Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Anesthesia, IntratrachealIntraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Anesthesia and Analgesia: Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.EthersMidazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Intraoperative Awareness: Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Neuromuscular Blockade: The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Hypotension, Controlled: Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nurse Anesthetists: Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.Vecuronium Bromide: Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Atracurium: A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Ethyl EthersTiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Tourniquets: Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Propoxycaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a rapid onset of action and a longer duration of action than procaine hydrochloride. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1017)Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.gamma-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Recovery Room: Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.

Propofol infusion for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia in patients with end-stage renal disease. (1/572)

We have investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol in 11 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) compared with nine healthy patients during and after a manually controlled three-stage infusion of propofol 21, 12 and 6 mg kg-1 h-1 lasting a minimum of 2 h. Mean total body clearance was not reduced significantly in the ESRD group (30.66 (SD 8.47) ml kg-1 min-1) compared with the control group (33.75 (7.8) ml kg-1 min-1). ESRD patients exhibited a greater, but not statistically significant, volume of distribution at steady state compared with patients in the control group (11.25 (8.86) vs 5.79 (2.14) litre kg-1, respectively). Elimination half-life values were unchanged by renal failure. Mean times to induction of anaesthesia were similar in both groups: 177 (SD 57) and 167 (58) s for the ESRD and control groups, respectively. Waking time after cessation of propofol infusion was significantly shorter in the ESRD group (474 (156) s) compared with the control group (714 (240) s) (P < 0.05). Mean plasma concentrations on waking were similar. We conclude that the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of propofol after infusion were not markedly affected by renal failure.  (+info)

Comparison of recovery of propofol and methohexital sedation using an infusion pump. (2/572)

Two sedative anesthetic agents administered by an infusion pump were compared during third molar surgery. Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I or II volunteers were randomly allocated to two groups. All subjects received supplemental oxygen via a nasal hood, fentanyl (0.0007 mg/kg intravenous [i.v.] bolus), and midazolam (1 mg/2 min) titrated to effect. Patients then received either 0.3 mg/kg of methohexital or 0.5 mg/kg of propofol via an infusion pump. Upon completion of the bolus, a continuous infusion of 0.05 mg/kg/min methohexital or 0.066 mg/kg/min propofol was administered throughout the procedure. Hemo-dynamic and respiratory parameters and psychomotor performance were compared for the two groups and no significant differences were found. The continuous infusion method maintained a steady level of sedation. Patients receiving propofol had a smoother sedation as judged by the surgeon and anesthetist.  (+info)

Comparison of ropivacaine and lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia in volunteers: a preliminary study on anesthetic efficacy and blood level. (3/572)

BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine may be useful for intravenous regional anesthesia, but its anesthetic effectiveness and toxicity have not been evaluated. METHODS: Two doses of ropivacaine (1.2 and 1.8 mg/kg) and one dose of lidocaine (3 mg/kg) were compared for intravenous regional anesthesia in 15 volunteers. An arm tourniquet was inflated for 30 min after injection and then deflated in two cycles. Sensory block was measured by response to touch, cold, pinprick, and transcutaneous electric stimulation, and motor function was measured by hand grip strength and muscle power. Median, ulnar, radial, and musculocutaneous nerve functions were tested before local anesthetic injection and then at 5-min intervals until blocks resolved. The plasma ropivacaine and lidocaine concentrations were determined from arterial and venous blood samples drawn from the unanesthetized arm. RESULTS: Sensory and motor blocks were complete within 25 min and 30 min, respectively, in all three treatment groups. However, recovery of sensory and motor block after tourniquet release was slowest in the high-dose ropivacaine group. Anesthesia to pinprick and transcutaneous electric stimulation was sustained in all the volunteers in the high-dose ropivacaine group for 55 min and 85 min, respectively, whereas complete recovery was observed in the lidocaine group (P = 0.008) and partial recovery in the low-dose ropivacaine group (P < 0.05) during the same period. Motor block also was sustained in the high-dose ropivacaine group for 70 min, which was significantly longer than in the lidocaine group (P < 0.05). All volunteers (five of five) given lidocaine and one volunteer given high-dose ropivacaine reported light-headedness and hearing disturbance during tourniquet release when the arterial plasma lidocaine and ropivacaine concentrations were 4.7+/-2.1 microg/ml (mean) and 2.7 micro/ml, respectively. CONCLUSION: Compared with lidocaine, intravenous regional anesthesia with ropivacaine appears to be comparable but has longer-lasting residual anesthesia.  (+info)

The independent effect of propofol anesthesia on whole body protein metabolism in humans. (4/572)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of general anesthesia with propofol in the absence of surgical stimulation on whole body protein metabolism. METHODS: Six unpremedicated patients were studied. General anesthesia included propofol (120 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)), vecuronium bromide, and oxygen-enriched air. Changes in protein breakdown, protein oxidation, and synthesis were measured by an isotope dilution technique using a constant infusion of the stable isotope tracer L-[1-13C]leucine (0.008 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) before and during 100 min of propofol anesthesia. The plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids, and cortisol were measured before and during anesthesia. RESULTS: An isotopic steady state of plasma [1-13C]alpha-ketoisocaproate (taken to represent the intracellular leucine precursor pool enrichment for protein synthesis) and expired 13C-carbon dioxide were obtained before and during propofol infusion. Whole body protein breakdown decreased during propofol anesthesia by 6% (P < 0.05), whereas protein synthesis and oxidation did not change significantly. Plasma concentration of cortisol decreased after 90 min of propofol anesthesia (P < 0.05). No significant changes of plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, and non-esterified fatty acids occurred during propofol administration. CONCLUSIONS: Propofol anesthesia did not significantly affect whole body protein synthesis and oxidation but caused a small, although significant, decrease in whole body protein breakdown, possibly mediated through the suppression of plasma cortisol concentration.  (+info)

Bolus dose remifentanil for control of haemodynamic response to tracheal intubation during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia. (5/572)

The effect of three bolus doses of remifentanil on the pressor response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia was assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in four groups of 20 patients each. After preoxygenation, anaesthesia was induced with thiopental 5-7 mg kg-1 followed immediately by saline (placebo) or remifentanil 0.5, 1.0 or 1.25 micrograms kg-1 given as a bolus over 30 s. Cricoid pressure was applied just after loss of consciousness. Succinylcholine 1 mg kg-1 was given for neuromuscular block. Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation were performed 1 min later. Arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded at intervals until 5 min after intubation. Remifentanil 0.5 microgram kg-1 was ineffective in controlling the increase in heart rate and arterial pressure after intubation but the 1.0 and 1.25 micrograms kg-1 doses were effective in controlling the response. The use of the 1.25 micrograms kg-1 dose was however, associated with a decrease in systolic arterial pressure to less than 90 mm Hg in seven of 20 patients.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics, induction of anaesthesia and safety characteristics of propofol 6% SAZN vs propofol 1% SAZN and Diprivan-10 after bolus injection. (6/572)

AIMS: In order to avoid the potential for elevated serum lipid levels as a consequence of long term sedation with propofol, a formulation of propofol 6% in Lipofundin(R) MCT/LCT 10% (Propofol 6% SAZN) has been developed. The pharmacokinetics, induction of anaesthesia and safety characteristics of this new formulation were investigated after bolus injection and were compared with the commercially available product (propofol 1% in Intralipid(R) 10%, Diprivan-10) and propofol 1% in Lipofundin(R) MCT/LCT 10% (Propofol 1% SAZN). METHODS: In a randomised double-blind study, 24 unpremedicated female patients received an induction dose of propofol of 2.5 mg kg-1 over 60 s which was followed by standardized balanced anaesthesia. The patients were randomized to receive propofol as Propofol 6% SAZN, Propofol 1% SAZN or Diprivan-10. RESULTS: For all formulations the pharmacokinetics were adequately described by a tri-exponential equation, as the propofol concentrations collected early after the injection suggested an additional initial more rapid phase. The average values for clearance (CL), volume of distribution at steady-state (Vd,ss ), elimination half-life (t1/2,z ) and distribution half-life (t1/2, lambda2) observed in the three groups were 32+/-1.5 ml kg-1 min-1, 2. 0+/-0.18 l kg-1, 95+/-5.6 min and 3.4+/-0.20 min, respectively (mean+/-s.e.mean, n=24) and no significant differences were noted between the three formulations (P >0.05). The half-life of the additional initial distribution phase (t1/2,lambda1 ) in all subjects ranged from 0.1 to 0.6 min. Anaesthesia was induced successfully and uneventfully in all cases, and the quality of induction was adequate in all 24 patients. The induction time did not vary between the three formulations and the average induction time observed in the three groups was 51+/-1.3 s which corresponded to an induction dose of propofol of 2.1+/-0.06 mg kg-1 (mean+/-s.e. mean, n=24). The percentage of patients reporting any pain on injection did not vary between the formulations and was 17% for the three groups. No postoperative phlebitis or other venous sequelae of the vein used for injection occurred in any of the patients at recovery of anaesthesia nor after 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: From the above results, we conclude that the alteration of the type of emulsion and the higher concentration of propofol in the new parenteral formulation of propofol does not affect the pharmacokinetics and induction characteristics of propofol, compared with the currently available product. Propofol 6% SAZN can be administered safely and has the advantage of a reduction of the load of fat and emulsifier which may be preferable when long term administration of propofol is required.  (+info)

Issues of consent in colonoscopy: if a patient says 'stop' should we continue? (7/572)

Colonoscopy is generally performed under intravenous sedation, which may alter a patient's responses and perception. What should be done if, during the procedure, a patient withdraws the consent previously given? The views of gastroenterologists and patients were ascertained by mailing questionnaires to 100 members of the British Society of Gastroenterology and to 100 patients who had undergone colonoscopy with intravenous sedation. Only 1 of 59 eligible consultants who replied said they would stop the procedure after a single request, but a further 51 would stop if repeatedly asked to do so. Of the remaining 7 who would complete the procedure, 1 nevertheless believed that a sedated patient is capable of making a rational decision. Of the 51 patients who returned a usable questionnaire, 25 thought that the procedure should be stopped immediately following a request, while 26 felt that the doctor should continue. The divergent and sometimes inconsistent views found in this study highlighted the need for further clarification of the issue of informed consent for procedures conducted with the patient under sedation.  (+info)

Effect of nitrous oxide on myogenic motor potentials evoked by a six pulse train of transcranial electrical stimuli: a possible monitor for aortic surgery. (8/572)

Intraoperative recording of myogenic motor potentials evoked by transcranial electrical stimulation (tcMEP) is a method of monitoring the integrity of the vulnerable motor pathways during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) surgery. Deflation of the left lung during TAAA surgery may result in impairment of arterial oxygenation. Ventilation with nitrous oxide may cause further desaturation. We studied the effects of 20%, 40% and 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen on within-patient variability and magnitude of tcMEP in response to six pulse transcranial electrical stimulation during fentanyl-low-dose propofol anaesthesia with partial neuromuscular block. Ten patients (two females; aged 63-74 yr) were studied. After achieving a stable anaesthetic state and before surgery, 10 tcMEP were recorded from the right tibialis anterior muscle during addition of 20%, 40% and 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen in random order. When ventilation with 40% or 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen was performed, there was 50-70% depression of tcMEP amplitude (P < 0.05) and 40-60% reduction in tcMEP area under the curve (P < 0.05) compared with 20% nitrous oxide in oxygen. There was no significant difference in the coefficients of variation for tcMEP between the three nitrous oxide anaesthetic regimens. Our results suggest that increasing doses of nitrous oxide reduce the MEP waveform to six pulse transcranial electrical stimulation, but even with 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen, the tcMEP were recordable and as reproducible as with 20% and 40% nitrous oxide regimens. The method is sufficiently robust for use in aortic surgery.  (+info)

Pilot study comparing total intravenous anesthesia to inhalational anesthesia in endoscopic sinus surgery: novel approach of blood flow quantification.
Clinical Case: You are doing Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a healthy 40 year old woman. Midway through the surgery, the patients heart rate suddenly climbs to 160, and the blood pressure climbs to 190/110. What do you do? Discussion: Your own heart rate hits 170. You check the ABCs of…
To present a case of recall after total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol-alfentanil infusions to point out an uncommon misuse of the Bard InfusOR syringe driver. A healthy patient underwen
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Connecticut Valley Oral Surgery. Call ☎ 413-774-2961 with any questions.
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Dr Edmond Bedrossian for your oral surgery procedure in San Francisco. 415-956-6610
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Santa Cruz Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery serving the Monterey Bay area. 831-475-0221
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Columbus IN Oral Surgeons Drs. Bergman and Forbes. Call us at 812-372-7312.
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Niagara Oral Surgery & Dental Implants & Dr. Nigalye. ☎ 716-276-3553
Swarthmore PA Oral Surgeon Dr. Bozentka and Lee offers Intravenous Anesthesia. Swarthmore 610-328-0773 and Bryn Mawr 484-380-2393
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An increasing need to perform colonoscopy for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes imposed the need for mastering this endoscopic procedure. Performing colonoscopy in general intravenous anesthesia could greatly ease the procedure, make it more comfortable for patients and it could enable detecting a higher number of patients with occult malignant diseases of the colon. The aim of this paper was to determine if the implementation of general intravenous anesthesia during colonoscopy increases the number of total colonoscopies and shortens the time of cecum intubation, increases the number of familiar pathological processes and decreases the sensation of pain as well as the frequency of side reactions. The implementation of general intravenous anesthesia has significantly increased the number of total colonoscopies in 94.3% of examined patients in relation to 78.7% of total colonoscopies of the control group and shortened the time of cecum intubation. It has significantly increased the num...ber of ...
The technique of TCI strongly influences the development of intravenous anaesthesia and opens a scenario of new and exciting applications in peri-operative anaesthetic management. The launch of "Diprifusor" as the first commercially available TCI system for propofol was the cornerstone of a successful research period within the last decade, which evaluated the pharmacokinetic foundations of computer assisted intravenous drug delivery. Nowadays TCI technology is becoming a part of routine anaesthesia technique for the practitioner rather than a research tool for specialists and those who are enthusiasts of intravenous anaesthesia. Besides clinical application in anaesthesia, target controlled systems will play a significant role as research tools in the evaluation of drug interactions in anaesthesia and in the development of new control techniques for the administration of sedative and analgesic drugs in the peri-operative period.. ...
Follow these instructions before your oral facial procedure with IV anesthesia at New Image Maxillofacial in Melbourne or Rockledge FL. (321) 725-5377
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you dont have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your librarys reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. OK ...
The total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is a commonly used technique in humans and has been instituted in anesthesia of small animals. The use of this technique only became popular in the last decade, due to lack of drugs ...
UNLABELLED: The aim of the study was to assess the possibility and effectiveness of hopaten acid use for early postoperative cognitive dysfunction correction in children of school age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In compliance with inclusion and exclusion criteria, totally 40 children of school age (7-16 years old, ASA status I-II) with surgical pathology: (varicocele, cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia) were included A comperative assessment of neuropsychic status during pre - and postoperative are period in children, operated under propofol-fentanyl total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) was conducted All patients were randomized to the control (without cepebroprotection 1st group, 20 children) and experimental (using cepebroprotection with hopaten acid within 1 month after the operation, 2nd group, 20 children) groups ...
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TAES) on hemodynamic fluctuation caused by loosing tourniquet in the elderly patients undergoing knee joint replacement. METHODS: A total of 60 ASA (America Society Anesthesiologist) I or II elderly patients for elective knee joint replacement surgery were randomly divided into control group (30 cases) and TAES group (30 cases). Patients of both groups were treated by intravenous anesthesia, and monitored with bispectral index (BIS, between 45-60) for anesthesia depth, stroke volume variation (SVV) for fluid management, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac index (CI) for hemodynamic fluctuation evaluation, and with analgesia nociception index (ANI, between 50-70) for remifentanil dosage adjustment ...
Harbour Point providing patient instructions before intravenous anesthesia, sedation for your oral or dental treatments. For more details CALL at 425 353 1009
Mississauga Ontario Oral Surgeon Drs. Listrom, Hodgson, Kienle, Ho, Barakat, Leung, Kodsi, Perschbacher, Marchese, Lo Cuddy offers Intravenous Anesthesia. 905-828-2273
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Ted M. Rosner, DMD in Delran & Lumberton NJ. Call us today at ☎ 856-764-7070.
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Concord Oral Surgery and Dr. Barron in Vaughan. Call 905-669-2616 for any questions.
Timboni Tiva Childrens Home, Ikutha, Eastern Inland Province This project is CMa Ds largest single ongoing commitment, funded by your donations. It was
Xenon is a gaseous anaesthetic agent registered in several European countries. It has been administered safely during cardiac surgery in pilot studies. In animal studies, xenon decreases the size of experimental myocardial infarction.. This 3-arm study will compare xenon, sevoflurane and a propofol-based total intravenous anaesthesia for maintenance of anaesthesia during coronary artery bypass graft surgery conducted with extra-corporeal circulation. Xenon and sevoflurane will be administered before and after extracorporeal circulation. Propofol will be administered during extracorporeal circulation in the three groups of patients.. The study will compare the postoperative myocardial damage observed 24 hours after surgery from blood levels of troponin I, a largely accepted biomarker of myocardial necrosis. The main hypothesis is that the myocardial damage observed after xenon administration will not be superior to the damage observed after sevoflurane administration (non-inferiority). The second ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Oral Surgeons provide information on IV Anesthesia to prepare patients for Oral Surgery. Call our offices in Mentor & Highland Heights OH today.
Oral Surgeons, Drs. Heise and Alpha, offer Patient Instructions prior to Oral Surgery using Intravenous IV Sedation in Sacramento CA . ☎ 916-442-1882
Oral Surgeons, Drs. Heise and Alpha, offer Patient Instructions prior to Oral Surgery using Intravenous IV Sedation in Sacramento CA . ☎ 916-442-1882
Induction doses of interferon-alpha-2a in combination with ribavirin and/or amantadine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in non-responders to interferon
Follow these instructions before dental intravenous anesthesia from the oral surgeons at Metropolitan Craniofacial Center in New Jersey. 973-736-7616
... - Key words: Intravenous anesthesia, remifentanyl, propofol, infusion pump, .. Aguilera L. Conceptos básicos de farmacocinética farmacodinámia en TIVA.
Oxygen, Administration, Analgesics, Anesthesia, Anesthetics, Cholecystectomy, Concentration, Dexamethasone, Intravenous Anesthesia, Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy, Measures, Narcotic Analgesics, Nausea, Nitrous Oxide, Ondansetron, Opioids, Patient, Patients, Ponv, Postoperative Nausea
PK-MOD: Android app (10+ downloads) → PK-MOD is a modeling program for exploring the pharmacokinetic behavior and costs of common intravenous anesthesia drugs. It should...
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In 1864 von Baeyer synthesized the first barbiturate, barbituric acid. The first hypnotic barbiturate, diethylbarbituric acid, was synthesized by Fischer and Mering in 1903. A number of other hypnotic-sedative barbiturates were developed and tested, but all had too slow onset and too long duration of action. In 1932 Weese and Schapff synthesized the first rapid onset, short duration barbiturate, the methylated oxybarbiturate hexobarbital. Unfortunately, hexobarbital caused undesirable excitatory side effects. Thiopental was first administered by Waters (Wisconsin) and Lundy (Mayo Clinic) in 1934. Thiopental proved to be fast and brief acting and devoid of excitatory side effects. When hexobarbital and thiopental were used to anesthetize the wounded at Pearl Harbor in 1941, there were so many deaths that intravenous anesthesia with these agents was later described as "an ideal method of euthanasia." (probably Halford FJ, 1943) A responding anonymous editorial correctly suggested that the cause of ...
Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) or Bier block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique for surgical procedures on the bodys extremities where a local anesthetic is injected intravenously. The technique usually involves exsanguination, which forces blood out of the extremity, followed by the application of pneumatic tourniquets to safely stop blood flow. The anesthetic agent is introduced into the limb and allowed to set in while tourniquets retain the agent within the desired area. The use of tourniquets and injected agents to induce localized anesthesia was first introduced by August Bier in 1908. He used an Esmarch bandage to exsanguinate the arm and injected procaine between two tourniquets to quickly produce anesthetic and analgesic effects in the site. Though it proved effective, IVRA remained relatively unpopular until C. McK. Holmes reintroduced it in 1963. Today, the technique is common due to its economy, rapid recovery, reliability, and simplicity. Protocols vary depending on ...
It has been reported that co-administration of ephedrine reduced the onset time of neuromuscular block of rocuronium (1-3). It also provided an improved condition for the rapid tracheal intubation (2,4). This beneficial effect was attributed to the increased cardiac output and tissue perfusion to muscle, and therefore, a more rapid delivery of rocuronium to the neuromuscular junction was achieved (4-5). If so, any drugs which decrease cardiac output consequently can prolong the onset time of rocuronium.. Remifentanil is the first ultra-short acting opioid with a rapid onset. During the total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil, prior administration of remifentanil could reduce the propofol infusion pain without other significant complications (6). However, remifentanil can decrease the arterial pressure and heart rate (7-8), so that it is likely to decrease the onset time of rocuronium for the opposite principle that ephedrine increases it.. The investigators therefore ...
Abstract. ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Day case surgery should be of short duration, rapid recovery, and with low incidence of postoperative complications. For long time was done with conventional inhalational based anesthesia, in last years, TIVA began to be used in these surgeries.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), as an aesthetic technique for day case procedures and to compare it with conventional inhalational based technique in terms of intra and postoperative hemodynamic and respiratory changes, postoperative recovery and postoperative vomiting.PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective randomized study has been done on 100 patient who underwent general anesthesia for short duration surgical procedure in AL- Jumhory teaching hospital in Al-Mosul city in Iraq, during the period between Nov 1st, 2011 and March 1st, 2012 , All patients were allocated into either TIVA or inhalational (INH) groups, of 50 patient each. In TIVA group: induction and maintenance of anesthesia done ...
Methods In a blinded clinical trial, 92 patients scheduled for supratentorial craniotomy under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into either a multipoint TEAS (n=46) or a sham TEAS group (n=46). All patients received total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and sufentanil. The target concentration of sufentanil was adjusted and recorded according to mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and bispectral index (BIS). Patients in the TEAS group received TEAS 30 min before anaesthesia induction and this was maintained throughout the operation at four pairs of acupuncture points. Postoperative pain, recovery and side effects were evaluated. ...
BACKGROUND: For decades thiopental has been considered as the hypnotic drug of choice for intracranial surgery. However, total intravenous anesthesia performed with thiopental is associated with delayed recovery, whereas early post-operative neurological evaluation is critical. For this reason, target controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol is increasingly used for maintenance of anesthesia. However, a thiopental TCI has never been assessed for this purpose. We tested the hypothesis that a thiopental TCI provides an acceptable way to achieve early recovery compared to a propofol TCI during supratentorial surgery ...
An incision is made around the earlobe extending to behind the ear, the excess skin is removed, and a few stitches are put in. The pinch from removing the excess skin restores tension on your jawline and improves definition. A skin pinch lift will not address the full neck, patients may require a neck lift if the full neck is a concern.. Some patients may consider liposuction to under chin, fat transfer to chin or skin tightening radiofrequency treatments to under chin or neck at the same time as a skin pinch lift to support the skin excision and rejuvenate the jawline area.. Mr Olivier Amar will carefully examine your jaw line, under chin and neck area and will devise a bespoke plan that may involve a combination approach to bring beautiful jawline, chin and neck definition.. The skin pinch lift procedure can be performed under local anaesthetic as day surgery, meaning you will be able to go home shortly afterwards or under total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA). A technique of anaesthesia which ...
Propofol is a general anesthetic commonly used in pediatric clinical practices. Experimental findings demonstrate that anesthetics induce widespread apoptosis and cognitive decline in a developing brain. Although anesthesia-mediated neurotoxicity is the most prominent during intense period of synaptogenesis, the effects of an early anesthesia exposure on the synapses are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on the expression of key proteins that participate in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and to evaluate long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities in the mature adult brain. Propofol-injected 7-day-old rats were maintained under 2-, 4-, and 6-h-long anesthesia and sacrificed 0, 4, 16, and 24 h after the termination of each exposure. We showed that propofol anesthesia strongly influenced spatiotemporal expression and/or proteolytic processing of crucial presynaptic (GAP-43, synaptophysin, α-synuclein), trans-synaptic ...
Home , Papers , Remifentanil versus fentanyl during cardiac surgery on the incidence of chronic thoracic pain (REFLECT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. ...
Background and study aims : In endoscopic procedures, propofol can be safely administered either alone or in conjunction with remifentanil. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of the administration of propofol alone and the administration of remifentanil in addition to propofol on patient and endoscopist satisfaction, preoperative hemodynamic response, and propofol consumption. ...
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A novel strategy of propofol anesthesia is proposed to improve clinical propofol anesthesia for hypothermic decompression. Theoretical analysis is...
This meeting will highlight and detail the development obstacles and features of propofol that have led to its wide range of applications.
Working together to unlock your potential index Introduction Equine Studies pote ntial Page Why choose Oaklands College?...1 New and improved facilities... Come and join the Oaklands Community...5
The success of inducing pluripotency in primary fibroblasts and other cells with a combination of only a small number of transcription factors suggested that fully differentiated cells might change fate following similar treatments. Since the demonstration of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), at least three examples have been published where 3 cell type-specific factors were selected from a pool of 10-20 candidates that, when expressed from viral vectors, could induce beta-cells, neurons, or cardiomyocytes.. Induced beta-cells [1]: Ngn3, Pdx1, and Mafa, adenovirus injected to in vivo targets. Induced neurons (iN) [2]: Ascl1, Brn2, and Myt1l, lentivirus infecting mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) or tail tip fibroblasts (TTF). Induced cardiomyocytes (iCM) [3]: Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5, lentivirus infecting cardiac fibroblasts or TTF. In all 3 cases, the change of fate seemed to be via direct conversion, without passing through a progenitor cell fate before further differentiation. Like iPSC ...
KRUGER, K y STEGMANN, G F. Partial intravenous anaesthesia in 5 horses using ketamine, lidocaine, medetomidine and halothane. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2009, vol.80, n.4, pp.233-236. ISSN 2224-9435.. A partial intravenous protocol was used successfully to maintain anaesthesia in 5 healthy horses. Horses were premedicated with acepromazine, romifidine and butorphanol, induced with guaifenesin and ketamine and maintained on a constant rate infusion of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane inhalation anaesthesia. Mean end-tidal halothane concentration to maintain a surgical plane of anaesthesia was 0.8 ± 0.2 %. Mean dobutamine requirement to maintain mean arterial pressure above 9.31 kPa was 0.42 ± 0.3 µg/kg/min The administration of relatively low doses of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane resulted in haemodynamically stable anaesthesia, followed by smooth recovery.. Palabras clave : anaesthesia; halothane; horse; ketamine; lidocaine; ...
... plexus anesthesia or intravenous regional anesthesia)[5]. *Heart and lung surgery (epidural anesthesia combined with general ... Trauma (peripheral nerve blocks, intravenous regional anesthesia, epidural anesthesia). Chronic pain[edit]. Chronic pain is a ... Dentistry (surface anesthesia, infiltration anesthesia or intraligamentary anesthesia during restorative operations such as ... Local anesthesia of body cavities includes intrapleural anesthesia and intra-articular anesthesia. ...
Pentothal's discovery revolutionized intravenous anesthesia. The anesthetic can quickly put patients to sleep for a short ... "General Anesthesia Pioneer". Heartland Science. Retrieved 22 June 2015. "Ernest H. Volwiler". National Inventors Hall of Fame. ... In 1934, Volwiler and Tabern synthesized the first intravenous general anesthetic, Sodium thiopental, in 1934. In the mid 1930s ... which were short-term anesthesia and surprisingly little analgesia. Three months later, John Silas Lundy started clinical ...
Raj, Phulchand (1972). "The site of action of intravenous regiional anesthesia". Anesth Analg. 51: 776-786. doi:10.1213/ ... liver microsomes Techniques for fiberoptic laryngoscope in anesthesia The site of action of intravenous regiional anesthesia ... Nair, L; Giesecke, A; Raj, P. Prithvi (2010). "FFARCS: Regional anesthesia pioneer". Bulletin of Anesthesia History. 28: 7-11. ... Nair, L.; Giesecke, A.; Raj, P. Prithvi (2010). "FFARCS: Regional anesthesia pioneer". Bulletin of Anesthesia History. 28: 7-11 ...
It is not used in intravenous regional anesthesia due to the risk of thrombophlebitis.[citation needed] ... Fetal acidosis, 2-chloroprocaine, and epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Feb 1;151(3):322-4. ... "Comparison of bupivacaine and 2-chloroprocaine for spinal anesthesia for outpatient surgery: a double-blind randomized trial." ... Drasner K. Chloroprocaine spinal anesthesia: back to the future? Anes analg 2005; 100: 549-52. ...
"A History of Intravenous Anesthesia in War (1656-1988)". Journal of Anesthesia History. 2 (1): 13-21. doi:10.1016/j.janh. ... It was also formerly used in veterinary medicine as a general anesthetic but is not considered acceptable for anesthesia or ... While a state of general anesthesia could be achieved, the technique never caught on because its administration was more ... Cuadrado, Fernando F.; Alston, Theodore A. (2016-10-01). "Book Review". Journal of Anesthesia History. 2 (4): 153-155. doi: ...
"Addition of cisatracurium to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia". J Clin Anesth. 18 (3): 194-7. doi:10.1016/j. ... of Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA). Thereafter, the entire clinical ... used adjunctively in anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery ... multicenter study in adult patients under propofol/fentanyl/N2O anesthesia". Minerva Anestesiol. 72 (5): 299-308. PMID 16675938 ...
The patient is awake during the procedure, so risks associated with general anesthesia are avoided. An intravenous line may be ... If the local anesthesia injections provide temporary pain relief, then RFA is performed on the nerve(s) that responded well to ... The nerves to be ablated are identified through injections of local anesthesia (such as lidocaine) prior to the RFA procedure. ... tumescent anesthesia injected along the entire vein prior to the application of radiofrequency provide a heat sink that absorbs ...
... as well as in intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier block anesthesia) where they serve the additional function of preventing ... Today, the two-tourniquet technique is used frequently and is called intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA). It is also ... August Bier used two tourniquets for administering segmental anesthesia in 1908. In this procedure circulation is isolated in a ...
Ahn ES, Mills DM, Meyer DR, Stasior GO (Jul 2008). "Sneezing reflex associated with intravenous sedation and periocular ... Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. 42 (8): 740-3. doi:10.1007/BF03012675. Raphael G, Raphael MH, Kaliner M (1989). "Gustatory ... Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. 42 (8): 740-743. doi:10.1007/bf03012675. ...
One Hundredth Anniversary of the intravenous anesthesia creation DG Uzbekova. At the Origin of the Development of Russian ...
2017). "Heart Rate Response to Intravenous Landiolol during Propofol Anesthesia". Circulation Control. 38 (1): 35-39. doi: ...
If the child cannot cooperate sufficiently, sedation with intravenous medications or general anesthesia may be necessary. In ...
Absalom, Anthony R.; Mason, Keira P. (March 1, 2017). Total Intravenous Anesthesia and Target Controlled Infusions: A ... It is used in veterinary practice under the trade name Alfaxan as an induction agent for anesthesia and as an injectable ... For this reason, it is recommended that animals recovering from anesthesia by alfaxalone stay in a quiet, dark area. The quick ... Alfaxalone should be administered slowly over a period of at least 60 seconds or until anesthesia is induced; as quick ...
Patients given etoxadrol often reported that they were aware of experiencing pain upon waking from anesthesia, but it did not ... Etoxadrol goes into effect 90 seconds after intravenous (IV) administration, and its anesthetic effects typically last for half ... Etoxadrol was intended as an anesthetic for patients requiring particularly long periods of anesthesia for surgery. As an ... Frederickson, EL; Longnecker, DE; Allen, GW (May-Jun 1976). "Clinical investigation of a new intravenous anesthetic--etoxadrol ...
Zacny, J. P.; Lichtor, J. L.; de Wit, H. (1992). "Subjective, Behavioral, and Physiologic Responses to Intravenous Dezocine in ... Healthy Volunteers". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 74 (4): 523-530. doi:10.1213/00000539-199204000-00010. PMID 1348168. ...
If treatment of the lesions is ineffective, studies have shown that intravenous fentanyl, a slow-acting narcotic, or a fentanyl ... Journal of Anesthesia. 21 (3): 417-9. doi:10.1007/s00540-007-0526-x. PMID 17680198. Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Kuo, PH; Hsu, CH; Yang, ... The CNH was considered reversible and was successfully treated with high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone and plasma ... "Central neurogenic hyperventilation treated with intravenous fentanyl followed by transdermal application". ...
Anesthesia in labor. (Russian) Fel'dsher i Akusherka. 1980;45(6):21-7. Zhirkova IuV, Stepanenko SM, Butyleva OIu, Zilbert EV, ... Method of continuous intravenous postoperative analgesia with promedol in newborn children. (Russian) Anesteziologiia i ...
Examples of intravenous applications are propofol for anesthesia, NSAID drugs, etc. In the cosmetics industry, it is used to ... It can be used in manufacture of intravenous fat infusions and for therapeutic use. ...
Park CK, Choi HY, Oh IY, Kim MS (2002). "Acute dystonia by droperidol during intravenous patient-controlled analgesia in young ... Anesthesia and Analgesia. 88 (6): 1370-9. doi:10.1097/00000539-000000000-00000. PMID 10357347. Kao LW, Kirk MA, Evers SJ, ...
... a comparison of total intravenous versus balanced anesthesia". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 101 (6): 1700-5. doi:10.1213/01.ane. ... a comparison of total intravenous versus balanced anesthesia". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 101 (6): 1700-5. doi:10.1213/01.ane. ... Crozier, TA; Müller, JE; Quittkat, D; Sydow, M; Wuttke, W; Kettler, D (Sep 1994). "[Total intravenous anesthesia with ... Isoflurane/Fentanyl anesthesia for major abdominal surgery: Effects on hormones and hemodynamics". Medical science monitor : ...
Shafer graduated from Princeton University with an A.B. He received his M.D. from Stanford and completed his anesthesia ... He specializes in the clinical pharmacology of intravenous anesthetic drugs. Shafer left Stanford in 2007 to go to Columbia ... In 2012, Shafer returned to Stanford as an anesthesia professor in the Stanford University Medical Center. In addition, he is ... 1988). "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol infusions during general anesthesia". Anesthesiology. 69 (3): 348-356 ...
He was the first to perform spinal anesthesia and intravenous regional anesthesia. After professorships in Greifswald and Bonn ... In 1908, Bier pioneered the use of intravenous regional anesthesia, a technique which is commonly referred to as a "Bier block ... The profound anesthesia of his legs was demonstrated with repeated kicks to his shins. Later that evening, they celebrated ... A tribute to a great surgeon who contributed much to the development of modern anesthesia on the 50th anniversary of his death ...
The abdomen is prepared and draped and is examined under anesthesia. If a mass is present, the incision is made over the mass; ... a single dose of prophylactic intravenous antibiotics is given immediately before surgery. General anaesthesia is induced, with ...
Bumen S, Gunusen I, Firat V, Karaman S, Akdogan A, Tavmergen Goker EN (2011). "A comparison of intravenous general anesthesia ... Viscomi CM, Hill K, Johnson J, Sites C (1997). "Spinal anesthesia versus intravenous sedation for transvaginal oocyte retrieval ... Sequeira PM (2011). "Anesthesia for in vitro fertilization". In Urman RD, Gross WL, Philip BK. Anesthesia outside of the ... Additional complications may result from the administration of intravenous sedation or general anesthesia. These include ...
If intravenous midazolam is given too quickly, hypotension may occur. A "midazolam infusion syndrome" may result from high ... Kaplan JH, Reich DL, Lake CL, Konstadt SN (15 May 2006). Cardiac Anesthesia (5 ed.). W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 978-1-4160- ... Intravenous midazolam is indicated for procedural sedation (often in combination with an opioid, such as fentanyl), for ... Brigo F, Nardone R, Tezzon F, Trinka E (August 2015). "Nonintravenous midazolam versus intravenous or rectal diazepam for the ...
1957). "Intravenous infusion of bone marrow in patients receiving radiation and chemotherapy". New England Journal of Medicine ... The technique is referred to as a bone marrow harvest and is performed under general anesthesia. ... Mucositis is treated with pain medications plus intravenous infusions to prevent dehydration and malnutrition. ...
Advanced Practitioner, Anesthesia Services, Anesthetist, BSN, Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist, CRNA, CRNA I, CRNA II, ... Administration/management of inhaled, intravenous, & regional anesthetics/adjuncts throughout the...... Certified Registered ... Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Graduate of a Nurse Anesthesia Educational Program Accredited by the National Board of ... Graduate of a Nurse Anesthesia Educational Program Accredited by the National Board of Certification for Nurse Anesthetist ...
observe patients to ensure that anesthesia is maintained.. • monitor patients for warning signs during anesthesia and assist ... prepare prescribed solutions and start intravenous injections.. • administer prescribed anesthetics and medications.. • ... the science of anesthesia. Nurse anesthetists are an important part of the surgical team.. Nurse anesthetists:. • explain ... To become a Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA), students attend an approved nurse anesthesia graduate. program, ...
Legibly record/document evaluations, anesthesia care notes in standard anesthesia records in hospital settings in a timely ... Perform precision movements, i.e., venipuncture, arterial puncture, peripheral and central intravenous line placement, IV ... anesthesia induction, maintenance and emergence, c) post-anesthesia care, and d) peri-anesthetic and clinical support functions ... The stated mission of the nurse anesthesia program at Samuel Merritt University is to educate and prepare certified registered ...
intravenous administration of vasopressin: evidence for a direct nose-brain pathway for peptide effects in humans. Biol ... A potential advantage of using IN DEX for most cases and limiting propofol or general inhalation anesthesia to those who failed ... This outcome would be well within the reported safe range when using intravenous dexmedetomidine as a sole agent for MRI ... The incidence and nature of adverse events during pediatric sedation/anesthesia with propofol for procedures outside the ...
... and how does pediatric anesthesia differ from adult anesthesia and geriatric anesthesia? What goes into developing an effective ... Intravenous fluids are controlled, monitored and recorded as well as blood loss and urine output. The patient is kept warm ... Intra-operative anesthesia is the anesthesia the patient receives in the OR. When the patient arrives in the OR, the monitors ... Depending on the anesthesia needed either the patient receives regional anesthesia such as a spinal anesthetic or a general ...
Definition of intravenous anesthesia. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... intravenous anesthesia. Definition: general anesthesia produced by injection of central nervous system depressants into the ...
Intravenous anesthesia definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. ... General anesthesia in which venipuncture is used as a means of injecting central nervous system depressants into the ...
Definition of intravenous regional anesthesia. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms ...
Intravenous regional anesthesia. Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) using older tourniquet equipment. Modern electronic ... Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) or Biers block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique on the bodys extremities where a ... "A North American survey of intravenous regional anesthesia". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 85 (4): 858-63. doi:10.1097/00000539- ... "Tourniquet Safety and Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA, also called Bier Block Anesthesia): Whats New and Why?". ...
Home , February 2018 - Volume 126 - Issue 2 , A Tale of Two Solutions: High vs Low-Chloride Intravenous F... ... A Tale of Two Solutions: High vs Low-Chloride Intravenous Fluids. Wanderer, Jonathan P. MD, MPhil; Nathan, Naveen MD ... While normal saline remains the most commonly utilized intravenous fluid in medicine and has long been a traditional choice, ... In this infographic, we review the composition of commonly utilized low- and high-chloride intravenous fluids as well as ...
"A North American survey of intravenous regional anesthesia". Anesthesia & Analgesia. International Anesthesia Research Society ... Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) or Bier block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique for surgical procedures on the ... Anesthesia August Bier Regional Anesthesia Surgical Tourniquets Matt, Corinna (2007). "Intravenous regional anaesthesia". ... McEwen, James (21 June 2011). "Tourniquet Safety and Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA, also called Bier Block Anesthesia ...
Keeping in consideration the merits of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), a genuine attempt was made to find the ideal drug ... Comparison of two drug combinations in total intravenous anesthesia: Propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl.. Singh Bajwa SJ1 ... Group I received propofol-ketamine while group II received propofol-fentanyl for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. All ... Both propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl combinations produce rapid, pleasant and safe anesthesia with only a few untoward ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
Tubeless Total Intravenous Anesthesia Spontaneous Ventilation for Adult Suspension Microlaryngoscopy. Download Prime PubMed App ... AdultAgedAnesthesia, IntravenousAnesthetics, IntravenousFemaleHumansIntubation, IntratrachealLaryngeal DiseasesLaryngoscopes ... "Tubeless Total Intravenous Anesthesia Spontaneous Ventilation for Adult Suspension Microlaryngoscopy." The Annals of Otology, ... Tubeless Total Intravenous Anesthesia Spontaneous Ventilation for Adult Suspension Microlaryngoscopy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. ...
Behaviour of Intravenous Solutions in Obese Patients Under General Anesthesia. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... Blood samples will be taken at time 0 (after induction of anesthesia and before initiating infusion) and then every 5 minutes ... There is no objective evidence of how long intravenous solutions remain inside venous blood vessels after they have been ... will be initiated after protocoled induction of general anesthesia. ...
THE INTRAVENOUS INJECTION OF MAGNESIUM SULPHATE FOR ANESTHESIA IN ANIMALS. J. Auer, S. J. Meltzer ... The production of anesthesia by intravenous injection of magnesium sulphate should not be undertaken unless an apparatus for ... By the intravenous injection of M/4 magnesium sulphate into dogs at a certain rate, a stage can be reached where the abdominal ... The latter mode of disappearance may be favorably accelerated by an intravenous infusion of 60 to 100 cc. of an M/4 solution of ...
Buy Textbook of Intravenous Anesthesia by Paul F. White at TextbookX.com. ISBN/UPC: 9780683021257. Save an average of 50% on ...
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Concord Oral Surgery and Dr. Barron in Vaughan. Call 905 ... Anesthesia ...
The method of the present invention greatly simplifies clinical application of continuous infusion anesthesia, and allows easy ... rates required for special situations such as neonatal anesthesia or others, where low flow rates may be required. Premeasured ... for special applications such as neonatal anesthesia and others. A computerized mix controller coupled with a computer capable ... Many classes of intravenous agents can be used in the treatment of medical patients, such as general anesthesia or an ...
general anesthesia. 2. Subject is non-lactating and is either:. - Not of childbearing potential. - Of childbearing potential ... The aim of the proposed study is to examine the effect of intravenous(IV). ibuprofen on the inflammatory response in major ... Study on the Effect of Intravenous Ibuprofen on Inflammatory Responses in Patients Undergoing Surgery With General Anesthesia: ... Study on the Effect of Intravenous Ibuprofen on Inflammatory Responses in Patients Undergoing Surgery With General Anesthesia: ...
Early Intravenous Anesthesia: An Eyewitness Account You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or ... Early Intravenous Anesthesia: An Eyewitness Account. Anesthesiology 1 1990, Vol.72, 185-186. doi: ... Norman A. Bergman; Early Intravenous Anesthesia: An Eyewitness Account. Anesthesiology 1990;72(1):185-186. ...
Safe Gas Systems and Office-Based Anesthesia. *Preventing Surgical Site Infection After Cesarean Delivery-The Anesthesia ... John Eichhorn: An Anesthesia Patient Safety Innovator. *Planning Prevents Poor Performance: An Approach to Pediatric Airway ... 2018 Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation. All rights reserved.. Website Development by EdensWorks, Inc.. ... Dear SIRS: Not All Manifolds are the Same: Lessons in Intravenous Drug Administration ...
Cognitive Dysfunction after Inhalation versus Intravenous Anesthesia in Elderly Patients Stacie Deiner, M.D.; Mark G. Baxter, ... In contrast, the group that received intravenous anesthesia had age-appropriate serum concentration of propofol,3 around 1 μg/ ... Cognitive Dysfunction after Inhalation versus Intravenous Anesthesia in Elderly Patients. Anesthesiology 9 2012, Vol.117, 676- ... Cognitive Dysfunction after Inhalation versus Intravenous Anesthesia in Elderly Patients You will receive an email whenever ...
... or a single-cuff forearm tourniquet intravenous regional anesthesia with 1.5 mg.kg-1 lidocaine and a hematoma block with 10 mL ... Conclusion Intravenous regional anesthesia with single cuff forearm tourniquet and hematoma block compared to the traditional ... Objective To investigate the effect of intravenous regional anesthesia with single-cuff forearm tourniquet and hematoma block ... Comparison of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia with Single-Cuff Forearm Tourniquet and Hematoma Block and Traditional Method in ...
Ureteroscopic Lithotripsy Under Local Anesthesia and Without Intravenous Analgesia in Adults: Analysis of the Effectiveness and ... The advantages of local anesthesia include the prevention of complication associated with anesthesia, communication with the ... Ureteroscopy under local anesthesia with or without intravenous analgesia. Prog Urol. 1995;5(4):548-550. ... ureteroscopic diagnosis and treatment can be accomplished under local anesthesia and without intravenous sedation analgesia in ...
  • As Assistant Chief CRNA, Dr. Clark provides general, regional, and peripheral anesthesia to pediatric, adult, and obstetrical patients, while also completing administrative duties such as coordinating improvements to policies and procedures, overseeing the tasks of anesthesia staff, and managing continuing education sessions for CRNAs at the Medical Center. (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • In addition to her clinical and staff leadership, Dr. Clark has an extensive background in nurse anesthesia education, having served as a Clinical Coordinator during her time at UC Davis Medical Center, as a Clinical Preceptor for Samuel Merritt University CRNA students, and as Assistant Professor and Co-Chairperson for the Admission Committee at Samuel Merritt University's Program of Nurse Anesthesia. (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • My first job as a CRNA was at the University of California- Davis Medical Center (UCDMC) in Sacramento, CA. I was the clinical coordinator for the SMU PNA students at UCDMC and became a preceptor to nurse anesthesia students in the operating room (OR). (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • Dr. Clark earned her BSN from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in 1986, her MSN with a concentration in Nurse Anesthesia in 1997 from Samuel Merritt University, and her DNP in Leadership and Education in 2012 from Rush University. (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • I knew I needed the experience in critical care as well as emergency room in order to apply to the Program of Nurse Anesthesia (PNA) at Samuel Merritt University (SMU) in Oakland, CA. Additional requirements for the SMU PNA were: BSN, grade point average (GPA) of 3.5 or higher, proof of leadership ability, the graduate record exam, reference letters, and basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) certification. (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • Textbook of intravenous anesthesia is richly and appropriately illustrated with black and white line drawings graphs and tables unfortunately some of the figures are so small that portions of the incorporated text are difficult to read also some figures and tables appear several pages away from the text referring to them. (rodrus.org)
  • BMC's specialists are leaders in their fields and the team has expertise in such specialized fields as critical care, cardiac, pediatric, and obstetric anesthesia. (bmc.org)
  • For cases involving neurophysiologic monitoring like motor evoked potentials (MEPs), TIVAs become necessary as volatile anesthetics (ie, anesthesia "gases") will alter the monitoring. (rk.md)
  • AU - Yoo,Mi Jin, AU - Joffe,Aaron M, AU - Meyer,Tanya K, Y1 - 2017/11/24/ PY - 2017/11/25/pubmed PY - 2017/12/28/medline PY - 2017/11/25/entrez KW - airway KW - anesthesia KW - jet ventilation KW - laryngology KW - laryngotracheal stenosis KW - microlaryngoscopy KW - otolaryngology SP - 39 EP - 45 JF - The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology JO - Ann. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Therefore, anesthesia which might lead to bronchial irritation, formation of tenacious sputum or excessive respiratory effort should be avoided. (scribd.com)