Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
Pain during the period after surgery.
The period during a surgical operation.
Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.
Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
The period following a surgical operation.
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Surgery performed on the female genitalia.
A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).
A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.
A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a rapid onset of action and a longer duration of action than procaine hydrochloride. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1017)
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.
A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Increased reading speed for stories presented during general anesthesia. (1/2315)

BACKGROUND: In the absence of explicit memories such as the recall and recognition of intraoperative events, memory of auditory information played during general anesthesia has been demonstrated with several tests of implicit memory. In contrast to explicit memory, which requires conscious recollection, implicit memory does not require recollection of previous experiences and is evidenced by a priming effect on task performance. The authors evaluated the effect of a standardized anesthetic technique on implicit memory, first using a word stem completion task, and then a reading speed task in a subsequent study. METHODS: While undergoing lumbar disc surgery, 60 patients were exposed to auditory materials via headphones in two successive experiments. A balanced intravenous technique with propofol and alfentanil infusions and a nitrous oxide-oxygen mixture was used to maintain adequate anesthesia. In the first experiment, 30 patients were exposed randomly to one of the two lists of 34 repeated German nouns; in the second experiment, 30 patients were exposed to one of two tapes containing two short stories. Thirty control patients for each experiment heard the tapes without receiving anesthesia. All patients were tested for implicit memory 6-8 h later: A word stem completion task for the words and a reading speed task for the stories were used as measures of implicit memory. RESULTS: The control group completed the word stems significantly more often with the words that they had heard previously, but no such effect was found in the anesthetized group. However, both the control and patient groups showed a decreased reading time of about 40 ms per word for the previously presented stories compared with the new stories. The patients had no explicit memory of intraoperative events. CONCLUSIONS: Implicit memory was demonstrated after anesthesia by the reading speed task but not by the word stem completion task. Some methodologic aspects, such as using low frequency words or varying study and test modalities, may account for the negative results of the word stem completion task. Another explanation is that anesthesia with propofol, alfentanil, and nitrous oxide suppressed the word priming but not the reading speed measure of implicit memory. The reading speed paradigm seems to provide a stable and reliable measurement of implicit memory.  (+info)

Dependence of explicit and implicit memory on hypnotic state in trauma patients. (2/2315)

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear whether memory of intraoperative events results entirely from moments of inadequate anesthesia. The current study was designed to determine whether the probability of memory declines with increasing depth of the hypnotic state. METHOD: A list of words was played via headphones during surgery to patients who had suffered acute trauma. Several commonly used indicators of anesthetic effect, including the bispectral index, were recorded during word presentation. First, these indicators served as predictors of the memory performance in a postoperative word stem completion test. Second, general memory performance observed in the first part was separated into explicit and implicit memory using the process dissociation procedure, and then two models of memory were compared: One model assumed that the probability of explicit and implicit memory decreases with increasing depth of hypnotic state (individual differences model), whereas the other assumed equal memory performance for all patients regardless of their level of hypnotic state. RESULTS: General memory performance declined with decreasing bispectral index values. None of the other indicators of hypnotic state were related to general memory performance. Memory was still significant at bispectral index levels between 60 and 40. A comparison of the two models of memory resulted in a better fit of the individual differences model, thus providing evidence of a dependence of explicit and implicit memory on the hypnotic state. Quantification of explicit and implicit memory revealed a significant implicit but no reliable explicit memory performance. CONCLUSIONS: This study clearly indicates that memory is related to the depth of hypnosis. The observed memory performance should be interpreted in terms of implicit memory. Auditory information processing occurred at bispectral index levels between 60 and 40.  (+info)

Functional brain imaging during anesthesia in humans: effects of halothane on global and regional cerebral glucose metabolism. (3/2315)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and isoflurane anesthesia were studied previously with functional brain imaging in humans to begin identifying key brain areas involved with mediating anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. The authors describe an additional positron emission tomography study of halothane's in vivo cerebral metabolic effects. METHODS: Five male volunteers each underwent two positron emission tomography scans. One scan assessed awake-baseline metabolism, and the other scan assessed metabolism during halothane anesthesia titrated to the point of unresponsiveness (mean +/- SD, expired = 0.7+/-0.2%). Scans were obtained using a GE2048 scanner and the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose technique. Regions of interest were analyzed for changes in both absolute and relative glucose metabolism. In addition, relative changes in metabolism were evaluated using statistical parametric mapping. RESULTS: Awake whole-brain metabolism averaged 6.3+/-1.2 mg x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (mean +/- SD). Halothane reduced metabolism 40+/-9% to 3.7+/-0.6 mg x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (P< or =0.005). Regional metabolism did not increase in any brain areas for any volunteer. The statistical parametric mapping analysis revealed significantly less relative metabolism in the basal forebrain, thalamus, limbic system, cerebellum, and occiput during halothane anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Halothane caused a global whole-brain metabolic reduction with significant shifts in regional metabolism. Comparisons with previous studies reveal similar absolute and relative metabolic effects for halothane and isoflurane. Propofol, however, was associated with larger absolute metabolic reductions, suppression of relative cortical metabolism more than either inhalational agent, and significantly less suppression of relative basal ganglia and midbrain metabolism.  (+info)

Postoperative behavioral outcomes in children: effects of sedative premedication. (4/2315)

BACKGROUND: Although multiple studies document the effect of sedative premedication on preoperative anxiety in children, there is a paucity of data regarding its effect on postoperative behavioral outcomes. METHODS: After screening for recent stressful life events, children undergoing anesthesia and surgery were assigned randomly to receive either 0.5 mg/kg midazolam in 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43) or 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43). Using validated measures of anxiety, children were evaluated before and after administration of the intervention and during induction of anesthesia. On postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14, the behavioral recovery of the children was assessed using the Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS: The intervention group demonstrated significantly lower anxiety levels compared with the placebo group on separation to the operating room and during induction of anesthesia (F[1,77] = 3.95, P = 0.041). Using a multivariate logistic regression model, the authors found that the presence or absence of postoperative behavioral changes was dependent on the group assignment (R = 0.18, P = 0.0001) and days after operation (R = -0.20, P = 0.0001). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that during postoperative days 1-7, a significantly smaller number of children in the midazolam group manifested negative behavioral changes. At week 2 postoperatively, however, there were no significant differences between the midazolam and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Children who are premedicated with midazolam before surgery have fewer negative behavioral changes during the first postoperative week.  (+info)

Ballistic shock wave lithotripsy in an 18-year-old thoroughbred gelding. (5/2315)

Prolonged postoperative recuperation time and restricted exercise were circumvented by using ballistic shock wave lithotripsy to break up an 8-cm diameter vesical calculus and by flushing out the sand-like residue under epidural anesthesia with the horse standing. Recovery was uneventful.  (+info)

Morbidity and cost-effectiveness analysis of outpatient analgesia versus general anaesthesia for testicular sperm extraction in men with azoospermia due to defects in spermatogenesis. (6/2315)

The outcome and costs of testicular sperm extraction under outpatient local analgesia or general anaesthesia were compared in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Nineteen consecutive patients were allocated to receive general anaesthesia, while the subsequent 21 consecutive patients received outpatient analgesia in the form of i.v. midazolam sedation, lignocaine spray, scrotal infiltration with local anaesthetic and spermatic cord block. Blood pressure, pulse rate and respiratory rate were determined. Sedation and testicular pain were assessed by subjective scoring. Both groups showed haemodynamic stability with little alteration in blood pressure, pulse rate and oxygen saturation. Toxic symptoms of local anaesthetic were not encountered in the outpatient group. No relationship was found between testicular size and the duration of the operation. The median postoperative pain intensity, sedation scores and analgesic requirements were significantly less in the outpatient group (P < 0.05). These advantages led to a shorter recovery time (P < 0.0001), 3-fold cheaper care and greater patient satisfaction (P < 0.0001) in the outpatient group.  (+info)

Propofol concentrations in follicular fluid during general anaesthesia for transvaginal oocyte retrieval. (7/2315)

Propofol (Diprivan) is an i.v. anaesthetic used for general anaesthesia. The purpose of this study was to measure the propofol concentration in arterial blood and follicular fluid in patients during transvaginal oocyte retrieval. After approval by the University Ethics Committee, 30 women participated in this prospective study. Following induction of anaesthesia with 0.5 mg alfentanil and 2 propofol i.v., a continuous infusion of propofol at 10 was used for maintenance of anaesthesia. Follicular fluid and arterial blood samples were aspirated simultaneously at fixed intervals during the surgical procedure and propofol assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean follicular fluid concentration of propofol increased linearly with time from 0.10 +/- 0.02 to 0.57 +/- 0.06 and was strongly related to the cumulative dose of propofol administered. The absorption of propofol was time-dependent. There was no correlation between the concentration of propofol in the follicular fluid and the arterial blood concentration of the drug. In conclusion, a propofol-based anaesthetic technique resulted in significant concentrations of this agent in follicular fluid, related to the dose administered and to the duration of propofol administration.  (+info)

Assessing introduction of spinal anaesthesia for obstetric procedures. (8/2315)

To assess the impact of introducing spinal anaesthesia for obstetric operative procedures on use of general anaesthesia and quality of regional anaesthesia in a unit with an established epidural service a retrospective analysis of routinely collected data on method of anaesthesia, efficacy, and complications was carried out. Data were collected from 1988 to 1991 on 1670 obstetric patients requiring an operative procedure. The introduction of spinal anaesthesia in 1989 significantly reduced the proportion of operative procedures performed under general anaesthesia, from 60% (234/390) in 1988 to 30% (124/414) in 1991. The decrease was most pronounced for manual removal of the placenta (88%, 48/55 v 9%, 3/34) and emergency caesarean section (67%, 129/193) v 38%, 87/229). Epidural anaesthesia decreased in use most significantly for elective caesarean section (65%, 77/118 v 3% 3/113; x2=139, p<0.0001). The incidence of severe pain and need for conversion to general anaesthesia was significantly less with spinal anaesthesia (0%, 0/207 v 3%, 5/156; p<0.05). Hypotension was not a problem, and the incidence of headache after spinal anaesthetic decreased over the period studied. Introducing spinal anaesthesia therefore reduced the need for general anaesthesia and improved the quality of regional anaesthesia.  (+info)

The market report, titled General Anesthesia Drugs Market 2016, is an analytical research done by QY Market Research study based on the General Anesthesia Drugs market, which analyzes the competitive framework of the General Anesthesia Drugs industry worldwide. This report Worldwide General Anesthesia Drugs Market 2016 build by the usage of efficient methodical tools such SWOT analysis, the General Anesthesia Drugs industrial 2016 study offers a comprehensive evaluation worldwide General Anesthesia Drugs market.. Request For Report Sample Here : Global General Anesthesia Drugs Market 2016 report has Forecasted Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) in % value for particular period, that will help user to take decision based on futuristic chart. Report also includes key players in global General Anesthesia Drugs market.. The General Anesthesia Drugs market size is estimated in terms of revenue (US$) and production volume in this report. ...
Before any dental procedure under general anesthesia, a pre-anesthesia evaluation of the patient by the dentist / anesthesiologist is necessary in order to determine not only the suitability of the patient for undergoing general anesthesia, but also the necessity of using GA versus conscious sedation.. During the pre-operative consultation the dentist will explain the procedure and the risks involved. Finally the patient is given a list of general anesthesia pre-operative instructions to follow on the evening before and on the day of the procedure.. General anesthesia can be achieved with the action of several anesthetic medications. During the general anesthesia procedure these anesthetic drugs can be administered either by breathing a volatile anesthetic through a breathing mask (inhalation induction of general anesthesia), or by injecting the medications intravenously (intravenous induction of GA), or by a combination of the two methods.. At all phases of the general anesthesia procedure, the ...
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of general anesthesia on neonatal brain activity using amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG). METHODS: A prospective cohort study of neonates (January 2013-December 2015), who underwent major neonatal surgery for non-cardiac congenital anomalies. Anesthesia was administered at the discretion of the ... read more anesthetist. aEEG monitoring was started six hours preoperatively until 24 hours after surgery. Analysis of classes of aEEG background patterns, ranging from continuous normal voltage to flat trace in six classes, and quantitative EEG-measures, using spontaneous activity transients (SATs) and interSATintervals (ISI), was performed. RESULTS: In total, 111 neonates were included (36 preterm/75 full-term), age at time of surgery was (median (range) 2 (0-32) days. During anesthesia depression of brain activity was seen, with background patterns ranging from flat trace to discontinuous normal voltage. In most patients brain ...
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | In this article, the authors review the animal and human data on the recent studies looking at the neurotoxicity of general anesthesia in the pediatric population. Animal studies in rodents and non-human primates demonstrate neurotoxic effects when exposed to general anesthesia at a young age. However, prospective clinical studies in humans do not show significant differences in intelligence
Of 211 978 children included, 82 156 had developmental assessment and 153 025 had school test results, with 12 848 (15.7%) and 25 032 (16.4%) exposed to general anesthesia, respectively. Children exposed to general anesthesia had 17%, 34%, and 23% increased odds of being developmentally high risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07-1.29); or scoring below the national minimum standard in numeracy (aOR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.21-1.48) and reading (aOR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.12-1.36), respectively. Although the risk for being developmentally high risk and poor reading attenuated for children with only 1 hospitalization and exposure to general anesthesia, the association with poor numeracy results remained.. ...
Sixty neonates and infants will be enrolled and randomised into two groups of n=30 each . For their surgical procedures, one group general (GA) anaesthesia the second group will receive a combined general and epidural anaesthesia (CGEA). Anaesthetic technique: Patients in the GA group will be induced with intravenous propofol (2-4 and fentanyl (2-4 µ and will receive rocuronium bromide (0.5 to facilitate endotracheal intubation. Anaesthesia will be maintained with sevoflurane (2-3%) in an air/oxygen mixture as well as intravenous fentanyl as required. In the (CGEA) 0.5 of 0.25% bupivacaine will be injected into the epidural catheter, followed by a continuous infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine at a rate of 0.2 for up to 48 hours postoperatively. Assessment of anaesthetic efficacy will be measured Intraoperative care vital signs. And will continuously be monitored with a Datex AS/3
The main functions monitored during general anesthesia include oxygenation, circulation, and temperature, by measuring parameters such as heart pulse and rhythm, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and temperature level. Breathing volume, rate and pressure are monitored by clinical observation from an anesthesia team member.. The patients respiratory reflexes are also lost under general anesthesia. Since the patient is not able to protect the airway on his own, it is the duty of the personnel monitoring the patient to protect him from aspiration. For patients with existing health conditions that are at a higher risk of complications under general anesthesia, further monitoring of vital signs may be required to ensure patients safety.. The equipment most commonly used for general anesthesia patient monitoring includes:. ...
General anesthesia is a combination of medicines that you inhale or receive through a needle in a vein to cause you to become unconscious. It affects your whole body. Under anesthesia, you should be completely unaware and not feel pain during the surgery or procedure. General anesthesia also causes forgetfulness (amnesia) and relaxation of the muscles throughout your body.. General anesthesia suppresses many of your bodys normal automatic functions, such as those that control breathing, heartbeat, circulation of the blood (such as blood pressure), movements of the digestive system, and throat reflexes such as swallowing, coughing, or gagging that prevent foreign material from being inhaled into your lungs (aspiration).. Because these functions are suppressed, an anesthesia specialist must carefully keep a balance of medicines while watching your heart, breathing, blood pressure, and other vital functions. An endotracheal (ET) tube or a laryngeal mask airway device is usually used to give you an ...
The choice of anesthesia depends on many variables including the complexity of treatment, duration of treatment, need for patient awareness and the response during treatment, only to name a few. In general, the clinician and patient should discuss the risks and benefits of possible anesthesia and sedation types and select the type that provides the minimum adequate amount of anesthesia and sedation needed to complete the treatment procedure. Guidelines regarding the patients medical condition regarding anesthesia should be followed carefully. The two main types of anesthesia/sedation include infiltration with local anesthetics and regional anesthesia with local anesthetics. Either type of anesthesia can be combined with conscious sedation. In cases of complex surgery, general anesthesia may be considered and the patient should be referred to a highly trained specialist who is experienced in the use of general anesthesia. ...
General anesthesia is a combination of medicines that you inhale or receive through a needle in a vein to cause you to become unconscious. It affects your whole body. Under anesthesia, you should be completely unaware and not feel pain during the surgery or procedure. General anesthesia also causes forgetfulness (amnesia) and relaxation of the muscles throughout your body.. General anesthesia suppresses many of your bodys normal automatic functions, such as those that control breathing, heartbeat, circulation of the blood (such as blood pressure), movements of the digestive system, and throat reflexes such as swallowing, coughing, or gagging that prevent foreign material from being inhaled into your lungs (aspiration).. Because these functions are suppressed, an anesthesiologist must carefully keep a balance of medicines while watching your heart, breathing, blood pressure, and other vital functions. An endotracheal (ET) tube or a laryngeal mask airway device is usually used to give you an ...
During general anesthesia, two treatments are used : hypnotic and opioid treatment. Opioid treatment is used for pain assessment.. The change in haemodynamic variables and clinical sign are evaluated during anesthesia for pain assessment but these changes are not specific every time.. The main of this study is to investigate the relationship between calculated compartment concentration of remifentanil (opioid) and the parameters from HRV (Heart Rate Variability) and APV (Arterial Pressure Variability) before a standard noxious stimulation during general anesthesia at calibrated hypnosis level.. Our hypothesis is that nociceptive stimulation would have reproductible effects on HRV, and that these effects would be blunted or abolished by by adequate analgesia. The current study is thus designed to analyse HRV and APV in patients with stable hypnosis, before and during nociceptive surgical stimulation, at different levels of analgesia. ...
Butrov AV, Salimova KA, Torosyan BJ, Makhmutova GR, Davydov PP. Under the influence of general anesthesia various functions of the body can change depending on the main and concomitant diseases, the type and volume of the surgical intervention. General anesthesia is traditionally associated with the loss of normal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The intracranial temperature of 32 patients were measured in this study. These patients were divided into 3 groups depending on the type of general anesthesia. The brain temperature of all patients were measured by recording the strength of the electromagnetic radiation from deep brain tissues and also, the axillary and tympanic temperatures were measured. According to the thermometry results of the brain, it was evident that when using Propofol, the temperature of the brain during anesthesia decreased by 1.21 ± 0.19 °C. During the maintenance of inhalational anesthesia the temperature of the brain decreased by 0.69 ± 0.15 °C. There was a decrease of brain
For making the final decisions are taken into account a lot of things - its kind of the upcoming surgery, and the patients health and personal experience of the anesthesiologist, and opportunities. Carefully weighing all of these factors, the anesthesiologist first determines the possible types of anesthesia , and then selects the best one option.. In general, the concept of best anesthesia includes many aspects, the most important of which are security, safety, ease, comfort and quality.. 1. Safety anesthesia is determined by the severity of the risks and potential complications of anesthesia. Safest form of anesthesia is a local anesthesia , and the largest number of risks associated with general anesthesia . Occupies an intermediate position block anesthesia , but it is only possible when conducting operations on the limbs. Neuraxial anesthesia techniques, which include spinaland epidural anesthesia, in the scale of security occupy a special position. Thus, compared to general anesthesia, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficacy and safety of ultra rapid iron polymaltose infusion during general anaesthesia. AU - Browning, R. M.. AU - Alakeson, N.. AU - OLoughlin, E. J.. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - To assess the efficacy and safety of ultra rapid (15 minute) infusion of iron polymaltose to iron deficient patients during general anaesthesia, we performed a prospective, interventional non-randomised study on 99 adult patients with iron deficiency with or without anaemia presenting for surgery under general anaesthesia. Over 15 minutes during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, patients were given iron polymaltose, 500 mg if not anaemic, or 1,000 mg if anaemic. Haemodynamic stability, immediate or delayed iron-related side-effects and efficacy at six weeks were assessed. The incidence of significant hypotension or the requirement for vasopressor was not different before, during or after the iron infusion. There were no serious intraoperative events (allergic reactions or skin staining). ...
Dizziness and fatigue are side effects of general anesthesia considered normal several days after surgery, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine. A condition affecting mental functions called...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
At Aranda & Aranda DDS PA, we offer general anesthesia to help our patients have a comfortable dental experience. General anesthesia will put you to sleep during your dental treatment, and you will feel no pain or discomfort. General anesthesia is a good choice for patients who feel anxious about their dental treatment
Guedel Airways are designed to maintain an unobstructed oropharyngeal airway during or following general anaesthesia and in patients who are unconscious for other reasons. Integral hard bite block avoids airway occlusion and
VALLEY COTTAGE, N.Y., Oct. 29, 2015-- Future Market Insights delivers key insights on the global general anaesthesia drugs market in its upcoming outlook titled, General Anaesthesia Drugs Market: Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment, 2015- 2025. In terms of value, the global General Anaesthesia Drugs market is projected to register a healthy CAGR...
The brain under general anesthesia isnt asleep as surgery patients are often told -- it is placed into a state that is a reversible coma, according to three neuroscientists who have published an extensive review of general anesthesia, sleep and coma, in the Dec. 30 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine. This insight and others reported in their review article could eventually lead to new approaches to general anesthesia and improved diagnosis and treatment for sleep abnormalities and emergence from coma.
1. Respiratory complications. A respiratory complication is one that affects your breathing, like a chest infection or pneumonia. They are more likely following general anaesthesia and in women who smoke or already have a problem with their 2. Bowel complications, the most common of these is an ileus. An ileus is when your bowel stops working normally, it can make you feel bloated and sick. It gets better quickly, 3. Infection. Infection is fairly common, affecting about 5% of women who have had a caesarean section. It usually affects your wound, your womb or your urinary tract. With the use of antibiotics during surgery the risk of serious complications is very 4. Thromboembolism. A thrombosis is when a blood clot develops in a blood vessel. Usually these clots are small and develop in vessels in the leg; very occasionally they can be larger and affect blood vessels in the lungs. This is called a pulmonary embolism. To prevent a clot developing you will wear special stockings and receive ...
Objectives Computed tomography is routinely used in the diagnosis and evaluation of many human diseases. Before any tools can become an effective diagnostic modality, normal species-specific data must be characterized. Having access to clinically relevant C.T. anatomy of the cat is the basis of effective utilization of this modality in veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study is to identify anatomic structures of C.T. images of the abdominal region of the cat for using by veterinary radiologists, clinicians and surgeons. Materials & Methods Five mature female cats were used in this study. At first, one of the animals was fixed by routine anatomical method. Following general anesthesia, the other animals were restrained in sternal recumbency and the thoracic region was scanned by high resolution imaging, using a general diagnostic C.T. system, with a slice thickness of 15 mm. Tomograms were made almost perpendicular to the long axis of the abdominal region. Following euthanasia, the cats ...
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether anesthesia affects graft patency after lower extremity arterial in situ bypass surgery. METHODS: This investigation was a retrospective study using a national database on vascular surgical patients at a single medical institution. We assessed a total of 822 patients exposed to infrainguinal in situ bypass vascular surgery over the period of January 2000 to September 2010. RESULTS: All patients included in the study (age [mean ± SD] 70.8 ± 9.7 years) underwent infrainguinal in situ bypass (n = 885) for lower extremity revascularization under epidural (n = 386) or general (n = 499) anesthesia. Thirty-day mortality (3.4% for epidural anesthesia versus 4.4% general anesthesia; P = 0.414) and comorbidity were comparable in the 2 groups. Graft occlusion within 7 days after surgery was reported in 93 patients, with a similar incidence in the epidural (10.1%) and general (10.8%) anesthesia groups (P = 0.730). When examining a subgroup of ...
Anesthesia is a way to control pain using anesthetic medicine. General anesthesia, which can be injected into a vein or inhaled, affects the entire body and makes the person unconscious.. A person under general anesthesia is completely unaware of what is going on and does not feel pain during the surgery or procedure. Anesthesia interrupts the pain signals between a persons nerve endings and the brain. The health professional administering the anesthesia monitors the persons condition throughout the procedure. ...
Anesthesia is a way to control pain using anesthetic medicine. General anesthesia, which can be injected into a vein or inhaled, affects the entire body and makes the person unconscious.. A person under general anesthesia is completely unaware of what is going on and does not feel pain during the surgery or procedure. Anesthesia interrupts the pain signals between a persons nerve endings and the brain. The health professional administering the anesthesia monitors the persons condition throughout the procedure.. ...
Objective To investigate the clinical effect of sevoflurane general anesthesia in the treatment of sepsis patients. Methods 74 patients with sepsis who underwent surgical treatment in the Department of Surgery in our hospital from March 2016 to February 2017 were divided into two groups, according to the different ways of maintaining anesthesia. All patients were given general anesthesia. The control group was maintained with propofol during operation. The observation group was maintained with sevoflurane. The changes in vital signs, changes in respiratory function indicators, adverse reactions and surgical outcome were compared between the two groups. Results The mean arterial pressure and heart rate after anesthesia in the observation group were controlled more smoothly than those in the control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P 0.05). There was no significant difference in the oxygen saturation be tween the two groups(P0.05). The levels of oxygenation index(OI), partial
Press Release issued Dec 23, 2014: Anesthesia drugs are used during tests and surgical operations to induce sleep, which prevents pain and discomfort and enables a wide range of medical procedures to be performed. Local Anesthesia and General Anesthesia are the two commonly used types of anesthesia. Local anesthesia is a condition when sensation within a specific body part in inhibited, where as general anesthesia results in loss of consciousness and sensation.
Investigation of suspected anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia requires several different skills. The differential diagnosis is often wide and the specialist must have the ability to identify complications of anaesthesia which may mimic some of the clinical features of anaphylaxis. This includes problems associated with tracheal intubation, equipment failure or covert haemorrhage. In some cases adverse reactions may be related to underlying medical conditions such as septicaemia, COPD, asthma or chronic urticaria. Non-allergic reactions to drugs must also be considered such as beta-blockers resulting in bronchospasm or hypotension resulting from a combination of anaesthetic agents. Even when the patient has suffered anaphylaxis, the investigation of the trigger can be challenging as the patient is often exposed to numerous co-administered drugs and agents any of which may be implicated. Neuromuscular blocking agents remain the major cause for anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia but other ...
Pinnacle Anesthesia Consultants is now U.S. Anesthesia Partners-Texas. Pinnacle Anesthesia, also known as Pinnacle Partners In Medicine, was known as the premier anesthesia group in the Dallas/Ft. Worth area and was one of the highest quality anesthesia groups in the United States. For over 20 years, we have provided top-notch care to patients in the communities we serve, building strong relationships both internally and externally.. With a reputation for rigorous quality assurance and peer review process, Pinnacle fit the mold of premier practices that make up USAP. In North Texas, USAP-Texas provides service to over 600,000 patients at over 150 facilities each year. We provide service for all types of routine surgical procedures as well as such specialty areas as cardiovascular, obstetrical, neurosurgery, pediatrics, trauma and edoscopic anesthesia.. USAP-Texas is committed to providing comprehensive, high-quality and cost-effective anesthesia services.. ...
PAION AG is a publicly listed specialty pharmaceutical company developing and aiming to commercialize innovative drugs to be used in out-patient and hospital-based sedation, anesthesia and critical care services. PAIONs lead compound is remimazolam, an intravenous, ultra-short-acting and controllable benzodiazepine sedative/anesthetic drug candidate which is in the final stage of clinical development for use in procedural sedation in the U.S. Currently, PAION is mainly focusing its business and financial resources on successfully completing its development program in procedural sedation in the U.S. Outside the U.S., PAION has so far focused on the development of remimazolam in the indication general anesthesia. A full clinical development program for general anesthesia was completed in Japan. In the EU, PAION is currently planning to continue the clinical development program by starting a Phase III trial in the second half of 2018. Development of remimazolam in the indication intensive care unit (ICU)
Guidelines for the Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists I. Introduction The administration of local anesthesia, sedation and general anesthesia is an integral part of dental practice. The
Researchers may be one step closer to better understanding how anesthesia works. A study in the August issue of Anesthesiology, the official medical journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, found stimulating a major dopamine-producing region in the brain, the ventral tegmental area, caused rats to wake from general anesthesia, suggesting that this region plays a key role in restoring consciousness after general anesthesia.
Learn more about General Anesthesia at Reston Hospital Center DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctorrevision ...
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Anesthesia can be complicated, and can cause complications. This is why it is essential to choose the right method for each particular situation. You should know some facts about anesthesia if you are planning to have experts do dental implants Houston area residents trust.. When a person has general anesthesia, he is completely unconscious. His natural stress response is blunted, and he cannot move.. In the past, many people believed general anesthesia was best under most circumstances. Not only was a patients lack of consciousness easier for the patients, it also made performing procedures easier for doctors and dentists. When a patient is unconscious, and unaware of what is happening, he does not experience fear or anxiety during a procedure. Physicians and dentists can perform procedures without being interrupted by fearful or difficult patients.. However, it also carries the highest risk of complications. Some individuals are even allergic to surgical anesthesia. General anesthesia ...
General anesthesia is a treatment used to block pain and put the body to sleep during surgical procedures. This video shows the different ways doctors give patients general anesthesia before a surgical procedure.. ...
hi, does anyone know side effects of general anesthesia or sequela? How many times of general anesthesia or sequela can be affored in a lifetime?
General Anesthesia Drugs General Anesthesia Drugs market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. Request For Full Report @ Geographically, this report split EMEA into Europe, the Middle East and…
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Global Anesthesia Monitoring Devices Market 2022 Research Report Purchase This Report by calling at +1-888-631-6977.. Global anesthesia monitoring devices market can be segmented into products and end users. By product, it is segmented into integrated anesthesia workstation, basic anesthesia monitors, others (IT enabled) and advanced anesthesia monitors. Advanced anesthesia monitors are segmented into gas monitors, standalone capnography monitors, depth of anesthesia, and MRI compatible anesthesia monitors. These devices are more accurate and reliable in monitoring anesthesia. Anesthesia can be monitored with different methods, such as EEG Monitors, ECG, bi-spectral index (BIS) obtained from EEG, oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers, and temperature monitors. Other monitoring instruments can be included, depending on patients condition, the type of surgical procedure, and the type of anesthesia used. Hospitals, ambulatory surgical centers, clinics and nursing homes form the ...
Complications that can occur during and following anesthesia in ruminants and swine are discussed. Because many of these complications can be life-threatening, they must be avoided to allow provision of safe general anesthesia. Emphasis is placed on prevention and recognition of these complications and the institution of therapy when they do occur.. ...
Intraoperative course. I. Anesthetic choice. 1. Do you recommend regional or general anesthesia? Explain your rationale.. 2. Does her diabetes influence your decision? Explain.. 3. Does her obesity influence your decision? Explain.. II. Monitors. 1. Would you monitor this patient differently than you would for a slender diabetic for the same procedure? Why?. 2. Does the presence of right ventricular hypertrophy alter your monitoring? Why or why not?. 3. How does it alter your monitoring?. 4. A colleague recommends a pulmonary artery catheter with continuous oxygen saturation monitoring. Do you agree?. 5. How will you monitor her diabetic status with regional anesthesia?. 6. How will you monitor her diabetic status with general anesthesia?. III. Anesthetic induction and intubation. 1. The patient refuses regional. Will you do a rapid sequence induction? Explain.. 2. What are the hazards of rapid sequence induction in this patient?. 3. Would premedication with ranitidine and metoclopramide ...
An optical switching element including at least a multi-layered optical switching layer that includes a charge generation layer and a charge transport layer wherein, the charge transport layer contains a charge transporting material represented by the following general formula (1). The optical switching element is applicable in a device, a photoaddressable display medium and a display device. The optical switching element may alternatively include a mono-layered optical switching layer that has a charge generating function and a charge transporting function, wherein the mono-layered optical switching layer contains the charge transporting material represented by the following general formula (1).
October 24, 2016. The use of general anesthesia for surgery has not changed fundamentally since it was first introduced 170 years ago. Patients are still left to come around in their own time following withdrawal of the drug.. However, some patients can take a considerable amount of time to wake up, holding up the use of expensive operating rooms and occupying medical staff who must keep them under close observation.. Now researchers at MIT and Massachusetts General Hospital have moved a step closer to a treatment to rapidly awaken patients after administration of a general anesthetic, following a study of the mechanism that allows people to regain consciousness.. In a paper published today in the journal PNAS, the researchers demonstrate that activating dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain causes active emergence from general anesthesia.. This is important because the mechanism by which we regain consciousness following general anesthetic has so far been poorly ...
What is anaesthesia? Find out more about both local and general anaesthesia and why it is so commonly used in the UK. Information about anaesthetics for surgery.
Tail docking of pigs is a routine procedure on farms to help control tail-biting behavior; however, docking can cause pain. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of local or general anesthesia on the physiology (experiment 1) and behavior (experiment 2) of tail docked pigs. Pigs were allocated to one of six treatment groups: (i) sham docking (CON); (ii) docking using conventional cutting (CUT) with side-cutting pliers; (iii) CUT docking plus local anesthesia injected immediately before docking (LA); (iv) CUT docking plus short-acting local anesthesia applied topically to the tail wound (SHORT); (v) CUT docking plus long-acting anesthesia applied topically to the tail wound (LONG) and (vi) CUT docking while the pig was anesthetized with carbon dioxide gas (CO2). In experiment 1, blood samples were collected from pigs (10 pigs per treatment) before and 30, 60 and 120 min after docking to measure leukocyte counts and percentages and cortisol concentrations. In experiment 2, the ...
Spinal anesthesia may result in less immunosuppression after surgery. We found that the ratio of T helper 1 to T helper 2 cells was higher in patients undergoing prostate surgery by spinal rather than general anesthesia. Th1 cells promote protective immune responses that may result in fewer postoper …
Abstract:Objective To observe the adjusting effect of acupuncture on patients receiving cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation. Methods Forty patients undergoing repair of auricular septal defect were randomly divided into acupuncture anesthesia ( n=15 ), acupuncture puls general anesthesia ( n =12) and general anesthesia groups ( n=16 ). Intraoperative mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO 2), intraoperative and postoperative dosage of vasoactive drugs and the incidence of postoperative complications were observed. Results After the operation, MAP was significantly lower in general anesthesia group than in acupuncture anesthesia and acupuncture plus general anesthesia groups ( P ,0.05); there were no statistically significant differences in SpO 2 and HR among the groups. Automatic cardioversion rate was significantly higher in acupuncture anesthesia and acupuncture plus general anesthesia groups than in general anesthesia group; the ...
Deep sedation and general anesthesia are part of a continuum. In other words, the one shades into the other. The same medicines can be used to produce deep sedation as general anesthesia. During general anesthesia a patient is unrousable, unconscious, lacking in recall. There is no awareness of events taking place around the person, including the surgical procedure. Some form of airway device is usually inserted because general anesthesia causes the airway muscles to lose their tone - they loosen up - and the airway may then become obstructed unless the anesthesiologist takes action to keep it open. During deep sedation insertion of an airway is usually, but not always, unnecessary. During deep sedation, there may be some mild depression of breathing whereas during general anesthesia breathing is definitely impaired, hence the need for extra oxygen and, sometimes, mechanical help with breathing. During deep sedation the blood pressure is usually okay, during general anesthesia a drop in blood ...
Peripheral nerve blocks versus general anesthesia for total knee replacement in elderly patients on the postoperative quality of recovery JunLe Liu,1,* WeiXiu Yuan,1,* XiaoLin Wang,1,* Colin F Royse,2,3 MaoWei Gong,1 Ying Zhao,1 Hong Zhang1 1Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital and Medical School of Chinese People's Liberation Army, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Anesthesia and Pain Management Unit, Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 3Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Both peripheral nerve blocks with sedation or general anesthesia can be used for total knee replacement surgery. Objectives: We compared these anesthetic techniques on the postoperative quality of recovery early in elderly patients. Materials and methods: In our study, 213 patients who were ≥65
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systematic review of the neurocognitive outcomes used in studies of paediatric anaesthesia neurotoxicity. AU - Clausen, N. G.. AU - Kähler, S.. AU - Hansen, Tom G. PY - 2018/6/1. Y1 - 2018/6/1. N2 - Background: Neurotoxicity of anaesthetics in developing brain cells is well documented in preclinical studies, yet results are conflicting in humans. The use of many and different outcome measures in human studies may contribute to this disagreement. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to identify all measures used to assess long-term neurocognitive outcomes following general anaesthesia (GA) and surgery in children. The quality of studies was assessed according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for observational studies. PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies investigating neurocognitive outcome after GA in children ,18 yr. Results: Sixty-seven studies were identified from 19 countries during 1990-2017. Most ...
Background:General anesthesia is characterized by unconsciousness, analgesia, muscle relaxation, and depression of reflexes, generally in response to the administration of chemical agents that induce reversible unconsciousness. Study of the cognitive neuroscientific basis of general anesthesia involves evaluation of the effect of anesthetic agents on consciousness and the brain mechanisms underlying cognitive function. Central nervous system dysfunction after anesthesia and/or surgery can occur at any age but is a particular issue for elderly patients. Studies of delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction have been published in many countries since the end of the last century. We present a discussion of delirium disorders and a review of the literature. Material and Method:We also present case reports for 2 patients who underwent general surgery for epilepsy. The first patient experienced postoperative visual illusions, hallucination, and time and space disorientation. The second patient
The global Local Anesthesia Drugs Market is predicted to reach USD 6.45 billion by 2025 owing to the increasing number of surgeries across the world. Anesthesia is a medical procedure that reduces or prevents the pain during surgery or other painful medical processes. It encourages the loss of awareness or sensation to the patient, which in a way help the surgeons to carry the entire surgery. An anesthesia is a drug that prevents pain during a medical operation. The anesthesia type used for any surgery is determined by different factors like length and type of the surgery, patient health and preference of the surgeon doctor and patient. The local anesthesia drugs market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.7% in the years to come.. The three types of anesthesia drugs are local anesthesia, general anesthesia and regional anesthesia. Long anesthesia is injected in the tissue to numb the particular body location for minor operation. In general anesthesia, the patient is completely unconscious and ...
WEDNESDAY, June 17, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Anesthesiologists can help save the planet, a new study suggests.. Increased use of regional anesthesia instead of general anesthesia may help reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, according to researchers at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City.. Unlike general anesthesia, regional anesthesia doesnt use volatile halogenated agents, such as desflurane, or nitrous oxide. These are greenhouse gases that can remain in the atmosphere for up to 114 years, the researchers noted.. Instead of those gases, regional anesthesia uses a local nerve block along with intravenous sedatives.. Increasing the use of regional anesthesia is potentially good for the climate, improves the quality of care (at least for hip and knee replacements), and may allow individual practitioners to take personal responsibility in the fight against global warming, said Dr. Christopher Wu, an anesthesiologist at the hospital, and ...
View Notes - General anaesthesia Breathing complications from ANT ANT2000 at Broward College. General anaesthesia Breathing complications Pneumothorax: These can be open or closed in the latter, the
UCLA scientists have found that conscious sedation - a type of anesthesia in which patients remain awake but are sleepy and pain-free - is a safe and viable option to general anesthesia for people undergoing a minimally invasive heart procedure called transcatheter aortic valve replacement.. In the study, patients who underwent conscious sedation had a similar rate of adverse events to those who underwent anesthesia, but those who were given conscious sedation had shorter stays in the intensive care unit (30 versus 96 hours for those with general anesthesia) and shorter hospital stays (4.9 days versus 10.4 days). The direct costs for their care were 28 percent lower, and almost all other medical costs were lower as well. In both groups, 1.5 percent of patients died during hospitalization.. ...
For symptomatic relief of anxiety and tension associated with psychoneurosis and as an adjunct in organic disease states in which anxiety is manifested: in adults, 50 to 100 mg 4 times daily; children under 6 years, 50 mg daily in divided doses; and over 6 years, 50 to 100 mg daily in divided doses.. For use in the management of pruritus due to allergic conditions such as chronic urticaria and atopic and contact dermatoses, and in histamine-mediated pruritus: in adults, 25 mg 3 times daily or 4 times daily; children under 6 years, 50 mg daily in divided doses; and over 6 years, 50 to 100 mg daily in divided doses.. As a sedative when used as a premedication and following general anesthesia: 50 to 100 mg in adults, and 0.6 mg/kg in children.. When treatment is initiated by the intramuscular route of administration, subsequent doses may be administered orally.. As with all medications, the dosage should be adjusted according to the patients response to therapy. ...
OBJECTIVES. Computed Tomography is routinely used in the diagnosis and evaluation of many human diseases. Before any tools can become an effective diagnostic modality, normal species-specific data must be characterized. Having access to clinically relevant CT. anatomy of the cat is the basis of effective utilization of this modality in veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study is to identify anatomic structures of CT. images of the thoracic region of the Persian cat for using by veterinary radiologists, clinicians and surgeons.. MATERIALS. Five mature female Persian Cats were used in this study. At first, one of the animals was fixed by routine anatomical method. Following general anesthesia, the other animals were restrained in a customized restraining frame in sternal recumbency and the thoracic region was scanned by high resolution imaging, using a general diagnostic CT. system, with a slice thickness of 15 mm. Tomograms were made almost perpendicular to the long axis of the thoracic ...
What you need to know about dentist general anesthesia. Find a local dentist near you for the comfortable anxiety free dental care youve always wanted. Learn about conscious sedation, IV sedation, dental anesthesia, dentist general anesthesia and how to sleep through your next dental appointment without fear or anxiety. Ask how you can combine cosmetic dentistry with sedation for the smile youve always wanted. Find a sedation dentist in your area with cost saving offers and dental patient financing options for adults and teens.
What you need to know about 60061 dentist general anesthesia. Find a local dentist near you for the comfortable anxiety free dental care youve always wanted. Learn about conscious sedation, IV sedation, dental anesthesia, 60061 dentist general anesthesia and how to sleep through your next dental appointment without fear or anxiety. Ask how you can combine cosmetic dentistry with sedation for the smile youve always wanted. Find a sedation dentist in your area with cost saving offers and dental patient financing options for adults and teens.
Cesarean delivery is one of the most common surgical procedures. In the United States, more than 1 million cesarean sections are performed each year, accounting for more than 30% of births. The majority of these procedures are performed using a regional technique; general anesthesia is reserved for patients who have a contraindication to a regional block or for emergencies, when there is not enough time for a regional block. Consequently, general anesthesia for cesarean delivery is relatively rare, and providers may be less comfortable administering it to parturients. Their discomfort is warranted. Although straightforward, general anesthetic for cesarean section is fraught with adverse events, including an increased risk of awareness, aspiration, difficult airway with hypoxia, drug-related uterine atony, and neonatal respiratory depression. ...
There are four main categories of anesthesia used during surgery and other procedures: general anesthesia, regional anesthesia, sedation (sometimes called monitored anesthesia care), and local anesthesia.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Although some patients with symptomatic spinal disease may benefit greatly from surgery, their multiple attendant comorbidities may make general anesthesia risky or contraindicated. However, there is scarce literature describing the efficacy and safety of local anesthesia to perform these operations. Here we report seven patients who successfully underwent spinal surgery utilizing local anesthesia to limit the risks and complications of general anesthesia. METHODS: Seven patients for whom general anesthesia was contraindicated were prospectively followed for a minimum of 3 months following spinal surgery performed under local anesthesia. Pain and functional improvement were assessed utilizing the Visual Analog Scores (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. RESULTS: Five patients had interlaminar decompressions for stenosis alone, while two patients had laminectomies for debulking of tumors. The mean duration of surgery was 79.8 ± 16.6 min, the mean estimated blood loss
Our pediatric dentists in Hudsonville offer general anesthesia in a hospital setting. General anesthesia puts your child to sleep during dental procedures.
In order to administer general anesthesia in the office, an oral surgeon must have completed at least three months of hospital based anesthesia training. In California, qualified applicants will then undergo an in office evaluation by a state dental board appointed examiner. The examiner observes an actual surgical procedure during which general anesthesia is administered to the patient. The examiner also inspects all monitoring devices and emergency equipment and tests the doctor and the surgical staff on anesthesia related emergencies. If the examiner reports successful completion of the evaluation process, the state dental board will issue the doctor a license to perform general anesthesia. The license is renewable every two years if the doctor maintains the required amount of continuing education units related to anesthesia.. Again, when it comes to anesthesia, our first priority is the patients comfort and safety. Dr. Chang is a licensed physician (M.D.) and is certified in Advanced ...
Anesthesia care of the surgical patient involves preoperative, intra-operative, and postoperative assessment, planning, intervention, and evaluation. Care depends on the complexity of the surgical procedure and the individual physiological, psychosocial, and teaching needs of the patient. The surgeons, anesthesia providers, peri-operative nursing staff and Post-Anesthesia/Same Day Surgery nursing staff work collaboratively to provide optimal care for the surgical patient.. The Anesthesia staff will meet with the patient prior to going to surgery to discuss the anesthesia choices and concerns the patient may have. The anesthesia provider will stay in the room until the surgery is completed and then transfer the patient to the Post Anesthesia Care Unit; where the patient is held until he/she finishes waking up and to receive pain medications immediately following the completion of surgery.. The KACC Anesthesia Service routinely provides all commonly used techniques of general anesthesia and most ...
Over the period 2010-2012, maternal mortality linked to anesthesia accounted for 2% of maternal deaths, with no significant change since 2007-2009. Of the 7 maternal deaths analyzed by the expert committee, anesthetic complications were in 5 cases the main cause of death: 4 attributed to direct causes related to anesthetic procedures during childbirth and 1 to indirect cause in connection with an ENT complication during pregnancy. The anesthetic causes of maternal mortality were for the 2010-2012 period: cardiac arrest under spinal anesthesia during caesarean section, local anesthetic intoxication with unsuccessful resuscitation after cardiac arrest without intralipid administration, acute respiratory distress syndrome in the postpartum period after pulmonary aspiration during caesarean section, cardiac arrest during caesarean section under general anesthesia in a context of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with mediastinal syndrome, unsuccessful endotracheal intubation in a context of cellulitis of the ...
If youre headed for surgery, youll probably need (and want) some form of anesthesia so you dont feel any pain during the procedure.. Though anesthesia is safe, its normal to feel a bit of apprehension before surgery-especially if you need to be fully sedated during the procedure. Learning about the different types of anesthesia and how they work may help ease your mind. Types of anesthesia. There are three different types of anesthetic techniques as well as sedation, according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA). Depending on the type of procedure you need and your overall health, your anesthetist (a physician or nurse with special training in anesthesia) will administer the type of anesthesia that is right for you. Local anesthesia. This anesthesia is generally used for minor surgery and numbs only the specific area of the body that requires anesthesia, such as your hand or foot.. Local anesthesia typically wont cause you to fall asleep, and usually it does not require the ...
If youre headed for surgery, youll probably need (and want) some form of anesthesia so you dont feel any pain during the procedure.. Though anesthesia is safe, its normal to feel a bit of apprehension before surgery-especially if you need to be fully sedated during the procedure. Learning about the different types of anesthesia and how they work may help ease your mind. Types of anesthesia. There are three different types of anesthetic techniques as well as sedation, according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA). Depending on the type of procedure you need and your overall health, your anesthetist (a physician or nurse with special training in anesthesia) will administer the type of anesthesia that is right for you. Local anesthesia. This anesthesia is generally used for minor surgery and numbs only the specific area of the body that requires anesthesia, such as your hand or foot.. Local anesthesia typically wont cause you to fall asleep, and usually it does not require the ...
Consensus document of the Spanish Society of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation (SEDAR), the Spanish Society of Paediatric Surgery (SECP), the Spanish Society of Paediatric Intensive Care (SECIP) and the Spanish Society of Neonatology (SENeo). Every year, sedation and general anaesthesia are used in millions of interventions in paediatric patients, and while it is well known that modern anaesthetic agents have excellent safety profiles during the perioperative period, some experimental and clinical data reported in recent years suggest that these drugs may interfere with mechanisms of brain maturation in humans.. On December 14, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States issued a safety communication on the use of general anaesthesia and sedatives in young children and pregnant women (FDA review results in new warnings about using general anaesthetics and sedation drugs in young children and pregnant women).1 The drugs affected by the warning detailed in this communication were ...
Anesthesia Simulation III is a continuation of ANE 552 and is divided into three areas of skill development: Crisis Management, Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring, and Regional Anesthesia. Crisis management with involve learners the management of life-threatening crisis in anesthesia care including anaphylaxis, malignant hyperthermia, pulmonary embolism, tension pneumothorax, perioperative myocardial infarction, massive hemorrhage, and cardiac arrhythmias. During the invasive hemodynamic monitoring portion of the course, learners will practice and demonstrate insertion of central venous and pulmonary artery catheters. The regional anesthesia area will provide learners an opportunity to practice and demonstrate common regional anesthesia techniques including intravenous regional anesthesia, neuraxial anesthesia and peripheral nerve blocks ...
When your surgeons put you under general anesthesia, it is common to aid the delivery of the gases and ventilation through an endotracheal tube, or the ETT (sometimes ET). After sedation, surgeons insert the tube into you and remove it upon you waking up. For about a day or two after waking up, it is not uncommon to feel a bit of a sore throat. For most people, the tube causes irritation in the throat hence making it sore. Many times, patients dont even know that they had tubes in them until they ask their surgeon.. Sometimes, an LMA or Laryngeal Mask Airway, which is a silicone mask for the management of upper airway, is used as an alternative to the ETT. It helps to provide an end-to-end connection between the artificial and natural airway. Compared to the endotracheal tube, LMA is less invasive and provides a more effective seal tan the facemask. While you are under the effects of anesthesia, rest assured that your heart rhythm, your nurse or anesthesiologist monitor oxygen saturation, ...
General anesthesia is very commonly used to induce unconsciousness in patients undergoing surgery. Each year millions of people in the United States are required to receive anesthesia, and there is no single right amount for every patient. Factors such as weight, age, gender, illness, and medications all play a role in determining just how much anesthesia each person needs. A patients heart rate and rhythm, breathing rate, blood pressure, and oxygen and carbon dioxide levels are also monitored so the amount of anesthesia can be adjusted as needed. A recent study from the University of Cambridge, published in PLOS Computational Biology, may have identified a better way to calculate the amount of anesthesia one may need. A group of 20 volunteers were involved in this study to discover how brainwaves can identify patient anesthesia needs. The Brain Signals and Anesthesia As different areas of the brain communicate with each other they give off signals that can indicate a persons level of ...
Chronic inguinodynia (groin pain) is a common complication following open inguinal hernia repair or a Pfannenstiel incision but may also be experienced after other types of (groin) surgery. If conservative treatments are to no avail, tailored remedial surgery, including a neurectomy and/or a (partial) meshectomy, may be considered. Retrospective studies in patients with chronic inguinodynia suggested that spinal anaesthesia is superior compared to general anaesthesia in terms of pain relief following remedial operations. This randomised controlled trial is designed to study the effect of type of anaesthesia (spinal or general) on pain relief following remedial surgery for inguinodynia. A total of 190 adult patients who suffer from unacceptable chronic (more than 3 months) inguinodynia, as subjectively judged by the patients themselves, are included. Only patients scheduled to undergo a neurectomy and/or a meshectomy by an open approach are considered for inclusion and randomised to spinal or general
Nerve blocks and regional anesthesia are commonly used to manage acutely painful conditions. These procedures are becoming commonplace in order to limit the use of opioid medications. Single-shot blocks using long acting anesthetics provide significant pain relief for patients. Continuous regional anesthesia using extended stay catheters and infusion pumps may offer ongoing pain control for up to 7 days. Applications for regional anesthesia are ever expanding, but it is challenging for busy clinicians to confidently learn these practical skills.. Topics covered in the Regional Anesthesia for Acute Care Providers course and lab sessions include:. ...
Routine use of regional anesthesia for patients having surgery is supported by general safety and proven effectiveness as a targeted modality in the prevention and treatment of acute pain. Recently, perioperative physicians have become much more interested in improving long-term outcomes after surgery rather than focusing on the well-established short-term benefits of regional anesthesia. This interest has raised important questions regarding the potential influence of regional anesthesia on morbidity and mortality, persistent pain and cancer prognosis. Tissue injury is responsible for the inflammatory reaction and physiologic stress response observed during the perioperative period and can influence a patients recovery trajectory. Regional anesthesia can modulate the inflammatory response through the direct anti-inflammatory effect of local anesthetics, blocking neural afferents, and blunting sympathetic activation. Moreover, continuous techniques (e.g., epidural and perineural catheters) that ...
General anesthesia has been unequivocally linked to abnormal development of the central nervous system, leading to neurocognitive impairments in laboratory models. In vitro and in vivo studies have consistently shown that exposure to GABA agonists (eg, volatile anesthetics, midazolam, and propofol) or NMDA antagonists (eg, ketamine, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide) produces dose dependent and developmental age dependent effects on various neuronal transmission systems. Exposure to these drugs increases neuronal cell death in juvenile animals including rats, mice, and non-human primates. The possibility of anesthetic induced neurotoxicity occurring in children has led to concerns about the safety of pediatric anesthesia. A spectrum of behavioral changes has been documented after general anesthetic exposure in young children, including emergence delirium, which may be evidence of toxicity. Most clinical studies are retrospective; specifics about medications or monitoring are unavailable and many of ...
The use of general anesthesia is normally safe and produces a state of sedation that doesnt break in the middle of a procedure, doctors say. The patient and anesthesiologist collect as much medical history as possible beforehand, including alcohol and drug habits, to help determine the most appropriate anesthetic.. You may think of it as going to sleep, but in terms of what your body is doing, general anesthesia has very little in common with taking a nap.. During sleep, the brain is in its most active state; anesthesia, on the other hand, depresses central nervous system activity. On the operating table, your brain is less active and consumes less oxygen - a state of unconsciousness nothing like normal sleep.. Doctors do not know exactly how general anesthesia produces this effect. It is clear that anesthetic drugs interfere with the transmission of chemicals in the brain across the membranes, or walls, of cells.. But the mechanism is the subject of ongoing research, Dr. Alexander ...
Dear Majbrit. It is the absolute last resort when you choose to put a patient in the general anesthesia. There are other forms of treatment of dental phobia, blah. hypnosis, acupuncture or premedication with a sedative before each treatment. There are certain dental clinics around the country that offer general anesthesia. Of course it would be best for you in the future to be treated by a private dentist without a general anesthesia, so try and talk with your dentist about what it is youre so afraid of.. A similar question is previously answered here in the letterbox, and there you can see a short list of some dentists who offer general anesthesia.. Read the question: General anesthesia from dental phobia. Hope you can use my answer.. With kind regards. Dentist Joan Olsen.™ - the Road to healthier teeth. Important!!! ...
Today, we had a guest speaker Christian Spies from Queens Hospital in Hawaii who spoke on his experience with his TAVR team and conscious sedation vs. general anesthesia for these patients. More specifically, we are speaking of the transfemoral route. Keypoints: Patient selection is key (consider for COPD; bad for OSA) Short surgical time for monitored anesthesia…
Ultrasound has revolutionized the practice of regional anesthesia, yet there remains a paucity of good resources on ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia in children. This book offers a much-needed practical guide to all the major ultrasound-guided blocks in pediatric patients, including neuraxial, truncal, upper and lower limb blocks. The core principles of good clinical practice in regional anesthesia are described and discussed, including the pharmacology of local anesthetics in children, the performance of regional anesthesia, the management of complications, and the clinical anatomy of each block. Every block chapter provides both a how to section and also a comprehensive literature review, with an up-to-date and relevant bibliography for reference and further reading. Chapters are illustrated with unique anatomical images and detailed descriptions. Both trainee and experienced anesthesiologists will find this an essential resource for the safe and effective performance of modern regional ...
We report the anaesthetic management of two achondroplastic patients who presented for emergency cesarean section. Regional anaesthesia could not be done in both cases as a result of technical difficulties and general anaesthesia was performed. Airway management was done with two different techniques following airway assessment. The perioperative periods were uneventful. We discuss the anaesthetic implications and problems associated with regional and general anaesthesia in achondroplastic parturients. The controversies in the anesthetic management of these patients are also highlighted. Les défis anesthésiques liés à l'achondroplasie : une observation Nous présentons un rapport sur le traitement des deux patientes qui sont venues pour l'opération césarienne d'urgence. Il n'était pas possible de faire une anesthésie régionale pour les deux cas à cause des difficultés techniques; alors nous avons fait une anesthésie générale. Le traitement du conduit aérien a été
Over the period 2010-2012, maternal mortality linked to anesthesia accounted for 2% of maternal deaths, with no significant change since 2007-2009. Of the 7 maternal deaths analyzed by the expert committee, anesthetic complications were in 5 cases the main cause of death: 4 attributed to direct causes related to anesthetic procedures during childbirth and 1 to indirect cause in connection with an ENT complication during pregnancy. The anesthetic causes of maternal mortality were for the 2010-2012 period: cardiac arrest under spinal anesthesia during caesarean section, local anesthetic intoxication with unsuccessful resuscitation after cardiac arrest without intralipid administration, acute respiratory distress syndrome in the postpartum period after pulmonary aspiration during caesarean section, cardiac arrest during caesarean section under general anesthesia in a context of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with mediastinal syndrome, unsuccessful endotracheal intubation in a context of cellulitis of the ...
For some procedures, your pet will need to be administered general anesthesia so that he or she will be unconscious and not feel pain. Many pet owners worry about their pets being administered general anesthesia. We can assure you that modern anesthesia is generally quite safe; to further lower any risk, we perform a physical examination and run blood work ahead of time to catch any underlying health issues. In addition, we follow a specific anesthetic protocol, including monitoring vital signs during the procedure, to ensure the safety of our patients.. We begin most general anesthetic procedures by administering a sedative to help the pet relax and decrease any anxiety and pain. We then administer an intravenous drug to provide complete anesthesia and place a breathing tube into the patients trachea (windpipe). To maintain the state of unconsciousness, we deliver a gas anesthetic in combination with oxygen through the breathing tube.. Please contact us if you have any questions or concerns ...
New life-saving treatments for Anesthesia in clinical trial on A Study to Assess Indeics of SNAP vs VISTA on Surgical Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia
In 2011, a retrospective Mayo Clinic study looked at the incidence of learning disabilities (LDs) in a cohort of children born in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1976 to 1982. Among the 8,548 children analyzed, 350 of the children received general anesthesia before the age of 2. A single exposure to general anesthesia was not associated with an increase in LDs, but children who had two or more anesthetics were at increased risk for LDs. The study concluded that repeated exposure to anesthesia and surgery before the age of 2 was a significant independent risk factor for the later development of LDs. The authors could not exclude the possibility that multiple exposures to anesthesia and surgery at an early age adversely affected human neurodevelopment with lasting consequences.. The same group of Mayo Clinic researchers looked at the incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children born from 1976 to 1982 in Rochester, Minnesota. Among the 5,357 children analyzed, 341 ADHD ...
The CROSSWALK and Reverse CROSSWALK are guides to practical application. The CROSSWALK lists CPT procedure codes and provides guidance as to the applicable anesthesia code. The Reverse CROSSWALK offers this information based by anesthesia code.. As noted in the first article of this Payment Basics series, some anesthesia codes cover a broad scope of procedures. It is also possible that there may be multiple options as the best anesthesia code for a single procedure -- and this is where the CROSSWALK can be of particular help. Consider CPT Procedure Code 20525 - Removal of foreign body in muscle or tendon sheath; deep or complicated. The CROSSWALK suggests Anesthesia Code 01810 - Anesthesia for all procedures on nerves, muscles, tendons, fascia, and bursae of forearm, wrist, and hand as this procedure is often performed on that body area. However, that is not always that case so the CROSSWALK provides a list of alternatives that may represent an anesthesia code more specific to the situation. In ...
W. K. FRANKEL; The Introduction of General Anesthesia in Germany. Anesthesiology 1947; 8:335 doi: Download citation file:. ...
A coma is mysterious-the person seems to be asleep, but is impossible to wake up. Wounded Arizona congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords was put into an induced coma in order to help her brain heal. Anne Strieber experienced this when an aneurysm burst in her brain. Neurologists are trying to figure out how to help these patients by studying how anesthesia works, because the brain under general anesthesia isnt asleep as surgery patients are often told-it is placed into a state that is a reversible coma. General anesthesia is a coma that is drug-induced, and, as a consequence, reversible. The states operate on different time scales: General anesthesia in minutes to hours, and recovery from coma in hours to months to years, if ever. Researcher Emery Brown says, monitoring brain function under general anesthesia gives us new insights into how the brain works in order to develop new sleep aids and new ways for patients to recover from coma. Neuroscientist Nicholas D. Schiff says, Understanding this ...
Discovery of Anesthesia is one of the most important advancement of modern medicine. Attempts at producing a state of general anesthesia can be traced throughout recorded history in the writings of the ancient Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Indians, and Chinese. During the Middle Ages, which correspond roughly to what is sometimes referred to as the Islamic Golden Age, scientists and other scholars made significant advances in science and medicine in the Muslim…
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Background: Observational studies on pediatric anesthesia neurotoxicity have been unable to distinguish long-term effects of general anesthesia (GA) from factors associated with the need for surgery. A recent study on elementary school children who had received a single GA during the first year of life demonstrated an association in otherwise healthy children between the duration of anesthesia and diminished test scores and also revealed a subgroup of children with very poor academic achievement (VPAA), scoring below the fifth percentile on standardized testing. Analysis of postoperative cognitive function in a similar cohort of children anesthetized with an alternative to GA may help to begin to separate the effects of anesthesia from other confounders.. Methods: We used a novel methodology to construct a combined medical and educational database to search for these effects in a similar cohort of children receiving spinal anesthesia (SA) for the same procedures. We compared former patients ...
Prior to IV Sedation/General Anesthesia instructions provided by Anthem AZ, Anthem Oral Surgery & Implant Center, PLC. Visit our website to learn mroe.

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