Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Anesthesia, IntratrachealIntraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Anesthesia and Analgesia: Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.EthersMidazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Intraoperative Awareness: Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Neuromuscular Blockade: The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Hypotension, Controlled: Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nurse Anesthetists: Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.Vecuronium Bromide: Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Atracurium: A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Ethyl EthersTiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Tourniquets: Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Propoxycaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a rapid onset of action and a longer duration of action than procaine hydrochloride. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1017)Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.gamma-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Recovery Room: Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.

Increased reading speed for stories presented during general anesthesia. (1/2315)

BACKGROUND: In the absence of explicit memories such as the recall and recognition of intraoperative events, memory of auditory information played during general anesthesia has been demonstrated with several tests of implicit memory. In contrast to explicit memory, which requires conscious recollection, implicit memory does not require recollection of previous experiences and is evidenced by a priming effect on task performance. The authors evaluated the effect of a standardized anesthetic technique on implicit memory, first using a word stem completion task, and then a reading speed task in a subsequent study. METHODS: While undergoing lumbar disc surgery, 60 patients were exposed to auditory materials via headphones in two successive experiments. A balanced intravenous technique with propofol and alfentanil infusions and a nitrous oxide-oxygen mixture was used to maintain adequate anesthesia. In the first experiment, 30 patients were exposed randomly to one of the two lists of 34 repeated German nouns; in the second experiment, 30 patients were exposed to one of two tapes containing two short stories. Thirty control patients for each experiment heard the tapes without receiving anesthesia. All patients were tested for implicit memory 6-8 h later: A word stem completion task for the words and a reading speed task for the stories were used as measures of implicit memory. RESULTS: The control group completed the word stems significantly more often with the words that they had heard previously, but no such effect was found in the anesthetized group. However, both the control and patient groups showed a decreased reading time of about 40 ms per word for the previously presented stories compared with the new stories. The patients had no explicit memory of intraoperative events. CONCLUSIONS: Implicit memory was demonstrated after anesthesia by the reading speed task but not by the word stem completion task. Some methodologic aspects, such as using low frequency words or varying study and test modalities, may account for the negative results of the word stem completion task. Another explanation is that anesthesia with propofol, alfentanil, and nitrous oxide suppressed the word priming but not the reading speed measure of implicit memory. The reading speed paradigm seems to provide a stable and reliable measurement of implicit memory.  (+info)

Dependence of explicit and implicit memory on hypnotic state in trauma patients. (2/2315)

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear whether memory of intraoperative events results entirely from moments of inadequate anesthesia. The current study was designed to determine whether the probability of memory declines with increasing depth of the hypnotic state. METHOD: A list of words was played via headphones during surgery to patients who had suffered acute trauma. Several commonly used indicators of anesthetic effect, including the bispectral index, were recorded during word presentation. First, these indicators served as predictors of the memory performance in a postoperative word stem completion test. Second, general memory performance observed in the first part was separated into explicit and implicit memory using the process dissociation procedure, and then two models of memory were compared: One model assumed that the probability of explicit and implicit memory decreases with increasing depth of hypnotic state (individual differences model), whereas the other assumed equal memory performance for all patients regardless of their level of hypnotic state. RESULTS: General memory performance declined with decreasing bispectral index values. None of the other indicators of hypnotic state were related to general memory performance. Memory was still significant at bispectral index levels between 60 and 40. A comparison of the two models of memory resulted in a better fit of the individual differences model, thus providing evidence of a dependence of explicit and implicit memory on the hypnotic state. Quantification of explicit and implicit memory revealed a significant implicit but no reliable explicit memory performance. CONCLUSIONS: This study clearly indicates that memory is related to the depth of hypnosis. The observed memory performance should be interpreted in terms of implicit memory. Auditory information processing occurred at bispectral index levels between 60 and 40.  (+info)

Functional brain imaging during anesthesia in humans: effects of halothane on global and regional cerebral glucose metabolism. (3/2315)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and isoflurane anesthesia were studied previously with functional brain imaging in humans to begin identifying key brain areas involved with mediating anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. The authors describe an additional positron emission tomography study of halothane's in vivo cerebral metabolic effects. METHODS: Five male volunteers each underwent two positron emission tomography scans. One scan assessed awake-baseline metabolism, and the other scan assessed metabolism during halothane anesthesia titrated to the point of unresponsiveness (mean +/- SD, expired = 0.7+/-0.2%). Scans were obtained using a GE2048 scanner and the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose technique. Regions of interest were analyzed for changes in both absolute and relative glucose metabolism. In addition, relative changes in metabolism were evaluated using statistical parametric mapping. RESULTS: Awake whole-brain metabolism averaged 6.3+/-1.2 mg x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (mean +/- SD). Halothane reduced metabolism 40+/-9% to 3.7+/-0.6 mg x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (P< or =0.005). Regional metabolism did not increase in any brain areas for any volunteer. The statistical parametric mapping analysis revealed significantly less relative metabolism in the basal forebrain, thalamus, limbic system, cerebellum, and occiput during halothane anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Halothane caused a global whole-brain metabolic reduction with significant shifts in regional metabolism. Comparisons with previous studies reveal similar absolute and relative metabolic effects for halothane and isoflurane. Propofol, however, was associated with larger absolute metabolic reductions, suppression of relative cortical metabolism more than either inhalational agent, and significantly less suppression of relative basal ganglia and midbrain metabolism.  (+info)

Postoperative behavioral outcomes in children: effects of sedative premedication. (4/2315)

BACKGROUND: Although multiple studies document the effect of sedative premedication on preoperative anxiety in children, there is a paucity of data regarding its effect on postoperative behavioral outcomes. METHODS: After screening for recent stressful life events, children undergoing anesthesia and surgery were assigned randomly to receive either 0.5 mg/kg midazolam in 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43) or 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43). Using validated measures of anxiety, children were evaluated before and after administration of the intervention and during induction of anesthesia. On postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14, the behavioral recovery of the children was assessed using the Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS: The intervention group demonstrated significantly lower anxiety levels compared with the placebo group on separation to the operating room and during induction of anesthesia (F[1,77] = 3.95, P = 0.041). Using a multivariate logistic regression model, the authors found that the presence or absence of postoperative behavioral changes was dependent on the group assignment (R = 0.18, P = 0.0001) and days after operation (R = -0.20, P = 0.0001). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that during postoperative days 1-7, a significantly smaller number of children in the midazolam group manifested negative behavioral changes. At week 2 postoperatively, however, there were no significant differences between the midazolam and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Children who are premedicated with midazolam before surgery have fewer negative behavioral changes during the first postoperative week.  (+info)

Ballistic shock wave lithotripsy in an 18-year-old thoroughbred gelding. (5/2315)

Prolonged postoperative recuperation time and restricted exercise were circumvented by using ballistic shock wave lithotripsy to break up an 8-cm diameter vesical calculus and by flushing out the sand-like residue under epidural anesthesia with the horse standing. Recovery was uneventful.  (+info)

Morbidity and cost-effectiveness analysis of outpatient analgesia versus general anaesthesia for testicular sperm extraction in men with azoospermia due to defects in spermatogenesis. (6/2315)

The outcome and costs of testicular sperm extraction under outpatient local analgesia or general anaesthesia were compared in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Nineteen consecutive patients were allocated to receive general anaesthesia, while the subsequent 21 consecutive patients received outpatient analgesia in the form of i.v. midazolam sedation, lignocaine spray, scrotal infiltration with local anaesthetic and spermatic cord block. Blood pressure, pulse rate and respiratory rate were determined. Sedation and testicular pain were assessed by subjective scoring. Both groups showed haemodynamic stability with little alteration in blood pressure, pulse rate and oxygen saturation. Toxic symptoms of local anaesthetic were not encountered in the outpatient group. No relationship was found between testicular size and the duration of the operation. The median postoperative pain intensity, sedation scores and analgesic requirements were significantly less in the outpatient group (P < 0.05). These advantages led to a shorter recovery time (P < 0.0001), 3-fold cheaper care and greater patient satisfaction (P < 0.0001) in the outpatient group.  (+info)

Propofol concentrations in follicular fluid during general anaesthesia for transvaginal oocyte retrieval. (7/2315)

Propofol (Diprivan) is an i.v. anaesthetic used for general anaesthesia. The purpose of this study was to measure the propofol concentration in arterial blood and follicular fluid in patients during transvaginal oocyte retrieval. After approval by the University Ethics Committee, 30 women participated in this prospective study. Following induction of anaesthesia with 0.5 mg alfentanil and 2 mg.kg-1 propofol i.v., a continuous infusion of propofol at 10 mg.kg-1.h-1 was used for maintenance of anaesthesia. Follicular fluid and arterial blood samples were aspirated simultaneously at fixed intervals during the surgical procedure and propofol assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean follicular fluid concentration of propofol increased linearly with time from 0.10 +/- 0.02 microgram.ml-1 to 0.57 +/- 0.06 microgram.ml-1 and was strongly related to the cumulative dose of propofol administered. The absorption of propofol was time-dependent. There was no correlation between the concentration of propofol in the follicular fluid and the arterial blood concentration of the drug. In conclusion, a propofol-based anaesthetic technique resulted in significant concentrations of this agent in follicular fluid, related to the dose administered and to the duration of propofol administration.  (+info)

Assessing introduction of spinal anaesthesia for obstetric procedures. (8/2315)

To assess the impact of introducing spinal anaesthesia for obstetric operative procedures on use of general anaesthesia and quality of regional anaesthesia in a unit with an established epidural service a retrospective analysis of routinely collected data on method of anaesthesia, efficacy, and complications was carried out. Data were collected from 1988 to 1991 on 1670 obstetric patients requiring an operative procedure. The introduction of spinal anaesthesia in 1989 significantly reduced the proportion of operative procedures performed under general anaesthesia, from 60% (234/390) in 1988 to 30% (124/414) in 1991. The decrease was most pronounced for manual removal of the placenta (88%, 48/55 v 9%, 3/34) and emergency caesarean section (67%, 129/193) v 38%, 87/229). Epidural anaesthesia decreased in use most significantly for elective caesarean section (65%, 77/118 v 3% 3/113; x2=139, p<0.0001). The incidence of severe pain and need for conversion to general anaesthesia was significantly less with spinal anaesthesia (0%, 0/207 v 3%, 5/156; p<0.05). Hypotension was not a problem, and the incidence of headache after spinal anaesthetic decreased over the period studied. Introducing spinal anaesthesia therefore reduced the need for general anaesthesia and improved the quality of regional anaesthesia.  (+info)

The market report, titled General Anesthesia Drugs Market 2016, is an analytical research done by QY Market Research study based on the General Anesthesia Drugs market, which analyzes the competitive framework of the General Anesthesia Drugs industry worldwide. This report "Worldwide General Anesthesia Drugs Market 2016" build by the usage of efficient methodical tools such SWOT analysis, the General Anesthesia Drugs industrial 2016 study offers a comprehensive evaluation worldwide General Anesthesia Drugs market.. Request For Report Sample Here : http://www.qymarketresearch.com/report/66977#request-sample. Global General Anesthesia Drugs Market 2016 report has Forecasted Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) in % value for particular period, that will help user to take decision based on futuristic chart. Report also includes key players in global General Anesthesia Drugs market.. The General Anesthesia Drugs market size is estimated in terms of revenue (US$) and production volume in this report. ...
Before any dental procedure under general anesthesia, a pre-anesthesia evaluation of the patient by the dentist / anesthesiologist is necessary in order to determine not only the suitability of the patient for undergoing general anesthesia, but also the necessity of using GA versus conscious sedation.. During the pre-operative consultation the dentist will explain the procedure and the risks involved. Finally the patient is given a list of general anesthesia pre-operative instructions to follow on the evening before and on the day of the procedure.. General anesthesia can be achieved with the action of several anesthetic medications. During the general anesthesia procedure these anesthetic drugs can be administered either by breathing a volatile anesthetic through a breathing mask (inhalation induction of general anesthesia), or by injecting the medications intravenously (intravenous induction of GA), or by a combination of the two methods.. At all phases of the general anesthesia procedure, the ...
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of general anesthesia on neonatal brain activity using amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG). METHODS: A prospective cohort study of neonates (January 2013-December 2015), who underwent major neonatal surgery for non-cardiac congenital anomalies. Anesthesia was administered at the discretion of the ... read more anesthetist. aEEG monitoring was started six hours preoperatively until 24 hours after surgery. Analysis of classes of aEEG background patterns, ranging from continuous normal voltage to flat trace in six classes, and quantitative EEG-measures, using spontaneous activity transients (SATs) and interSATintervals (ISI), was performed. RESULTS: In total, 111 neonates were included (36 preterm/75 full-term), age at time of surgery was (median (range) 2 (0-32) days. During anesthesia depression of brain activity was seen, with background patterns ranging from flat trace to discontinuous normal voltage. In most patients brain ...
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | In this article, the authors review the animal and human data on the recent studies looking at the neurotoxicity of general anesthesia in the pediatric population. Animal studies in rodents and non-human primates demonstrate neurotoxic effects when exposed to general anesthesia at a young age. However, prospective clinical studies in humans do not show significant differences in intelligence
Of 211 978 children included, 82 156 had developmental assessment and 153 025 had school test results, with 12 848 (15.7%) and 25 032 (16.4%) exposed to general anesthesia, respectively. Children exposed to general anesthesia had 17%, 34%, and 23% increased odds of being developmentally high risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07-1.29); or scoring below the national minimum standard in numeracy (aOR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.21-1.48) and reading (aOR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.12-1.36), respectively. Although the risk for being developmentally high risk and poor reading attenuated for children with only 1 hospitalization and exposure to general anesthesia, the association with poor numeracy results remained.. ...
Sixty neonates and infants will be enrolled and randomised into two groups of n=30 each . For their surgical procedures, one group general (GA) anaesthesia the second group will receive a combined general and epidural anaesthesia (CGEA). Anaesthetic technique: Patients in the GA group will be induced with intravenous propofol (2-4 mg.kg-1) and fentanyl (2-4 µg.kg-1) and will receive rocuronium bromide (0.5 mg.kg-1) to facilitate endotracheal intubation. Anaesthesia will be maintained with sevoflurane (2-3%) in an air/oxygen mixture as well as intravenous fentanyl as required. In the (CGEA) 0.5 ml.kg-1 of 0.25% bupivacaine will be injected into the epidural catheter, followed by a continuous infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine at a rate of 0.2 mg.kg-1.hr-1 for up to 48 hours postoperatively. Assessment of anaesthetic efficacy will be measured Intraoperative care vital signs. And will continuously be monitored with a Datex AS/3
The main functions monitored during general anesthesia include oxygenation, circulation, and temperature, by measuring parameters such as heart pulse and rhythm, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and temperature level. Breathing volume, rate and pressure are monitored by clinical observation from an anesthesia team member.. The patients respiratory reflexes are also lost under general anesthesia. Since the patient is not able to protect the airway on his own, it is the duty of the personnel monitoring the patient to protect him from aspiration. For patients with existing health conditions that are at a higher risk of complications under general anesthesia, further monitoring of vital signs may be required to ensure patients safety.. The equipment most commonly used for general anesthesia patient monitoring includes:. ...
General anesthesia is a combination of medicines that you inhale or receive through a needle in a vein to cause you to become unconscious. It affects your whole body. Under anesthesia, you should be completely unaware and not feel pain during the surgery or procedure. General anesthesia also causes forgetfulness (amnesia) and relaxation of the muscles throughout your body.. General anesthesia suppresses many of your bodys normal automatic functions, such as those that control breathing, heartbeat, circulation of the blood (such as blood pressure), movements of the digestive system, and throat reflexes such as swallowing, coughing, or gagging that prevent foreign material from being inhaled into your lungs (aspiration).. Because these functions are suppressed, an anesthesia specialist must carefully keep a balance of medicines while watching your heart, breathing, blood pressure, and other vital functions. An endotracheal (ET) tube or a laryngeal mask airway device is usually used to give you an ...
General anesthesia is a combination of medicines that you inhale or receive through a needle in a vein to cause you to become unconscious. It affects your whole body. Under anesthesia, you should be completely unaware and not feel pain during the surgery or procedure. General anesthesia also causes forgetfulness (amnesia) and relaxation of the muscles throughout your body.. General anesthesia suppresses many of your bodys normal automatic functions, such as those that control breathing, heartbeat, circulation of the blood (such as blood pressure), movements of the digestive system, and throat reflexes such as swallowing, coughing, or gagging that prevent foreign material from being inhaled into your lungs (aspiration).. Because these functions are suppressed, an anesthesiologist must carefully keep a balance of medicines while watching your heart, breathing, blood pressure, and other vital functions. An endotracheal (ET) tube or a laryngeal mask airway device is usually used to give you an ...
During general anesthesia, two treatments are used : hypnotic and opioid treatment. Opioid treatment is used for pain assessment.. The change in haemodynamic variables and clinical sign are evaluated during anesthesia for pain assessment but these changes are not specific every time.. The main of this study is to investigate the relationship between calculated compartment concentration of remifentanil (opioid) and the parameters from HRV (Heart Rate Variability) and APV (Arterial Pressure Variability) before a standard noxious stimulation during general anesthesia at calibrated hypnosis level.. Our hypothesis is that nociceptive stimulation would have reproductible effects on HRV, and that these effects would be blunted or abolished by by adequate analgesia. The current study is thus designed to analyse HRV and APV in patients with stable hypnosis, before and during nociceptive surgical stimulation, at different levels of analgesia. ...
Butrov AV, Salimova KA, Torosyan BJ, Makhmutova GR, Davydov PP. Under the influence of general anesthesia various functions of the body can change depending on the main and concomitant diseases, the type and volume of the surgical intervention. General anesthesia is traditionally associated with the loss of normal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The intracranial temperature of 32 patients were measured in this study. These patients were divided into 3 groups depending on the type of general anesthesia. The brain temperature of all patients were measured by recording the strength of the electromagnetic radiation from deep brain tissues and also, the axillary and tympanic temperatures were measured. According to the thermometry results of the brain, it was evident that when using Propofol, the temperature of the brain during anesthesia decreased by 1.21 ± 0.19 °C. During the maintenance of inhalational anesthesia the temperature of the brain decreased by 0.69 ± 0.15 °C. There was a decrease of brain
For making the final decisions are taken into account a lot of things - its kind of the upcoming surgery, and the patients health and personal experience of the anesthesiologist, and opportunities. Carefully weighing all of these factors, the anesthesiologist first determines the possible types of anesthesia , and then selects the best one option.. In general, the concept of "best anesthesia" includes many aspects, the most important of which are security, safety, ease, comfort and quality.. 1. Safety anesthesia is determined by the severity of the risks and potential complications of anesthesia. Safest form of anesthesia is a local anesthesia , and the largest number of risks associated with general anesthesia . Occupies an intermediate position block anesthesia , but it is only possible when conducting operations on the limbs. Neuraxial anesthesia techniques, which include spinaland epidural anesthesia, in the scale of security occupy a special position. Thus, compared to general anesthesia, ...
Dizziness and fatigue are side effects of general anesthesia considered normal several days after surgery, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine. A condition affecting mental functions called...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
At Aranda & Aranda DDS PA, we offer general anesthesia to help our patients have a comfortable dental experience. General anesthesia will put you to sleep during your dental treatment, and you will feel no pain or discomfort. General anesthesia is a good choice for patients who feel anxious about their dental treatment
VALLEY COTTAGE, N.Y., Oct. 29, 2015-- Future Market Insights delivers key insights on the global general anaesthesia drugs market in its upcoming outlook titled, General Anaesthesia Drugs Market: Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment, 2015- 2025. In terms of value, the global General Anaesthesia Drugs market is projected to register a healthy CAGR...
Objectives Computed tomography is routinely used in the diagnosis and evaluation of many human diseases. Before any tools can become an effective diagnostic modality, normal species-specific data must be characterized. Having access to clinically relevant C.T. anatomy of the cat is the basis of effective utilization of this modality in veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study is to identify anatomic structures of C.T. images of the abdominal region of the cat for using by veterinary radiologists, clinicians and surgeons. Materials & Methods Five mature female cats were used in this study. At first, one of the animals was fixed by routine anatomical method. Following general anesthesia, the other animals were restrained in sternal recumbency and the thoracic region was scanned by high resolution imaging, using a general diagnostic C.T. system, with a slice thickness of 15 mm. Tomograms were made almost perpendicular to the long axis of the abdominal region. Following euthanasia, the cats ...
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether anesthesia affects graft patency after lower extremity arterial in situ bypass surgery. METHODS: This investigation was a retrospective study using a national database on vascular surgical patients at a single medical institution. We assessed a total of 822 patients exposed to infrainguinal in situ bypass vascular surgery over the period of January 2000 to September 2010. RESULTS: All patients included in the study (age [mean ± SD] 70.8 ± 9.7 years) underwent infrainguinal in situ bypass (n = 885) for lower extremity revascularization under epidural (n = 386) or general (n = 499) anesthesia. Thirty-day mortality (3.4% for epidural anesthesia versus 4.4% general anesthesia; P = 0.414) and comorbidity were comparable in the 2 groups. Graft occlusion within 7 days after surgery was reported in 93 patients, with a similar incidence in the epidural (10.1%) and general (10.8%) anesthesia groups (P = 0.730). When examining a subgroup of ...
Anesthesia is a way to control pain using anesthetic medicine. General anesthesia, which can be injected into a vein or inhaled, affects the entire body and makes the person unconscious.. A person under general anesthesia is completely unaware of what is going on and does not feel pain during the surgery or procedure. Anesthesia interrupts the pain signals between a persons nerve endings and the brain. The health professional administering the anesthesia monitors the persons condition throughout the procedure. ...
Press Release issued Dec 23, 2014: Anesthesia drugs are used during tests and surgical operations to induce sleep, which prevents pain and discomfort and enables a wide range of medical procedures to be performed. Local Anesthesia and General Anesthesia are the two commonly used types of anesthesia. Local anesthesia is a condition when sensation within a specific body part in inhibited, where as general anesthesia results in loss of consciousness and sensation.
Investigation of suspected anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia requires several different skills. The differential diagnosis is often wide and the specialist must have the ability to identify complications of anaesthesia which may mimic some of the clinical features of anaphylaxis. This includes problems associated with tracheal intubation, equipment failure or covert haemorrhage. In some cases adverse reactions may be related to underlying medical conditions such as septicaemia, COPD, asthma or chronic urticaria. Non-allergic reactions to drugs must also be considered such as beta-blockers resulting in bronchospasm or hypotension resulting from a combination of anaesthetic agents. Even when the patient has suffered anaphylaxis, the investigation of the trigger can be challenging as the patient is often exposed to numerous co-administered drugs and agents any of which may be implicated. Neuromuscular blocking agents remain the major cause for anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia but other ...
Pinnacle Anesthesia Consultants is now U.S. Anesthesia Partners-Texas. Pinnacle Anesthesia, also known as Pinnacle Partners In Medicine, was known as the premier anesthesia group in the Dallas/Ft. Worth area and was one of the highest quality anesthesia groups in the United States. For over 20 years, we have provided top-notch care to patients in the communities we serve, building strong relationships both internally and externally.. With a reputation for rigorous quality assurance and peer review process, Pinnacle fit the mold of premier practices that make up USAP. In North Texas, USAP-Texas provides service to over 600,000 patients at over 150 facilities each year. We provide service for all types of routine surgical procedures as well as such specialty areas as cardiovascular, obstetrical, neurosurgery, pediatrics, trauma and edoscopic anesthesia.. USAP-Texas is committed to providing comprehensive, high-quality and cost-effective anesthesia services.. ...
Guidelines for the Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists I. Introduction The administration of local anesthesia, sedation and general anesthesia is an integral part of dental practice. The
Researchers may be one step closer to better understanding how anesthesia works. A study in the August issue of Anesthesiology, the official medical journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, found stimulating a major dopamine-producing region in the brain, the ventral tegmental area, caused rats to wake from general anesthesia, suggesting that this region plays a key role in restoring consciousness after general anesthesia.
Learn more about General Anesthesia at Reston Hospital Center DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctorrevision ...
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Anesthesia can be complicated, and can cause complications. This is why it is essential to choose the right method for each particular situation. You should know some facts about anesthesia if you are planning to have experts do dental implants Houston area residents trust.. When a person has general anesthesia, he is completely unconscious. His natural stress response is blunted, and he cannot move.. In the past, many people believed general anesthesia was best under most circumstances. Not only was a patients lack of consciousness easier for the patients, it also made performing procedures easier for doctors and dentists. When a patient is unconscious, and unaware of what is happening, he does not experience fear or anxiety during a procedure. Physicians and dentists can perform procedures without being interrupted by fearful or difficult patients.. However, it also carries the highest risk of complications. Some individuals are even allergic to surgical anesthesia. General anesthesia ...
General anesthesia is a treatment used to block pain and put the body to sleep during surgical procedures. This video shows the different ways doctors give patients general anesthesia before a surgical procedure.. ...
hi, does anyone know side effects of general anesthesia or sequela? How many times of general anesthesia or sequela can be affored in a lifetime?
General Anesthesia Drugs General Anesthesia Drugs market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. Request For Full Report @ https://www.reportsandmarkets.com/reports/emea-europe-middle-east-and-africa-general-anesthesia-drugs-market-report-2017-1650216 Geographically, this report split EMEA into Europe, the Middle East and…
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Global Anesthesia Monitoring Devices Market 2022 Research Report" Purchase This Report by calling ResearchnReports.com at +1-888-631-6977.. Global anesthesia monitoring devices market can be segmented into products and end users. By product, it is segmented into integrated anesthesia workstation, basic anesthesia monitors, others (IT enabled) and advanced anesthesia monitors. Advanced anesthesia monitors are segmented into gas monitors, standalone capnography monitors, depth of anesthesia, and MRI compatible anesthesia monitors. These devices are more accurate and reliable in monitoring anesthesia. Anesthesia can be monitored with different methods, such as EEG Monitors, ECG, bi-spectral index (BIS) obtained from EEG, oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers, and temperature monitors. Other monitoring instruments can be included, depending on patients condition, the type of surgical procedure, and the type of anesthesia used. Hospitals, ambulatory surgical centers, clinics and nursing homes form the ...
Intraoperative course. I. Anesthetic choice. 1. Do you recommend regional or general anesthesia? Explain your rationale.. 2. Does her diabetes influence your decision? Explain.. 3. Does her obesity influence your decision? Explain.. II. Monitors. 1. Would you monitor this patient differently than you would for a slender diabetic for the same procedure? Why?. 2. Does the presence of right ventricular hypertrophy alter your monitoring? Why or why not?. 3. How does it alter your monitoring?. 4. A colleague recommends a pulmonary artery catheter with continuous oxygen saturation monitoring. Do you agree?. 5. How will you monitor her diabetic status with regional anesthesia?. 6. How will you monitor her diabetic status with general anesthesia?. III. Anesthetic induction and intubation. 1. The patient refuses regional. Will you do a rapid sequence induction? Explain.. 2. What are the hazards of rapid sequence induction in this patient?. 3. Would premedication with ranitidine and metoclopramide ...
An optical switching element including at least a multi-layered optical switching layer that includes a charge generation layer and a charge transport layer wherein, the charge transport layer contains a charge transporting material represented by the following general formula (1). The optical switching element is applicable in a device, a photoaddressable display medium and a display device. The optical switching element may alternatively include a mono-layered optical switching layer that has a charge generating function and a charge transporting function, wherein the mono-layered optical switching layer contains the charge transporting material represented by the following general formula (1).
October 24, 2016. The use of general anesthesia for surgery has not changed fundamentally since it was first introduced 170 years ago. Patients are still left to come around in their own time following withdrawal of the drug.. However, some patients can take a considerable amount of time to wake up, holding up the use of expensive operating rooms and occupying medical staff who must keep them under close observation.. Now researchers at MIT and Massachusetts General Hospital have moved a step closer to a treatment to rapidly awaken patients after administration of a general anesthetic, following a study of the mechanism that allows people to regain consciousness.. In a paper published today in the journal PNAS, the researchers demonstrate that activating dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain causes active emergence from general anesthesia.. This is important because the mechanism by which we regain consciousness following general anesthetic has so far been poorly ...
What is anaesthesia? Find out more about both local and general anaesthesia and why it is so commonly used in the UK. Information about anaesthetics for surgery.
All procedures at Woodland Surgery Center are performed in collaboration with a highly-skilled, board certified, anesthesiology specialist. An anesthesiologist is a physician that specializes in the administration and management of your anesthetic needs during your procedure. Prior to your surgery, your anesthesiologist will consult with you and the surgical team. Following your procedure, the anesthesiologist ensures each patient fully emerges from the anesthesia and regains full consciousness.. There are several options for surgery anesthesia for patients undergoing finger, hand, wrist, elbow, or shoulder surgery. They include local anesthesia, regional anesthesia, or general anesthesia. The type of anesthesia used depends on the nature and duration of the surgery, patients health and medical conditions, and preferences of the patient, surgeon, and anesthesiologist.. ...
Here in our office we perform a variety of treatments including dental implants, facial reconstruction and teeth removal. If you have recently been diagnosed with a condition that requires any of these types of treatment, you will likely be required to go under general anesthesia. 

For some people, impending anesthesia can induce a bit of…
For some procedures, your pet will need to be administered general anesthesia so that he or she will be unconscious and not feel pain. Many pet owners worry about their pets being administered general anesthesia. We can assure you that modern anesthesia is generally quite safe; to further lower any risk, we perform a physical examination and run blood work ahead of time to catch any underlying health issues. In addition, we follow a specific anesthetic protocol, including monitoring vital signs during the procedure, to ensure the safety of our patients.. We begin most general anesthetic procedures by administering a sedative to help the pet relax and decrease any anxiety and pain. We then administer an intravenous drug to provide complete anesthesia and place a breathing tube into the patients trachea (windpipe). To maintain the state of unconsciousness, we deliver a gas anesthetic in combination with oxygen through the breathing tube.. Please contact us if you have any questions or concerns ...
For some procedures, your pet will need to be administered general anesthesia so that he or she will be unconscious and not feel pain. Many pet owners worry about their pets being administered general anesthesia. We can assure you that modern anesthesia is generally quite safe; to further lower any risk, we perform a physical examination and run blood work ahead of time to catch any underlying health issues. In addition, we follow a specific anesthetic protocol, including monitoring vital signs during the procedure, to ensure the safety of our patients.. We begin most general anesthetic procedures by administering a sedative to help the pet relax and decrease any anxiety and pain. We then administer an intravenous drug to provide complete anesthesia and place a breathing tube into the patients trachea (windpipe). To maintain the state of unconsciousness, we deliver a gas anesthetic in combination with oxygen through the breathing tube.. Please contact us if you have any questions or concerns ...
General anesthesia refers to total body anesthesia. The body is brought to a level of sleep where there is no sensation, memory or movement.
Division Director, Anesthesia Services. UAB Department of Anesthesiology. Ideal Agent ... Induction of General Anesthesia. One arm-brain circulation time. Max ... - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 7c511-ZDc1Z
Can you prepare to induce general anesthesia in two minutes? Use the mnemonic M-A-I-D-S as a checklist to prepare yourself and your equipment.
FRIDAY, Feb. 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Infants who are given general anesthesia for an hour are unlikely to suffer harm, but the safety of longer and repeated exposure remains unknown, a new study says.. Among more than 700 infants in seven countries, the researchers didnt find any measurable neurodevelopmental or behavioral problems up to the age of 5.. "Nearly half the general anesthetics given to infants are used for less than one hour. Therefore, our findings should reassure health professionals and the millions of parents whose young children undergo surgical or diagnostic procedures with anesthetic drugs worldwide every year," said researcher Andrew Davidson, from Murdoch Childrens Research Institute in Australia.. The study authors noted that most of the infants in the study group were male and more research is needed to confirm the findings in girls.. In the first three years of life, about one in 10 children in developed countries have surgical, medical and diagnostic procedures ...
Wed like to offer a very warm welcome to our new colleagues from Fullerton Anesthesia Associates and the Upland Anesthesia Medical Group. Allied Anesthesia is now consolidating with two of the most respected anesthesia groups in Southern California. The new Allied Anesthesia will formally begin operations on January 1, 2015, representing more than 100 physicians […]. ...
The infiltration method is the impregnation of tissues with an anesthetic solution with its layer-by-layer introduction.. The regional method of anesthesia is divided into spinal, conductive, epidural, intraosseous and intravascular anesthesia. The effect of anesthesia with this method is achieved by turning off the sensivity in a certain nerve or nervous plexus with the patients preserved consciousness.. Modern trends in the development of anesthesiology:. Newly introduced drugs for anesthesia are characterized by short-term action, which is an important condition. Modern anesthetics of ultrashort action have this tendency. Modern drugs are excreted from the body well, have no toxicity, no side effects, shortened sleep time of the patient after their use.. In modern anesthesia, combined methods of anesthesia are commonly used, which are characterized by the rational use and combination of the positive properties of modern anesthetics, eliminating side effects, complications and guaranteeing ...
Merck & Cos neuromuscular blockade antidote Bridion has won US approval for the reversal for general anaesthesia induced by the agents rocuronium or vecuronium, following a stream of knock-backs over safety concerns. - News - PharmaTimes
We administer general anesthesia as well as IV sedation, depending on your situation and personal preference. Visit our pediatric dental clinic in Houston TX, 77099!
Although the mechanisms by which anesthetic drugs induce the state of general anesthesia have been considered one of the biggest mysteries of modern medicine and science, new research is deciphering this unknown ...
General Anesthesia Responsiveness. Normal to verbal stimulus. Purposeful response to verbal or tactile stimulus. Purposeful to ... Etomidate is an imidazole derivative, commonly used for the induction of general anesthesia. Effects kick in almost immediately ... "Continuum of Depth of Sedation; Definition of General Anesthesia and Levels of Sedation/Analgesia". American Society of ... Jaap Vuyk, Elske Sitsen and Marije Reekers (2015). Miller's Anesthesia. Elsevier.. *^ Messenger DW, Murray HE, Dungey PE, van ...
Inhalation General Anesthesia. This will eliminate all pain and also all memory of any needle procedure. On the other hand, it ... The recommended forms of treatment include some form of anesthesia, either topical or general. ... It is occasionally referred to as aichmophobia or belonephobia, although these terms may also refer to a more general fear of ... It provides effective anesthesia, but is generally unavailable to consumers on the commercial market and some regard it as ...
ISBN 0-7817-8763-7. Clinical Anesthesia. Books.google.se. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 8 December ... General Hospital Psychiatry. 35 (5): 571-3. doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.04.013. PMID 23706777. "Erowid Dimenhydrinate ( ... Page 592 in: Cahalan, Michael D.; Barash, Paul G.; Cullen, Bruce F.; Stoelting, Robert K. (2009). Clinical Anesthesia. ... are used clinically for their synergistic effect in the management of pain and maintenance of dissociative anesthesia (sedation ...
Based on the procedure, anesthesia may be provided locally or as general anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia may be used when the ... but general anesthesia may not be desirable. With local and spinal anesthesia, the surgical site is anesthetized, but the ... In contrast, general anesthesia renders the patient unconscious and paralyzed during surgery. The patient is intubated and is ... Modern pain control through anesthesia was discovered in the mid-19th century. Before the advent of anesthesia, surgery was a ...
"Anesthesia and Queen Victoria". Ph.ucla.edu. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2010.. ... In 1817, Thomas Barnes became general editor of The Times; he was a political radical, a sharp critic of parliamentary ... "General-anaesthesia.com. Archived from the original on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2010.. ... "General-anaesthesia.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2010.. ...
No need for general anesthesia. Lower cost and less invasive than tubal ligation for women.. ... No-needle anesthesia: Fear of needles for injection of local anesthesia is well known.[31] In 2005, a method of local ... although some men's physiology may make access to the vas deferens more difficult in which case general anesthesia may be ... Initial surveys show a very high satisfaction rate amongst vasectomy patients.[31] Once the effects of no-needle anesthesia set ...
Anesthesia for procedures on the upper abdomen *^ "Anesthesia for lower abdomen".. ,Anesthesia for procedures on the lower ... the general debate around copyright and regulation access was revived in 2012[17] by a petition motivated by a Administrative ... "Anesthesia for Procedures on the Upper Abdomen". Archived from the original on 2016-10-05. Retrieved 2016-10-04.. , ...
General anesthetics are a class of psychoactive drug used on people to block physical pain and other sensations. Most ... Anesthesia. Accessed on July 16, 2007. Li X, Pearce RA; Pearce (2000). "Effects of halothane on GABA(A) receptor kinetics: ... In it, the inspector general concludes that "certain detainees, diagnosed as having serious mental health conditions being ... That's according to a recently declassified report (.pdf) from the Pentagon's inspector general, obtained by Truthout's Jeffrey ...
General Surgery. Neurosurgery. Urology. Orthopedics. Anesthesia. Diagnostic Radiology. Immunology. Virology. Al-Zahra Hospital ... General Medicine. Cardiology. Chest. Clinical Pathology. Dermatology. Endocrinology. Neurology. Psychiatry. Tropical Medicine. ...
On June 29, 2017, President Donald Trump nominated Adams as the next Surgeon General of the United States. He was confirmed to ... "Faculty , Anesthesia , IU School of Medicine". Indiana University School of Medicine. 2017-04-18. Retrieved 2017-05-27. [1] [2 ... On June 29, 2017, President Donald Trump nominated Adams to become Surgeon General of the United States. Adams was confirmed by ... He has written several academic papers and book chapters, including chapters in Anesthesia Student Survival Guide, A case-based ...
Griffith HR, Johnson GE (1942). "The use of curare in general anesthesia". Anesthesiology. 3 (4): 418-420. doi:10.1097/00000542 ... anesthesia: the triad of barbiturate hypnosis, light inhalational anesthesia and muscle relaxation. The technique as described ... It is now rarely used as an adjunct for clinical anesthesia because safer alternatives, such as cisatracurium and rocuronium, ... Present clinical anesthetic practice still employs the central principle of balanced anesthesia though with some differences to ...
Because medicinal and non-invasive methods of abortion now exist, and because D&C requires heavy sedation or general anesthesia ... Complications may arise from either the introduction or spreading of infection, adverse reaction to general anesthesia required ... Undertaken under heavy sedation or general anesthesia. Risk of perforation. Day-case procedure ... The woman is typically put under monitored anesthesia care (MAC) before the procedure begins. The first step in a D&C is to ...
In general, it is the exposure of a given tissue to drug (i.e. drug concentration over time), rather than dose, that drives the ... Stanley TH (January 2000). "Anesthesia for the 21st century". Proceedings. 13 (1): 7-10. PMC 1312206 . PMID 16389318. Gable RS ... Becker DE (Spring 2007). "Drug therapy in dental practice: general principles. Part 2 - pharmacodynamic considerations". ... Anesthesia Progress. 54 (1): 19-23; quiz 24-5. doi:10.2344/0003-3006(2007)54[19:DTIDPG]2.0.CO;2. PMC 1821133 . PMID 17352523. ...
Becker, D.E. (2007). "Drug therapy in dental practice: general principles. Part 2 - pharmacodynamic considerations". Anesthesia ... The response of humans to cardiac glycosides in general often depends on the tissue, exposure time and the dose.[citation ... the following is general information regarding cardiac glycoside toxicity, with an emphasis on information from cardenolides (i ...
At very high concentrations, ethanol produces general anesthesia; a highly ntoxicated person will be asleep and very difficult ... The sentence "An important group of acohols is formed by the simple acyclic alcohols, the general formula for which is CnH2n+ ... I felt what was need instead was a general overview of what alcohols are like chemically, so I wrote one, and added an image to ... I think general aspects like acidity and nucleophilicity are dealt with best in a section like this, while specific examples of ...
People can be administered local anesthesia, a spinal block, as well as general anesthesia.[9] Local anesthesia has been shown ... However, people who undergo general anesthesia tend to be able to go home faster and experience fewer complications.[14][15][2] ... Upon awakening from anesthesia, patients are monitored for their ability to drink fluids, produce urine, as well as their ... In general, it is not recommended to administer antibiotics as prophylaxis after elective inguinal hernia repair. However, the ...
A comparison of pentamorphone and fentanyl in balanced anaesthesia during general surgery. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. 1994 ... Anesthesia and Analgesia. 1989 Mar;68(3):302-7. PMID 2465708 Rudo FG, Wynn RL, Ossipov M, Ford RD, Kutcher BA, Carter A, ... Anesthesia and Analgesia. 1989 Oct;69(4):450-6. PMID 2476953 Afifi MS, Glass PS, Cohen NA, Shook JE, Camporesi EM. Depression ... Anesthesia and Analgesia. 1991 May;72(5):656-60. PMID 1708214 Kelly WB, Howie MB, Romanelli VA, Duarte JA, Rezaei H, McSweeney ...
"General Anesthesia Pioneer". Heartland Science. Retrieved 22 June 2015. "Ernest H. Volwiler". National Inventors Hall of Fame. ... From 1946 to 1950 he became Executive Vice President of Abbott Laboratories, and from 1950 to 1958, President and General ... In 1934, Volwiler and Tabern synthesized the first intravenous general anesthetic, Sodium thiopental, in 1934. In the mid 1930s ... Pentothal's discovery revolutionized intravenous anesthesia. The anesthetic can quickly put patients to sleep for a short ...
... is an ultra-short-acting barbiturate and has been used commonly in the induction phase of general anesthesia ... "This Month in Anesthesia History: March". Anesthesia History Association. Archived from the original on 2011-05-01. Steinhaus, ... In addition to anesthesia induction, sodium thiopental was historically used to induce medical comas. It has now been ... The usual dose range for induction of anesthesia using thiopental is from 3 to 6 mg/kg; however, there are many factors that ...
Patient care areas include: allergy; anesthesia - pain management; audiology; behavioral health; cardiology; diabetes ... management; dialysis; ear, nose & throat; emergency services; endocrinology, general surgery; inpatient acute care; internal ...
General good health and nutrition also reduce ulcer risk. Adequate and prompt cleansing and treatment of ankle and leg skin ... Large infected ulcers may require debridement under anesthesia. Skin grafting may be helpful in advanced cases to ensure the ...
Geriatric anesthesia (focuses on anesthesia & perioperative care of elderly). *Geriatric intensive-care unit: (a special type ... Many universities across Canada also offer gerontology training programs for the general public, such that nurses and other ... Although originally a distinct clinical specialty, it has been integrated as a specialization of general medicine since the ...
... fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used as an inhalational anaesthetic for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. ... "How does anesthesia work?". Scientific American. 7 February 2005. Retrieved 30 June 2016. Jürgen Schüttler; Helmut Schwilden (8 ... It is one of the most commonly used volatile anesthetic agents, particularly for outpatient anesthesia, across all ages, as ... The exact mechanism of the action of general anaesthetics have not been delineated. Sevoflurane is thought to potentially act ...
"History of chloroform anaesthesia". General-anaesthesia.com. Retrieved 10 August 2010. Ralph R. Frerichs. "Anesthesia and Queen ... In 1817 Thomas Barnes became general editor of The Times; he was a political radical, a sharp critic of parliamentary hypocrisy ... Princess Louise's husband The Marquis of Lorne is appointed Governor-General of Canada. First incandescent light bulb by Joseph ...
Successful general anesthesia followed. A rare follow-up of a male with Malpuech syndrome was presented by Priolo et al. (2007 ... Methods like tracheal intubation for management of the airway during general anesthesia can be hampered by the even smaller, or ... For regional anesthesia, methods like spinal blocking are more difficult where scoliosis is present. In a 2010 report by ... Kiernan, F; Crowe, S (Apr 2010). "Malpuech syndrome: implications for anesthetic management". Pediatric Anesthesia. 20 (4): 370 ...
What is actually measured indirectly is the flow of blood to different parts of the brain, which is, in general, believed to be ... allows animals to be scanned without the confounding effects of anesthesia. PET scanners designed specifically for imaging ... Work by Gordon Brownell, Charles Burnham and their associates at the Massachusetts General Hospital beginning in the 1950s ...
Peds Anesthesia (CRNA, Pediatric) in Hospice with Nemours Childrens Health System. Apply Today. ... Initiates anesthetic technique that may include general, regional, local and sedation.. * Selects, applies and insets ... Discharges patients from the post-anesthesia care area and provides post-anesthesia follow-up evaluation and care as ... Graduate from a nurse anesthesia educational program that is accredited by the Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia ...
Anesthesia Resident. Nurse Anesthetist. - You (or a family member) require major surgery so you spend hours finding the most ... "I will be administering your anesthesia.". You need to know what kind of anesthesia you will be getting. "In general anesthesia ... www.lifelinetomodernmedicine.com/Types-Of-Anesthesia.aspx. Note: This blog shares general information about understanding and ... In regional anesthesia, your anesthesiologist makes an injection near a cluster of nerves to numb the area of your body that ...
General Nursing, , Shreveport, Louisiana , CRNA, Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist - Anesthesia at CHRISTUS Health ... the state board of nursing and who is authorized to provide anesthesia care including administration and management of general ... regional, and local anesthesia for all age groups from birth to death within multiple settings, ie: operating room, labor & ... is an advanced practice registered nurse educated in the specialty care area of anesthesia and certified according to the ...
... the drug may cause regurgitation of ruminal contents when inducing general anesthesia. ... In horses, "…as an aid in controlling fractious animals", and in conjunction with local anesthesia for various procedures and ... Contraindications/Precautions - Animals may require lower dosages of general anesthetics following acepromazine. Cautious use ... and smaller doses of acepromazine should be given to animals with hepatic dysfunction, cardiac disease, or general debilitation ...
Some nurse anesthetists will spend more than one year in acute care and gain experience in different areas, such as general ... They will work independently or part of an anesthesia team, and they serve a wide variety of patients from pediatric to ... A list of the one hundred and nine accredited programs is available on the Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia ... According to the AANA website, nurse anesthetists are "the primary anesthesia providers in rural America", providing almost all ...
... he wrote about the use of general anesthesia for surgery. c. 1020, Ibn Sīnā (980-1037) described the use of inhaled anesthesia ... In his 12th century medical textbook Al-Taisir, Ibn Zuhr describes the use of general anesthesia.[citation needed] These three ... 300 BCE) used general anesthesia for surgical procedures. It is recorded that he gave two men, named "Lu" and "Chao", a toxic ... Etymology of "anesthesia"[edit]. The word "anesthesia", coined by Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809-1894) in 1846 from the Greek ἀν- ...
General anesthesia is treatment with certain medicines that puts you into a deep sleep so you do not feel pain during surgery. ... General anesthesia is usually safe for healthy people. You may have a higher risk of problems with general anesthesia if you:. ... General anesthesia is treatment with certain medicines that puts you into a deep sleep so you do not feel pain during surgery. ... Children may need general anesthesia for a medical or dental procedure to handle any pain or anxiety they may feel. ...
To be sure, general anesthesia renders patients pain-free, but it also leaves them unconscious, immobile and unable to remember ... Explaining General Anesthesia. Studies of fireflies and fish suggest how these drugs really work ... The ultimate goal is developing drugs to reverse general anesthesia quickly and safely--so that patients recovering from ... This steady correlation seen across the four tanks only further confirms the idea that anesthesia works its magic by expanding ...
Can General Anesthesia Trigger Dementia?. Scientists try to untangle the relationship between a temporary effect and a ... So what do we know about the relationship between general anesthesia, which is typically inhaled and completely knocks people ... What do we know about the relationship between general anesthesia, which is typically inhaled and completely knocks people ... Most evidence suggests that receiving general anesthesia during the course of surgery does not increase the likelihood of ...
Definition of general anesthesia. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... general anesthesia. Definition: loss of ability to perceive pain associated with loss of consciousness produced by intravenous ...
Why are some cesarean deliveries performed with general anesthesia without a clinical indication? What are the complications ... Temporal Trends in the Use of General Anesthesia. General anesthesia rate was calculated for each 2-year interval of the 12- ... Recorded Clinical Indication for General Anesthesia (N = 398,044). No Recorded Clinical Indication for General Anesthesia (N = ... Neuraxial Anesthesia (N = 439,583). General Anesthesia (N = 26,431). Crude OR (95% CI). P Value*. Adjusted OR† (95% CI). P ...
General anesthesia definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... general anesthesia. .css-7w6khc{padding-top:20px;}. .css-1oucjfz{list-style-type:none;line-height:22px;}. *general admission ...
Why are some cesarean deliveries performed with general anesthesia without a clinical indication? What are the complications ... To date, most of the research on general anesthesia for cesarean delivery has examined general anesthesia as a whole without ... Recorded Clinical Indication for General Anesthesia (N = 398,044). No Recorded Clinical Indication for General Anesthesia (N = ... Neuraxial Anesthesia (N = 439,583). General Anesthesia (N = 26,431). Crude OR (95% CI). P Value*. Adjusted OR† (95% CI). P ...
Both times I received general anesthesia. The first time in May 07 I had no trouble during the surgery but about an hour after ... General Anesthesia and Allergies. Hi, I had two pelvic surgeries in the last four months. Both times I received general ... I made them aware of my recovery room problems and they said that I was fine to go on with yet another general anesthesia. This ... I made them aware of my recovery room problems and they said that I was fine to go on with yet another general anesthesia. This ...
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Clinical anesthesia procedures of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Massachusetts General Hospital. Dept. of Anesthesia, ... Clinical anesthesia procedures of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Philip W. Lebowitz,Leslie A. Newberg,Michael T. Gillette, ... Clinical Anesthesia Procedures of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Leonard L. Firestone, Philip W. Lebowitz, Charles E. ... Clinical Anesthesia Procedures of the Massachusetts General Hospital. A Little, Brown handbook. ...
Anesthesia is a way to control pain using anesthetic medicine. General anesthesia, which can be injected into a vein or inhaled ... A person under general anesthesia is completely unaware of what is going on and does not feel pain during the surgery or ... Anesthesia interrupts the pain signals between a persons nerve endings and the brain. The health professional administering ...
Risks and complications from general anesthesia. Serious side effects of general anesthesia are uncommon in people who are ... Under anesthesia, you should be completely unaware and not feel pain during the surgery or procedure. General anesthesia also ... anesthesia. Fortunately, most side effects of general anesthesia are minor and can be easily managed. ... General anesthesia is a combination of medicines that you inhale or receive through a needle in a vein to cause you to become ...
General Anesthesia. (Anesthesia, General). by Patricia Kellicker, BSN. • Definition • Reasons for Procedure • Possible ... Some medicine may be given before anesthesia. It can help to prevent problems, such as nausea and vomiting. General anesthesia ... General anesthesia is the use of medicine to put the entire body to sleep. It puts you into a state of unconsciousness. The ... General anesthesia is used for a surgery or a procedure that would be uncomfortable if you were awake. The medicine will help ...
General anesthesia drugs induce unconsciousness to prevent the patient from feeling any sensations at all while surgeons ... how dangerous is general anesthesia center /how dangerous is general anesthesia article ... Regional anesthesia - to numb a specific portion of the body. *General anesthesia - to keep the patient unconscious for long ... General anesthesia is quite safe, and even people with certain health conditions tolerate anesthesia without much problem. It ...
Rules-Administration of sedation and general anesthesia.. (1) The commission may adopt such rules as it deems necessary to ... 2) The commission may adopt rules governing administration of sedation and general anesthesia by persons licensed under this ...
... a person should not drink alcohol for at least 24 hours after having general anesthesia. In addition, if the patient is still ... According to Allina Health, a person should not drink alcohol for at least 24 hours after having general anesthesia. In ... General Anesthesia Is Very Safe. Even If You Have Significant Health ... Read! ... General Anesthesia Is Very Safe. Even If You Have Significant Health ... Read! ...
Difficulty with airway management for anesthesia has potentially serious implications, as failure to secure a patent airway can ... Management of the difficult airway for general anesthesia. Authors. William H Rosenblatt, MD. William H Rosenblatt, MD ... See Airway management for induction of general anesthesia and Direct laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation in adults and ... management of the unanticipated difficult airway during induction of general anesthesia, and extubation of the patient with a ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: General Anesthesia [Drug Class] (79 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark & ... ANESTHESIA S/I-60 (propofol, sterile isopropyl alcohol) kit NDC Code(s): 49836-024-10 ... ANESTHESIA S/I-40 (propofol, isopropyl alcohol) kit NDC Code(s): 49836-025-09 ... ANESTHESIA S/I-50 (propofol ,isopropyl alcohol) kit NDC Code(s): 49836-023-08 ...
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  • In addition to her clinical and staff leadership, Dr. Clark has an extensive background in nurse anesthesia education, having served as a Clinical Coordinator during her time at UC Davis Medical Center, as a Clinical Preceptor for Samuel Merritt University CRNA students, and as Assistant Professor and Co-Chairperson for the Admission Committee at Samuel Merritt University's Program of Nurse Anesthesia. (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • I knew I needed the experience in critical care as well as emergency room in order to apply to the Program of Nurse Anesthesia (PNA) at Samuel Merritt University (SMU) in Oakland, CA. Additional requirements for the SMU PNA were: BSN, grade point average (GPA) of 3.5 or higher, proof of leadership ability, the graduate record exam, reference letters, and basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) certification. (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • As Assistant Chief CRNA, Dr. Clark provides general, regional, and peripheral anesthesia to pediatric, adult, and obstetrical patients, while also completing administrative duties such as coordinating improvements to policies and procedures, overseeing the tasks of anesthesia staff, and managing continuing education sessions for CRNAs at the Medical Center. (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • My first job as a CRNA was at the University of California- Davis Medical Center (UCDMC) in Sacramento, CA. I was the clinical coordinator for the SMU PNA students at UCDMC and became a preceptor to nurse anesthesia students in the operating room (OR). (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • Six million children undergo surgery each year in the U.S., and the possibility that anesthesia and surgery could increase the risk for learning disabilities is a major concern for both the medical community and the general public," says Xie, an associate professor of Anesthesia at Harvard Medical School. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the first study - co-led by Xia Shen, MD, PhD, and Yuanlin Dong, MD, MS, both of MGH Anesthesia - the investigators treated two groups of 6-day-old mice with sevoflurane, the most commonly used general anesthetic. (eurekalert.org)
  • The second study - co-led by Hui Zheng, MD, PhD, of MGH Anesthesia and Dong - exposed a group of pregnant female mice to a single two-hour dose of sevoflurane when two-thirds through the gestation period. (eurekalert.org)
  • As in the first study, placing a group of anesthesia-exposed pregnant mice and then their offspring into an enriched environment appeared to reduce both the neuroinflammatory and behavioral effects on the offspring of prenatal exposure to sevoflurane. (eurekalert.org)
  • Among the drugs used for general anesthesia, isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane are administered by inhalation, while the rest are administered intravenously. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • This study focuses on investigating the clinical usability of a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-derived machine learning classifier to perform automated and real-time classification of maintenance and emergence states during sevoflurane anesthesia. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Gabriela Hernandez-Meza, Meltem Izzetoglu, Ahmet Sacan, Michael Green, Kurtulus Izzetoglu , "Investigation of data-driven optical neuromonitoring approach during general anesthesia with sevoflurane," Neurophotonics 4(4), 041408 (19 August 2017). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • We used multi-electrode EEG, analyzed with multitaper spectral methods and video recording of body movement to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of brain activity in 36 infants 0-6 months old when awake, and during maintenance of and emergence from sevoflurane general anesthesia. (harvard.edu)
  • In 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warned that prolonged or repeated anesthesia in children younger than 3 years of age might affect brain development, the researchers noted. (upi.com)
  • 2017. Anesthesia and Developing Brains - Implications of the FDA Warning. (mothertobaby.org)
  • The level of anesthesia is constantly fine-tuned by the anesthesiologist for each patient. (pamf.org)
  • Assess differences in Quality of Life using the QoR-40 (a validated 40-item questionnaire on quality of recovery from anesthesia) between the two treatment groups. (pfizer.com)
  • Re-enactment of the first public demonstration of general anesthesia by William T. G. Morton on October 16, 1846 in the Ether Dome at Massachusetts General Hospital , Boston . (wikipedia.org)
  • Massachusetts General Hospital. (google.com)
  • Research underway in the Anesthesia Center for Critical Care Research (ACCCR) at Massachusetts General Hospital focuses on elucidation of the fundamental mechanisms underlying central problems of intensive care medicine including sepsis, acute respiratory failure, blood transfusion, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac dysfunction. (massgeneral.org)