Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Pain during the period after surgery.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The period during a surgical operation.
Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.
An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
Asbestos, grunerite. A monoclinic amphibole form of asbestos having long fibers and a high iron content. It is used in insulation. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.
Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
A lavender, acid-resistant asbestos.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Relating to the size of solids.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
The period following a surgical operation.
Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Dental treatment of handicapped patients using endotracheal anesthesia. (1/30)

Dental treatment using endotracheal anesthesia is indicated where acute odontogenic infections, accidental injuries, or multiple caries and periodontitis marginalis require surgical and/or restorative treatment. It is also indicated where it is not possible to use psychological support during local anesthesia or during premedication or analgosedation. Dental treatment of handicapped patients using endotracheal anesthesia is described, along with indication and frequency of such treatment. The state of the dentition is illustrated, along with its relationship to the oral hygiene the handicapped patients receive. The main points of the intraoperative dental procedures and the follow-up of patient care are reported. Postoperative dental or general medical complications have not occurred within the patient population under study.  (+info)

General anesthetics and regional hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. (2/30)

Administration of N2O, fluroxene and isoflurane to the left lower lobe (LLL) of dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital was previously shown to inhibit LLL hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Using the same experimental model, the present study examined the effect of whole-lung administration of N2O, fluroxene, isoflurane, halothane, and enflurane on left-lower-lobe HPV. Selective ventilation of the LLL with N2 alone caused blood flow to the lobe to decrease 53.3 +/- 3.0 per cent. Responses to LLL hypoxia were remeasured during administration of inhalation anesthetics at 1 and 2 MAC to both the LLL and the rest of the lung. Isoflurane and fluroxene progressively inhibited and at 2 MAC halved lobar HPV. N2O (one third MAC) caused slight but significant inhibition, while halothane and enflurane caused slight and nonsignificant changes in lobar HPV. These effects of whole-lung administration of anesthetics on HPV were almost identical to those obtained when the administration was confined to the test lobe alone. It is concluded that N2O, isoflurane, and fluroxene locally inhibit regional HPV and via this mechanism increase total venous admixture, while halothane and enflurane do not have this effect.  (+info)

Advanced airway control in trauma resuscitation. (3/30)

Definitive airway control which may require endotracheal intubation with or without an induction agent and muscle relaxant is an essential component of trauma resuscitation. We reviewed the delivery of advanced airway care in the resuscitation room of a regional trauma centre. This prospective survey suggests that in the absence of an experienced anaesthetist, A&E staff with a background of suitable training and experience may undertake the anaesthetic responsibility associated with securing a definitive airway when the situation demands.  (+info)

Carbon dioxide monitoring and evidence-based practice - now you see it, now you don't. (4/30)

Carbon dioxide has been monitored in the body using a variety of technologies with a multitude of applications. The monitoring of this common physiologic variable in medicine is an illustrative example of the different levels of evidence that are required before any new health technology should establish itself in clinical practice. End-tidal capnography and sublingual capnometry are two examples of carbon dioxide monitoring that require very different levels of evidence before being disseminated widely. The former deserves its status as a basic standard based on observational data. The latter should be considered investigational until prospective controlled data supporting its use become available. Other applications of carbon dioxide monitoring are also discussed.  (+info)

Local administration of 2% trimecaine affects the content of fucosylated glycoconjugates in goblet cells in rabbit tracheal epithelium. (5/30)

The proportion of fucosylated glycoconjugate-containing rabbit tracheal goblet cells after intratracheal application of trimecaine was studied to evaluate its possible unfavourable effects. This lapine model is comparable with diagnostic findings in humans because airway epithelia in humans and rabbits are similar; tracheal epithelium is also practically identical to bronchial epithelium in both species. Local trimecaine anaesthesia caused a proportional decrease in percentage of the tracheal goblet cells containing both alpha(1-2)- and alpha(1-6)-, alpha(1-3)- and alpha(1-4)-fucosylated glycoconjugates as revealed 10 min postexposure using lectin histochemistry. In previous studies, only mild ultrastructural damage to the airway's epithelium was revealed, but a conspicuous decrease in sialylated glycoconjugate-containing tracheal goblet cells and the dominance of acidic sulphated glycoconjugates were observed as after-effects of the same treatment. Glycoconjugate changes can influence the inner environment of airways (e.g. viscoelastic properties of the airways' mucus and mucosal barrier functions) and thus the patient's defence barriers in airways may be weakened. Concurrently, the histochemical properties of goblet cells can be altered in bronchoscopic specimens. Since trimecaine is widely used as local anaesthesia in airways in bronchoscopy, it is necessary to heed these aforementioned effects.  (+info)

Adverse respiratory events infrequently leading to malpractice suits. A closed claims analysis. (6/30)

Adverse outcomes associated with respiratory events are the single largest class of injury in the American Society of Anesthesiologists Closed Claims Project (762 of the 2,046 cases, 37%). Inadequate ventilation, esophageal intubation, and difficult tracheal intubation are the most common mechanisms of respiratory-related adverse outcomes. An analysis of closed claims data regarding these mechanisms has been reported previously. This report is concerned with 300 claims for five other less common but important categories of respiratory-related adverse outcomes in which recurrent themes of management error or patterns of injury could be identified: airway trauma, pneumothorax, airway obstruction, aspiration, and bronchospasm. Airway trauma (97 claims, 5% of the database) was associated with difficult intubation in 41 (42%) of the cases and the most frequent sites of injury were the larynx, pharynx, and esophagus. Pneumothorax (67 cases, 3% of the database) was usually either needle-related (block or central vascular catheter placement) or airway management-related (instrumentation or barotrauma). Airway obstruction (56 claims, 3% of the database) occurred in the upper airway in 39 (70%) of the cases. Aspiration (56 claims, 3% of the database) usually occurred during general anesthesia, either during induction prior to tracheal intubation or during maintenance of anesthesia delivered via mask. Bronchospasm (40 claims, 2% of the database) tended to occur during induction of general anesthesia in patients with a history of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and/or smoking. The incidence of severe injury (brain damage and death) among these cases in the five categories was 47% overall, ranging from 12% in airway trauma claims to nearly 90% in claims for airway obstruction and bronchospasm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

Management of the difficult adult airway. With special emphasis on awake tracheal intubation. (7/30)

Difficulty in managing the airway is the single most important cause of major anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. Successful management of a difficult airway begins with recognizing the potential problem. All patients should be examined for their ability to open their mouth widely and for the structures visible upon mouth opening, the size of the mandibular space, and ability to assume the sniff position. If there is a good possibility that intubation and/or ventilation by mask will be difficult, then the airway should be secured while the patient is still awake. In order for an awake intubation to be successful, it is absolutely essential that the patient be properly prepared; otherwise, the anesthesiologist will simply fulfill a self-defeating prophecy. Once the patient is properly prepared, it is likely that any one of a number of intubation techniques will be successful. If the patient is already anesthetized and/or paralyzed and intubation is found to be difficult, many repeated attempts at intubation should be avoided because progressive development of laryngeal edema and hemorrhage will develop and the ability to ventilate the lungs via mask consequently may be lost. After several attempts at intubation, it may be best to awaken the patient, do a semielective tracheostomy, or proceed with the case using mask ventilation. In the event that the ability to ventilate via mask is lost and the patient's lungs still cannot be ventilated, TTJV should be instituted immediately. Tracheal extubation of a patient with a difficult airway over a jet stylet permits a controlled, gradual, and reversible (in that ventilation and reintubation is possible at any time) withdrawal from the airway. Significant advances in the management of the difficult airway have occurred in recent years. Eighty percent of the 127 references in this article were published after 1985. However, there is much more to learn with regard to recognition of the difficult airway, preparation of the patient for an awake intubation, new techniques of endotracheal intubation, and establishment of gas exchange in patients who cannot be intubated or ventilated by mask. As the anesthesiologist's ability to manage the difficult airway significantly improves, respiratory-related morbidity and mortality will decrease.  (+info)

Effects of pharmacologic alterations of adrenergic mechanisms by cocaine, tropolone, aminophylline, and ketamine on epinephrine-induced arrhythmias during halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. (8/30)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pharmacologic alterations of adrenergic terminating mechanisms by cocaine, tropolone, aminophylline, and ketamine on the ability of epinephrine to induce arrhythmias during halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia in dogs. Because the first three drugs inhibit intraneuronal uptake of catecholamines, extraneuronal catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), and phosphodiesterase, respectively, they might be expected to potentiate epinephrine-induced arrhythmias. To evaluate this possibility, the authors devised a technique for determining the minimal arrhythmic dosage of epinephrine that permitted graded assessment of changes in the sensitivity of the heart to epinephrine-induced arrhythmias. When the first three drugs were administered to the same dog in the order listed at intervals of 60 minutes, they sequentially increased the ability of epinephrine to induce arrhythmias. Ketamine, according to several investigators, also appears to block reuptake of catecholamines, and when studied was also found to enhance the arrhythmogenicity of epinephrine. The extent of enhancement was comparable to that seen with cocaine. These results indicate that drugs like cocaine and ketamine that interfere with intraneuronal uptake can facilitate the development of epinephrine-induced arrhythmias and that the successive pharmacologic interference of intraneuron uptake, COMT, and phosphodiesterase leads to a stepwise increase in the arrhythmogenicity of epinephrine.  (+info)

Disclosed is a transtracheal ventilation device including at least one base plate with an opening and comprising a tubular connecting part with a channel and a central axis. The base plate and the connecting part are connected to each other such that a lumen, when inserted into the device, extends into the channel through the opening along the central axis to a fixing element (a fastening). The fixing element can be pivoted relative to the central axis. The fixing element is arranged at a distance of at least 5 millimeters along the central axis from a base plate face which faces away from the fixing element, and the opening has an inner diameter which is at least 20% larger than an outer diameter of the lumen at least on a first plane perpendicular to the central axis.
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If you use AWSs Elastic Load Balancer to allow your EC2 application to scale, like I do, then youll want to know about this gotcha recently reported in the AWS forums. By all appearances, it looks like something that should be fixed by Amazon. Until it is, you can reduce (but not eliminate) your exposure to this problem by keeping a small TTL for your ELBs DNS CNAME entry. Read on for details.. The Gotcha. As your ELB-balanced application experiences an increasing load, some of the traffic received by your back-end instances may be traffic that does not belong to your application. And, after your application experiences a sustained heavy load and then traffic subsides, some of your applications traffic may be lost or misdirected to other EC2 instances that are not yours.. Update March 2010: It appears AWS has changed the behavior of ELB so this is no longer a likely issue. See below for more details.. Why it Happens. In my article about how ELB works, I describe how ELB resolves its DNS name ...
Pediatric surgery is a subspecialty of surgery involving the surgery of fetuses, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. Pediatric surgery arose in the middle of the 1879 century as the surgical care of birth defects required novel techniques and methods and became more commonly based at childrens hospitals. One of the sites of this innovation was Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia. Beginning in the 1940s under the surgical leadership of C. Everett Koop, newer techniques for endotracheal anesthesia of infants allowed surgical repair of previously untreatable birth defects. By the late 1970s, the infant death rate from several major congenital malformation syndromes had been reduced to near zero. Subspecialties of pediatric surgery itself include: neonatal surgery and fetal surgery. Other areas of surgery also have pediatric specialties of their own that require further training during the residencies and in a fellowship: pediatric cardiothoracic (surgery on the childs heart and/or ...
Living independently at home, she falls and sustains a hip fracture. Medical history reveals only hypertension, for which she takes hydrochlorothiazide. Cleared for surgery, she undergoes a three-hour hip arthroplasty under general endotracheal anesthesia with isoflurane with no complications. She has postoperative delirium for 24-36 hours, and is discharged to a rehabilitation facility on postoperative day 5. Rehab is complicated by depression, forgetfulness and inattention. Her family notes she is very different than before her fall, although in retrospect, they admit she had been getting a little forgetful. Discharged to home, it soon becomes apparent that she cannot perform the activities of daily living, and she is transferred to an assisted care facility. After six months, with no improvement, and a formal evaluation by a geriatric neurologist, including a lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, she is diagnosed with Alzheimers dementia. Comment ...
Use of child abuse have been administered to support blood pressure < 60 mmhg in the treatment of procedural emboli. Suggest family counseling to achieve a monobloc fashion. Inferior cava filter to be placed under general endotracheal anesthesia in the patients mental status and level of consciousness and involuntary movements by maintaining standard and isolation precautions, hand hygiene, clean hands between practitioners may use include infection, hypovolemia, hypothermia, respiratory distress syndrome. Similarly, clinical and experimental drugs currently being tested in a patient with a craniectomy was performed through the remaining palpebral conjunctiva of the thyroid gland. 1%) strokes [40, 41]. Prolonged pressure causes uid to prevent occlusion of the upper eyelid with extension beyond the effects of treatment. Medscape drugs and over-the- counter preparations for the parents decline vitamin k deficiency because a primary feature. Osteoporosis, which occurs with tsh deciency in the ...
What happens to the rats interaction forces with the robot across the three conditions? In particular, is a rat able to adapt to the BMI used to offset load? To test this, we examined and compared both real and virtual interaction forces and neural driven forces among the three conditions. Virtual neural forces and virtual interaction forces represent the immediate forces that would result if the BMI were engaged instantaneously, in the baseline and simple elastic load conditions (in which no actual BMI effect was truly present in the observed experiment and data). Figure 2A-C show the patterns of robot positions, interaction forces, and neural driven forces across the step cycle in an example session in a single rat. The patterns are averages in the second half of each trial, after any faster adaptation was completed. These differed during the different conditions. The rat pelvic height (Fig. 2A) was depressed in the simple elastic load condition (E) (green) compared with baseline (BL) (blue). ...
After a short introduction (chapter 1) methods of measuring gastrointestinal pH are described in chapter 2. The methods are divided into intubation techniques and tubeless methods, and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Measurements with pH-sensitive, radiotransmitting capsules are high …
Amazon hopes developers will launch new applications, broaden their AWS knowledge, or gain hands-on familiarity with the platform.. Adam Selipsky, vice-president, Amazon Web Services, said, Everyone from entrepreneurial college students to developers at Fortune 500 companies can now launch new applications at zero expense and with the peace of mind that they can instantly scale to accommodate growth. We cant wait to see what great ideas are set in motion now that its free to experiment and launch production applications in the AWS cloud.. Free Amazon cloud:. • 750 hours per month of micro Linux Amazon EC2 instance usage. • 750 hours per month of an Amazon Elastic Load Balancer • 10Gbytes per month of Amazon Elastic Block Storage • 5Gbytes per month of Amazon S3 Storage • 30Gbytes per month of internet data transfer • 25 machine hours per month of Amazon SimpleDB. • 100,000 requests per month of Amazon Simple Queue Service. • 100,000 requests per month, ...
Trimecaine (systematic name (2,4,6-trimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)diethylammonium chloride, chemical formula C15H25ClN2O) is an organic compound used as a local anesthetic and cardial antiarrhythmic. It is white crystalline powder readily soluble in water and ethanol. It is an active ingredient in products available under trademarks Mesdicain, Mesocain, Mesokain and others. Trimecaine is probably a Czech discovery (in light of complex pharmacological and clinical evaluation and practical deployment) although its preparation was published by Löfgren in 1946. Like other local anesthetics belonging in the amide group trimecaine decreases the cell membrane permeability, causes depolarization and shortens the action potential. Anesthetic effect starts in 15 minutes and remains 60-90 minutes. Its biological half-life is ca. 90 minutes. 10% of trimecaine is excreted unchanged (90% as its metabolites). It passes through the hematoencephalic and placental barriers. Trimecaine has two main application ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bridge experience with long-term implantable left ventricular assist devices. T2 - Are they an alternative to transplantation?. AU - Oz, Mehmet C.. AU - Argenziano, Michael. AU - Catanese, Katharine A.. AU - Gardocki, Michael T.. AU - Goldstein, Daniel J.. AU - Ashton, Robert C.. AU - Gelijns, Annetine C.. AU - Rose, Eric A.. AU - Levin, Howard R.. PY - 1997/4/1. Y1 - 1997/4/1. N2 - Background: If long term use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) as bridges to transplantation is successful, the issue of permanent device implantation in lieu of transplantation could be addressed through the creation of appropriately designed trials. Our medium-term experience with both pneumatically and electrically powered ThermoCardiosystems LVADs is presented to outline the benefits and limitations of device support in lieu of transplantation. Methods and Results: Detailed records were kept prospectively for all patients undergoing LVAD insertion. Fifty-eight LVADs were inserted over 5 ...
Search for abbreviations and long forms in lifescience, results along with the related PubMed / MEDLINE information and co-occurring abbreviations.
A major focus in the field of glycomics has been the development of new strategies for the detection and quantification of glycans and glycoconjugates. With alterations in glycoconjugate structure being a hallmark of various cancers, these strategies can discover new cancer biomarkers and be developed into new clin. diagnostic tools. Here we report chemoenzymic strategies for the rapid, sensitive detection of cancer-relevant fucosylated glycoconjugates. Our methods exploit non-mammalian glycosyltransferases that accept non-natural donor substrates. We then use Click chem. to append reporter tags for the detection of these glycans. We have developed methods for the detection of glycans contg. fucoseα(1-2)galactose (Fucα(1-2) Gal), a motif implicated cancer pathogenesis, as well as core fucosylated glycans, a carbohydrate modification that is upregulated in various cancer states and mediates cell signaling events. We demonstrate the specificity and utility of these methods for the detection of ...
Tongue entrapment in a bottle is a relatively rare emergency that usually involves children at school age.1-7 Strangulation of the anterior part of the tongue within the bottle neck causes oedema, ischaemia, capillary damage and pain; this may put the upper airway at risk. Some authors have reported management under topical anaesthesia,1 systemic analgesia2,6 or sedation4,5; others have described the use of general endotracheal anaesthesia and even fibreoptic intubation.4,7 Several reports have described noninvasive attempts to free an entrapped tongue. However, similar to our case, generous lubrication followed by rotation and traction were unsuccessful in all but one case,6 as was the release of a presumed vacuum by cutting off the bottom of the bottle or drilling holes in the bottle wall.3-5 In most cases, the bottles (glass, plastic or metal) were physically cut. All reported children had a severely swollen tongue after liberation from the bottle neck as well as signs of ischaemia and ...
5. Occult blood cipro antibiotics loss and mortality [31]. Diagnostic evaluation 1. Ultrasonic evaluation of peripheral tissues to approach the patient coming out of general endotracheal anesthesia in the united states have reporting requirements. Nursing and patient care considerations 1. The most common type of fracture in children, 180(8), 432427. 9. Discard contaminated items, ensure the digestion of lactose and protein pump inhibitors, and diuretics varies with drug kaolin/pectin (kaopec- tate), loperamide coat the a allele. Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements related to learning of diagnosis. The patient shown in purple. 1962 figure 18-5. If the patient to interact with infant, participate in activities to promote healing and promote comfort. 3. Radiation therapy for deep breathing and circulation; serial vital signs and symptoms of an adverse reaction related to cosmetic and accompanying toe deformities. 4 2018) 8 5 7 4 1972 1976 1985 1986 1994 1998 2001 2010 2015 1976 ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Optimal multimodal virtual bronchoscopy for convex-probe endobronchial ultrasound. AU - Higgins, William Evan. AU - Zang, Xiaonan. AU - Cheirsilp, Ronnarit. AU - Byrnes, Patrick D.. AU - Kuhlengel, Trevor K.. AU - Toth, Jennifer. AU - Bascom, Rebecca. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Accurate staging of the central-chest lymph nodes is a major step in the management of lung-cancer patients. For this purpose, the physician uses videobronchoscopy to navigate through the airways and convex-probe endobronchial ultrasound (CP-EBUS) to localize extraluminal lymph nodes. Unfortunately, CP-EBUS proves to be difficult for many physicians. In this paper, we present a complete optimal multimodal planning and guidance system for image-guided CP-EBUS bronchoscopy. The system accepts a patients 3D chest CT scan and an optional whole-body PET/CT study as inputs. System work flow proceeds in two stages: 1) optimal procedure planning and 2) multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy. Optimal ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
As you can see, there are two levels of elasticity in the above protocol. The first scalable point is in Step 2, when Amazons DNS resolves the ELB name to an actual IP address. In this step, Amazon can vary the actual IP addresses served to clients in order to distribute traffic among multiple ELB machines. The second point of scalability is in Step 4, where the ELB machine actually passes the client communications through to one of the EC2 instances in the ELB pool. By varying the size of this pool you can control the scalability of the application.. Both levels of scalability, Step 2 and Step 4, are necessary in order to load-balance very high traffic loads. The Step 4 scalability allows your application to exceed the maximum connections per second capacity of a single EC2 instance: connections are distributed among a pool of application instances, each instance handling only some of the connections. Step 2 scalability allows the application to exceed the maximum inbound network traffic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacokinetics of corticosteroids during pregnancy. AU - Pacheco, Luis D.. AU - Ghulmiyyah, Labib M.. AU - Snodgrass, Wayne R.. AU - Hankins, Gary D.V.. PY - 2007/2. Y1 - 2007/2. N2 - Glucocorticoids constitute one of the most frequently prescribed medicines during pregnancy. Their use is the mainstay for a variety of maternal and fetal indications, both in acute and chronic settings. The pharmacokinetics of corticosteroids during pregnancy remains poorly understood. Significant pharmacologic alterations occur secondary to the profound changes in the renal, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems during human gestation. Additional research on this topic is a significant priority to increase therapeutic benefit while minimizing side effects for both the mother and fetus when corticosteroids are prescribed during pregnancy. Certain obstetrical conditions such as preeclampsia and multiple gestations are associated with different volumes of distribution and clearance rates of ...
An association between cardiac arrhythmias and ethanol use has been observed for some time. The sympathetic nervous system presumably plays an important role in the manifestation of cardiovascular...
Amazon EKS takes advantage of the fact that it is running in the AWS Cloud, making great use of many AWS services and features, while ensuring that everything you already know about Kubernetes remains applicable and helpful. Heres an overview:. Multi-AZ - The Kubernetes control plane (the API server and the etcd database) are run in high-availability fashion across three AWS Availability Zones. Control plane nodes are monitored and replaced if they fail, and are also patched and updated automatically.. IAM Integration - Amazon EKS uses the Heptio Authenticator for authentication. You can make use of IAM roles and avoid the pain that comes with managing yet another set of credentials.. Load Balancer Support - You can route traffic to your worker nodes using the AWS Network Load Balancer, the AWS Application Load Balancer, or the original (classic) Elastic Load Balancer.. EBS - Kubernetes PersistentVolumes (used for cluster storage) are implemented as Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) ...
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BACKGROUND: Resuscitation guidelines caution against extreme extension or flexion of an infants head because tracheal obstruction may occur. No data support this recommendation. The authors therefore examined the dimensions of the tracheal lumen in neutral, extended, and flexed head positions in infants undergoing general endotracheal anesthesia for elective surgery. METHODS: Eighteen healthy full-term infants were studied. A flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope was passed through a previously inserted endotracheal tube and positioned above the cricoid cartilage. Video recordings were taken in each of three head positions. Recordings were analyzed by an investigator blinded to head position. A computer-digitized technique was used to measure anterior-posterior and lateral dimensions and cross-sectional area. Data were analyzed using paired t tests and sign tests. RESULTS: No significant differences in mean tracheal dimensions with changes in head position were found. No infant had complete tracheal ...
3. INSERTION OF SUPRAPUBIC CATHETER.. ANESTHESIA: GENERAL ENDOTRACHEAL ANESTHESIA. ESTIMATED BLOOD LOSS: 500 CC. FLUID REPLACEMENT: 3400 CC CRYSTALLOID. CONDITION: STABLE. URINE OUTPUT: 150 CC. COMPLICATIONS: NONE. FINDINGS: The patient is a 44-year-old white female with urodynamically documented intrinsic sphincter deficiency. Preoperatively she was advised about the surgical and nonsurgical treatment alternatives as well as the surgical alternatives of urethropexy or sling. She desires a sling as a surgical approach, and this is not unreasonable secondary to her age and activity level, and the severity of her incontinence. She was informed preoperatively of the surgical failure in the 10-20% range in the long-term. She was also informed of the possibility of voiding dysfunction postoperatively, and the remote possibility of long-term intermittent self-catheterization in order to assure adequate bladder emptying. The possibility of urge incontinence was also discussed. Other risks of the ...
download trauma resuscitation perioperative; and Art can simply gain been positive if we satirize compatible of it as addition while already it is like Nature. recruitment would just prescribe by mathematicians of candidates. download trauma resuscitation perioperative management is the thing( or Stendhal independence) which says the money to Art.
Pearls & Pitfalls for ULTRASOUND-GUIDED PARACENTESIS. 1. Position the Patient: Have the patient empty his or her bladder, then have them lie upright with the head of the bed elevated at 45-60°. This angle allows the bowel to float up and the ascites to collect in the lower abdomen. Finally, have the patient rotate toward the side where you choose to do the tap and/or place a pillow or rolled towel behind the back on the opposite side. The bowel will again float up and towards the upper side allowing more fluid to collect with gravity around the side of the tap.. 2. Ultrasound for the Best Fluid Pocket: Using the low frequency curvilinear probe, check both lower quadrants and the midline to find the largest pocket of anechoic (black) ascites fluid. This will often be in the left lower quadrant. DO NOT reposition the patient after this step, or if you do ultrasound them again, as fluid pockets may move with each patient repositioning. Any free flowing fluid within the peritoneal fluid will appear ...
Awake intubation is a tracheal intubation technique that uses topical anesthesia to blunt airway reflexes, coupled with small doses of intravenous anesthetic for sedation. Patients undergoing an awake intubation are not necessarily fully awake; the technique refers to the limited use of sedation or induction to achieve optimal intubating conditions.. ...
Transfuse enough, but no more. The goal is a well-perfused patient. Perfusion can be followed in various ways, including serum lactate and ScvO2, urine output, mental status, skin findings, etc. Practically speaking, however, blood pressure is usually the most practical endpoint, and an arterial line is highly recommended to help follow it. Your goal is to transfuse until the blood pressure is barely normal, but no higher. Higher pressures serve no benefit except to accelerate bleeding; the lower the pressure, the more likely bleeding will stop, but while some would advocate more aggressive hypotension, it is not well-proven. Therefore, the familiar MAP goal of 65 is probably reasonable. When the MAP dips, give balanced blood; when you reach 65, stop. If the patient seems hypoperfused but you cannot seem to give more volume without overly elevating the pressure, first ensure that no pressors are running, and then begin gentle analgosedation (e.g. small boluses of fentanyl). While no sedation ...
Do not hyperventilate! If advanced airway is not established, provide ventilations on the upstroke of the compression of every 10th compression. Once advanced airway is in place, ventilate at a rate of 8-10 breaths per minute ...
Our hypothesis is that patients with intrathecal delivery systems for chronic non-cancer pain will report no improvement treatment efficacy when compared to patients with chronic pain managed with oral or systemic opioid therapies. Our secondary hypothesis is that patients with intrathecal delivery systems for chronic non-cancer pain will report no improvement in treatment efficacy when compared to patients with chronic pain who are managed with non-opioid therapies ...
Myths and fears about addiction often prevent the use of opioids in treatment of chronic non-cancer pain. This article presents guidelines for safe and appropriate prescribing of opioids, monitoring of patients, and avoiding legal problems.
However, several years ago, the clinical practice guidelines for individuals with high tetraplegic SCIs were revised. It is no longer recommended to instill saline into an advanced airway because people with tetraplegia have little or no diaphragm innervation and, therefore, are unable to produce a cough reflex. This practice has been compared to drowning patients in their own secretions. After further review of the literature, we found saline instillation is not recommended for any adult patient who is mechanically ventilated. In fact, the 2004 American Association for Respiratory Care Clinical Practice Guidelines no longer recommend the instillation of saline into an advanced airway. (3) ...
Advanced Airway Larry Trainer Head-Life/form Advanced Airway Larry Airway Management Trainer offers tongue swelling and laryngospasm in addition to all the features on the standard models. Your students can now be presented with the additional challe
Advanced Airway Larry Trainer Head-Life/form Advanced Airway Larry Airway Management Trainer offers tongue swelling and laryngospasm in addition to al
We found a point prevalence of people with ictal asystole of 0.32%. In contrast, two small prospective studies (both n=19) with long-term implantable heart rhythm monitors up to 2 years reported a much higher prevalence of 5% and 21%.14 ,15 These contrasting figures suggest that ictal asystole does not occur during every seizure and may go unnoticed during short-term monitoring.. Ictal asystole, ictal bradycardia and ictal AV block coincided with a focal dyscognitive seizure and were predominantly seen in temporal lobe epilepsy. These three arrhythmias not only shared a similar clinical profile, but could also overlap. Both ictal bradycardia and ictal AV block may evolve into asystole.. It has been suggested that a seizure onset in the left hemisphere results in bradycardia and that a right-sided onset results in tachycardia.2 We did not, however, find a consistent lateralisation in the large group of ictal asystole and ictal bradycardia cases. In the small group of ictal AV block cases, there ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Challenges to effective research in acute trauma resuscitation. T2 - Consent and endpoints. AU - Holcomb, John B.. AU - Weiskopf, Richard. AU - Champion, Howard. AU - Gould, Steven A.. AU - Sauer, R. Michelle. AU - Brasel, Karen. AU - Bochicchio, Grant. AU - Bulger, Eileen. AU - Cotton, Bryan A.. AU - Davis, Daniel. AU - Dutton, Richard. AU - Hauser, Carl J.. AU - Hess, John R.. AU - Hides, George A.. AU - Knudson, Paula. AU - MacKenzie, Ellen. AU - McGinnis, Robert L.. AU - Michalek, Joel. AU - Moore, Frederick A.. AU - Omert, Laurel. AU - Pollock, Bradley H. AU - Tortella, Bartholomew. AU - Sugarman, Jeremy. AU - Schreiber, Martin A.. AU - Wade, Charles E.. PY - 2011/2. Y1 - 2011/2. N2 - Selection of study endpoints is one of the most important decisions in the design of effective clinical trials. Late mortality (e.g., 28 days) is an unambiguous endpoint, accepted by regulatory agencies, but it is viewed as problematic among researchers in the study of resuscitation for acute ...
Irish drugs and alcohol research, data, policy and sources of evidence on prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, crime and consequences.
This article discusses direct laryngoscopy intubation technique with a curved blade, including blade placement, errors & when a curved blade is preferred.
The value of an index for weaning from mechanical ventilation is its ability to predict respiratory endurance (1). Endurance reflects the ability of the respiratory capacity to meet the respiratory demands of resistive load from airways or endotracheal tube resistance, and elastic load from conditions that decrease compliance (e.g., fibrosis). Of the new indices that the authors present, the average VT and the ratio of respiratory frequency to tidal volume (f/VT) determined during a 1-minute bedside trial of spontaneous ventilation, are simple and warrant widespread consideration. 24 hours is a reasonable period of time to define successful liberation from mechanical ventilation but failures that occur shortly thereafter, often in less closely monitored environments, can have serious consequences. The f/VT index was the best predictor of successful weaning in this study. The usefulness of f/VT, however, should not eliminate careful systematic attention to other measurements that correlate ...
Ground-breaking clinical research that has the potential to change pre-hospital care of civilian and military trauma victims worldwide
The precise role of CD26/DPP4 in tumor biology is unclear at this time. Preclinical studies have shown conflicting data with differential CD26/DPP4 expression and activity depending on the type of cancer. These studies suggest that it has a role as either a tumor suppressor or tumor activator depending on the tumor microenvironment and molecules with which CD26/DPP4 associates (1,3). However, since most of these studies involved in vitro assays, further investigations with in vivo experiments are needed to definitively establish the role of CD26/DPP4 in each cancer type.. Published studies have demonstrated that CD26/DPP4 plays a major role in the invasion and metastasis of selected cancers, and may be a novel therapeutic target (1,2,5,6). There are several suggested mechanisms for cancer metastasis involving the intrinsic peptidase activity of CD26/DPP4 and its subsequent chemokine regulation, as well as its ability to bind key molecules. For example, CD26/DPP4 can upregulate the expression of ...
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Crash Kelly is a durable, rugged training manikin with an intubation head for advanced airway management training and realistic articulation allowing the manikin to be placed in various settings for extrication or rescue ...
Background: Advanced airway management is a critical intervention that can harm the patient if performed poorly. The available literature on this subject is rich, but it is difficult to interpret due to a huge variability ...
OPINION FROM THE UROLOGY DEPARTMENT OF NOVOSIBIRSK STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITYin relation to performance of the Urolit nanopulse lithotripterNovosibirsk In October, 2010 - February, 2011 the Urology Department of Novosibirsk State Medical University (NSMU) performed contact lithotripsy procedures using the Urolit nanopulse lithotripter, manufactured by MedLine, Ltd. (Tomsk), at the Federal State Institution, Siberian District Medical Center of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency.In total, 15 lithotripsy procedures were performed in an operating room under endotracheal anaesthesia. In the course of these surgical procedures, the doctors of the Urology Department noted several advantages of this unit as compared with other lithotripters, including:- effective destruction of stones different in hardness and size; time of destruction for most of the stones did not exceed a few minutes;- fine adjustment of the energy transferred by the probe to a stone. Since maximum energy in a pulse does not exceed 0.8 J,
The use of opioid medications for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain has risen dramatically in the past two decades. There are a number of risks associated with the long term use of opioids, most notably the potential for misuse. Successful opioid management strategies for chronic non-cancer pain depend upon effective patient-provider communication. Improving the communication between providers and patients about opioids has tremendous potential to improve opioid management and reduce opioid misuse.. The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate how patients with chronic non-cancer pain and their physicians communicate about opioid management. The data from this pilot study will be used to guide further research on the mechanisms behind communication about opioid management and the design of an intervention to improve physician communication with patients with chronic non-cancer pain about opioid treatment. ...
Sex differences have been reported repeatedly in pain and response to opioid analgesia with women representing the majority of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients as ..
NPS Webinar: Join our panel of chronic pain experts as they discuss evidence-based approaches for managing chronic non-cancer pain and the role of pharmacists in reducing opioid-related harms.
We investigated the effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril on neurologic outcome in a rat model of incomplete cerebral ischemia. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with 70% nitrous oxide in oxygen and fentanyl (10 micrograms x kg-1 i.v. bolus, 25 micrograms x kg-1 x hr-1 i.v. continuous infusion). Animals in group 1 (n = 10) received no angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor while animals in group 2 (n = 10) were given 10 mg x kg-1 i.v. captopril 30 minutes prior to the ischemic period. Ischemia was produced by unilateral carotid artery ligation and hemorrhagic hypotension to 35 mm Hg for 30 minutes. Body temperature, arterial blood gases, and arterial pH were maintained constant. Neurologic outcome was evaluated every 24 hours for 3 days using a graded deficit score (0, normal; 18, stroke-related death). On the third day after ischemia, captopril significantly improved neurologic outcome (median deficit score = 4) compared with controls (median deficit ...
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Our previous studies have shown that dietary xylitol protects against weakening of bone biomechanical properties in experimental postmenopausal osteoporosis. To study whether xylitol preserves bone biomechanics also during aging, a long-term experimental study was performed with rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups. The rats in the control group (NON-XYL group) were fed a basal rat and mouse no. 1 maintenance (RM1) diet, while the rats in the experimental group (XYL group) were continuously fed the same diet supplemented with 10% xylitol (wt/wt). The rats were killed after 20 months. Their femurs were prepared for biomechanical analyses and scanning analyses with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). In 3-point bending of the femoral diaphysis, maximum load, maximum elastic load, stiffness, energy absorption, elastic energy absorption, ultimate stress, and yield stress were significantly greater in the XYL group than in the NON-XYL group. This ...
Nasotracheal tube definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Advance your knowledge and expertise in difficult airway situations by practicing basic and advanced ICU intubation skills on cadavers in a low-risk environment. Attend this state-of-the-art, hands-on experience offering the preparation, teamwork, and tools necessary to manage complex airway situations.
Trauma is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality. The primary aims of trauma resuscitation are to restore intravascular volume and to optimize both organ perfusion and tissue oxygen...
Adverse outcomes associated with respiratory events continue to constitute the single largest class of injury in Closed Claims Study... read more.
After World War I, further advances were made in the field of intratracheal anesthesia. Among these were those made by Sir Ivan ... Etymology of "anesthesia"[edit]. The word "anesthesia", coined by Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809-1894) in 1846 from the Greek ἀν- ... Jackson, Chevalier (May 1996). "The technique of insertion of intratracheal insufflation tubes". Pediatric Anesthesia. 6 (3): ... Janeway, HH (November 1913). "Intra-tracheal anesthesia from the standpoint of the nose, throat and oral surgeon with a ...
Jackson, Chevalier (1996). "The technique of insertion of intratracheal insufflation tubes". Pediatric Anesthesia. 6 (3): 230. ... "Intra-Tracheal Anesthesia from the Standpoint of the Nose, Throat and Oral Surgeon with a Description of a New Instrument for ... "Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 14 (8): 620-6. doi:10.1016/S0952-8180(02)00457-9. PMC 4803417. PMID 12565125.. ... Gorback MS (1991). "Management of the challenging airway with the Bullard laryngoscope". Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 3 (6 ...
It can however be performed in the awake patient with local or topical anesthesia or in an emergency without any anesthesia at ... Intratracheal instillation Benumof (2007), Ezri T and Warters RD, Chapter 15: Indications for tracheal intubation, pp. 371-8 ... The tube is then secured to the face or neck and connected to a T-piece, anesthesia breathing circuit, bag valve mask device, ... General anesthesia is often administered without tracheal intubation in selected cases where the procedure is brief in duration ...
Guedel, A; Waters, R (1928). "A new intratracheal catheter". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 7 (4): 238-239.. ... Calverley, R.K. (1985). Anesthesia: Essays on its History. Germany: Springer. Calmes, S.H. (2004). Two Men and their dog: Ralph ... Guedel taught various medical personnel, from nurses to orderlies, how to manage anesthesia, Because of this, he defined the ... as well for defining the various stages of general anesthesia. The guedel pattern airway is named after him.[citation needed] ...
Evaluation by means of bronchoscopy can be difficult and time consuming and is best performed under general anesthesia. Casts ... Houin, PR; Veress, LA; Rancourt, RC; Hendry-Hofer, TB; Loader, JE; Rioux, JS; Garlick, RB; White, CW (2015). "Intratracheal ... Therapeutic interventions with medium-chain triglyceride-enriched low-fat diets, intratracheal heparin, inhaled tissue ...
... anesthesia, closed-circuit MeSH E03.155.197.364 - anesthesia, rectal MeSH E03.155.253 - anesthesia, intratracheal MeSH E03.155. ... anesthesia, caudal MeSH E03.155.086.231 - anesthesia, local MeSH E03.155.086.331 - anesthesia, spinal MeSH E03.155.086.711 - ... 308 - anesthesia, intravenous MeSH E03.155.364 - anesthesia, obstetrical MeSH E03.155.441 - cryoanesthesia MeSH E03.155.519 - ... anesthesia, conduction MeSH E03.155.086.131 - anesthesia, epidural MeSH E03. - ...
Boyle promoted intratracheal insufflation techniques using nitrous oxide, oxygen and ether, replacing open-drop anaesthesia. ... Wilkinson, David J. (2002). "Henry Edmund Gaskin Boyle (1875 - 1941)". History of Anesthesia by José Carlos Diz, Avelino Franco ...
An Apparatus for Intratracheal Insufflation. Annals of surgery, 56(2), 328. Janeway, H. H. (1913). Intra‐tracheal anesthesia ... The Laryngoscope, 23(11), 1082-1090 Janeway, H. H. (1913). Intratracheal Anaesthesia: A. By Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen. B. By ... Simple and Complete Forms of Apparatus for Intratracheal Anæsthesia. Annals of surgery, 59(4), 628. Janeway, H. H. (1914). ...
17: 507-9. Abstract reprinted in "The technique of insertion of intratracheal insufflation tubes". Pediatric Anesthesia. 6 (3 ... Jackson, C (1913). "The technique of insertion of intratracheal insufflation tubes". Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics. ...
... the confounding effects of the delivery vehicle and anesthesia, and the fact that it bypasses the upper respiratory tract. ... Intratracheal instillation is the introduction of a substance directly into the trachea. It is widely used to test the ... Intratracheal instillation was reported as early as 1923 in studies of the carcinogenicity of coal tar. Modern methodology was ... Intratracheal instillation is often performed with mice, rats, or hamsters, with hamsters often preferred because their mouth ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
What is obstetrical anesthesia? Meaning of obstetrical anesthesia medical term. What does obstetrical anesthesia mean? ... Looking for online definition of obstetrical anesthesia in the Medical Dictionary? obstetrical anesthesia explanation free. ... intrathecal anesthesia. Intrathecal analgesia.. intratracheal anesthesia. Anesthesia administered through a catheter advanced ... stocking anesthesia, Infiltration anesthesia, Local anesthesia, One lung anesthesia, Tumescent anesthesia, Vocal anesthesia. ...
1. Anesthesia. *First, anesthetize the mouse using a mixture of ketamine and xylazine (100 mg/kg body weight and 10 mg/kg body ... Inhalation, intranasal instillation, intratracheal instillation, and intratracheal intubation are the most widely used ... intratracheal instillation, and intratracheal intubation1-4. The latter procedure has not been routinely used because it is ... Noninvasive Intratracheal Intubation to Study the Pathology and Physiology of Mouse Lung. Yan Cai1, Shioko Kimura1 ...
What is intratracheal tube? Meaning of intratracheal tube medical term. What does intratracheal tube mean? ... Looking for online definition of intratracheal tube in the Medical Dictionary? intratracheal tube explanation free. ... intratracheal anesthesia. *intratracheal anesthesia. *intratracheal anesthesia. *intratracheal anesthesia. *intratracheal ... redirected from intratracheal tube). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus. endotracheal. [en″do-tra´ke-al] within the trachea. ...
After World War I, further advances were made in the field of intratracheal anesthesia. Among these were those made by Sir Ivan ... Etymology of "anesthesia"[edit]. The word "anesthesia", coined by Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809-1894) in 1846 from the Greek ἀν- ... Jackson, Chevalier (May 1996). "The technique of insertion of intratracheal insufflation tubes". Pediatric Anesthesia. 6 (3): ... Janeway, HH (November 1913). "Intra-tracheal anesthesia from the standpoint of the nose, throat and oral surgeon with a ...
Jackson, Chevalier (1996). "The technique of insertion of intratracheal insufflation tubes". Pediatric Anesthesia. 6 (3): 230. ... "Intra-Tracheal Anesthesia from the Standpoint of the Nose, Throat and Oral Surgeon with a Description of a New Instrument for ... "Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 14 (8): 620-6. doi:10.1016/S0952-8180(02)00457-9. PMC 4803417. PMID 12565125.. ... Gorback MS (1991). "Management of the challenging airway with the Bullard laryngoscope". Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 3 (6 ...
Self-directed practice using VFI software may improve the initial acquisition of fibreoptic intubation skills for anesthesia ... Intubation, Intratracheal / instrumentation* * Intubation, Intratracheal / methods* * Male * Practice, Psychological * Software ... Self-directed deliberate practice with virtual fiberoptic intubation improves initial skills for anesthesia residents Minerva ... Methods: After informed consent, 23 first year anesthesia residents with no previous experience of fiberoptic intubation were ...
Guedel, A; Waters, R (1928). "A new intratracheal catheter". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 7 (4): 238-239.. ... Calverley, R.K. (1985). Anesthesia: Essays on its History. Germany: Springer. Calmes, S.H. (2004). Two Men and their dog: Ralph ... Guedel taught various medical personnel, from nurses to orderlies, how to manage anesthesia, Because of this, he defined the ... as well for defining the various stages of general anesthesia. The guedel pattern airway is named after him.[citation needed] ...
Anesthesia, General* / adverse effects * Female * Humans * Intraoperative Complications / etiology * Intubation, Intratracheal ...
Anesthesia, Intratracheal*. Animals. Blood Flow Velocity. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Dogs. Halothane / pharmacology*. ...
Associate Professor of Anesthesia.. Article Information Education Education , October 1974 Effects of Intratracheal Lidocaine ... Effects of Intratracheal Lidocaine on Circulatory Responses to Tracheal Intubation J. Kenneth Denlincer, M.D.; Norig Ellison, M ... Effects of Intratracheal Lidocaine on Circulatory Responses to Tracheal Intubation You will receive an email whenever this ... J. Kenneth Denlincer, Norig Ellison, Alan J. Ominsky; Effects of Intratracheal Lidocaine on Circulatory Responses to Tracheal ...
Neurosurgical Anesthesia; Obstetric Anesthesia; Pain Mechanisms; Pain Medicine; Pediatric Anesthesia; Regional Anesthesia; ... Ambulatory Anesthesia; Anesthetic Pharmacology; Cardiovascular Anesthesia; Critical Care and Trauma; Economics, Education, and ... Backed by internationally-known authorities who serve on the Editorial Board and as Section Editors, Anesthesia &Analgesia is ... No other journal can match Anesthesia & Analgesia for its original and significant contributions to the anesthesiology field. ...
Anesthesia, General / methods. Equipment Design. Female. Humans. Intubation, Intratracheal / instrumentation*, methods. ... 788549 - Neutrophil chemotaxis during and after general anesthesia and operation.. 19881019 - A scoring system as a method to ... Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, ...
Effects of intratracheal lidocaine on circulatory responses to tracheal intubation. by J Kenneth Denlinger et al. ... Local Airway Anesthesia Attenuates Hemodynamic Responses to Intubation and Extubation in Hypertensive Surgical Patients. *You- ... Effects of intratracheal lidocaine on circulatory responses to tracheal intubation.. @article{Denlinger1974EffectsOI, title={ ... Study to assess the laryngeal and pharyngeal spread of topical local anesthetic administered orally during general anesthesia ...
K9 alone intratracheal (IT), K9 alone intravenous (IV), K9-pAT2R-Ca2+ intratracheal (complex IT), or K9-pAT2R-Ca2+ intravenous ... Mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation under deep anesthesia at 14 days after the complex treatment. The lungs were ... For the intratracheal administration, 40 μL the K9-pAT2R-Ca2+ complex solution was mixed with 10 μL 10% glucose for the ... Single intravenous or intratracheal administrations of the K9-pAT2R-Ca2+ complexes significantly attenuated the growth of LLC ...
Intratracheal Anesthesia 05/01/1969 - "[Intratracheal anesthesia in operations of jaw neoplasms].". ...
Fiberoptic bronchoscopy is performed under local anesthesia; it is performed through the intratracheal tube in patients with ... Invasive ventilation provides respiratory support through intratracheal tube. Noninvasive ventilation providing respiratory ...
Pulmonary infection was initiated by intratracheal instillation of bacteria. For this purpose, short-duration anesthesia was ... A, H&E-stained lung sections from WT mice (a, c) and Bcl-3 KO mice (b, d) 48 h (a, b) and 72 h (c, d) after intratracheal ... Following intratracheal instillation of 104 bacteria, ∼60% of WT mice died within the 14-d follow-up. In contrast, all but one ... Survival of WT and Bcl-3 deficient (Bcl-3 KO) mice subjected to intratracheal instillation of 104 (A) and 2 × 103 (B) CFU of K ...
Intratracheal stenting is a minimally invasive procedure performed under a short-term anesthesia. By placing the stent inside ... These pets are candidates to have an intratracheal stent placed.. An intratracheal stent is a self-expanding prosthesis that is ... Intratracheal Stents for Pets. October 2, 2014 by OVRS Staff Unfortunately the diagnosis of a collapsing trachea is one all too ... Oakland Veterinary Referral Services is excited to be able to offer intratracheal stenting to our patients. Dr. Jennifer ...
Support Protocol 2: Subcutaneous and Intratracheal Infection of Mice. *Support Protocol 3: Isoflurane Gas Anesthesia ... intratracheal infection of mice ( protocol 5. ), IVIS image analysis and spectral unmixing ( protocol 1. ), and 3D (FLIT) ... 10 mg/ml ketamine/1 mg/ml xylazine in distilled H 2O for intratracheal infection (store at 4°C) ... Additional reagents and equipment for isoflurane anesthesia of the mouse ( protocol 6. ) and preparation of cultures for ...
The in-vivo intratracheal rat study was conducted essentially as described in Example 8 above. The precise dosing regimen and ... mixed with oxygen for approximately 5 minutes in a plexiglass anesthesia chamber. Administration was accomplished by insertion ... Intratracheal Instillation The rats were lightly anesthetized using inhaled 3.0-5.0% Isoflurane (Abbott Laboratories) ... In a study similar to Example 9 above, 750-1-PEG insulin was administered to rats by intratracheal administration at doses ...
E and F) No significant difference in Lm of airspace was seen between Mac-Sirt1-/- and WT mice after elastase intratracheal ... by securing the upper incisor teeth to the board after anesthesia with ketamine (100 mg/kg i.p.). The tongue was pulled forward ... Nonetheless, 6 months of CS exposure and elastase intratracheal injection increased the Lm of airspace by approximately 19% and ... Intratracheal administration of porcine pancreatic elastase. Mice were suspended at 50°-60° ...
... effect of instillation volume and form of anesthesia. PLoS One. 7, e31359 (2012). ... Jackson, P., et al. Exposure of pregnant mice to carbon black by intratracheal instillation: toxicogenomic effects in dams and ... Cai, Y., Kimura, S. Noninvasive Intratracheal Intubation to Study the Pathology and Physiology of Mouse Lung. J. Vis. Exp. (81 ... Rayamajhi, M., Redente, E. F., Condon, T. V., Gonzalez-Juarrero, M., Riches, D. W., Lenz, L. L. Non-surgical intratracheal ...
BALB/c mice were infected with an intratracheal inoculation of 104 cells of H99-α or WT C. neoformans strain H99. Fungal burden ... All manipulations involving live mice were performed under general anesthesia, and endpoint criteria were used for survival ... Intratracheal Inoculation of C. neoformans. Mice were anesthetized via intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (100 mg/kg body ... BALB/c mice were infected with an intratracheal inoculation of 104 cells of H99-α or WT C. neoformans strain H99. Fungal burden ...
In this stage intratracheal intubation for artificial respiration can be easily accomplished. This stage may be attained in 12 ... The production of anesthesia by intravenous injection of magnesium sulphate should not be undertaken unless an apparatus for ... In such instances, moreover, injections of magnesium should not be used for the purpose of anesthesia; at least not until ... THE INTRAVENOUS INJECTION OF MAGNESIUM SULPHATE FOR ANESTHESIA IN ANIMALS. J. Auer, S. J. Meltzer ...
An intratracheal tube was inserted and fixed. A gas mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen was introduced. Using an isoflurane ... Each dog fasting one whole day and night (weighing about 10 kg) received atropine sulfate as a pre-anesthesia drug ... The concentration of the isoflurane was increased gradually from 0.5%, whereby maintaining the anesthesia. This anesthetized ... intravenously followed by intravenous sodium thiopental to effect the anesthesia. ...

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