Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Anesthesia, IntratrachealIntraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Anesthesia and Analgesia: Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome: Entrapment of the distal branches of the posterior TIBIAL NERVE (which divides into the medial plantar, lateral plantar, and calcanial nerves) in the tarsal tunnel, which lies posterior to the internal malleolus and beneath the retinaculum of the flexor muscles of the foot. Symptoms include ankle pain radiating into the foot which tends to be aggravated by walking. Examination may reveal Tinel's sign (radiating pain following nerve percussion) over the tibial nerve at the ankle, weakness and atrophy of the small foot muscles, or loss of sensation in the foot. (From Foot Ankle 1990;11(1):47-52)Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.EthersMidazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Intraoperative Awareness: Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Neuromuscular Blockade: The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Hypotension, Controlled: Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Rumex: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nurse Anesthetists: Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.Vecuronium Bromide: Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Atracurium: A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Ethyl EthersTiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Tourniquets: Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Propoxycaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a rapid onset of action and a longer duration of action than procaine hydrochloride. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1017)Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.gamma-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Recovery Room: Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Viola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Closing Volume: The lung volume at which the dependent lung zones cease to ventilate presumably as a result of airway closure.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.

Propofol infusion for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia in patients with end-stage renal disease. (1/572)

We have investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol in 11 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) compared with nine healthy patients during and after a manually controlled three-stage infusion of propofol 21, 12 and 6 mg kg-1 h-1 lasting a minimum of 2 h. Mean total body clearance was not reduced significantly in the ESRD group (30.66 (SD 8.47) ml kg-1 min-1) compared with the control group (33.75 (7.8) ml kg-1 min-1). ESRD patients exhibited a greater, but not statistically significant, volume of distribution at steady state compared with patients in the control group (11.25 (8.86) vs 5.79 (2.14) litre kg-1, respectively). Elimination half-life values were unchanged by renal failure. Mean times to induction of anaesthesia were similar in both groups: 177 (SD 57) and 167 (58) s for the ESRD and control groups, respectively. Waking time after cessation of propofol infusion was significantly shorter in the ESRD group (474 (156) s) compared with the control group (714 (240) s) (P < 0.05). Mean plasma concentrations on waking were similar. We conclude that the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of propofol after infusion were not markedly affected by renal failure.  (+info)

Comparison of recovery of propofol and methohexital sedation using an infusion pump. (2/572)

Two sedative anesthetic agents administered by an infusion pump were compared during third molar surgery. Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I or II volunteers were randomly allocated to two groups. All subjects received supplemental oxygen via a nasal hood, fentanyl (0.0007 mg/kg intravenous [i.v.] bolus), and midazolam (1 mg/2 min) titrated to effect. Patients then received either 0.3 mg/kg of methohexital or 0.5 mg/kg of propofol via an infusion pump. Upon completion of the bolus, a continuous infusion of 0.05 mg/kg/min methohexital or 0.066 mg/kg/min propofol was administered throughout the procedure. Hemo-dynamic and respiratory parameters and psychomotor performance were compared for the two groups and no significant differences were found. The continuous infusion method maintained a steady level of sedation. Patients receiving propofol had a smoother sedation as judged by the surgeon and anesthetist.  (+info)

Comparison of ropivacaine and lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia in volunteers: a preliminary study on anesthetic efficacy and blood level. (3/572)

BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine may be useful for intravenous regional anesthesia, but its anesthetic effectiveness and toxicity have not been evaluated. METHODS: Two doses of ropivacaine (1.2 and 1.8 mg/kg) and one dose of lidocaine (3 mg/kg) were compared for intravenous regional anesthesia in 15 volunteers. An arm tourniquet was inflated for 30 min after injection and then deflated in two cycles. Sensory block was measured by response to touch, cold, pinprick, and transcutaneous electric stimulation, and motor function was measured by hand grip strength and muscle power. Median, ulnar, radial, and musculocutaneous nerve functions were tested before local anesthetic injection and then at 5-min intervals until blocks resolved. The plasma ropivacaine and lidocaine concentrations were determined from arterial and venous blood samples drawn from the unanesthetized arm. RESULTS: Sensory and motor blocks were complete within 25 min and 30 min, respectively, in all three treatment groups. However, recovery of sensory and motor block after tourniquet release was slowest in the high-dose ropivacaine group. Anesthesia to pinprick and transcutaneous electric stimulation was sustained in all the volunteers in the high-dose ropivacaine group for 55 min and 85 min, respectively, whereas complete recovery was observed in the lidocaine group (P = 0.008) and partial recovery in the low-dose ropivacaine group (P < 0.05) during the same period. Motor block also was sustained in the high-dose ropivacaine group for 70 min, which was significantly longer than in the lidocaine group (P < 0.05). All volunteers (five of five) given lidocaine and one volunteer given high-dose ropivacaine reported light-headedness and hearing disturbance during tourniquet release when the arterial plasma lidocaine and ropivacaine concentrations were 4.7+/-2.1 microg/ml (mean) and 2.7 micro/ml, respectively. CONCLUSION: Compared with lidocaine, intravenous regional anesthesia with ropivacaine appears to be comparable but has longer-lasting residual anesthesia.  (+info)

The independent effect of propofol anesthesia on whole body protein metabolism in humans. (4/572)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of general anesthesia with propofol in the absence of surgical stimulation on whole body protein metabolism. METHODS: Six unpremedicated patients were studied. General anesthesia included propofol (120 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)), vecuronium bromide, and oxygen-enriched air. Changes in protein breakdown, protein oxidation, and synthesis were measured by an isotope dilution technique using a constant infusion of the stable isotope tracer L-[1-13C]leucine (0.008 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) before and during 100 min of propofol anesthesia. The plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids, and cortisol were measured before and during anesthesia. RESULTS: An isotopic steady state of plasma [1-13C]alpha-ketoisocaproate (taken to represent the intracellular leucine precursor pool enrichment for protein synthesis) and expired 13C-carbon dioxide were obtained before and during propofol infusion. Whole body protein breakdown decreased during propofol anesthesia by 6% (P < 0.05), whereas protein synthesis and oxidation did not change significantly. Plasma concentration of cortisol decreased after 90 min of propofol anesthesia (P < 0.05). No significant changes of plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, and non-esterified fatty acids occurred during propofol administration. CONCLUSIONS: Propofol anesthesia did not significantly affect whole body protein synthesis and oxidation but caused a small, although significant, decrease in whole body protein breakdown, possibly mediated through the suppression of plasma cortisol concentration.  (+info)

Bolus dose remifentanil for control of haemodynamic response to tracheal intubation during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia. (5/572)

The effect of three bolus doses of remifentanil on the pressor response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia was assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in four groups of 20 patients each. After preoxygenation, anaesthesia was induced with thiopental 5-7 mg kg-1 followed immediately by saline (placebo) or remifentanil 0.5, 1.0 or 1.25 micrograms kg-1 given as a bolus over 30 s. Cricoid pressure was applied just after loss of consciousness. Succinylcholine 1 mg kg-1 was given for neuromuscular block. Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation were performed 1 min later. Arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded at intervals until 5 min after intubation. Remifentanil 0.5 microgram kg-1 was ineffective in controlling the increase in heart rate and arterial pressure after intubation but the 1.0 and 1.25 micrograms kg-1 doses were effective in controlling the response. The use of the 1.25 micrograms kg-1 dose was however, associated with a decrease in systolic arterial pressure to less than 90 mm Hg in seven of 20 patients.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics, induction of anaesthesia and safety characteristics of propofol 6% SAZN vs propofol 1% SAZN and Diprivan-10 after bolus injection. (6/572)

AIMS: In order to avoid the potential for elevated serum lipid levels as a consequence of long term sedation with propofol, a formulation of propofol 6% in Lipofundin(R) MCT/LCT 10% (Propofol 6% SAZN) has been developed. The pharmacokinetics, induction of anaesthesia and safety characteristics of this new formulation were investigated after bolus injection and were compared with the commercially available product (propofol 1% in Intralipid(R) 10%, Diprivan-10) and propofol 1% in Lipofundin(R) MCT/LCT 10% (Propofol 1% SAZN). METHODS: In a randomised double-blind study, 24 unpremedicated female patients received an induction dose of propofol of 2.5 mg kg-1 over 60 s which was followed by standardized balanced anaesthesia. The patients were randomized to receive propofol as Propofol 6% SAZN, Propofol 1% SAZN or Diprivan-10. RESULTS: For all formulations the pharmacokinetics were adequately described by a tri-exponential equation, as the propofol concentrations collected early after the injection suggested an additional initial more rapid phase. The average values for clearance (CL), volume of distribution at steady-state (Vd,ss ), elimination half-life (t1/2,z ) and distribution half-life (t1/2, lambda2) observed in the three groups were 32+/-1.5 ml kg-1 min-1, 2. 0+/-0.18 l kg-1, 95+/-5.6 min and 3.4+/-0.20 min, respectively (mean+/-s.e.mean, n=24) and no significant differences were noted between the three formulations (P >0.05). The half-life of the additional initial distribution phase (t1/2,lambda1 ) in all subjects ranged from 0.1 to 0.6 min. Anaesthesia was induced successfully and uneventfully in all cases, and the quality of induction was adequate in all 24 patients. The induction time did not vary between the three formulations and the average induction time observed in the three groups was 51+/-1.3 s which corresponded to an induction dose of propofol of 2.1+/-0.06 mg kg-1 (mean+/-s.e. mean, n=24). The percentage of patients reporting any pain on injection did not vary between the formulations and was 17% for the three groups. No postoperative phlebitis or other venous sequelae of the vein used for injection occurred in any of the patients at recovery of anaesthesia nor after 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: From the above results, we conclude that the alteration of the type of emulsion and the higher concentration of propofol in the new parenteral formulation of propofol does not affect the pharmacokinetics and induction characteristics of propofol, compared with the currently available product. Propofol 6% SAZN can be administered safely and has the advantage of a reduction of the load of fat and emulsifier which may be preferable when long term administration of propofol is required.  (+info)

Issues of consent in colonoscopy: if a patient says 'stop' should we continue? (7/572)

Colonoscopy is generally performed under intravenous sedation, which may alter a patient's responses and perception. What should be done if, during the procedure, a patient withdraws the consent previously given? The views of gastroenterologists and patients were ascertained by mailing questionnaires to 100 members of the British Society of Gastroenterology and to 100 patients who had undergone colonoscopy with intravenous sedation. Only 1 of 59 eligible consultants who replied said they would stop the procedure after a single request, but a further 51 would stop if repeatedly asked to do so. Of the remaining 7 who would complete the procedure, 1 nevertheless believed that a sedated patient is capable of making a rational decision. Of the 51 patients who returned a usable questionnaire, 25 thought that the procedure should be stopped immediately following a request, while 26 felt that the doctor should continue. The divergent and sometimes inconsistent views found in this study highlighted the need for further clarification of the issue of informed consent for procedures conducted with the patient under sedation.  (+info)

Effect of nitrous oxide on myogenic motor potentials evoked by a six pulse train of transcranial electrical stimuli: a possible monitor for aortic surgery. (8/572)

Intraoperative recording of myogenic motor potentials evoked by transcranial electrical stimulation (tcMEP) is a method of monitoring the integrity of the vulnerable motor pathways during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) surgery. Deflation of the left lung during TAAA surgery may result in impairment of arterial oxygenation. Ventilation with nitrous oxide may cause further desaturation. We studied the effects of 20%, 40% and 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen on within-patient variability and magnitude of tcMEP in response to six pulse transcranial electrical stimulation during fentanyl-low-dose propofol anaesthesia with partial neuromuscular block. Ten patients (two females; aged 63-74 yr) were studied. After achieving a stable anaesthetic state and before surgery, 10 tcMEP were recorded from the right tibialis anterior muscle during addition of 20%, 40% and 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen in random order. When ventilation with 40% or 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen was performed, there was 50-70% depression of tcMEP amplitude (P < 0.05) and 40-60% reduction in tcMEP area under the curve (P < 0.05) compared with 20% nitrous oxide in oxygen. There was no significant difference in the coefficients of variation for tcMEP between the three nitrous oxide anaesthetic regimens. Our results suggest that increasing doses of nitrous oxide reduce the MEP waveform to six pulse transcranial electrical stimulation, but even with 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen, the tcMEP were recordable and as reproducible as with 20% and 40% nitrous oxide regimens. The method is sufficiently robust for use in aortic surgery.  (+info)

*List of local anesthetics

... local anesthetics Dental anesthesia Dibucaine number Epidural Intravenous regional anesthesia Local anesthesia Local anesthetic ... Local anesthetic toxicity Methemoglobin Sodium channel blocker Spinal anesthesia Topical anesthesia Veterinary anesthesia Büchi ... 4-Aminobenzoic acid Amino amide Amino esters Anesthesia Anesthetic Brachial plexus block Cocaine analogues: ...

*Spinal anaesthesia

Epidural anesthesia is a technique whereby a local anesthetic drug is injected through a catheter placed into the epidural ... Common but usually easily treated with intravenous fluid and sympathomimetic drugs such as Ephedrine, Phenylephrine or ... This technique has some similarity to spinal anesthesia, both are neuraxial, and the two techniques may be easily confused with ... Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal block, subarachnoid block, intradural block and intrathecal block ...

*Local anesthetic

... plexus anesthesia) Shoulder and arm surgery (plexus anesthesia or intravenous regional anesthesia) Heart and lung surgery ( ... epidural anesthesia) Trauma (peripheral nerve blocks, intravenous regional anesthesia, epidural anesthesia) Chronic pain is a ... epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia) Abdominal surgery (epidural anesthesia/spinal anesthesia, often combined ... Local anesthesia of body cavities includes intrapleural anesthesia and intra-articular anesthesia. Transincision (or transwound ...

*Dental anesthesia

... is often used through intravenous infusion through an IV during general anesthesia after gasses are initiated. Morphine is ... Dental anesthesia (or dental anaesthesia) is a field of anesthesia that includes not only local anesthetics but sedation and ... page 216 Local Anesthesia for the Dental Hygienist, Logothetis, Elsevier, 2012 Local Anesthesia for the Dental Hygienist, ... Pressure anesthesia - pressure with a cotton swab in the area to distract the nerve sensation of pain when the needle enters ...

*Ropivacaine

Basic of Anesthesia, Robert Stoelting, page 289) Rossi S, editor. Australian Medicines Handbook 2006. Adelaide: Australian ... As for bupivacaine, Celepid, a commonly available intravenous lipid emulsion, can be effective in treating severe ... Most ADRs relate to administration technique (resulting in systemic exposure) or pharmacological effects of anesthesia, however ... Ropivacaine is contraindicated for intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA). However, new data suggested both ropivacaine (1.2- ...

*Fospropofol

... (INN), often used as the disodium salt (trade name Lusedra) is an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent. It is ... Lampotang S, Lizdas D, Gravenstein N, Yavas S (2006). University of Florida Department of Anesthesiology Virtual Anesthesia ... Purported advantages of this water-soluble chemical compound include less pain at the site of intravenous administration, less ... Several water-soluble derivatives and prodrugs of the widely used intravenous anesthetic agent propofol have been developed, of ...

*Intravenous regional anesthesia

"A North American survey of intravenous regional anesthesia". Anesthesia & Analgesia. International Anesthesia Research Society ... Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) or Bier block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique for surgical procedures on the ... Anesthesia August Bier Regional Anesthesia Surgical Tourniquets Matt, Corinna (2007). "Intravenous regional anaesthesia". ... McEwen, James (21 June 2011). "Tourniquet Safety and Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA, also called Bier Block Anesthesia ...

*Ernest H. Volwiler

Pentothal's discovery revolutionized intravenous anesthesia. The anesthetic can quickly put patients to sleep for a short ... "General Anesthesia Pioneer". Heartland Science. Retrieved 22 June 2015. "Ernest H. Volwiler". National Inventors Hall of Fame. ... In 1934, Volwiler and Tabern synthesized the first intravenous general anesthetic, Sodium thiopental, in 1934. In the mid 1930s ... which were short-term anesthesia and surprisingly little analgesia. Three months later, John Silas Lundy started clinical ...

*Chloral hydrate

"A History of Intravenous Anesthesia in War (1656-1988)". Journal of Anesthesia History. 2 (1): 13-21. doi:10.1016/j.janh. ... It was also formerly used in veterinary medicine as a general anesthetic but is not considered acceptable for anesthesia or ... While a state of general anesthesia could be achieved, the technique never caught on because its administration was more ... Cuadrado, Fernando F.; Alston, Theodore A. (2016-10-01). "Book Review". Journal of Anesthesia History. 2 (4): 153-155. doi: ...

*Dinara Uzbekova

One Hundredth Anniversary of the intravenous anesthesia creation DG Uzbekova. At the Origin of the Development of Russian ...

*Alfaxalone

Absalom, Anthony R.; Mason, Keira P. (March 1, 2017). Total Intravenous Anesthesia and Target Controlled Infusions: A ... It is used in veterinary practice under the trade name Alfaxan as an induction agent for anesthesia and as an injectable ... For this reason, it is recommended that animals recovering from anesthesia by alfaxalone stay in a quiet, dark area. The quick ... Alfaxalone should be administered slowly over a period of at least 60 seconds or until anesthesia is induced; as quick ...

*Surgical stress

... a comparison of total intravenous versus balanced anesthesia". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 101 (6): 1700-5. doi:10.1213/01.ane. ... a comparison of total intravenous versus balanced anesthesia". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 101 (6): 1700-5. doi:10.1213/01.ane. ... Crozier, TA; Müller, JE; Quittkat, D; Sydow, M; Wuttke, W; Kettler, D (Sep 1994). "[Total intravenous anesthesia with ... Isoflurane/Fentanyl anesthesia for major abdominal surgery: Effects on hormones and hemodynamics". Medical science monitor : ...

*LambdaNative

It was initially used as an in-house platform for a closed-loop intravenous anesthesia system. Support for mobile platforms was ... Mobile application development PART (November 19, 2013). "Pediatric Anesthesia Research Team :: Home". Pediatric Anesthesia ... Development of LambdaNative toolkit started in 2009 at the Pediatric Anesthesia Research Team (PART) in Vancouver, Canada. ...

*August Bier

He was the first to perform spinal anesthesia and intravenous regional anesthesia. After professorships in Greifswald and Bonn ... In 1908, Bier pioneered the use of intravenous regional anesthesia, a technique which is commonly referred to as a "Bier block ... The profound anesthesia of his legs was demonstrated with repeated kicks to his shins. Later that evening, they celebrated ... A tribute to a great surgeon who contributed much to the development of modern anesthesia on the 50th anniversary of his death ...

*Phulchand Prithvi Raj

Raj, Phulchand (1972). "The site of action of intravenous regiional anesthesia". Anesth Analg. 51: 776-786. doi:10.1213/ ... liver microsomes Techniques for fiberoptic laryngoscope in anesthesia The site of action of intravenous regiional anesthesia ... Nair, L; Giesecke, A; Raj, P. Prithvi (2010). "FFARCS: Regional anesthesia pioneer". Bulletin of Anesthesia History. 28: 7-11. ... Nair, L.; Giesecke, A.; Raj, P. Prithvi (2010). "FFARCS: Regional anesthesia pioneer". Bulletin of Anesthesia History. 28: 7-11 ...

*Cisatracurium besilate

"Addition of cisatracurium to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia". J Clin Anesth. 18 (3): 194-7. doi:10.1016/j. ... of Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA). Thereafter, the entire clinical ... used adjunctively in anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery ... multicenter study in adult patients under propofol/fentanyl/N2O anesthesia". Minerva Anestesiol. 72 (5): 299-308. PMID 16675938 ...

*Orthognathic surgery

Raffaini introduced this technique in 2002 after a four-year study done with local anesthesia and assistance from intravenous ... All dentofacial osteotomies are performed under general anesthesia, causing total unconsciousness. General anesthesia allows ... "The sagittal mandibular osteotomy under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation: four years of multicenter experience". Int J ... Advances have been made in the procedures, and in the anesthesia used. In 1985, mandible and maxilla osteotomies were ...

*Hairline lowering

... is typically performed on an outpatient basis with local anesthesia and intravenous sedation. The surgeon ...

*Transvaginal oocyte retrieval

Bumen S, Gunusen I, Firat V, Karaman S, Akdogan A, Tavmergen Goker EN (2011). "A comparison of intravenous general anesthesia ... Viscomi CM, Hill K, Johnson J, Sites C (1997). "Spinal anesthesia versus intravenous sedation for transvaginal oocyte retrieval ... Sequeira PM (2011). "Anesthesia for in vitro fertilization". In Urman RD, Gross WL, Philip BK. Anesthesia outside of the ... Additional complications may result from the administration of intravenous sedation or general anesthesia. These include ...

*Neosaxitoxin

Guay J (December 2009). "Adverse events associated with intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier block): a systematic review of ... On the other hand, NSTX local infiltration produces long lasting anesthesia, well over all the current available local ... Zink W, Graf B (July-August 2004). "Review Articles: Local Anesthetic Myotoxicity". Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 29 ( ... Padera RF, Tse JY, Bellas E, Kohane DS (December 2006). "Tetrodotoxin for prolonged local anesthesia with minimal myotoxicity ...

*Chloroprocaine

It is not used in intravenous regional anesthesia due to the risk of thrombophlebitis.[citation needed] The hydrochloride salt ... 1985 Feb 1;151(3):322-4. Chestnut: Obstetric Anesthesia, 3rd ed, p333. Hughes: Anesthesia for Obstetrics, 4th ed, p75.. ... "Comparison of bupivacaine and 2-chloroprocaine for spinal anesthesia for outpatient surgery: a double-blind randomized trial." ... Is Chloroprocaine Neurotoxic?." Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 9.3 (1984): 135-145. Wang, B. C., et al. "Lumbar ...

*History of tracheal intubation

... rectal anesthesia, or intravenous anesthesia. While otherwise effective, these techniques did not protect the airway from ... Wawersik, Juergen (1991). "History of Anesthesia in Germany". Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 3 (3): 235-44. doi:10.1016/0952- ... After World War I, further advances were made in the field of intratracheal anesthesia. Among these were those made by Sir Ivan ... 2000). Anesthesia, Volume 1 (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-07995-5. Retrieved 6 September 2010 ...

*Tourniquet

... as well as in intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier block anesthesia) where they serve the additional function of preventing ... Today, the two-tourniquet technique is used frequently and is called intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA). It is also ... Intravenous regional anesthesia Emergency bleeding control Emergency tourniquet Battlefield medicine Tourniquet test Hair ... August Bier used two tourniquets for administering segmental anesthesia in 1908. In this procedure circulation is isolated in a ...

*Myoclonus

Benign myoclonic movements are commonly seen during the induction of general anesthesia with intravenous medications such as ...

*Paul Frederick White

White has helped shape and revolutionize the field of ambulatory anesthesia and intravenous anesthesia. White graduated from an ... the Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia [SAMBA], the Society for Intravenous Anesthesia [SIVA], and the International Society for ... including major textbooks on the subspecialties of ambulatory anesthesia and intravenous anesthesia. White has also contributed ... Paul White, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Section Editor. Retrieved April 25, 2008. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia Editorial Board. ...

*Cervical cancer

... intravenous urography, and X-ray examination of the lungs and skeleton, and cervical conization. Stage 1A cervical cancer Stage ... the surgeon is not able to microscopically confirm clear margins of cervical tissue once the woman is under general anesthesia ...

*Remifentanil

... can be administered as part of an anesthesia technique called TIVA (Total Intravenous Anesthesia) using computer ... Intranasal self-administration of remifentanil as the foray into opioid abuse by an anesthesia resident. Anesthesia & Analgesia ... The use of remifentanil has made possible the use of high-dose opioid and low-dose hypnotic anesthesia, due to synergism ... It is administered in the form remifentanil hydrochloride and in adults is given as an intravenous infusion in doses ranging ...
Clinical Case: You are doing Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a healthy 40 year old woman. Midway through the surgery, the patients heart rate suddenly climbs to 160, and the blood pressure climbs to 190/110. What do you do? Discussion: Your own heart rate hits 170. You check the ABCs of…
To present a case of recall after total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol-alfentanil infusions to point out an uncommon misuse of the Bard InfusOR syringe driver. A healthy patient underwen
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Connecticut Valley Oral Surgery. Call ☎ 413-774-2961 with any questions.
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Dr Edmond Bedrossian for your oral surgery procedure in San Francisco. 415-956-6610
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Santa Cruz Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery serving the Monterey Bay area. 831-475-0221
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Columbus IN Oral Surgeons Drs. Bergman and Forbes. Call us at 812-372-7312.
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Niagara Oral Surgery & Dental Implants & Dr. Nigalye. ☎ 716-276-3553
Swarthmore PA Oral Surgeon Dr. Bozentka and Lee offers Intravenous Anesthesia. Swarthmore 610-328-0773 and Bryn Mawr 484-380-2393
... definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
The goal of this study is to determine the optimal stimulating and recording protocol for visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during non-cranial surgery using total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). The study will also determine if VEPs remain reliably stable in amplitude and latency during non-cranial surgery using total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), and also determine what factors predict poorly reliable VEPs during non-cranial surgery using TIVA.. ...
Please Note, The ebooks are not always PDF format, you might receive epub/kindle formats after purchase. This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-3
Principal Investigator:IKEDA Kazuyuki, Project Period (FY):1992 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:麻酔学
Anaesthetic care : Use short-acting anaesthetic agents whenever possible.Fentanyl and propofol are chosen for intravenous induction and for maintenance desflurane or sevoflurane may be used.Midazolam may be avoided.Remifentanyl based total intravenous anaesthesia is found to be useful.For abdominal and colorectal surgeries epidural anaesthesia is preferred.They are also helpful to reduce stress response to surgery or may be beneficial to combine with General anaesthesia to reduce the dose of intravenous or inhalational agents.Epidurals also help to prevent post operative paralytic ileus by blocking sympathetic discharge.Excellent post op analgesia by epidural LAs without sedative effects helps early mobilisation or ambulation of post operative patients.Intraoperative use of ondansetron, droperidol or dexamethasone help to prevent PONV during emergence or in the post op period.Risk stratification of PONV using apfel scoring system and aggressive prophylaxis and treatment of PONV are ...
Follow these instructions before your oral facial procedure with IV anesthesia at New Image Maxillofacial in Melbourne or Rockledge FL. (321) 725-5377
No smoking at least 12 hours before surgery. Ideally, cut down or stop smoking as soon as possible prior to the day of surgery ...
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UNLABELLED: The aim of the study was to assess the possibility and effectiveness of hopaten acid use for early postoperative cognitive dysfunction correction in children of school age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In compliance with inclusion and exclusion criteria, totally 40 children of school age (7-16 years old, ASA status I-II) with surgical pathology: (varicocele, cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia) were included A comperative assessment of neuropsychic status during pre - and postoperative are period in children, operated under propofol-fentanyl total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) was conducted All patients were randomized to the control (without cepebroprotection 1st group, 20 children) and experimental (using cepebroprotection with hopaten acid within 1 month after the operation, 2nd group, 20 children) groups ...
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TAES) on hemodynamic fluctuation caused by loosing tourniquet in the elderly patients undergoing knee joint replacement. METHODS: A total of 60 ASA (America Society Anesthesiologist) I or II elderly patients for elective knee joint replacement surgery were randomly divided into control group (30 cases) and TAES group (30 cases). Patients of both groups were treated by intravenous anesthesia, and monitored with bispectral index (BIS, between 45-60) for anesthesia depth, stroke volume variation (SVV) for fluid management, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac index (CI) for hemodynamic fluctuation evaluation, and with analgesia nociception index (ANI, between 50-70) for remifentanil dosage adjustment ...
Harbour Point providing patient instructions before intravenous anesthesia, sedation for your oral or dental treatments. For more details CALL at 425 353 1009
Mississauga Ontario Oral Surgeon Drs. Listrom, Hodgson, Kienle, Ho, Barakat, Leung, Kodsi, Perschbacher, Marchese, Lo Cuddy offers Intravenous Anesthesia. 905-828-2273
Oral Surgeon Drs. Fredd, Spampata, Deasy offers Intravenous Anesthesia in Lansdale, Harleysville, Horsham, and Erdenheim. 215-368-8104
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Ted M. Rosner, DMD in Delran & Lumberton NJ. Call us today at ☎ 856-764-7070.
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Concord Oral Surgery and Dr. Barron in Vaughan. Call 905-669-2616 for any questions.
Xenon is a gaseous anaesthetic agent registered in several European countries. It has been administered safely during cardiac surgery in pilot studies. In animal studies, xenon decreases the size of experimental myocardial infarction.. This 3-arm study will compare xenon, sevoflurane and a propofol-based total intravenous anaesthesia for maintenance of anaesthesia during coronary artery bypass graft surgery conducted with extra-corporeal circulation. Xenon and sevoflurane will be administered before and after extracorporeal circulation. Propofol will be administered during extracorporeal circulation in the three groups of patients.. The study will compare the postoperative myocardial damage observed 24 hours after surgery from blood levels of troponin I, a largely accepted biomarker of myocardial necrosis. The main hypothesis is that the myocardial damage observed after xenon administration will not be superior to the damage observed after sevoflurane administration (non-inferiority). The second ...
All study procedures were completed at the Womens College Hospital (from July 2011 to February 2013), a University of Toronto-affiliated ambulatory center located in Toronto, Canada. This single-center study was approved by the Womens College Hospital Research Ethics Board and registered (NCT01654432) at www.clinicaltrials.gov after commencement of recruitment. After obtaining written informed patient consent, we enrolled women patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I to II who were scheduled for elective unilateral breast tumor resection in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The surgical procedures performed included partial mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy; mastectomy; mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy; modified radical mastectomy (mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection); and mastectomy with implant insertion. Recruitment was performed through the preadmission clinic; eligible ...
Bier Block (Intravenous Regional Anesthesia) History August Bier introduced this block in Early methods included the use of two separate tourniquets and procaine was the local anesthetic of choice.
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Oral Surgeons, Drs. Heise and Alpha, offer Patient Instructions prior to Oral Surgery using Intravenous IV Sedation in Sacramento CA . ☎ 916-442-1882
Attleboro Falls MA Oral Surgeon Drs. Schenkman & Biernacki offer Intravenous Anesthesia for patients under-going oral and facial surgery. Learn more...
Follow these instructions before dental intravenous anesthesia from the oral surgeons at Metropolitan Craniofacial Center in New Jersey. 973-736-7616
Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Northwestern Oral & Maxillofacial Surgeons, PC & Dr Olsson in Chicago IL 312-926-6333
Oxygen, Administration, Analgesics, Anesthesia, Anesthetics, Cholecystectomy, Concentration, Dexamethasone, Intravenous Anesthesia, Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy, Measures, Narcotic Analgesics, Nausea, Nitrous Oxide, Ondansetron, Opioids, Patient, Patients, Ponv, Postoperative Nausea
Intravenous Anaesthesia and Antinociception: A New Philosophy of Anaesthetic Control? : Geneva, Switzerland, September 1-3, 1993, 1994 ...
PK-MOD: Android app (10+ downloads) → PK-MOD is a modeling program for exploring the pharmacokinetic behavior and costs of common intravenous anesthesia drugs. It should...
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In 1864 von Baeyer synthesized the first barbiturate, barbituric acid. The first hypnotic barbiturate, diethylbarbituric acid, was synthesized by Fischer and Mering in 1903. A number of other hypnotic-sedative barbiturates were developed and tested, but all had too slow onset and too long duration of action. In 1932 Weese and Schapff synthesized the first rapid onset, short duration barbiturate, the methylated oxybarbiturate hexobarbital. Unfortunately, hexobarbital caused undesirable excitatory side effects. Thiopental was first administered by Waters (Wisconsin) and Lundy (Mayo Clinic) in 1934. Thiopental proved to be fast and brief acting and devoid of excitatory side effects. When hexobarbital and thiopental were used to anesthetize the wounded at Pearl Harbor in 1941, there were so many deaths that intravenous anesthesia with these agents was later described as "an ideal method of euthanasia." (probably Halford FJ, 1943) A responding anonymous editorial correctly suggested that the cause of ...
Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) or Bier block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique for surgical procedures on the bodys extremities where a local anesthetic is injected intravenously. The technique usually involves exsanguination, which forces blood out of the extremity, followed by the application of pneumatic tourniquets to safely stop blood flow. The anesthetic agent is introduced into the limb and allowed to set in while tourniquets retain the agent within the desired area. The use of tourniquets and injected agents to induce localized anesthesia was first introduced by August Bier in 1908. He used an Esmarch bandage to exsanguinate the arm and injected procaine between two tourniquets to quickly produce anesthetic and analgesic effects in the site. Though it proved effective, IVRA remained relatively unpopular until C. McK. Holmes reintroduced it in 1963. Today, the technique is common due to its economy, rapid recovery, reliability, and simplicity. Protocols vary depending on ...
A physiologic tourniquet includes a safety interlock system for detecting any potentially hazardous attempt to change tourniquet cuff pressure during a procedure involving the use of two cuffs for intravenous regional anesthesia. The attempt to change pressure is prevented until the operator provides a timely and separate confirmation action.
This study has investigated the comparison of the effect of lidocaine adding dexketoprofen and paracetamol in intravenous regional anesthesia.
It has been reported that co-administration of ephedrine reduced the onset time of neuromuscular block of rocuronium (1-3). It also provided an improved condition for the rapid tracheal intubation (2,4). This beneficial effect was attributed to the increased cardiac output and tissue perfusion to muscle, and therefore, a more rapid delivery of rocuronium to the neuromuscular junction was achieved (4-5). If so, any drugs which decrease cardiac output consequently can prolong the onset time of rocuronium.. Remifentanil is the first ultra-short acting opioid with a rapid onset. During the total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil, prior administration of remifentanil could reduce the propofol infusion pain without other significant complications (6). However, remifentanil can decrease the arterial pressure and heart rate (7-8), so that it is likely to decrease the onset time of rocuronium for the opposite principle that ephedrine increases it.. The investigators therefore ...
Abstract. ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Day case surgery should be of short duration, rapid recovery, and with low incidence of postoperative complications. For long time was done with conventional inhalational based anesthesia, in last years, TIVA began to be used in these surgeries.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), as an aesthetic technique for day case procedures and to compare it with conventional inhalational based technique in terms of intra and postoperative hemodynamic and respiratory changes, postoperative recovery and postoperative vomiting.PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective randomized study has been done on 100 patient who underwent general anesthesia for short duration surgical procedure in AL- Jumhory teaching hospital in Al-Mosul city in Iraq, during the period between Nov 1st, 2011 and March 1st, 2012 , All patients were allocated into either TIVA or inhalational (INH) groups, of 50 patient each. In TIVA group: induction and maintenance of anesthesia done ...
Methods In a blinded clinical trial, 92 patients scheduled for supratentorial craniotomy under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into either a multipoint TEAS (n=46) or a sham TEAS group (n=46). All patients received total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and sufentanil. The target concentration of sufentanil was adjusted and recorded according to mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and bispectral index (BIS). Patients in the TEAS group received TEAS 30 min before anaesthesia induction and this was maintained throughout the operation at four pairs of acupuncture points. Postoperative pain, recovery and side effects were evaluated. ...
BACKGROUND: For decades thiopental has been considered as the hypnotic drug of choice for intracranial surgery. However, total intravenous anesthesia performed with thiopental is associated with delayed recovery, whereas early post-operative neurological evaluation is critical. For this reason, target controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol is increasingly used for maintenance of anesthesia. However, a thiopental TCI has never been assessed for this purpose. We tested the hypothesis that a thiopental TCI provides an acceptable way to achieve early recovery compared to a propofol TCI during supratentorial surgery ...
Propofol is a general anesthetic commonly used in pediatric clinical practices. Experimental findings demonstrate that anesthetics induce widespread apoptosis and cognitive decline in a developing brain. Although anesthesia-mediated neurotoxicity is the most prominent during intense period of synaptogenesis, the effects of an early anesthesia exposure on the synapses are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on the expression of key proteins that participate in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and to evaluate long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities in the mature adult brain. Propofol-injected 7-day-old rats were maintained under 2-, 4-, and 6-h-long anesthesia and sacrificed 0, 4, 16, and 24 h after the termination of each exposure. We showed that propofol anesthesia strongly influenced spatiotemporal expression and/or proteolytic processing of crucial presynaptic (GAP-43, synaptophysin, α-synuclein), trans-synaptic ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between alfentanil and methohexital. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction.
Working together to unlock your potential index Introduction Equine Studies pote ntial Page Why choose Oaklands College?...1 New and improved facilities... Come and join the Oaklands Community...5
The success of inducing pluripotency in primary fibroblasts and other cells with a combination of only a small number of transcription factors suggested that fully differentiated cells might change fate following similar treatments. Since the demonstration of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), at least three examples have been published where 3 cell type-specific factors were selected from a pool of 10-20 candidates that, when expressed from viral vectors, could induce beta-cells, neurons, or cardiomyocytes.. Induced beta-cells [1]: Ngn3, Pdx1, and Mafa, adenovirus injected to in vivo targets. Induced neurons (iN) [2]: Ascl1, Brn2, and Myt1l, lentivirus infecting mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) or tail tip fibroblasts (TTF). Induced cardiomyocytes (iCM) [3]: Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5, lentivirus infecting cardiac fibroblasts or TTF. In all 3 cases, the change of fate seemed to be via direct conversion, without passing through a progenitor cell fate before further differentiation. Like iPSC ...
KRUGER, K y STEGMANN, G F. Partial intravenous anaesthesia in 5 horses using ketamine, lidocaine, medetomidine and halothane. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2009, vol.80, n.4, pp.233-236. ISSN 2224-9435.. A partial intravenous protocol was used successfully to maintain anaesthesia in 5 healthy horses. Horses were premedicated with acepromazine, romifidine and butorphanol, induced with guaifenesin and ketamine and maintained on a constant rate infusion of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane inhalation anaesthesia. Mean end-tidal halothane concentration to maintain a surgical plane of anaesthesia was 0.8 ± 0.2 %. Mean dobutamine requirement to maintain mean arterial pressure above 9.31 kPa was 0.42 ± 0.3 µg/kg/min The administration of relatively low doses of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane resulted in haemodynamically stable anaesthesia, followed by smooth recovery.. Palabras clave : anaesthesia; halothane; horse; ketamine; lidocaine; ...
Eur J Anaesthesiol, May 2015. Kargaran P, Lenglet S, Montecucco F, Mach F, Copin JC, Vutskits L Abstract. BACKGROUND: Recent experimental data indicate that volatile anaesthetics can induce a neuroinflammatory response in the central nervous system. The questions of to what extent this occurs in the developing brain and whether nonvolatile anaesthetics are also involved remain unanswered.. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of propofol anaesthesia on cytokine mRNA expression profiles in the neonatal brain at defined stages of the brain growth spurt.. DESIGN: A randomised placebo-controlled experimental in-vivo study. SETTING: Translational research laboratories at the University of Geneva Medical School. METHODS: Wistar rats received 6-h propofol anaesthesia at postnatal day 10 or 20. A quantitative real-time PCR was used to evaluate the impact of this treatment paradigm on mRNA expression profiles of selected members of the cytokine family in the prefrontal ...
Background: Bone cementation may cause pulmonary vasoconstriction and ventilation/perfusion abnormalities in patients undergoing cemented hip hemiarthroplasty. In this randomised trial, we tested the hypothesis that intra-operative inhalation of prostacyclin could attenuate the increase in pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI, primary endpoint) when compared to inhaled saline in this group of patients. Methods: Twenty-two patients with displaced femoral neck fractures were allocated to receive inhaled aerosolised prostacyclin (20 ng/kg/min) (n = 11) or inhaled saline (NaCl, 9 mg/mL) (n = 11). All patients received total intravenous anaesthesia and were catheterised with radial and pulmonary artery fast response thermodilution catheters, for measurements of arterial and pulmonary arterial pressures, cardiac output, right ventricular ejection fraction and effective pulmonary arterial elastance. Haemodynamic measurements were performed after induction of anaesthesia, during surgery before and ...
Will lidocaine numb my nose before getting it pierced. Friday Fashion Fix: This Weeks Faves This Weeks Lust List Festive Nail Art Get Christmas Tips Nail NYE Dressing. Or, it could have just been that I was on other meds at the time and maybe had a reaction. It is not known if this medication is found in breast milk.. In group S, drugs to lidocaine-dex,edetomidine patient anxiety or hemodynamic perturbations bradycardia or hypotension were given when needed. Policies and Guidelines Contact. This study compared Air-Q and Intubating LMA when used as a conduit for endotracheal intubation. Tracheal intubation vedsus cesarean section without muscle relaxant: An alternative for rapid tracheal intubation with no adverse neonatal effect. Providing an ideal anesthesia by overcoming these disadvantages is possible with the addition of some adjunct agents to local anesthetics. SCImago Journal Rank SJR :. Mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, vasopressor use, sensory, and motor blockade were ...
We describe the use of a closed-loop system to control depth of propofol anaesthesia automatically. We used the auditory evoked potential index (AEPindex) as the input signal of this system to validate it as a true measure of depth of anaesthesia. Au
Phytochemicals as dietary constituents are being orlistat explored for their cancer preventive properties. Our results showed that either PP2 treatment or CSK-over-expression generated Ucp1-positive beige adipocytes, thus inducing browning of white adipocytes. She was treated under a presumptive diagnosis of abscess until the definitive histological diagnosis was established at the fourth admission. Functional state of the liver in workers having occupational contact with aminazine and certain other compounds Multiflora reduced the activity of aminotransferases in rats treated with paracetamol.. TCDD (10 ng/kg) was administered to dams on Days 7 and 14 of gestation, and on Days 0, 7 and 14 after delivery. The force of contraction was directly proportional to the dose of fluoxetine mannitol used. Intravenous anaesthesia in horses by guaiphenesinketamine-detomidine infusion: Some effects. A control cervical MRI 17 months later showed that the syringomyelia had disappeared.. Our findings provided ...
Taylor HR, MunМoz B, et al Visible light and risk of age-related macular degeneration, Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 88163-77, 1990. Intravenous regional anaesthesia (Bier block) review of 20 yearsв experience.
How is Diazepam and Methohexital (drug combination) abbreviated? D-M stands for Diazepam and Methohexital (drug combination). D-M is defined as Diazepam and Methohexital (drug combination) very rarely.
Methohexital - Get up-to-date information on Methohexital side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Methohexital
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From a young age German native Patrick Pradella began working towards being an elite tennis player. As an infant, his parents laid him in the yard with an array of athletic options.
During inhalation anesthesia with spontaneous breathing, there is increased passage of mixed venous blood through the lungs that is believed to be, at least partly, related to formation of atelectasis.14-16 Atelectasis formation is a known phenomenon currently considered an effect of a decreased functional residual capacity15,17-19 and high oxygen concentration in the inhaled gas during anesthesia induction.14 In addition, a recent report20 has also shown a vasoconstrictive effect from halothane and other volatile anesthetics. However, researchers have also shown that inhalation anesthetics inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in humans6,16,21 and animals.22 These results suggests that the overall effect of inhalation anesthesia on pulmonary circulation is limited and with no apparent regional effects.21 On the other hand, the underlying mechanisms for increased dead space22-24 and impaired oxygenation during anesthesia24 are still unclear.16 The direct effect of inhalation anesthesia on ...
Previously we observed that prolonged exposure to propofol anesthesia causes caspase-3- and calpain-mediated neuronal death in the developing brain. The present study examines the effects of propofol anesthesia on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), pro-nerve growth factor (NGF), and their receptors in the cortex and the thalamus. We also investigated how propofol influences the expression of Akt and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) expression, proteins that promote prosurvival pathways. Seven-day-old rats (P7) were exposed to propofol anesthesia lasting 2, 4, or 6 hr and killed 0, 4, 16, or 24 hr after anesthesia termination. The relative levels of mRNA and protein expression were estimated by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The treatments caused marked activation of TNFα and its receptor TNFR-1 and pro-NGF and p75NTR receptor expression. In parallel with the induction of these prodeath signals, we established that propofol anesthesia promotes increased ...
Objectives This study evaluated the effects of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on renal function of dogs with naturally acquired chronic renal failure. Materials & Methods The anesthetic procedures included: three hours using sevoflurane (1.5CAM) in O2 flow of 30mL/kg/min, in a semiclosed-circuit, after induction with propofol at 10mg/kg, in bolus (P-S group), or after induction with sevoflurane (S-S group), and for the P group it was used only propofol in the same dose employed for induction. Evaluations were performed in six sessions and included creatinine clearance, serum creatinine and ureia, protein and glucose urinary excretion. The renal function evaluations were performed 30 minutes before anesthesia, two times during anesthesia, and one, two and five days after. Results All anesthetic procedures were well succeeded and animals recovered uneventfully. No renal toxicity were observed in any of the anesthetic protocols. However, during the transanesthetic period it was observed ...
Tooth extraction is performed by a dentist or dental surgeon and is a quick outpatient procedure with either local, general, or intravenous anesthesia.
Looking for online definition of methohexital in the Medical Dictionary? methohexital explanation free. What is methohexital? Meaning of methohexital medical term. What does methohexital mean?
Previous studies have shown that exposure of the immature brain to drugs that block NMDA glutamate receptors or drugs that potentiate GABA(A) receptors can trigger widespread neuroapoptosis. Almost all currently used general anesthetics have either NMDA receptor blocking or GABA(A) receptor enhancing properties. Propofol, a new intravenous anesthetic, is widely used in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care practice whose neurotoxicity on brain development remains unknown. We investigated the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on neuroapoptosis and long-term spatial learning/memory functions. Propofol was administered to 7 day-old rats either as a single dose or in 7 doses at concentrations sufficient to maintain a surgical plane of anesthesia. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a significant increase in the levels of caspase-3 in the hippocampal CA1 region after propofol administration. At postnatal day 34, light microscopic observations revealed a significant reduction in neuronal ...
The aim of this work was to establish the correlation between the bispectral index (BIS) and different rates of continuous infusion of propofol. Twenty-four adult dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups (P2, P4, P8). All animals were induced with propofol (10 mg/kg/IV), followed immediately by the continuous infusion of the agent: 0.2 mg/kg/min (P2), 0.4 mg/kg/min (P4) and 0.8 mg/kg/min (P8). The BIS values were measured before any drug administration (M0) and 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes after the start of the continuous infusion of propofol. The Analysis of Variance was used to calculate the correlation between the infusion rates of propofol and the BIS values. BIS demonstrated significant difference between groups at the moment M40, where P8 (72 ± 9,7) was smaller than P2 (84 ± 7,4) and P4 (33 ± 8,5), while in M50 this difference was observed in P8 (69 ± 13,5) that was smaller than P2 (84 ± 6,4).. The effects of induction dose of propofol were not more presented in M40, therefore, the ...
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Q. When I broke my leg a few years ago, I needed surgery to reset the bone correctly. The anesthesiologist gave me intravenous ketamine to put me to sleep. As I was recovering from the anesthesia, I experienced an amazing change in my mood, like a cloud lifting from my brain. I have suffered from depression almost all my life. It is cyclical and has not responded to medication for almost 50 years. The antidepressant effect of ketamine seemed to last. I have tracked my depression carefully for
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Methods All dogs were premedicated with methadone, 0.2 mg kg−1 intramuscularly 30 minutes prior to induction of anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol administered intravenously (IV) to effect, following administration of lidocaine 1 mg kg−1 IV and maintained with a continuous infusion of propofol at ≤0.4 mg kg−1 minute−1 during instrumentation and preparation and during movement of the animals to recovery. During surgery, anaesthesia was maintained using a continuous infusion of propofol at ≤0.4 mg kg−1 minute−1and alfentanil ≤1 μg kg−1 minute−1. Lidocaine was administered at 1 mg kg−1 IV immediately prior to extubation. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded prior to induction and every 5 minutes throughout preparation and surgery. Central venous pressure was recorded every 5 minutes throughout surgery ...
Venous disease can be career ruining for athletes. However, there are simple treatments that can provide a full recovery from venous complications.
Surgical anesthesias impact on the brain has long been debated, and even anesthesiologists have admitted the effects of these drugs on humans is not clearly understood.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Drug Residues after Intravenous Anesthesia and Intrathecal Lidocaine Hydrochloride Euthanasia in Horses. AU - Aleman, Monica R. AU - Davis, E.. AU - Knych, Heather K. AU - Guedes, A.. AU - Smith, F.. AU - Madigan, John E. PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - Background: Intrathecal lidocaine hydrochloride under general anesthesia has been used as an alternative method of euthanasia in equids. Carnivore, scavenger, and even human consumption of horse meat from carcasses have been anecdotally reported in rural areas after this method of euthanasia. The presence of drug residues in horse meat has not been investigated. Hypothesis/Objectives: To investigate if drug residues are found in horse tissues and determine their concentrations. Animals: Of 11 horses requiring euthanasia for medical reasons. Methods: Prospective descriptive study. Horses were anesthetized with total IV dose of xylazine (mean, 2.5 mg/kg), midazolam (0.1 mg/kg), and ketamine hydrochloride (mean, 5.8 mg/kg). An ...
Patients and methods: Thirty patients were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into two groups , Group A (n=15)received IVRA lidocaine 3 mg/kg 2% diluted with isotonic saline to 0.5% concentration, Group B (n=15) received lidocaine 3mg/kg 2% plus Ondansetron diluted with isotonic saline to 0.5% concentration ,hemodynamic variables and VAS were recorded before and after tourniquet inflation, tourniquet pain, post-operative pain and first analgesic requirement time till 6 hours postoperatively were recorded ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retention of nociceptor responses during deep barbiturate anesthesia in frogs. AU - Downes, Hall. AU - Koop, Dennis. AU - Klopfenstein, Bethany. AU - Lessov, Nickola. PY - 1999/10. Y1 - 1999/10. N2 - Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) anesthetized with a large dose of thiopental (42.8 mg/kg) retained movement responses to nociceptor stimuli despite an average plasma drug level of 51 mg/l, of which 63% was bound to plasma proteins. This concentration, when corrected to include only unbound and uncharged drug, was 2-fold greater than those reported to abolish nociceptor response (NR) during surgical anesthesia in man. The median anesthetic dose (AD50) for loss of the righting reflex was 11.2 mg/kg by s.c. injection into the abdominal lymph sac; however, at 54.0 mg/kg, all frogs retained NRs, although otherwise deeply anesthetized. The ratio of NR-blocking dose to light AD was thus ,4.8, as compared to AB - Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) anesthetized with a large dose of thiopental (42.8 ...
Combinations of medetomidine with either propofol or ketamine were compared for the sedation and induction of anaesthesia in dogs undergoing a variety of surgical (60 per cent) and non.surgical (40 per cent) procedures. Eighty.four dogs were used at four sites. Medetomidine was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 1000 μg/m2 body surface area 10 to 15 minutes before the induction of anaesthesia by the administration of propofol (n = 44) or ketamine (n = 40) dosed to effect. The dogs became sedated by medetomidine after a mean (sd) time of 6.7 (5.4) minutes, and their heart rates and respiration rates decreased. Sixteen of the dogs suffered an adverse effect, 13 of them vomited. Anaesthesia was induced by the intravenous administration of propofol (2.1 [0.7] mg/kg) or ketamine (3.7 [1.9] mg/kg), and further doses of the anaesthetic were given, depending on the length of the operation, once in 17 per cent, twice in 11 per cent and three or more times in 24 per cent of the cases. The heart ...
Intracytoplasmic spermatozoon injection (ICSI). Artificial insemination (AI). AI - is an introduction of spermatozoa to uterus cavity in the period of spontaneous or induced ovulation. Previously, the sperm (of spouse or donor) is exposed to the special processing, which increases the spermatozoa ability for fertilization. The important condition is an existence of information about uterine tubes passability.. IVF. Fertilization by IVF method includes some consecutive stages. It is controlled ovulation stimulation (COS) during which the woman receives injections with follicle stimulating preparations. Then, with intravenous anesthesia, the transvaginal puncture of follicles (TVP) is made. All received oocytes (ova) are impregnated by sperm of the husband (donor) in the conditions of embryological laboratory. In the course of cultivation of embryos, in the incubator the conditions, which are most approached to that like in the womans organism, are created. Further, the choice of one or two most ...
No definitive outcomes study has explored whether administering a total intravenous anesthetic via TCI or with conventional continuous infusion rates impacts emergence. One might hypothesize that if administering a lengthy anesthetic, TCI would provide a more economical anesthetic and avoid unnecessary drug delivery that would perhaps delay emergence. Figure 30-1 presents a simulation of 2 intravenous techniques: one using TCI and the other set infusion rates for 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. Both approaches used a high-dose remifentanil and low dose propofol technique. In fact the TCI target effect-site concentrations were selected to be near the effect-site concentrations that resulted from propofol infusions of 100 mcg/kg/min and remifentanil 0.2 mcg/kg/min. In general, with increasing duration of the anesthetic, the simulation predicted the time to emergence would become longer. Time to emergence was defined as the time required for the model of loss of responsiveness to predict that only 1 out of ...
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This was a prospective, randomized, blinded animal study performed in a university laboratory involving 20 normal-weight (NW) and 19 IUGR newborn piglets. General inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane and nitrous oxide at clinically comparable dosages were administered for about 10 h. Surgical and monitoring procedures were accompanied by appropriate stage of general anesthesia. Resulting effects on developmental anesthetic and stress-induced neurotoxicity were assessed by estimation of apoptotic rates in untreated piglets and piglets after 10-h general anesthesia with MAC 1.0 isoflurane in 70 % nitrous oxide and 30 % oxygen.. ...
... l. As an induction agent prior to inhalation anaesthesia. As a sole anaesthetic agent for the induction and maintenance of anaesthesia for the performance of examination or surgical procedures.
I need some info about the free-acid form of pentobarbital. We have been using sodium pentobarbital for anesthesia in rats, but recently ran out. Since we had some of the free-acid form in the lab, I tried substituting that for the salt, adjusting for differences in molecular weight. The acid is not soluble in water, but will readily dissolve in 95-100% ethanol. Therefore, I administered about 38mg/kg of the free-acid dissolved in ethanol to 300g rats. This produced a solid level of anesthesia and animals recovered nicely, and they appeared healthy initially. However, all of the animals receiving this preparation have died within 2 to 4 days of administration. Can anyone shed some light on what is going on? Thanks ...
A study of children born in Sweden suggests a small association between exposure to anesthesia for surgery before the age 4 with slightly lower school grades at age 16 and slightly lower IQ scores at 18, according to an article published online by JAMA Pe
ASAP is a pain management company and the only request for this logo was to include the name. Being based out of Baton Rouge, the subtle purple and gold coloring was incorporated with an abstract icon included as well. ...
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The objectives of this investigation were to characterize the disposition of fentanyl and alfentanil in 14 tissues in the rat, and to create physiological pharmacokinetic models for these opioids...
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Breast cancer surgery performed under general anesthesia is associated with a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). A number of approaches are available for the management of PONV after breast cancer surgery. First, the risk factors related to patient characteristics, surgical procedure, anesthetic technique, and postoperative care can be reduced. More specifically, the use of propofol-based anesthesia can reduce the incidence of PONV. Secondly, a wide range of prophylactic antiemetics, including butyrophenones (droperidol), benzamides (metoclopramide), glucocorticoids (dexamethasone), clonidine, a small dose of propofol, and serotonin receptor (SR) antagonists (ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron, dolasetron, ramosetron, and palonosetron), are available for preventing PONV. Thirdly, antiemetic therapy combined with granisetron and droperidol or dexamethasone, and a multimodal management strategy which includes a package consisting of dexamethasone, total intravenous anesthesia
BACKGROUND: Ritonavir inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 decreases the elimination clearance of fentanyl by 67%. We used a pharmacokinetic model developed from published data to simulate the effect of sample patient-controlled epidural labor analgesic regimens on plasma fentanyl concentrations in the absence and presence of ritonavir-induced cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition. METHODS: Fentanyl absorption from the epidural space was modeled using tanks-in-series delay elements. Systemic fentanyl disposition was described using a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Parameters for epidural drug absorption were estimated by fitting the model to reported plasma fentanyl concentrations measured after epidural administration. The validity of the model was assessed by comparing predicted plasma concentrations after epidural administration to published data. The effect of ritonavir was modeled as a 67% decrease in fentanyl elimination clearance. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were simulated for six ...
Definition of intravenous anesthetic in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of intravenous anesthetic. What does intravenous anesthetic mean? Information and translations of intravenous anesthetic in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Before any dental procedure under general anesthesia, a pre-anesthesia evaluation of the patient by the dentist / anesthesiologist is necessary in order to determine not only the suitability of the patient for undergoing general anesthesia, but also the necessity of using GA versus conscious sedation.. During the pre-operative consultation the dentist will explain the procedure and the risks involved. Finally the patient is given a list of general anesthesia pre-operative instructions to follow on the evening before and on the day of the procedure.. General anesthesia can be achieved with the action of several anesthetic medications. During the general anesthesia procedure these anesthetic drugs can be administered either by breathing a volatile anesthetic through a breathing mask (inhalation induction of general anesthesia), or by injecting the medications intravenously (intravenous induction of GA), or by a combination of the two methods.. At all phases of the general anesthesia procedure, the ...
Head of department: Dr. Yavor Semerdjiev The Urology department of MBAL "Doverie" is oriented to highly specialised and high-tech modern diagnostics and treatment of the following diseases:. · Diseases of prostate gland, bladder and kidneys · Andrology diseases · Incontinence / micturition for women/. · Urolithiasis - complex treatment and tracking The following is performed in the department:. · Stone dusting in kidneys, ureter and bladder · Bloodless plasma vaporization and resection for prostate and bladder diseases · Surgery of tumours and gravel in kidneys and ureters · Biopsy of prostate gland under ultrasound control with intravenous anaesthesia · Surgery of varicocele and hydrocele ...
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, official publication of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, is a bimonthly journal that publishes peer-reviewed scientific and clinical studies to advance the understanding and clinical application of regional techniques for surgical anesthesia and postoperative analgesia. Coverage includes perioperative pain, chronic pain, obstetric anesthesia, pediatric anesthesia, outcome studies, and complications. Practical issues such as choice of anesthetics and technical challenges are addressed. The journal has a special interest in all forms of research pertaining to ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia and to education in regional anesthesia and pain medicine. Published for over thirty years, this respected journal also serves as the official publication of ASRAs affiliates, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, the Asian and Oceanic Society of Regional Anesthesia, and the Latin American Society of Regional Anesthesia
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.

Nurse anesthetists | MEDICAL JOBS in USANurse anesthetists | MEDICAL JOBS in USA

observe patients to ensure that anesthesia is maintained.. • monitor patients for warning signs during anesthesia and assist ... prepare prescribed solutions and start intravenous injections.. • administer prescribed anesthetics and medications.. • ... the science of anesthesia. Nurse anesthetists are an important part of the surgical team.. Nurse anesthetists:. • explain ... To become a Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA), students attend an approved nurse anesthesia graduate. program, ...
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Intravenous anesthesia definition | Drugs.comIntravenous anesthesia definition | Drugs.com

Definition of intravenous anesthesia. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... intravenous anesthesia. Definition: general anesthesia produced by injection of central nervous system depressants into the ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/intravenous-anesthesia.html

Intravenous anesthesia | Define Intravenous anesthesia at Dictionary.comIntravenous anesthesia | Define Intravenous anesthesia at Dictionary.com

Intravenous anesthesia definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. ... intravenous anesthesia in Medicine Expand. intravenous anesthesia n. General anesthesia in which venipuncture is used as a ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/intravenous-anesthesia

Surgical InstructionsSurgical Instructions

Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Concord Oral Surgery and Dr. Barron in Vaughan. Call 905 ... Anesthesia ...
more infohttp://www.concordoralsurgery.ca/surgical-instructions/

Product Details for Textbook of Intravenous Anesthesia by Paul F. WhiteProduct Details for Textbook of Intravenous Anesthesia by Paul F. White

Buy Textbook of Intravenous Anesthesia by Paul F. White at TextbookX.com. ISBN/UPC: 9780683021257. Save an average of 50% on ...
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Comparison of two drug combinations in total intravenous anesthesia: Propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl.  - PubMed - NCBIComparison of two drug combinations in total intravenous anesthesia: Propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl. - PubMed - NCBI

Keeping in consideration the merits of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), a genuine attempt was made to find the ideal drug ... Comparison of two drug combinations in total intravenous anesthesia: Propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl.. Singh Bajwa SJ1 ... Group I received propofol-ketamine while group II received propofol-fentanyl for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. All ... Both propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl combinations produce rapid, pleasant and safe anesthesia with only a few untoward ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20927266

Early Intravenous Anesthesia:An Eyewitness Account | Anesthesiology | ASA PublicationsEarly Intravenous Anesthesia:An Eyewitness Account | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications

Early Intravenous Anesthesia: An Eyewitness Account You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or ... Early Intravenous Anesthesia: An Eyewitness Account. Anesthesiology 1 1990, Vol.72, 185-186. doi: ... Norman A. Bergman; Early Intravenous Anesthesia: An Eyewitness Account. Anesthesiology 1990;72(1):185-186. ...
more infohttp://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1952738

Intravenous regional anesthesia definition | Drugs.comIntravenous regional anesthesia definition | Drugs.com

Definition of intravenous regional anesthesia. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/intravenous-regional-anesthesia.html

Intravenous regional anesthesia - WikipediaIntravenous regional anesthesia - Wikipedia

Intravenous regional anesthesia. Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) using older tourniquet equipment. Modern electronic ... Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) or Biers block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique on the bodys extremities where a ... "A North American survey of intravenous regional anesthesia". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 85 (4): 858-63. doi:10.1097/00000539- ... "Tourniquet Safety and Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA, also called Bier Block Anesthesia): Whats New and Why?". ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intravenous_regional_anesthesia

Method and apparatus for preparing and administering intravenous     anesthesia infusions - Patent # 5925014 - PatentGeniusMethod and apparatus for preparing and administering intravenous anesthesia infusions - Patent # 5925014 - PatentGenius

The method of the present invention greatly simplifies clinical application of continuous infusion anesthesia, and allows easy ... rates required for special situations such as neonatal anesthesia or others, where low flow rates may be required. Premeasured ... for special applications such as neonatal anesthesia and others. A computerized mix controller coupled with a computer capable ... Many classes of intravenous agents can be used in the treatment of medical patients, such as general anesthesia or an ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/5925014.html

Cognitive Dysfunction after Inhalation versus 
	Intravenous Anesthesia in Elderly Patients | Anesthesiology | ASA PublicationsCognitive Dysfunction after Inhalation versus Intravenous Anesthesia in Elderly Patients | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications

Cognitive Dysfunction after Inhalation versus Intravenous Anesthesia in Elderly Patients Stacie Deiner, M.D.; Mark G. Baxter, ... In contrast, the group that received intravenous anesthesia had age-appropriate serum concentration of propofol,3 around 1 μg/ ... Cognitive Dysfunction after Inhalation versus Intravenous Anesthesia in Elderly Patients. Anesthesiology 9 2012, Vol.117, 676- ... Cognitive Dysfunction after Inhalation versus Intravenous Anesthesia in Elderly Patients You will receive an email whenever ...
more infohttps://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1934227

The Effect of Propofol Based Total Intravenous Anesthesia on Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide - Full Text View -...The Effect of Propofol Based Total Intravenous Anesthesia on Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide - Full Text View -...

The Effect of Propofol Based Total Intravenous Anesthesia on Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide. The safety and scientific ... The Effect of Propofol Based Total Intravenous Anesthesia on Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide in Patients Undergoing ... Anesthetics, Intravenous. Anesthetics, General. Bronchodilator Agents. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Anti ... Propofol is well known to reduce those responses during anesthesia. Therefore, we try to figure out the efficacy of propofol to ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02149628

Magnesium Sulphate as an Adjuvant to Total Intravenous Anesthesia in Septorhinoplasty: A Randomized Controlled Study |...Magnesium Sulphate as an Adjuvant to Total Intravenous Anesthesia in Septorhinoplasty: A Randomized Controlled Study |...

... and recovery from anesthesia during total intravenous anesthesia. ... Choi JC, Yoon KB, Um DJ, Kim C, Kim JSK, Lee SG: Intravenous ... Magnesium sulphate can be used safely as an adjuvant to total intravenous anesthesia for day case surgeries, with the effect ... Magnesium Sulphate as an Adjuvant to Total Intravenous Anesthesia in Septorhinoplasty: A Randomized Controlled Study. ... Aldrete JA, Barnes DR, Aikawa JK: Does magnesium produce anesthesia? Anesth Analg 47:428-433, 1968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00266-006-0194-5

Usefulness of Intravenous Anesthesia Using a Target-controlled Infusion System with Local Anesthesia in Submuscular Breast...Usefulness of Intravenous Anesthesia Using a Target-controlled Infusion System with Local Anesthesia in Submuscular Breast...

Usefulness of Intravenous Anesthesia Using a Target-controlled Infusion System with Local Anesthesia in Submuscular Breast ... so the depth of anesthesia can be adjusted more easily. We conducted this study to examine whether intravenous anesthesia using ... Intravenous anesthesia was performed with 10 mg/mL propofol and 50 µg/mL remifentanil simultaneously administered using two ... Patients have anxiety and fear of complications due to general anesthesia. Through new instruments and local anesthetic drugs, ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3474413/?report=abstract

Intravenous Anesthesia - BarbituratesIntravenous Anesthesia - Barbiturates

Induction of General Anesthesia. Barbiturates induce general anesthesia rapidly and pleasantly (painlessly). They act in one ... "barbiturate anesthesia." Pharmacokinetics. An intravenous barbiturate bolus distributes first into a "central blood pool" ... there were so many deaths that intravenous anesthesia with these agents was later described as "an ideal method of euthanasia ... IV Anesthesia - Barbiturates. Thiopental, the flagship of the barbiturate anesthetic group, has been for more than 60 years a ...
more infohttp://greggordon.org/edu/ivanes/barbiturates1.htm

Intravenous regional anesthesia - WikipediaIntravenous regional anesthesia - Wikipedia

"A North American survey of intravenous regional anesthesia". Anesthesia & Analgesia. International Anesthesia Research Society ... Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) or Bier block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique for surgical procedures on the ... Anesthesia August Bier Regional Anesthesia Surgical Tourniquets Matt, Corinna (2007). "Intravenous regional anaesthesia". ... McEwen, James (21 June 2011). "Tourniquet Safety and Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA, also called Bier Block Anesthesia ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intravenous_regional_anesthesia

Inhalational  and Intravenous AnesthesiaInhalational and Intravenous Anesthesia

Intravenous ( Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates), Etomidate (hypnotic agent but has no analgesic effects. and :check:decrease in ... Inhalational and Intravenous Anesthesia : A Coggle Diagram about Nitrous oxide ( potent analgesic but a weak general anesthetic ...
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A Tale of Two Solutions:  High vs Low-Chloride Intravenous F... : Anesthesia & AnalgesiaA Tale of Two Solutions: High vs Low-Chloride Intravenous F... : Anesthesia & Analgesia

Home , February 2018 - Volume 126 - Issue 2 , A Tale of Two Solutions: High vs Low-Chloride Intravenous F... ... A Tale of Two Solutions: High vs Low-Chloride Intravenous Fluids. Wanderer, Jonathan P. MD, MPhil; Nathan, Naveen MD ... While normal saline remains the most commonly utilized intravenous fluid in medicine and has long been a traditional choice, ... In this infographic, we review the composition of commonly utilized low- and high-chloride intravenous fluids as well as ...
more infohttps://journals.lww.com/anesthesia-analgesia/Fulltext/2018/02000/A_Tale_of_Two_Solutions___High_vs_Low_Chloride.2.aspx

Intravenous Anesthesia Swarthmore PAIntravenous Anesthesia Swarthmore PA

Bozentka and Lee offers Intravenous Anesthesia. Swarthmore 610-328-0773 and Bryn Mawr 484-380-2393 ... Before Intravenous Anesthesia Sedation. *You may not have anything to eat or drink (including water) for eight (8) hours prior ... The patient should not drive a vehicle or operate any machinery for 24 hours following the anesthesia experience. ...
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Before AnesthesiaBefore Anesthesia

Sydlowski, McCabe, ONeill, Holdship, and King offers Intravenous Anesthesia. 419-517-2100 or 888-823-8600 ... Before Intravenous Anesthesia Sedation. *You may not have anything to eat or drink (including water) for eight (8) hours prior ... The patient should not drive a vehicle or operate any machinery for 24 hours following the anesthesia experience. ...
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Before AnesthesiaBefore Anesthesia

Listrom, Hodgson, Kienle, Ho, Barakat, Leung, Kodsi, Perschbacher, Marchese, Lo Cuddy offers Intravenous Anesthesia. 905-828- ... Before Intravenous Anesthesia Sedation. You MUST BE FASTING FOR A PERIOD OF 8 HOURS PRIOR TO SURGERY, which means no food, ...
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Intravenous Anesthesia Plantation FLIntravenous Anesthesia Plantation FL

Before Intravenous Sedation Anesthesia *You may not have anything to eat or drink (including water) for eight (8) hours prior ... The patient should not drive a vehicle or operate any machinery for 24 hours following the anesthesia experience. ...
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Intravenous Anesthesia - Etomidate - HistoryIntravenous Anesthesia - Etomidate - History

To achieve rapid intravenous induction with minimal hemodynamic perturbation and little respiratory depression, etomidate ( ... 1972: etomidate introduced in to clinical anesthesia practice * *Hemodynamic stability, minimal respiratory depression, maybe ...
more infohttp://greggordon.org/edu/ivanes/etomidate1.htm

Before Intravenous Anesthesia Sedation InstructionsBefore Intravenous Anesthesia Sedation Instructions

Follow these instructions before being given intravenous anesthesia by Texas Oral Surgery Group in Denton, Plano, Decatur, and ... Before Intravenous Anesthesia Sedation. *You may not have anything to eat or drink (including water) for six (6) hours prior to ... The patient should not drive a vehicle or operate any machinery for 24 hours following the anesthesia experience. ...
more infohttps://www.texasoralsurgerygroup.com/surgical-instructions/before-anesthesia/
  • demonstrated enormously disparate postanesthesia Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores between patients who received total intravenous anesthesia and those who received isoflurane. (asahq.org)
  • In their analysis of apolipoprotein E genotype effects, there was a relatively higher incidence of apolipoprotein E ε4 allele in patients who received isoflurane (but not total intravenous anesthesia) and had MMSE scores less than 25 at any time-point postoperatively. (asahq.org)
  • In other words, patients who were generally healthy with MMSE of 25 or more (and mean more than 27) and no major heart, lung, or renal dysfunction became floridly demented for at least 3 days after surgery following isoflurane anesthesia. (asahq.org)
  • Now as a cardiothoracic anesthesia fellow, we have to negotiate with our neuromonitorists to allow 0.2-0.3 MAC of isoflurane (which makes a HUGE difference) for cases like thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repairs which have significant variability. (rk.md)
  • The patients in group M received 15% magnesium sulphate 50 mg/kg in 100 ml of saline, and those in group C received an equal volume of saline before induction of anesthesia followed by 8 mg/kg/h infusion of either magnesium sulphate (group M) or an equal volume of saline (group C) until the end of surgery. (springer.com)
  • In experimental studies, high-chloride intravenous fluids have been associated with worsened outcomes, while clinical trials have had mixed results for similar end points. (lww.com)
  • In this infographic, we review the composition of commonly utilized low- and high-chloride intravenous fluids as well as summarize the associated studied outcomes. (lww.com)
  • While normal saline remains the most commonly utilized intravenous fluid in medicine and has long been a traditional choice, the delivery of solutions with supraphysiologic concentrations of chloride has consistently been associated with a hyperchloremic acidosis. (lww.com)
  • In particular, the target-controlled infusion (TCI) system maintains a relatively accurate level of plasma concentration, so the depth of anesthesia can be adjusted more easily. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The method of the present invention greatly simplifies clinical application of continuous infusion anesthesia, and allows easy preparation of different volumes which can minimize drug wastage. (patentgenius.com)
  • The patient should not drive a vehicle or operate any machinery for 24 hours following the anesthesia experience. (nbozentka.com)