3. Insect stings: Bee, wasp, hornet, and yellow jacket stings can cause swelling, redness, and pain. In some cases, they can also trigger an allergic reaction.
4. Small toys or objects: Children may accidentally ingest small objects like coins, batteries, or small toys, which can cause blockages or other complications.
5. Food items: Foreign bodies can also be found in the digestive system if someone eats something that is not easily digestible, such as a piece of bone or a coin.

Removal of Foreign Bodies:

The removal of foreign bodies depends on the type and location of the object, as well as the severity of any injuries or complications. In some cases, foreign bodies can be removed with minimal intervention, such as by carefully removing them with tweezers or a suction device. Other objects may require surgical removal, especially if they are deeply embedded or have caused significant damage to nearby tissues.

In conclusion, foreign bodies in the medical field refer to any object or material that is not naturally present within the body and can cause harm or discomfort. These objects can be removed with minimal intervention or may require surgical removal, depending on their type, location, and severity of complications. It's important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else has ingested a foreign body.

The exact mechanism by which drugs can cause akathisia is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve changes in the levels of certain neurotransmitters (such as dopamine and serotonin) in the brain. These changes can affect the normal functioning of the nervous system, leading to symptoms such as agitation, restlessness, and an excessive desire to move about.

Drug-induced akathisia can occur with a wide range of medications and drugs, including antipsychotic medications, antidepressants, stimulants, and certain illegal substances. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of the potential for drug-induced akathisia when prescribing these medications, as it can be a serious side effect that can negatively impact a person's quality of life.

Treatment for drug-induced akathisia typically involves stopping or reducing the medication that is causing the symptoms. In some cases, additional medications may be prescribed to help manage the symptoms and reduce discomfort. It is important for individuals experiencing drug-induced akathisia to work closely with their healthcare provider to find the best course of treatment.

Psychomotor agitation is a common symptom of many mental health disorders, including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder. It can also be caused by medications such as stimulants, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines.

Some common signs and symptoms of psychomotor agitation include:

* Fidgeting or restlessness
* Purposeless movement of limbs (e.g., pacing, fiddling with objects)
* Increased muscle tension
* Difficulty sitting still
* Excessive talking or movement
* Increased heart rate and blood pressure
* Agitation or irritability

Psychomotor agitation can be assessed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment options for psychomotor agitation depend on the underlying cause, but may include medication adjustments, behavioral interventions, or hospitalization in severe cases.

It is important to note that psychomotor agitation can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, so it is essential to seek professional medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing these symptoms. A healthcare professional can diagnose and treat the underlying cause of psychomotor agitation, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life.

Post-dural puncture headaches are usually characterized by a severe, throbbing pain that is often worse when standing up or bending forward. They can also be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound. In some cases, the headache may be accompanied by a feeling of stiffness in the neck or back.

The symptoms of a post-dural puncture headache typically begin within 24 hours of the procedure and can last for several days. Treatment for this type of headache usually involves medication, such as pain relievers or anti-inflammatory drugs, and fluid replacement to help restore the balance of CSF in the body. In severe cases, a blood patch may be necessary to seal the puncture site and prevent further leakage of CSF.

A rare genetic disorder characterized by an inability to feel pain due to a defect in the functioning of nerve fibers that transmit pain signals to the brain. Individuals with this condition may not be able to perceive painful stimuli or may have a reduced sensitivity to pain, which can lead to unintentional injuries or complications from medical procedures. It is also known as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) type IV.

Synonyms: HSAN type IV; congenital insensitivity to pain; hereditary pain insensitivity.

Etymology: From the Latin word "congenitus" meaning "born with," and the Greek word "algesia" meaning "pain."

Pain Insensitivity, Congenital: a condition in which an individual lacks the ability to feel pain due to a genetic mutation that affects the functioning of nerve fibers responsible for transmitting pain signals to the brain.

1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): The enlargement of the prostate gland can put pressure on the urethra and bladder, making it difficult to urinate.
2. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland can cause urinary retention.
3. Bladder Outlet Obstruction: A blockage in the muscles of the bladder neck or urethra can prevent urine from flowing freely.
4. Neurological Disorders: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injuries can disrupt the nerve signals that control urination, leading to urinary retention.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anesthetics, can cause urinary retention as a side effect.
6. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): UTIs can cause inflammation and scarring in the bladder or urethra, leading to urinary retention.
7. Impacted Stone: Kidney stones that are too large to pass can cause urinary retention if they become lodged in the ureter or bladder.
8. Bladder Cancer: Tumors in the bladder can grow and block the flow of urine, leading to urinary retention.
9. Urethral Stricture: A narrowing of the urethra can cause urinary retention by restricting the flow of urine.

Symptoms of urinary retention may include:

1. Difficulty starting to urinate
2. Weak or interrupted urine stream
3. Painful urination
4. Inability to fully empty the bladder
5. Frequent urination
6. Leaking of urine (incontinence)
7. Blood in the urine

Treatment for urinary retention depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, catheterization, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated urinary retention can lead to complications such as kidney damage or sepsis.

Pneumoperitoneum can be caused by several factors, including:

1. Trauma: Blunt force trauma to the abdomen can cause air to enter the peritoneal cavity. This can occur due to car accidents, falls, or other types of injuries.
2. Surgery: During certain types of surgical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, gas may enter the peritoneal cavity.
3. Gastrointestinal perforation: A gastrointestinal perforation is a tear or hole in the lining of the digestive tract that can allow air to enter the peritoneal cavity. This can occur due to conditions such as ulcers, appendicitis, or diverticulitis.
4. Inflammatory bowel disease: Inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis can cause air to enter the peritoneal cavity.
5. Intestinal obstruction: An intestinal obstruction can prevent the normal flow of food and gas through the digestive system, leading to a buildup of air in the peritoneal cavity.

The symptoms of pneumoperitoneum can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the location of the air in the abdomen. Common symptoms include:

1. Abdominal pain: Pain in the abdomen is the most common symptom of pneumoperitoneum. The pain may be sharp, dull, or colicky and may be accompanied by tenderness to the touch.
2. Distension: The abdomen may become distended due to the accumulation of air, which can cause discomfort and difficulty breathing.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Patients with pneumoperitoneum may experience nausea and vomiting due to the irritation of the peritoneum and the presence of air in the digestive system.
4. Diarrhea or constipation: Depending on the location of the air, patients may experience diarrhea or constipation due to the disruption of normal bowel function.
5. Fever: Pneumoperitoneum can cause a fever due to the inflammation and infection of the peritoneal cavity.

If you suspect that you or someone else may have pneumoperitoneum, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and order imaging tests such as a CT scan or X-ray to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include antibiotics for infection, drainage of the air from the peritoneal cavity, and surgery if necessary.

The term cough is used to describe a wide range of symptoms that can be caused by various conditions affecting the respiratory system. Coughs can be classified as either dry or productive, depending on whether they produce mucus or not. Dry coughs are often described as hacking, barking, or non-productive, while productive coughs are those that bring up mucus or other substances from the lungs or airways.

Causes of Cough:

There are many potential causes of cough, including:

* Upper respiratory tract infections such as the common cold and influenza
* Lower respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia
* Allergies, including hay fever and allergic rhinitis
* Asthma and other chronic lung conditions
* Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which can cause coughing due to stomach acid flowing back up into the throat
* Environmental factors such as smoke, dust, and pollution
* Medications such as ACE inhibitors and beta blockers.

Symptoms of Cough:

In addition to the characteristic forceful expulsion of air from the lungs, coughs can be accompanied by a range of other symptoms that may include:

* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Fatigue and exhaustion
* Headache
* Sore throat or hoarseness
* Coughing up mucus or other substances.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Cough:

The diagnosis and treatment of cough will depend on the underlying cause. In some cases, a cough may be a symptom of a more serious condition that requires medical attention, such as pneumonia or asthma. In other cases, a cough may be caused by a minor infection or allergy that can be treated with over-the-counter medications and self-care measures.

Some common treatments for cough include:

* Cough suppressants such as dextromethorphan or pholcodine to relieve the urge to cough
* Expectorants such as guaifenesin to help loosen and clear mucus from the airways
* Antihistamines to reduce the severity of allergic reactions and help relieve a cough.
* Antibiotics if the cough is caused by a bacterial infection
* Inhalers and nebulizers to deliver medication directly to the lungs.

It is important to note that while cough can be a symptom of a serious condition, it is not always necessary to see a doctor for a cough. However, if you experience any of the following, you should seek medical attention:

* A persistent and severe cough that lasts for more than a few days or weeks
* A cough that worsens at night or with exertion
* Coughing up blood or mucus that is thick and yellow or greenish in color
* Shortness of breath or chest pain
* Fever, chills, or body aches that are severe or persistent.

It is also important to note that while over-the-counter medications can provide relief from symptoms, they may not address the underlying cause of the cough. If you have a persistent or severe cough, it is important to see a doctor to determine the cause and receive proper treatment.

There are two types of heart arrest:

1. Asystole - This is when the heart stops functioning completely and there is no electrical activity in the heart.
2. Pulseless ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation - This is when the heart is still functioning but there is no pulse and the rhythm is abnormal.

Heart arrest can be diagnosed through various tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests, and echocardiography. Treatment options for heart arrest include cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, and medications to restore a normal heart rhythm.

In severe cases of heart arrest, the patient may require advanced life support measures such as mechanical ventilation and cardiac support devices. The prognosis for heart arrest is generally poor, especially if it is not treated promptly and effectively. However, with proper treatment and support, some patients can recover and regain normal heart function.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

In medical terminology, nausea is sometimes used interchangeably with the term "dyspepsia," which refers to a general feeling of discomfort or unease in the stomach, often accompanied by symptoms such as bloating, belching, or heartburn. However, while nausea and dyspepsia can be related, they are not always the same thing, and it's important to understand the specific underlying cause of any gastrointestinal symptoms in order to provide appropriate treatment.

Some common causes of nausea include:

* Gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and gastritis
* Motion sickness or seasickness
* Medication side effects, including chemotherapy drugs, antibiotics, and painkillers
* Pregnancy and morning sickness
* Food poisoning or other infections
* Migraines and other headaches
* Anxiety and stress

Treatment for nausea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications such as antihistamines, anticholinergics, or anti-nausea drugs, as well as non-pharmacological interventions such as ginger, acupressure, or relaxation techniques. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent dehydration or other complications.

A type of anxiety that occurs when an individual is separated from someone they have a strong emotional attachment to, such as a parent, child, or significant other. This can be a common experience for children who are separated from their parents, and it can also affect adults who are experiencing a long-distance relationship or the loss of a loved one.


* Feeling panicked or uneasy when away from the person they are attached to
* Difficulty sleeping or concentrating when separated
* Intrusive thoughts or dreams about the person they are attached to
* Avoidance of situations that might lead to separation
* Physical symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches, or muscle tension


* Psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), to help individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors associated with separation anxiety
* Medications, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs, to help manage symptoms
* Relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or progressive muscle relaxation, to reduce physical symptoms of anxiety
* Support groups for individuals and families affected by separation anxiety

It's important to note that while some level of separation anxiety is normal, excessive or persistent separation anxiety can interfere with daily life and may be a sign of an underlying mental health condition. If you or someone you know is experiencing severe symptoms of separation anxiety, it's important to seek professional help from a mental health provider.

Hypercapnia is a medical condition where there is an excessive amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the bloodstream. This can occur due to various reasons such as:

1. Respiratory failure: When the lungs are unable to remove enough CO2 from the body, leading to an accumulation of CO2 in the bloodstream.
2. Lung disease: Certain lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or pneumonia can cause hypercapnia by reducing the ability of the lungs to exchange gases.
3. Medication use: Certain medications, such as anesthetics and sedatives, can slow down breathing and lead to hypercapnia.

The symptoms of hypercapnia can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Headaches
2. Dizziness
3. Confusion
4. Shortness of breath
5. Fatigue
6. Sleep disturbances

If left untreated, hypercapnia can lead to more severe complications such as:

1. Respiratory acidosis: When the body produces too much acid, leading to a drop in blood pH.
2. Cardiac arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms can occur due to the increased CO2 levels in the bloodstream.
3. Seizures: In severe cases of hypercapnia, seizures can occur due to the changes in brain chemistry caused by the excessive CO2.

Treatment for hypercapnia typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing symptoms through respiratory support and other therapies as needed. This may include:

1. Oxygen therapy: Administering oxygen through a mask or nasal tubes to help increase oxygen levels in the bloodstream and reduce CO2 levels.
2. Ventilation assistance: Using a machine to assist with breathing, such as a ventilator, to help remove excess CO2 from the lungs.
3. Carbon dioxide removal: Using a device to remove CO2 from the bloodstream, such as a dialysis machine.
4. Medication management: Adjusting medications that may be contributing to hypercapnia, such as anesthetics or sedatives.
5. Respiratory therapy: Providing breathing exercises and other techniques to help improve lung function and reduce symptoms.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have hypercapnia, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

There are three types of pneumothorax:

1. Traumatic pneumothorax: occurs due to direct blows to the chest wall, such as in car accidents or falls.
2. Spontaneous pneumothorax: occurs without any obvious cause and is more common in men than women.
3. Tension pneumothorax: is a life-threatening condition that can occur when air enters the pleural space and causes the lung to collapse, leading to a buildup of pressure in the chest cavity. This can cause cardiac arrest and respiratory failure.

Symptoms of pneumothorax include:

* Chest pain
* Shortness of breath
* Coughing up blood
* Fatigue
* Pale or blue-tinged skin

Diagnosis is typically made using a chest X-ray, and treatment depends on the type and severity of the pneumothorax. Treatment options include:

* Observation and supportive care for mild cases
* Chest tubes to drain air from the pleural space in more severe cases
* Surgery to remove any damaged tissue or repair any holes in the lung.

It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any symptoms of pneumothorax, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

There are several different types of drug hypersensitivity reactions, including:

1. Maculopapular exanthema (MPE): This is a type of allergic reaction that causes a red, itchy rash to appear on the skin. It can be caused by a variety of medications, including antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
2. Exfoliative dermatitis: This is a more severe form of MPE that can cause widespread scaling and peeling of the skin. It is often associated with reactions to antibiotics and other medications.
3. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS): This is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that can be caused by certain medications, including antibiotics and NSAIDs. SJS can cause blisters to form on the skin and mucous membranes, as well as fever and fatigue.
4. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN): This is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition that can be caused by certain medications, including antibiotics and NSAIDs. TEN can cause widespread peeling of the skin, as well as fever and fatigue.
5. Anaphylaxis: This is a severe allergic reaction that can be caused by a variety of medications, including antibiotics and NSAIDs. It can cause symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing.

Drug hypersensitivity reactions can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the medication that is causing the reaction, as well as providing supportive care to manage symptoms such as fever, itching, and pain. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the reaction.

Prevention of drug hypersensitivity reactions can be challenging, but there are several strategies that can help reduce the risk. These include:

1. Gradual dose escalation: When starting a new medication, it is important to gradually increase the dose over time to allow the body to adjust.
2. Monitoring for signs of a reaction: Patients should be monitored closely for signs of a reaction, such as hives, itching, or difficulty breathing.
3. Avoiding certain medications: In some cases, it may be necessary to avoid certain medications that are known to cause hypersensitivity reactions.
4. Skin testing: Skin testing can be used to determine whether a patient is allergic to a particular medication before starting treatment.
5. Desensitization: In some cases, desensitization therapy may be used to gradually expose the patient to the medication that is causing the reaction, with the goal of reducing the risk of an adverse event.

There are several types of strabismus, including:

* Esotropia: where one eye turns inward toward the nose
* Exotropia: where one eye turns outward away from the face
* Hypertropia: where one eye turns upward
* Hypotropia: where one eye turns downward
* Duane's syndrome: a rare type of strabismus that affects only one eye and is caused by nerve damage.

Strabismus can have both visual and social consequences, including:

* Difficulty with depth perception and binocular vision
* Blurred or double vision
* Difficulty with eye teaming and tracking
* Poor eye-hand coordination
* Social and emotional effects such as low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression.

Treatment options for strabismus include:

* Glasses or contact lenses to correct refractive errors
* Prism lenses to align the eyes
* Eye exercises to strengthen the muscles and improve eye teaming
* Surgery to adjust the position of the muscles that control eye movement.

It is important for individuals with strabismus to receive timely and appropriate treatment to address the underlying cause of the condition and prevent long-term vision loss and social difficulties.

1. Complete paralysis: When there is no movement or sensation in a particular area of the body.
2. Incomplete paralysis: When there is some movement or sensation in a particular area of the body.
3. Localized paralysis: When paralysis affects only a specific part of the body, such as a limb or a facial muscle.
4. Generalized paralysis: When paralysis affects multiple parts of the body.
5. Flaccid paralysis: When there is a loss of muscle tone and the affected limbs feel floppy.
6. Spastic paralysis: When there is an increase in muscle tone and the affected limbs feel stiff and rigid.
7. Paralysis due to nerve damage: This can be caused by injuries, diseases such as multiple sclerosis, or birth defects such as spina bifida.
8. Paralysis due to muscle damage: This can be caused by injuries, such as muscular dystrophy, or diseases such as muscular sarcopenia.
9. Paralysis due to brain damage: This can be caused by head injuries, stroke, or other conditions that affect the brain such as cerebral palsy.
10. Paralysis due to spinal cord injury: This can be caused by trauma, such as a car accident, or diseases such as polio.

Paralysis can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, work, and participate in social and recreational activities. Treatment options for paralysis depend on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medications, surgery, or assistive technologies such as wheelchairs or prosthetic devices.

Note: This definition is based on the current medical knowledge and may change as new research and discoveries are made.

There are many different types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:

1. Tachycardias: These are fast heart rhythms that can be too fast for the body's needs. Examples include atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.
2. Bradycardias: These are slow heart rhythms that can cause symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, and fainting. Examples include sinus bradycardia and heart block.
3. Premature beats: These are extra beats that occur before the next regular beat should come in. They can be benign but can also indicate an underlying arrhythmia.
4. Supraventricular arrhythmias: These are arrhythmias that originate above the ventricles, such as atrial fibrillation and paroxysmal atrial tachycardia.
5. Ventricular arrhythmias: These are arrhythmias that originate in the ventricles, such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.

Cardiac arrhythmias can be diagnosed through a variety of tests including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and holter monitors. Treatment options for cardiac arrhythmias vary depending on the type and severity of the condition and may include medications, cardioversion, catheter ablation, or implantable devices like pacemakers or defibrillators.

1. Raspy or strained voice
2. Breathy voice
3. Scratchy or rough voice
4. Weak or falsetto voice
5. Loss of vocal range
6. Difficulty speaking for long periods of time
7. Fatigue or exhaustion of the vocal cords
8. Pain in the throat or larynx (voice box)
9. Difficulty articulating certain sounds or words

Hoarseness can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Overuse or strain of the vocal cords, such as from screaming, shouting, or singing
2. Acid reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which can irritate the throat and vocal cords
3. Viral infections, such as laryngitis or common cold
4. Bacterial infections, such as strep throat
5. Injury to the vocal cords or larynx
6. Neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis
7. Hormonal changes, such as those experienced during pregnancy or menopause
8. Anxiety or stress, which can lead to tension in the throat and vocal cords
9. Smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, which can irritate the throat and vocal cords
10. Aging, which can cause wear and tear on the vocal cords over time.

Hoarseness can be diagnosed through a series of tests, including:

1. Physical examination of the throat and larynx
2. Laryngoscopy, which involves inserting a scope into the throat to examine the vocal cords
3. Acoustic analysis, which measures the quality and characteristics of the voice
4. Imaging tests, such as X-rays or CT scans, to rule out other potential causes of hoarseness
5. Voice assessment, which involves evaluating the quality and functionality of the voice.

Treatment for hoarseness depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Resting the voice and avoiding heavy talking or singing
2. Drinking plenty of fluids to keep the throat moist
3. Using a humidifier to add moisture to the air
4. Avoiding irritants such as smoke and pollution
5. Taking over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, to reduce inflammation and pain
6. Antibiotics if the hoarseness is caused by a bacterial infection
7. Steroids to reduce inflammation
8. Vocal therapy to improve vocal technique and reduce strain on the voice
9. Surgery, such as laser surgery or cordotomy, to remove lesions or improve vocal cord function.

Examples of Nervous System Diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurological disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease: A degenerative disorder that affects movement, balance and coordination.
3. Multiple sclerosis: An autoimmune disease that affects the protective covering of nerve fibers.
4. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to brain cell death.
5. Brain tumors: Abnormal growth of tissue in the brain.
6. Neuropathy: Damage to peripheral nerves that can cause pain, numbness and weakness in hands and feet.
7. Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
8. Motor neuron disease: Diseases that affect the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement.
9. Chronic pain syndrome: Persistent pain that lasts more than 3 months.
10. Neurodevelopmental disorders: Conditions such as autism, ADHD and learning disabilities that affect the development of the brain and nervous system.

These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, toxins and ageing. Treatment options for Nervous System Diseases range from medications, surgery, rehabilitation therapy to lifestyle changes.

Delirium can be caused by several factors, including:

1. Infections: Pneumonia, urinary tract infections, or sepsis can lead to delirium.
2. Medications: Sedatives, analgesics, and certain antidepressants can cause delirium as a side effect.
3. Surgery: General anesthesia and surgery can cause delirium, especially in older adults.
4. Alcohol or drug withdrawal: Stopping alcohol or drugs suddenly can cause delirium.
5. Poor nutrition or dehydration: Dehydration, malnutrition, or a lack of essential vitamins and minerals can contribute to delirium.
6. Sleep disturbances: Insomnia, sleep apnea, or restless leg syndrome can increase the risk of delirium.
7. Brain injury: Traumatic brain injury or stroke can cause delirium.
8. Mental health conditions: Depression, anxiety, or psychosis can contribute to delirium.

Delirium is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. It can lead to complications such as falls, accidents, and longer hospital stays. In some cases, delirium can be a symptom of a more severe underlying condition, so it is essential to identify the cause and provide appropriate treatment.

There are several ways to diagnose delirium, including:

1. Clinical evaluation: A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and ask questions about the patient's symptoms.
2. Neurological examination: The healthcare provider may perform a neurological exam to check for signs of cognitive impairment, such as memory loss or difficulty with language.
3. Laboratory tests: Blood tests or imaging studies may be ordered to rule out underlying medical conditions that could be causing delirium.
4. Delirium assessment tools: The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) or the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) may be used to evaluate the severity of delirium and monitor progress.

Treatment for delirium focuses on addressing the underlying cause and managing symptoms. This may include:

1. Medications: Antipsychotic medications, sedatives, or antidepressants may be prescribed to manage agitation, anxiety, or psychosis.
2. Environmental modifications: Changing the patient's environment to reduce stimuli and promote relaxation can help manage delirium.
3. Reorientation: Helping the patient orient themselves to their surroundings and time can improve cognitive function.
4. Supportive care: Providing adequate nutrition, hydration, and hygiene can support the patient's physical and emotional well-being.
5. Family support: Involving family members in the patient's care can provide emotional support and help improve communication.
6. Multidisciplinary team approach: A team of healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, therapists, and social workers, may work together to develop a comprehensive treatment plan.

In some cases, delirium can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition that requires prompt medical attention. It is important for healthcare providers to closely monitor patients with delirium and provide appropriate treatment to address the underlying cause and manage symptoms.

There are several types of eye hemorrhages, including:

1. Subretinal hemorrhage: This type of hemorrhage occurs between the retina and the choroid, and can cause vision loss if the bleeding is severe.
2. Intravitreal hemorrhage: This type of hemorrhage occurs within the vitreous humor, the gel-like substance inside the eye. It can cause clouding of the lens and vision loss.
3. Retinal hemorrhage: This type of hemorrhage occurs on the surface of the retina and can cause vision loss if the bleeding is severe.
4. Choroidal hemorrhage: This type of hemorrhage occurs within the choroid, the layer of blood vessels between the sclera and retina. It can cause vision loss if the bleeding is severe.

Eye hemorrhages can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which includes visual acuity testing, dilated eye examination, and imaging tests such as fluorescein angiography or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Treatment for eye hemorrhages depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in other cases, medication or surgery may be required to prevent further bleeding and restore vision.

In 1996 McQueen completed her obstetrical anesthesia fellowship at Mayo Clinic. Additionally, she earned a Masters of Public ... She has taught extensively around the world on topics of Anesthesia for Austere Environments and Anesthesia delivery during ... During her residency, she joined an Obstetrical Team for People to People on a trip to Russia in 1992. Since then, she has ... Soon after completing the AAAS fellowship, she began focusing on the role of surgery and safe anesthesia in global public ...
However, it is approved for use at term in obstetrical anesthesia. Bupivacaine is excreted in breast milk. Risks of stopping ... Miller RD (November 2, 2006). Basics of Anesthesia. Churchill Livingstone. Ma TT, Wang YH, Jiang YF, Peng CB, Yan C, Liu ZG, Xu ... It is the most commonly used local anesthetic in epidural anesthesia during labor, as well as in postoperative pain management ... The 0.75% formulation is contraindicated in epidural anesthesia during labor because of the association with refractory cardiac ...
... (Webarchive template wayback links, Obstetrical procedures, Female genital procedures, Regional anesthesia) ...
482-. ISBN 978-1-4377-1117-2. T.H. Stanley; P.G. Schafer (6 December 2012). Pediatric and Obstetrical Anesthesia: Papers ...
Both recorded instances involved a lower segment caesarian section with only local anesthesia. The first resulted in a ... The first month at Bonda involved completely taking charge and operating on all surgeries, especially obstetrical emergencies. ...
... regional anesthesia, transplant anesthesia and trauma anesthesia.[citation needed] Obstetric anesthesiologists typically serve ... "Obstetrical Society Of London". The British Medical Journal. 1 (105): 15-17. 1859. JSTOR 25192989. Simpson, J. Y. (1848). " ... Obstetric anesthesia or obstetric anesthesiology, also known as ob-gyn anesthesia or ob-gyn anesthesiology, is a sub-specialty ... Anesthesia for cesarean sections (C-sections) most commonly uses neuraxial (regional) anesthesia due to its better safety ...
CRNAs account for approximately half of the anesthesia providers in the United States and are the main providers of anesthesia ... obstetrical, dental, and pediatric interventions. Programs require study in methods of scientific inquiry and statistics, as ... She authored the 1949 book Anesthesia, Principles and Practice, likely the first nurse anesthesia textbook.[citation needed] ... In addition to being skilled at anesthesia administration, Magaw documented and evaluated all her anesthesia procedures, ...
... eliminate residual somnolence and disorientation with nivaline after anesthesia with ketalar and diazepam for minor obstetrical ... In one study, a control group of patients were given ketamine and diazepam and underwent anesthesia and surgery. The ...
Some choose to narrow the focus of care to sub-specialize in the provision of cardiac, pediatric, pain, or obstetrical care. ... According to the ASA statement on the Anesthesia Care Team, anesthesia care personally performed or medically directed by an ... Specialists in these disciplines have completed training in anesthesia including a three-year residency in anesthesia with an ... neuraxial anesthesia, specialized intravascular access), following up the patient in the post-anesthesia care unit and post- ...
... such as in pediatric anesthesia, geriatric, bariatric or obstetrical anesthesia) or special circumstances (such as in trauma, ... Spinal anesthesia is a "one-shot" injection that provides rapid onset and profound sensory anesthesia with lower doses of ... General anesthesia (as opposed to sedation or regional anesthesia) has three main goals: lack of movement (paralysis), ... Alice Magaw, born in November 1860, is often referred to as "The Mother of Anesthesia". Her renown as the personal anesthesia ...
It can also be used as a supplement to balanced anesthesia, for preoperative and postoperative analgesia, and for obstetrical ...
The universities in this project will have learning centers that are dedicated for surgical and obstetrical care at the end of ... Anesthesia ASA physical status classification system or pre-operative physical fitness Biomaterial Drain Endoscopy FACS ... The project builds on results of previous efforts, which are intended to promote long-term capacity-building in obstetrical and ... ENAHPA will provide $100,000 for the project; the CNIS agreed to provide obstetrical and essential skills training to assist ...
A certified registered nurse anesthetist class, in conjunction with the U.S. Army's Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing at ... Obstetrical/Gynecological, Internal Medicine, and Radiology residency programs with a start date of 1 July 1967. Other programs ... Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) (Inpatient, Outpatient) Pulmonary Function Lab (Inpatient, Outpatient) Radiation Oncology ( ... offered at DGMC included Physician Assistant in Orthopedics, Pharmacy Practice, Nurse Anesthesia, and Administrative Residency ...
Roberts pioneered numerous research studies in Anesthesia, Spinal Cord Injuries, and Obstetrical Anesthesia that were published ... Following her graduation, she spent six years in the Royal Army Medical Corps assisting in the Anesthesia Department, as well ... Roberts then joined the Postgraduate Medical School of London where she lectured on Anesthesia from 1949-1953. In 1957, Hilda ... The Miss Margaret Robins Archives of Women's College Hospital Department of Anesthesia fonds in the Miss Margaret Robins ...
... obstetrical, and urological operations (spinal/epidural anesthesia) Bone and joint surgery of the pelvis, hip, and leg (spinal/ ... epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia) Abdominal surgery (epidural anesthesia/spinal anesthesia, often combined ... Local anesthesia of body cavities includes intrapleural anesthesia and intra-articular anesthesia. Transincision (or transwound ... Typical operations performed under conduction anesthesia include: Dentistry (surface anesthesia, infiltration anesthesia or ...
... anesthesia, intratracheal MeSH E03.155.308 - anesthesia, intravenous MeSH E03.155.364 - anesthesia, obstetrical MeSH E03.155. ... anesthesia, caudal MeSH E03.155.086.231 - anesthesia, local MeSH E03.155.086.331 - anesthesia, spinal MeSH E03.155.086.711 - ... anesthesia, general MeSH E03.155.197.197 - anesthesia, inhalation MeSH E03. - anesthesia, closed-circuit MeSH ... anesthesia, conduction MeSH E03.155.086.131 - anesthesia, epidural MeSH E03. - ...
Obstetrical procedures, Childbirth, Midwifery, Pain management, Anesthesia, Human pregnancy, Acute pain). ... and the Rise of Anesthesia in Europe: c. 1200-1800s". Journal of Anesthesia History. 4 (3): 182-190. doi:10.1016/j.janh.2018.03 ... Anesthesia's use was popularized in 1853 by Queen Victoria's decision to use chloroform for pain relief during the birth of her ... Most opposition to anesthesia, though, was framed in terms of concern about its health consequences and physical effects on ...
... nursing occupational health nursing oncology nursing orthopedic nursing pediatric nursing peri-anesthesia nursing obstetrical ... obstetrical nursing, oncology nursing, nursing informatics, telenursing, radiology, and emergency nursing. Nurses practice in a ...
Regional anesthesia, Obstetrical procedures, Dosage forms, Spanish inventions). ... 42: 483-5. Marx GF (1994). "The first spinal anesthesia. Who deserves the laurels?". Regional Anesthesia. 19 (6): 429-30. PMID ... "Anesthesia". Harvard University Press. Retrieved April 18, 2014. Sng BL, Leong WL, Zeng Y, Siddiqui FJ, Assam PN, Lim Y, Chan ... In the United States, over 50% of childbirths involve the use of epidural anesthesia. Epidural anaesthesia causes a loss of ...
The project included a new emergency department, an expansion of the operating theaters and the post anesthesia unit and the ... Rehabilitation center, physical therapy unit, obstetrical unit, walk-in clinic, emergency department, out-patient clinic, wound ... post-anesthesia unit. Psychiatric unit, intensive care unit, medium care unit, coronary care unit, short-stay center, medical ...
... was an American obstetrician of the nineteenth century who is remembered for his opposition to obstetrical anesthesia and to ... Meigs was a lifelong opponent of obstetric anesthesia. In 1856, he warned against the morally "doubtful nature of any process ...
It is widely used in obstetrical anesthesia because of its short time to action peak (about 5 minutes), the rapid termination ... Intravenous fentanyl is often used for anesthesia and to treat pain. To induce anesthesia, it is given with a sedative-hypnotic ... To maintain anesthesia, inhaled anesthetics and additional fentanyl may be used. These are often given in 15-30 minute ... This risk is decreased when the airway is secured with an endotracheal tube (as during anesthesia). This risk is higher in ...
Other types of forceps include: Alligator forceps Anesthesia forceps, often with smooth jaw surface for clamping tubes such as ... forceps Hysterectomy forceps Intestinal forceps Magill forceps Microsurgery forceps Nasal forceps Needle holder Obstetrical ...
Postel, T. (October 2013). "Childbirth Climax: The Revealing of Obstetrical Orgasm". Sexologies. 22 (4): e89-e92. doi:10.1016/j ... instead of anesthesia. More than 85% of midwives surveyed by Postel (2013) stated that a sexually pleasurable birth experience ...
GIEESC had begun anesthesia training at sites in Faryab and Mazir-I Sharif, and equipment was donated for the purpose. The ... The program was focused on training nurses in child and maternal health care, with the help of an emergency obstetrical flying ... With a population of over 75 million, Ethiopia had only 144 surgeons, 31 anesthesiologists, 254 anesthesia nurses, 1124 general ... and anesthesia. September 24-25, 2007, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, the WHO held a second meeting on the initiative to discuss ...
1983: Obstetrical care among Urban Women in Benin. Paper presented at the 82nd Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological ... 1989: *(with Nancy Stark) Childbirth Education and Childbirth Models: Parental Perspectives on Control, Anesthesia, and ... 7-9. 1984: *Obstetrical Choice Among Urban Women in Benin. Social Science and Medicine 20(3):287-292. 2009: Situating ... 1982: *The Cultural Context for Therapeutic Choice: Obstetrical Care Decisions in a Bariba Community. Dordrecht, Holland: D. ...
DeLee said that midwives stunted the progress of the obstetrical profession and said that he refused to take part in the ... Chestnut, D. H., Polley, L. S., Wong, C.A., and Tsen, L. C. (2009). Chestnut's Obstetric Anesthesia: Principles and Practice. ... The hospital provided a larger space than the Maxwell Street Clinic and it focused on providing obstetrical care and training ... Wolf, Jacqueline H. (2011). Deliver Me from Pain: Anesthesia and Birth in America. JHU Press. pp. 120-121. ISBN 9781421403236. ...
December 2016). "The Management of Myelomeningocele Study: obstetrical outcomes and risk factors for obstetrical complications ... Minor complications are procedural pain, bleeding, infection and common anesthesia complications. The more serious and major ... International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. 50: 103271. doi:10.1016/j.ijoa.2022.103271. PMID 35299027. Roberge S, Chaillet N ... International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. 50: 103271. doi:10.1016/j.ijoa.2022.103271. PMID 35299027. S2CID 246954032. ...
... and in October 1846 Morton successfully demonstrated ether anesthesia. However, Morton's interest in surgical anesthesia was ... Over the following years, Long would use ether in his obstetrical practice, however, he never published any of his findings ... Before surgical anesthesia the location was also helpful to muffle the screams of patients for those on the floors below. ... In 1845 Wells had attempted to demonstrate the use of nitrous oxide as anesthesia at MGH but it was "dismissed as humbug" ...
... is prescribed for treatment of respiratory diseases for horses, and as an obstetrical aid in cattle. It is illegal ... The coroner reported that Mena's death was attributed to a combination of Clenbuterol and anesthesia. A common misconception ... It is licensed for obstetrical use in cattle as Planipart Solution for Injection. Mabuterol (same structure as clenbuterol but ...
Burnett AF (February 2006). "Radical trachelectomy with laparoscopic lymphadenectomy: review of oncologic and obstetrical ... the surgeon is not able to microscopically confirm clear margins of cervical tissue once the woman is under general anesthesia ... Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey. 72 (3): 184-193. doi:10.1097/OGX.0000000000000407. PMC 5358514. PMID 28304416. "Incidence ...
Some family practitioners or general practitioners also perform obstetrical surgery. Obstetrical procedures include cesarean ... During a C section, the patient is usually numbed with an epidural or a spinal block, but general anesthesia can be used as ... A 2013 Cochrane review found that with good obstetrical anaesthesia there is no change in harms from allowing eating and ... The methods used are termed obstetrical forceps extraction and vacuum extraction, also called ventouse extraction. Done ...
Other obstetrical/ gynecological causes of similar abdominal pain in women include pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian torsion ... During an open appendectomy, the person with suspected appendicitis is placed under general anesthesia to keep the muscles ... Laparoscopic surgery requires general anesthesia, and it can last up to two hours. Laparoscopic appendectomy has several ... so his or her vital signs can be closely monitored to detect anesthesia- or surgery-related complications. Pain medication may ...
van der Weiden RM, Uhlenbeck GC (May 2010). "European 18th-century obstetrical pioneers in Japan: a new light in the empire of ... The history of anesthesia: proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium. - International Congress Series 1242. Elsevier ... not unlike anesthesia, in which they either received guidance from the deity in a dream or were cured by surgery. Asclepeia ...
Peter Lewis Allen writes that Brown's views caused outrage, and he died penniless after being expelled from the Obstetrical ... The surgery proceeds with the use of general anesthesia, and prior to the vulvectomy/clitoridectomy an inguinal ...
Anesthesia for the tubal ligation will be the same as that being used for the Cesarean section itself, usually regional or ... Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey. 49 (10): 722-732. doi:10.1097/00006254-199410000-00028. ISSN 0029-7828. PMID 7816397. Ercan ... If the patient chooses an interval tubal ligation, the procedure will typically be performed under general anesthesia in a ... Since most forms of tubal ligation require abdominal surgery under regional or general anesthesia, tubal ligation is also ...
No special anesthesia is required. There is less potential for maternal trauma compared to forceps and caesarean section. The ... Obstetrical procedures). ...
... is an obstetrical complication whereby a growing retroverted uterus becomes wedged into the pelvis after ... by a Foley catheter and the obstetrician may attempt to manipulate the uterus if necessary using general or spinal anesthesia. ...
The family care unit includes fifteen beds for obstetrical patients. The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) cares for 600 ... In addition, the Centre undertakes research in anesthesia, epidemiology, family medicine, infectious diseases, nephrology, ... The Woman & Child Program cares for 11,500 patients annually, providing gynecological and obstetrical services, outpatient ...
... a D&C may be performed with local anesthesia, moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia. The first step in a D&C ... 1979). "The obstetrical outcome of women with surgically treated uterine synechiae (in French)". J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod. ... Aside from the surgery itself, complications related to anesthesia administration may also occur. Infection is uncommon after D ... local anesthesia and minimal sedation". Contraception. 97 (6): 471-477. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2018.01.014. ISSN 0010-7824 ...
Fact or fiction?". Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey. 64 (3): 190-9. doi:10.1097/ogx.0b013e318193324e. PMID 19238769. S2CID ... These diagnostic blocks can also be used in place of spinal anesthesia during delivery. Quantitative sensory threshold testing ... are injected to provide immediate pudendal anesthesia." A pudendal nerve block can be inserted from several different ...
The safety of local anesthesia with a vasoconstrictor is questioned in patients having systemic conditions such as heart ... Duvekot, J. J; Peeters, L. L (1994). "Maternal cardiovascular hemodynamic adaptation to pregnancy". Obstetrical & Gynecological ...
Obstetrical sonography was originally developed in the late 1950s and 1960s by Sir Ian Donald and is commonly used during ... Cardiac anesthesia: principles and clinical practice. Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-7817-2195-0. ...
In 1847, Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweiss decreased death from the disease in the First Obstetrical Clinic of Vienna from ... PPD 0: atelectasis risk factors include general anesthesia, cigarette smoking, and obstructive lung disease. PPD 1-2: urinary ... The decline may be partly attributed to improved environmental conditions, better obstetrical care, and the use of antibiotics ...
Orkin, F. K. (1986) Anesthesia Systems (Chapter 5). In R. D. Miller (Ed.), Anesthesia (second edition). New York, NY: Churchill ... Under the trade names Trimar and Trilene, trichloroethylene was used as a volatile anesthetic and as an inhaled obstetrical ... Its high blood solubility results in a less desirable slower induction of anesthesia. At low concentrations it is relatively ... Cranial nerve dysfunction (especially the fifth cranial nerve) was common when TCE anesthesia was given using CO2 absorbing ...
Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Breast cancer, Breast surgery, Obstetrical and ... A preventive mastectomy carries certain risks including those of anesthesia, bleeding, infection, pain, disfiguration, anxiety ...
Anesthesia's use was popularized in 1853 by Queen Victoria's decision to use chloroform for pain relief during the birth of her ... Obstetrical procedures). ... Chemical anesthesia during labor was first introduced in 1847, ... In 1899, a Dr Schneiderlin recommended the use of hyoscine and morphine for surgical anesthesia, and it began to be used as ... ISSN 1940-5030.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) Keys, Thomas E. (1996). The history of surgical anesthesia (PDF) ([ ...
West Penn survived those tests, and after the war, in 1950, West Penn added a new obstetrical wing, an intensive care unit came ... 24/7 obstetric anesthesia and newborn services, numerous patient services and amenities, and the latest in infant security ... Today, West Penn Hospital is a 333-bed academic medical center; its obstetrical program delivers nearly 4,500 babies a year, ... as well as high-risk obstetrical services and a Level II neonatal intensive care unit. Now the academic flagship of Allegheny ...
Frequently these teams are staffed by physicians (from anesthesia and internal medicine in larger medical centers or the ... pediatric emergency and/or obstetrical emergency Code Red: fire Code Silver: person with a weapon Code White: violent person(s ... pediatric emergency and/or obstetrical emergency Code red: fire Code white: aggression Code yellow: missing patient Code Silver ... pediatric emergency and/or obstetrical emergency Code Red: fire (also someone smoking in facility) (alternative: massive ...
... was formerly widely used in general anesthesia, mainly to reverse the respiratory depression produced by opioid ... Bullough J (October 1959). "Use of premixed pethidine and antagonists in obstetrical analgesia; with special reference to cases ...
There was also an association found between neuraxial anesthesia, more commonly known as an epidural, and an increased risk for ... In low income countries, the most common cause of maternal death is obstetrical hemorrhage, followed by hypertensive disorders ... or non-obstetrical maternal deaths. Indirect causes include malaria, anemia, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular disease, all of which ... and anesthesia complications (0.3%). The three delays model addresses three critical factors that inhibit women from receiving ...
Obstetrical anesthesia. In: Landon MB, Galan HL, Jauniaux ERM, et al, eds. Gabbes Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. ...
Obstetrical anesthesia shall be directed by a board certified anesthesiologist with experience and competence in obstetrical ... All clients found to be at high obstetrical risk pursuant to criteria described in rule 59A-11.009, F.A.C., shall be referred ... One physician shall be Chief of Obstetrical Care. He or she shall be a board certified or board qualified obstetrician. If this ... The midwife shall refer a patient for consultation to a physician with hospital obstetrical privileges if any of the following ...
abdominal surgery (epidural/spinal anesthesia, often combined with general anesthesia) * gynecological, obstetrical and ... local anesthesia of body cavities (e.g. intrapleural anesthesia, intraarticular anesthesia) Uses in surgery Virtually every ... shoulder and arm surgery (plexus anesthesia, intravenous regional anesthesia) * heart and lung surgery (epidural anesthesia ... plexus anesthesia[?]). Spinal anesthesia[?] and epidural anesthesia[?] are applied near the spinal cord where the peripheral ...
THE 0.75% CONCENTRATION OF MARCAINE IS NOT RECOMMENDED FOR OBSTETRICAL ANESTHESIA. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF CARDIAC ARREST ... Marcaine injection should not be used in obstetrical paracervical block (local anesthetic injection around cervix) anesthesia. ... WITH DIFFICULT RESUSCITATION OR DEATH DURING USE OF MARCAINE FOR EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA IN OBSTETRICAL PATIENTS. IN MOST CASES, ... Marcaine is a prescription medication used to prevent pain before surgical procedures and induce spinal anesthesia. ...
Why are some units missing, such as obstetrical, and post anesthesia care?. We began with inpatient medical, surgical, ...
Before providing anesthesia services, including the administration of anesthesia in conjunction with the requirements of an ... or is present in the surgical or obstetrical suite when the procedure is being performed in that surgical or obstetrical suite ... a) An anesthesiologist assistant may assist an anesthesiologist in developing and implementing an anesthesia care plan for a ... d) An anesthesiologist assistant may perform anesthesia tasks and services within the framework of a written practice protocol ...
Obstetrical Ultrasound. *Also called a sonogram; uses high-frequency sound waves (not X-rays) to create an image of the ... Acute Care Surgery, Trauma and Surgical Critical Care AIDS Malignancy Program Allergy and Inflammation Anesthesia, Critical ... Specialists in endocrinology, anesthesia, genetics, radiology, and perinatal clinical nursing, among others, participate in ... weekly team conferences to discuss our most challenging obstetrical issues and reach consensus on best practices and next steps ...
... chief of the division of obstetrical anesthesia at Montefiore Medical Center in the Bronx, New York. ... "Keep an open mind," says Philip Hess, MD, director of obstetric anesthesia at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. " ...
Anesthesia, Obstetric Obstetric Anesthesia Obstetrical Anesthesia Gynecologic Anesthesia - Related but not broader or narrower ... Gynecologic Anesthesia. Gynecological Anesthesia. Obstetric Anesthesia. Obstetrical Anesthesia. Paracervical Block. ... Anesthésie obstétricale Entry term(s):. Anesthesia, Gynecologic. Anesthesia, Gynecological. Anesthesia, Obstetric. Block, ... Anesthesia, Obstetrical - Preferred Concept UI. M0001162. Scope note. A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ...
Mahoney, P. F. & McFarland, C. C. Field anesthesia and military injury. in Trauma Anesthesia (Cambridge University Press, 2008 ... Essential surgical care aide-memoire: surgical and emergency obstetrical care at first referral level. ... Anesthesia and perioperative care. in Essential Surgery: Disease Control Priorities (eds H. T. et al.) 3rd edn, Vol. 1. Debas ( ... Strube, P. D. & Perkins, A. D. Combat anesthesia: a case report of a gunshot wound and new trauma protocols. Aana. J. 83, 247- ...
Spinal epidural hemorrhage (EDH) is usually due to trauma or iatrogenic etiologies including spinal surgeries, obstetrical ... and is usually associated with procedures such as lumbar puncture or epidural anesthesia, especially in patients on ...
Lumbar anesthesia: 15-20 mL of 1.5% solution (225-300 mg), or 10-15 mL of 2% solution (200-300 mg total dose) ... Paracervical obstetrical analgesia (each side): 10 mL of 1% solution (100 mg total dose) ... Use preservative-free preparations for spinal or epidural anesthesia. May be buffered 9:1 with sodium bicarbonate, to reduce ... Infiltration Anesthesia. Percutaneous: 1-60 mL of 0.5-1% solution (5-300 mg total dose) ...
Anesthesia, Obstetrical.. Genitalia, Female--surgery.. Surgical instruments.. Surgical equipment. National Library of Medicine ... La Chirurgie obstétricale et contraceptive à l hôpital de district : La Chirurgie obstétricale et contraceptive à l hôpital ...
Anesthesia, Anesthesia, Local, Genetics, Stem Cells, "Ginecologia e Obstetrícia Estética", ... Women, Women's Health, Women's Health Services, Gynecology, Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological, ... Public Health, Delivery of Health Care, 50230, Medical Care, Gynecology, Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological, ... Obstetrical and Gynecological, Maternal-Child Health Services, Enfermagem em Saúde da Mulher, Direitos da Mulhers ...
Obstetric Anesthesia *Obstetrical Anesthesiology *Ophthalmologic Anesthesiology *Opioid Treatment *Pain Diagnosis, Treatment ... Obstetric Anesthesia, Pediatric Anesthesia, outcome studies, Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, Cardiac/thoracic/vascular ... Cardiovascular Anesthesia, Critical Care and Trauma, Neurosurgical Anesthesia, Obstetric Anesthesia, Intraoperative Regional ... Journal of Anesthesia and Anesthetic Techniques. Journal of Anesthesia and Anesthetic Techniques (JAAT) is an International ...
Epidural anesthesia; Epidural injections; Obstetrical analgesia; Spinal cord injury References. 1 N.B. Jain, G.D. Ayers, E.N. ... 4 P.H. Pan, T.D. Bogard, M.D. Owen Incidence and characteristics of failures in obstetric neuraxial analgesia and anesthesia: a ...
Obstetrical Care in Syracuse, NY. At CNY Womens Healthcare, our providers strive to do their best to provide compassionate ... Obstetrical Anesthesia. Postpartum Care. *Postpartum Depression. *Postpartum Hemorrhage. Other Services. *Reoccuring Pregnancy ... The following obstetrical services focus specifically on the care and treatment of women before and during their pregnancy, at ... obstetrical care to every patient. From your first pre-pregnancy visit to postpartum care, our OBGYNs are with you every step ...
The laceration was sutured under spinal anesthesia. The patient recovered quickly, and the postpartum hemoglobin drop was 2.8 g ... The abortion and the laceration were not reported in the current obstetrical documentation. After labor induction using oral ...
If youre looking for other ways to complete your CME requirements: Check out our anesthesia 2020 conferences list or our list ... Figure out which anesthesia seminars you will be attending this year to meet your CME requirements. ... Obstetrical Anesthesia Update: June 23-26 ,. Williamsburg, VA , Register. Here. Ophthalmic Regional Block Workshop: November 7- ... Anesthesia Camp Grand Cayman. Learn to meet the demanding challenges of todays clinical anesthesia environment in a beautiful ...
Multiple Obstetrical Procedures. For dates of service on or after January 1, 2002, anesthesia for multiple obstetrical ... Obstetrical anesthesia is an exception to this policy.. ... Anesthesia payment , CPT codes MULTIPLE PROCEDURES - Utah ... Neuraxial analgesia/anesthesia for planned vaginal delivery followed by tubal ligation on same or. the next day following ... Neuraxial analgesia/anesthesia for planned vaginal delivery which becomes a Cesarean delivery.. Code 01967 to begin the ...
Obstetrical Anesthesia. Avg. Salary: ₹1,233,472. Dermatology. Avg. Salary: ₹1,195,994. Surgery. Avg. Salary: ₹1,554,477 ...
... undergoing obstetrical paracervical block anesthesia; or undergoing CABG.. Warnings and Precautions. Dose-Related Toxicity: ... undergoing obstetrical paracervical block anesthesia; or undergoing CABG.. Warnings and Precautions. Dose-Related Toxicity: ... Millers Anesthesia. Vol 1. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2015:1028-1054.e4. 8. Becker DE, Reed KL. Essentials of local ...
Brierly on obstetrical anesthesia." He shrugged, then squinted suspiciously at me.. I was not mistaken! Did he not know? Did he ... "For a lecture in obstetrical anesthesia.". "Oh, really?" I wondered if this was a veiled attempt to bring up starting a family ... We will bring anesthesia to Massachusetts!" He said this with a flourish of his hand. He smiled broadly. ... Morton has already demonstrated anesthesia. Several years ago, in fact!" Everyone knew of the story of the huge neck tumor ...
Full text: Available Index: AIM (Africa) Main subject: Congenital Abnormalities / Anesthesia, Obstetrical Type of study: ... Full text: Available Index: AIM (Africa) Main subject: Congenital Abnormalities / Anesthesia, Obstetrical Type of study: ... Humans; Congenital Abnormalities; Anesthesia, Obstetrical; Gestational Age; Maternal Age; Hospitals Ultrasound; -Pregnancy; - ... Léchographie obstétricale occupe une place incontournable dans le dépistage, le suivi et la prise en charge des malformations ...
Dental AnesthesiaDental AssistingDental MaterialsDental Medicine Surgery & PathologyDental Microbiology & InfectionDental ... Patient Safety and Quality Measurement in Obstetrical Care Section IV, Postpartum Care 23. The Neonate 24. Postpartum Care and ... Obstetric Anesthesia 17. Malpresentations 18. Antepartum and Postpartum Hemorrhage 19. Cesarean Delivery 20. Vaginal Birth ... Obstetrical Ultrasound: Imaging, Dating, Growth and Anomaly 10. Genetic Screening and Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis Section III, ...
b) The physicians order for anesthesia or anesthesia-related services is not required to specify a drug, dose, or ... DELEGATION REGARDING CERTAIN OBSTETRICAL SERVICES. (a) In this section, "provide" means to supply, for a term not to exceed 48 ... b) A physician may delegate to a physician assistant offering obstetrical services and certified by the board as specializing ... anesthetist the ordering of drugs and devices necessary for the nurse anesthetist to administer an anesthetic or an anesthesia- ...
... anesthesia Preferred method for C/SUnless patient is in chock KETAMINE When spinal anesthesia fails When spinal anesthesia is ... SPINAL All obstetrical procedures can be performed in spinal ... All obstetrical procedures can be performed in spinal ... Tagged aira hospital, ANESTHESIA, anesthesia in obstetrics, dr erik erichsen, erik erichsen, general anesthesia, ketamine, ... local anesthesia, local infiltration anesthesia, Obstetrics, pudendal block, rebel surgeon, sacral anesthesia, spinal Post ...
Anesthesia, Intravenous, Anesthesia, Local, Anesthesia, Obstetrical, Anesthesia, Epidural, Anesthesia, Inhalation, Anesthesia ... Anesthesia, Dental, Dental Arch, Dental Physiological Phenomena, Odontogenic Tumors, Dental Occlusion, Dental Papilla, ... Anesthesia Recovery Period, Ambulatory Surgical Procedures, Urologic Surgical Procedures, Thoracic Surgery, Otolaryngology, ...
Obstetrical anesthesia research unit. *Orthopaedic biomechanics. *Perioperative brain health centre. *Promoting Upper Limb ...
Obstetrical anesthesia research unit. *Orthopaedic biomechanics. *Perioperative brain health centre. *Promoting Upper Limb ...
  • In 2007, Kybele, Inc. began a 5-year collaboration in Ghana to improve obstetric anesthesia services. (
  • Keep an open mind," says Philip Hess, MD, director of obstetric anesthesia at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. (
  • This seminar is designed for anesthesiologists and CRNAs looking to expand their knowledge of clinical problems and errors, obstetric anesthesia, and recent developments that impact the practice of anesthesiology. (
  • A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth. (
  • A program was designed to teach spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery and spinal labor analgesia at Ridge Regional Hospital, Accra, the second largest obstetric unit in Ghana. (
  • Although subsequent efforts to provide spinal analgesia in the labor ward were hampered by anesthesia provider shortages, spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery proved to be practical and sustainable. (
  • Neuraxial analgesia/anesthesia for planned vaginal delivery which becomes a Cesarean delivery. (
  • Neuraxial analgesia/anesthesia for planned vaginal delivery followed by tubal ligation on same or the next day following delivery. (
  • The use of spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery increased significantly from 6% in 2006 to 89% in 2009. (
  • 90% of cesarean deliveries were conducted with spinal anesthesia, despite a doubling of the number performed. (
  • spinal anesthesia - a local anesthetic is injected into the cerebrospinal fluid , usually at the lumbar spine (in the lower back), where it acts on spinal nerve roots and part of the spinal cord . (
  • Marcaine is a prescription medication used to prevent pain and induce spinal anesthesia. (
  • In some cases (e.g. caesarean section ) conduction anesthesia is thought to carry a lower risk and is therefore usually preferred over general anesthesia . (
  • In other situations conduction and general anesthesia can be used alternatively or in combination. (
  • Journal of Anesthesia and Anesthetic Techniques (JAAT) is an International Peer-reviewed, Multi-disciplinary Scientific Journal operating under open access publishing model with an aim to deliver reliable source of information on up-to-date innovations and advances in the field of Anesthesiology and covers aspects like Perioperative care of patients before, during and after Surgery, current Anesthetic Techniques, Pain Medicine, Intensive Care Medicine and Critical Emergency Medicine. (
  • intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier block) - blood circulation of a limb is interrupted using a tourniquet (a device similar to a blood pressure cuff), then a large volume of local anesthetic is injected into a peripheral vein. (
  • Anesthesia providers in low-income countries may infrequently provide regional anesthesia techniques for obstetrics due to insufficient training and supplies, limited manpower, and a lack of perceived need. (
  • This 5-day cruise includes lectures and panel discussions on the latest advances in clinical anesthesia. (
  • Learn to meet the demanding challenges of today's clinical anesthesia environment in a beautiful setting. (
  • Marcaine injection should not be used in obstetrical paracervical block (local anesthetic injection around cervix) anesthesia. (
  • Many surgical procedures can be done under conduction anesthesia. (
  • g) "Direct supervision" means the onsite, personal supervision by an anesthesiologist who is present in the office when the procedure is being performed in that office, or is present in the surgical or obstetrical suite when the procedure is being performed in that surgical or obstetrical suite and who is in all instances immediately available to provide assistance and direction to the anesthesiologist assistant while anesthesia services are being performed. (
  • infiltration anesthesia - a local anesthetic is injected into the tissue to be anesthetized. (
  • Surface and infiltration anesthesia are collectively termed topical anesthesia . (
  • Conduction anesthesia is a comprehensive term which encompasses a great variety of local and regional anesthetic techniques. (
  • To achieve conduction anesthesia a local anesthetic is injected or applied to a body surface. (
  • Anesthesia persists as long as there is a sufficient concentration of local anesthetic at the nerve or nerves to be blocked. (
  • surface anesthesia - a local anesthetic spray, solution or cream is applied to the skin or a mucous membrane. (
  • Journal tends to provide information for International Anesthesiologists, Clinicians, Professionals, Scientists and Researchers with an open medium, further to disseminate significant and novel information and promote academic communications in all the aspects of Anesthesia and Anesthetic Techniques. (
  • When multiple procedures are performed during a single anesthetic administration, Medicaid's policy is to pay the basic value for only one anesthesia procedure. (
  • Specialists in endocrinology, anesthesia, genetics, radiology, and perinatal clinical nursing, among others, participate in weekly team conferences to discuss our most challenging obstetrical issues and reach consensus on best practices and next steps. (
  • They have courses on current topics in anesthesia, as well as business seminars to assist with the business side of running a practice. (
  • There are a fair number of patients who think they'll breathe through the process and endure the pain, but then they get to the hospital and have contractions and that whole birth plan goes out the window," says Jeffrey Bernstein, MD, chief of the division of obstetrical anesthesia at Montefiore Medical Center in the Bronx, New York. (
  • Local anesthesia is any technique to render part of the body insensitive to pain without affecting consciousness. (
  • Local anesthesia , in a strict sense, is anesthesia of a small part of the body such as a tooth or an area of skin. (
  • At CNY Women's Healthcare , our providers strive to do their best to provide compassionate obstetrical care to every patient. (
  • Conduction anesthesia is also used for purposes of pain therapy and diagnostic procedures. (
  • Check out our anesthesia 2020 conferences list or our list of other available CME courses . (
  • Why are some units missing, such as obstetrical, and post anesthesia care? (
  • These courses are intended for anesthesiologists, CRNAs, and other providers to keep their anesthesia skills and knowledge up to date. (
  • Regional anesthesia is aimed at anesthetizing a larger part of the body such as a leg or arm. (
  • To provide recommendations on the management of urgent obstetrical emergencies outside the maternity ward. (
  • 11651 ='Nailbiting' 11652 ='Thumbsucking' 12000 ='Abnormal involuntary movements' 12050 ='Convulsions' 12070 ='Symptoms of head, NEC' 12100 ='Headache, pain in head' 12150 ='Memory, disturbances of' 12200 ='Disturbances of sensation' 12201 ='Loss of feeling (anesthesia)' 12202 ='Increased sensation (hyperesthesia)' 12203 ='Abnormal sensation (paresthesia)' 12204 ='Other disturbances of sense, includin. (
  • in this article however, conduction anesthesia is used, according to the definition given above. (