Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Anesthesia, IntratrachealIntraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Anesthesia and Analgesia: Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.EthersMidazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Intraoperative Awareness: Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Neuromuscular Blockade: The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Hypotension, Controlled: Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nurse Anesthetists: Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.Vecuronium Bromide: Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Atracurium: A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Ethyl EthersTiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Tourniquets: Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Propoxycaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a rapid onset of action and a longer duration of action than procaine hydrochloride. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1017)Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.gamma-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Recovery Room: Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.

Spinal epidural abscess associated with epidural catheterization: report of a case and a review of the literature. (1/613)

We describe a 53-year-old man who developed a catheter-related epidural abscess 8 days after left upper lobectomy for lung cancer. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected in a culture of the epidural pus. Magnetic resonance imaging was essential for the diagnosis of epidural abscess and for determining the extent of spread. The patient was treated by laminectomy and administration of appropriate antibiotics, with almost complete recovery, except for urinary retention. A literature search yielded 29 additional cases of catheter-related epidural abscess. The median duration of catheterization was 4 days and the median time to onset of the clinical symptoms after catheter placement was 8 days. Eleven of the 30 patients had some underlying disorders, including malignancy or herpes zoster, or were receiving steroids. Nine of the 10 patients with thoracic epidural abscess had persistent neurological deficits, whereas 12 of the 15 patients with lumbar epidural abscess showed a full recovery after treatment. Surgical decompression was not required in six patients without significant neurological deficits, who recovered following antibiotic treatment (four patients) or percutaneous drainage (two patients). Thoracic catheters are associated with a disproportionately high incidence of epidural abscess and persistent neurological sequelae following treatment.  (+info)

Comparison of three solutions of ropivacaine/fentanyl for postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia. (2/613)

BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine, 0.2%, is a new local anesthetic approved for epidural analgesia. The addition of 4 microg/ml fentanyl improves analgesia from epidural ropivacaine. Use of a lower concentration of ropivacaine-fentanyl may further improve analgesia or decrease side effects. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery were randomized in a double-blinded manner to receive one of three solutions: 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl 0.1% ropivacaine-2 microg fentanyl, or 0.05% ropivacaine-1 microg fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia after standardized combined epidural and general anesthesia. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia settings and adjustments for the three solutions were standardized to deliver equivalent drug doses. Pain scores (rest, cough, and ambulation), side effects (nausea, pruritus, sedation, motor block, hypotension, and orthostasis), and patient-controlled epidural analgesia consumption were measured for 48 h. RESULTS: All three solutions produced equivalent analgesia. Motor block was significantly more common (30 vs. 0%) and more intense with the 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl solution. Other side effects were equivalent between solutions and mild in severity. A significantly smaller volume of 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl solution was used, whereas the 0.1% ropivacaine-2 microg fentanyl group used a significantly greater amount of ropivacaine and fentanyl. CONCLUSIONS: Lesser concentrations of ropivacaine and fentanyl provide comparable analgesia with less motor block despite the use of similar amounts of ropivacaine and fentanyl. This finding suggests that concentration of local anesthetic solution at low doses is a primary determinant of motor block with patient-controlled epidural analgesia after lower abdominal surgery.  (+info)

Ballistic shock wave lithotripsy in an 18-year-old thoroughbred gelding. (3/613)

Prolonged postoperative recuperation time and restricted exercise were circumvented by using ballistic shock wave lithotripsy to break up an 8-cm diameter vesical calculus and by flushing out the sand-like residue under epidural anesthesia with the horse standing. Recovery was uneventful.  (+info)

Assessing introduction of spinal anaesthesia for obstetric procedures. (4/613)

To assess the impact of introducing spinal anaesthesia for obstetric operative procedures on use of general anaesthesia and quality of regional anaesthesia in a unit with an established epidural service a retrospective analysis of routinely collected data on method of anaesthesia, efficacy, and complications was carried out. Data were collected from 1988 to 1991 on 1670 obstetric patients requiring an operative procedure. The introduction of spinal anaesthesia in 1989 significantly reduced the proportion of operative procedures performed under general anaesthesia, from 60% (234/390) in 1988 to 30% (124/414) in 1991. The decrease was most pronounced for manual removal of the placenta (88%, 48/55 v 9%, 3/34) and emergency caesarean section (67%, 129/193) v 38%, 87/229). Epidural anaesthesia decreased in use most significantly for elective caesarean section (65%, 77/118 v 3% 3/113; x2=139, p<0.0001). The incidence of severe pain and need for conversion to general anaesthesia was significantly less with spinal anaesthesia (0%, 0/207 v 3%, 5/156; p<0.05). Hypotension was not a problem, and the incidence of headache after spinal anaesthetic decreased over the period studied. Introducing spinal anaesthesia therefore reduced the need for general anaesthesia and improved the quality of regional anaesthesia.  (+info)

Quantitative and selective assessment of sensory block during lumbar epidural anaesthesia with 1% or 2% lidocaine. (5/613)

We have examined sensory block during lumbar epidural anaesthesia using a cutaneous current perception threshold (CPT) sensory testing device in 20 patients who received 10 ml of either 1% or 2% lidocaine (lignocaine). CPT at 2000, 250 and 5 Hz stimulation at the trigeminal (V), ninth thoracic (T9) and second lumbar (L2) dermatomes, and dermatomal levels of block to light touch, temperature and pinprick discrimination were measured before and every 5 min until 60 min after epidural lidocaine. There were significant differences between 1% and 2% epidural lidocaine in all CPT at T9 and L2, in addition to maximal cephalad spread of the three sensory modalities. After 2% lidocaine, all CPT increased significantly at T9 and L2. In contrast, only at 250 and 5 Hz for L2 did epidural block with 1% lidocaine produce significant increases in CPT. Maximal level of loss of touch sensation after 1% lidocaine was significantly lower than that of cold and pinprick sensations. We conclude that the dose of lidocaine affected intensity of sensory block during lumbar epidural anaesthesia. In addition, differential neural block resulting from epidural anaesthesia appeared to be associated with a differential effect on nerve fibres of different sizes.  (+info)

Epidural catheter tip position and distribution of injectate evaluated by computed tomography. (6/613)

BACKGROUND: The distribution of solutions injected into the epidural space has not been determined. The author therefore examined the site of catheter tips and the spread of contrast material in the epidural space using computed tomographic (CT) imaging in patients receiving successful epidural analgesia. METHODS: Lumbar epidural catheters were placed in 20 female patients by a midline technique. Anesthetic effect was determined by motor and sensory examinations during analgesic infusion. CT images were obtained for identification of the catheter tip and after radiographic contrast injection of 4 ml and then an additional 10 ml. RESULTS: Catheter tips were most often found lateral to the dura in the intervertebral foramen. In these subjects with normally functioning epidural analgesia, there was remarkable interindividual variability in patterns of spread, including various amounts of anterior passage, layering along the dura, and compression of the dura creating a posterior fold. Accumulation becomes more symmetric with increasing injectate volume. Spread through the intervertebral foramina was seen in all subjects. Air and fat in the region of the catheter interfered with solution spread in three subjects, but only over a limited area. Asymmetry in anesthetic effect was attributable to catheter position. No substantial barriers to solution spread were observed. CONCLUSIONS: A variety of catheter tip positions and patterns of solution spread underlie normal epidural anesthesia. Nonuniform distribution of injectate is common and is compatible with uniform anesthesia. Posterior midline structures play a minimal role in impeding distribution of injectate. A far lateral catheter position is a more common cause of asymmetric block than anatomic barriers to solution spread.  (+info)

Anaesthetic management of a woman who became paraplegic at 22 weeks' gestation after a spontaneous spinal cord haemorrhage secondary to a presumed arteriovenous malformation. (7/613)

A 19-yr-old woman developed a paraplegia with a T10 sensory level at 22 weeks' gestation. The spinal injury was caused by spontaneous bleed of a presumed arteriovenous malformation in the spinal cord. She presented for Caesarean section at term because of the breech position of her fetus. The successful use of a combined spinal epidural-regional anaesthetic is described and the risks of general and regional anaesthesia are discussed.  (+info)

Spinal versus epidural anesthesia for cesarean section in severely preeclamptic patients: a retrospective survey. (8/613)

BACKGROUND: Selection of spinal anesthesia for severely preeclamptic patients requiring cesarean section is controversial. Significant maternal hypotension is believed to be more likely with spinal compared with epidural anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to assess, in a large retrospective clinical series, the blood pressure effects of spinal and epidural anesthesia in severely preeclamptic patients requiring cesarean section. METHODS: The computerized medical records database was reviewed for all preeclamptic patients having cesarean section between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1996. All nonlaboring severely preeclamptic patients receiving either spinal or epidural anesthesia for cesarean section were included for analysis. The lowest recorded blood pressures were compared for the 20-min period before induction of regional anesthesia, the period from induction of regional anesthesia to delivery, and the period from delivery to the end of operation. RESULTS: Study groups included 103 women receiving spinal anesthesia and 35 receiving epidural anesthesia. Changes in the lowest mean blood pressure were similar after epidural or spinal anesthesia. Intraoperative ephedrine use was similar for both groups. Intraoperative crystalloid administration was statistically greater for patients receiving spinal versus epidural anesthesia (1780 +/- 838 vs. 1359 +/- 674 ml, respectively). Neonatal Apgar scores and incidence of maternal intensive care unit admission or postoperative pulmonary edema were also similar. CONCLUSION: Although we cannot exclude the possibility that the spinal and epidural anesthesia groups were dissimilar, the magnitudes of maternal blood pressure declines were similar after spinal or epidural anesthesia in this series of severely preeclamptic patients receiving cesarean section. Maternal and fetal outcomes also were similar.  (+info)

*List of local anesthetics

... local anesthetics Dental anesthesia Dibucaine number Epidural Intravenous regional anesthesia Local anesthesia Local anesthetic ... Local anesthetic toxicity Methemoglobin Sodium channel blocker Spinal anesthesia Topical anesthesia Veterinary anesthesia Büchi ... 4-Aminobenzoic acid Amino amide Amino esters Anesthesia Anesthetic Brachial plexus block Cocaine analogues: ...

*Spinal anaesthesia

Epidural anesthesia is a technique whereby a local anesthetic drug is injected through a catheter placed into the epidural ... The injected dose for an epidural is larger, being about 10-20 mL compared to 1.5-3.5 mL in a spinal. In an epidural, an ... Current usage of this technique is waning in the developed world, with epidural analgesia or combined spinal-epidural ... Combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia Epidural Intrathecal administration Lumbar puncture Bronwen Jean Bryant; Kathleen Mary ...

*Local anesthetic

... epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia) Abdominal surgery (epidural anesthesia/spinal anesthesia, often combined ... epidural anesthesia) Trauma (peripheral nerve blocks, intravenous regional anesthesia, epidural anesthesia) Chronic pain is a ... spinal/epidural anesthesia) Bone and joint surgery of the pelvis, hip, and leg (spinal/epidural anesthesia, peripheral nerve ... plexus anesthesia). Spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia merge into the central nervous system. Injection of LAs is often ...

*Local anesthesia

Topical anesthesia (surface) Infiltration Plexus block Epidural (extradural) block Spinal anesthesia (subarachnoid block) ... New York School of Regional Anesthesia Anesthesia Books General information and tutorials in peripheral regional anesthesia [1 ... Regional anesthesia is aimed at anesthetizing a larger part of the body such as a leg or arm. Conduction anesthesia encompasses ... The following terms are often used interchangeably: Local anesthesia, in a strict sense, is anesthesia of a small part of the ...

*S-Ethylisothiouronium diethylphosphate

... in conjunction with epidural anesthesia; in overdose of ganglion blockers, alpha-adrenergic blockers, neuroleptics, anesthetics ...

*Outcomes Research Consortium

Matsukawa T, Sessler DI, Christensen R, Ozaki M, Schroeder M (1995). "Heat flow and distribution during epidural anesthesia". ... Saager L, Hesler BD, You J, Turan A, Mascha EJ, Sessler DI, Kurz A (2014). "Intraoperative transitions of anesthesia care and ... They were also among the first anesthesia investigators to conduct large-scale registry research. Taking advantage of dense ... While the effects of anesthesia have traditionally been considered to dissipate within hours of surgery, there is increasing ...

*Anesthesia

... epidural and caudal anesthesia). Topical anesthesia: local anesthetics that are specially formulated to diffuse through the ... Epidural anesthesia does not typically affect muscle control. Because central neuraxial blockade causes arterial and ... Regional anesthesia and local anesthesia, which block transmission of nerve impulses between a targeted part of the body and ... Spinal anesthesia is a "one-shot" injection that provides rapid onset and profound sensory anesthesia with lower doses of ...

*Overflow incontinence

Epidural anesthesia and delivery also can cause the overflow incontinence. Overflow incontinence occurs when the patient's ...

*Chloroprocaine

... and epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Feb 1;151(3):322-4. Chestnut: Obstetric Anesthesia, 3rd ... Chloroprocaine (pKa 8.7) is the drug of choice for epidural analgesia and a decompensating fetus, because it does not ... It is not used in intravenous regional anesthesia due to the risk of thrombophlebitis.[citation needed] The hydrochloride salt ... "Comparison of bupivacaine and 2-chloroprocaine for spinal anesthesia for outpatient surgery: a double-blind randomized trial." ...

*Thromboangiitis obliterans

Epidural anesthesia and hyperbaric oxygen therapy also have vasodilator effect. In chronic cases, lumbar sympathectomy may be ...

*Ferguson reflex

Studies among ewes demonstrated that it is blocked by epidural anesthesia. In their studies among mice, Niles Newton and ... Blockade of the Ferguson reflex by lumbar epidural anaesthesia in the parturient sheep: effects on oxytocin secretion and ...

*Ornipressin

An Efficient Alternative to Counteract Hypotension During Combined General/Epidural Anesthesia". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 90 (6 ...

*Continuous wound infiltration

... peripheral nerve blocks and spinal-epidural anesthesia. It is especially applicable where those techniques are contra-indicated ...

*Bupivacaine

It is the most commonly used local anesthetic in epidural anesthesia during labor, as well as in postoperative pain management ... The 0.75% formulation is contraindicated in epidural anesthesia during labor because of the association with refractory cardiac ... Concentrated bupivacaine is not recommended for epidural freezing. Epidural freezing may also increase the length of labor. It ... It is used by injecting it into the area, around a nerve that supplies the area, or into the spinal canal's epidural space. It ...

*Manipulation under anesthesia

Aspegren, D. D; Wright, R. E; Hemler, D. E (1997). "Manipulation under epidural anesthesia with corticosteroid injection: Two ... Ben-David, B; Raboy, M (1994). "Manipulation under anesthesia combined with epidural steroid injection". Journal of ... and manipulation under epidural anesthesia (MUEA).[citation needed] Medication Assisted Manipulation (MAM) has been used since ... "Manipulation Under Anesthesia" (PDF). Cigna. October 15, 2016. Davis CG, Fernando CA, da Motta MA: Manipulation of the Low Back ...

*Tuohy needle

To provide continuous epidural analgesia or anesthesia, a small hollow catheter may be threaded through the epidural needle ... Frölich, MA; Caton, D (July 2001). "Pioneers in epidural needle design". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 93 (1): 215-20. doi:10.1097/ ... Frölich, MA; Caton, D (July 2001). "Pioneers in epidural needle design". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 93 (1): 215-20. doi:10.1097/ ... Literally, an epidural needle is simply a needle that is placed into the epidural space. ...

*Orchiectomy

The first two types are usually done under local or epidural anesthesia, and take about 30 minutes to perform. An inguinal ... orchiectomy is sometimes done under general anesthesia, and takes from 30 minutes to an hour to complete. A simple orchiectomy ...

*History of neuraxial anesthesia

"Manuel Martinez Curbelo And Continuous Lumbar Epidural Anesthesia" (PDF). Bulletin of Anesthesia History. 22 (4): 1-8. PMID ... In 1921, Spanish military surgeon Fidel Pagés (1886-1923) developed the modern technique of lumbar epidural anesthesia, which ... Marx, GF (1994). "The first spinal anesthesia. Who deserves the laurels?". Regional Anesthesia. 19 (6): 429-30. PMID 7848956. ... "Research and clinical observations on spinal anesthesia: with special reference to the peridural technique" (PDF). Anesthesia ...

*Post-dural-puncture headache

It is a common side-effect of spinal anesthesia and lumbar puncture and may occasionally accidentally occur in epidural ... This approach can also prevent PDPH headaches caused by over-penetration during epidural anesthesia (where dural puncture was ... A small amount of the person's blood is injected into the epidural space near the site of the original puncture; the resulting ... The procedure carries the typical risks of any epidural puncture. However, it is effective, and further intervention is rarely ...

*Epidural administration

There is less chances of hypotension after epidural anesthesia as compared to spinal anesthesia Epidural catheter can be ... Techniques such as epidural analgesia and epidural anaesthesia employ this route of administration. The epidural route is ... Epidural anesthesia can be continued for longer duration during longer surgeries by either giving top ups of local anesthetics ... Epidurals during childbirth are the most commonly used anesthesia in this situation. The medication levels are very low to ...

*Hyoscine

Transdermal hyoscine has been used as an adjunct to epidural anesthesia for Caesarean delivery without adverse CNS effects on ...

*Nisoxetine

... as well as spinal/epidural anesthesia. Due to nisoxetine's sodium channel blocking effect, it is also possible that it may also ... and exhibits longer drug action towards producing cutaneous anesthesia. NMDA receptors are not involved in this local ...

*Obstetric anesthesia (medical specialty)

... the caudal approach to epidural anesthesia in 1901; and Fidel Pages, the lumbar epidural approach in 1921. In 1921, the first ... regional anesthesia, transplant anesthesia and trauma anesthesia. Obstetric anesthesiologists typically serve as consultants to ... Obstetric anesthesia or obstetric anesthesiology, also known as ob-gyn anesthesia or ob-gyn anesthesiology is a sub-specialty ... Anesthesia for cesarean sections (C-sections) most commonly uses neuraxial (regional) anesthesia due to its better safety ...

*Fidel Pagés

Due to his early accidental death, his pioneering work in epidural anesthesia (or metameric anesthesia as he called it) went ... Fidel Pagés published an article in July 1921 called "Anestesia Metamérica" (i.e. metameric anesthesia or epidural anesthesia) ... Two of his main contributions during this time are the publication of his seminal article on epidural anesthesia and a series ... History of neuraxial anesthesia Leon Visser (2001). "Epidural Anaesthesia". Update in Anaesthesia (13): 1. Archived from the ...

*Radical retropubic prostatectomy

... can be performed under general, spinal, or epidural anesthesia and requires blood transfusion ...

*Childbirth

Medicine administered via epidural can cross the placenta and enter the bloodstream of the fetus. Epidural analgesia has no ... Immersion in water has been found to relieve pain during the first stage of labor and to reduce the need for anesthesia and ... "Epidural versus non-epidural or no analgesia in labour". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. CD000331 (12): CD000331. doi: ... Popular medical pain control in hospitals include the regional anesthetics epidurals (EDA), and spinal anaesthesia. Epidural ...

*Edoxaban

... epidural or spinal anesthesia) or spinal/epidural puncture; the risk is increased by the use of indwelling epidural catheters, ... Spinal or epidural hematomas resulting in long-term or permanent paralysis may occur with neuraxial anesthesia ( ... in patients with a history of traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal punctures, a history of spinal deformity or surgery, or ...
Epidural anesthesia is a very useful tool in lower limb salvage surgery, which helps pain control intra and more importantly post-operative pain. It is a well-known effect of epidural injections to cause a sympathetic stimulation and consequently vasodilatation in the lower limb vessels.. Since epidural catheters can cause vasodilatation in lower limb vessels, they can subsequently lead to increased intra and post-operative bleeding from the surgical wound.. The study will involve all patients having a bone tumor in the lower limb and subjected to tumor resection and reconstruction by prosthesis.. The patient will be randomized according to the administration of epidural anesthesia into two arms, an arm in which epidural anesthesia was employed and another arm in which the patient was subjected only to general anesthesia and the amount of intra and postoperative bleeding will be compared in both arms. ...
Background. To evaluate whether thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) can reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).. Methods. Forty-one patients undergoing CABG were treated with TEA intraoperatively and postoperatively. Another 80 patients served as the control group. The sympathetic and parasympathetic activities were evaluated by analysis of neuropeptides, catecholamines and heart rate variability (HRV), preoperatively and postoperatively.. Results. Postoperative AF occurred in 31.7% of the TEA-treated patients and in 36.3% of the untreated patients (p = 0.77). TEA significantly suppressed sympathetic activity, as indicated by a less pronounced increase of norepinephrine and epinephrine (p = 0.03, p = 0.02) and a significant decrease of neuropeptide Y (p = 0.01) postoperatively in TEA-treated patients compared to untreated patients. The HRV variable expressing sympathetic activity was significantly lower and the postoperative increase in heart ...
All women attending the (tertiary level) labour and delivery unit of the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal for delivery of a live infant(s) were eligible for study. Women who before pregnancy had a history of back pain requiring medical attention were excluded as there is evidence that such pain may be an independent risk factor for postpartum back pain.3 Also excluded were women undergoing elective caesarean section as spinal anaesthesia rather than epidural anaesthesia was the standard for this procedure.. A prospective cohort study design was used, with the exposure of interest being epidural anaesthesia during labour and delivery (yes/no). Epidural anaesthesia was performed on request, with six obstetric anaesthetists participating in the study. The anaesthetic regimen was not standardised, but similar protocols were used--that is, epidural analgesia was established with 10-12 ml bupivacaine 0.25% followed by boluses of 8 ml bupivacaine 0.25% as required and the use of lignocaine or ...
BACKGROUND: Many anesthesia methods have been studies in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to explore the effects of combined intravenous and inhalation anesthesia and combined general and epidural anesthesia on cellular immune function and neuroendocrine function in patients with HCC before and after surgery. METHODS: Between September 2012 and April 2014, 72 patients who underwent a hepatectomy in our hospital were enrolled. RESULTS: Compared with the combined intravenous and inhalation anesthesia group, the combined general and epidural anesthesia group demonstrated increased CD4(+) /CD8(+) T cells 0 hr after surgery, increased CD3(+) , CD4(+) , CD4(+) /CD8(+) cells, and IFN-γ levels 12 hr after surgery, and increased CD3(+) , CD4(+) , and CD4(+) /CD8(+) cells 24 hr after surgery (all P , 0 ...
LAWAL, F M y ADETUNJI, A. A comparison of epidural anaesthesia with lignocaine, bupivacaine and a lignocaine-bupivacaine mixture in cats. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2009, vol.80, n.4, pp.243-246. ISSN 2224-9435.. A mixture of 2 % lignocaine (LIG) and 0.5 % bupivacaine (BUP), at respective dose rates of 2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg (LIG-BUP), was compared to LIG (4 mg/kg) and BUP (1 mg/kg) for lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia in 5 sedated cats. Each cat received all 3 treatment regimens at 1-week intervals. The cats were premedicated with an intramuscular injection of atropine sulphate (0.04 mg/kg) and ketamine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg). Onset and duration of analgesia, and time to walking were determined. Associated changes in heart rate (HR), respiratory frequency (fr) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded. Onset of analgesia with epidurally administered LIG-BUP (4.5 ± 0.7 min), LIG (3.9 ± 1.0 min) and BUP (5.0 ± 1.0 min) was similar. Duration of analgesia with LIG-BUP (49.4 ± 4.5 min) ...
... is the injection of a numbing medicine into the space around the spinal nerves in the lower back. The medicine numbs the body below and sometimes above the point of injection. The person may remain awake and may have some control of the numbed area.. The skin where a needle will be inserted is first numbed with a local anesthetic. Next, the needle is inserted, and a catheter is threaded through the needle into the epidural space. Then the needle is removed, while the catheter stays in place. The anesthetic is then delivered through the catheter. Medicine that makes the person sleepy also may be used by injecting it into a vein, depending on the procedure being done.. Epidural anesthesia may be used for certain types of surgery on the lower body or to control pain during childbirth. When a woman has an epidural anesthetic during childbirth, she will feel much less pain from her contractions. ...
Learn about Pregnancy Epidurals, when to have a Spinal Epidural, the effect of an Epidural Block and proper use of Epidural Anaesthesia.
Epidural anesthesia is the most popular method of pain relief during labor. Epidural anesthesia is regional anesthesia that blocks pain in certain areas.
The Procedure. Epidural anaesthesia is given by an anaesthetist. It is given in the active phase of labour. There is hardly any pain during the insertion.. You are made to lie on your side or made to sit up. After which the part is cleaned with an antiseptic. A nurse will assist you in making the correct posture and you are asked to be still for some time. Firstly a local anaethetic agent (to numb your skin) is infiltrated and then a needle prick is made in the spine. . After this a very thin tube is placed and the needle is withdrawn completely. The tube is kept in place with the help of a tape. It is through this tube that the medicine is injected from time to time within the limits of safety for you and your baby the drugs are adjusted according to the patients needs.. What happens after the Procedure?. After the procedure you will be able to move around but you have to be careful not to slide in bed in order to avoid pulling the catheter out. After epidural anaesthesia the pain decreases ...
The impact of hypotensive epidural anesthesia on distal and proximal tissue perfusion in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Journal of Anesthesia and Clinical Research. 2013 ...
INTRODUCTION. Epidural local anesthetics associated to opioids are often used for cesarean section anesthesia. Their use has increased with the development of epidural catheters for obstetric analgesia, which help the conversion to anesthesia when needed 1. A feared, although uncommon complication is massive local anesthetics absorption. Its toxic effects may be severe and of difficult reversal.. Currently, most common drug for obstetric epidural anesthesia is bupivacaine. An inadvertent intravascular injection reaching toxic plasma concentrations may have effects on central nervous system (CNS), especially seizures, and on cardiovascular system, and may result in cardiac arrest and death1. All local anesthetics induce toxicity by direct and indirect mechanisms, always related to voltage-dependent ion channels inhibition 2.. Bupivacaine is a racemic mixture consisting of equal amounts of the optic isomers levobupivacaine and dextrobupivacaine, also known as S(-) and R(+) enantiomers 3. Based on ...
Spinal and epidural anesthesia are injections of liquid drugs into the area surrounding the spinal cord to cause numbness in an area of the body.. ...
Anesthesia. Anesthesia involves medications that cause loss of sensation, including pudendal block, epidural anesthesia and analgesia, spinal anesthesia and analgesia, and general anesthesia. The most common anesthesia is an epidural, also called an epidural block. This anesthesia involves infusing numbing medications through a thin catheter that has been inserted into the space that surrounds the spinal cord in the lower back, causing loss of sensation of the lower body. Infusions of medications may be increased or stopped as needed. Epidural anesthesia may be used during labor and for vaginal and cesarean births. The most common complication of epidural anesthesia is low blood pressure in the mother. Because of this, most woman need to have an intravenous infusion of fluids before epidural anesthesia is given ...
Anesthesia. Anesthesia involves medications that cause loss of sensation, including pudendal block, epidural anesthesia and analgesia, spinal anesthesia and analgesia, and general anesthesia. The most common anesthesia is an epidural, also called an epidural block. This anesthesia involves infusing numbing medications through a thin catheter that has been inserted into the space that surrounds the spinal cord in the lower back, causing loss of sensation of the lower body. Infusions of medications may be increased or stopped as needed. Epidural anesthesia may be used during labor and for vaginal and cesarean births. The most common complication of epidural anesthesia is low blood pressure in the mother. Because of this, most woman need to have an intravenous infusion of fluids before epidural anesthesia is given ...
Abstract Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) provides optimal perioperative anaesthesia and analgesia after thoracic and major abdominal surgery and decreases postoperative morbidity..
Spinal and epidural anaesthesia are two specific forms of loco-regional anaesthesia whereby the anaesthetic substance is injected next to the spine and its corresponding nerves.. As French law stipulates, general and loco-regional anaesthesia must be preceded by a consultation with your anaesthetist at least 48 hours before the intervention, unless there is an emergency (Articles D 712-40 to D 712-44 from the Health Code). Otherwise, the intervention will be delayed. Besides, your anaesthetist will see you one day or a few hours before the intervention, depending on the hospitalisation procedures. Spinal and epidural anaesthesia are also performed by an anaesthetist-resuscitator. Do not hesitate to ask him questions during your consultation and his visit on the day of your intervention. The type of anaesthesia will depend on your intervention, health condition and results to prescribed examinations, if any. Final decision will be taken by the anaesthetist-resuscitator who assumes ...
Motor blockade during epidural anesthesia was assessed using dynamometry to measure the maximum force of plantar flexion, and the Bromage score method. In a randomized double-blind study, 40 orthopedic patients received one of the following four loca
Epidural anesthesia allows continual highly effective relief of labor pain, using only small amounts of medication deposited directly on the spinal nerves. With proper medication combinations and dose adjustments this pain relief can be achieved, optimally without losing the ability to control movement in any part of the body.
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Tips to help with your thrombocytopenia: Thrombocytopenia Pregnancy Epidural Anesthesia. My thrombocytopenia, Online resources for thrombocytopenia.
Care guide for Epidural Anesthesia. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
Fluid management plays an essential role in cesarean section. In previous study (NCT00488111) the investigators found that prior-epidural anesthesia fluid management produced a more significant role in stabilizing the blood pressure and better prognosis after cesarean delivery than that of the posterior-anesthesia ones. Given epidural anesthesia has a time interval before reaching the best state of anesthesia, so the fluid management also has a relatively adequate time to resuscitation. In reality, spinal anesthesia is used popularly except for the epidural anesthesia, whereas spinal anesthesia would produce more significant fluctuation of the hemodynamics compared with the latter. Herein the investigators proposed whether the prior-spinal anesthesia fluid management also produced similar effect on hemodynamic characteristics to the epidural anesthesia ...
[Caudal epidural block in children during catheter cerebral angiography (authors transl)].: Nineteen panangiographies under caudal epidural block were performe
New Zealand. Medication can be administered into the epidural space to provide analgesia, anesthesia, and for a number of other reasons that we will not cover today (e.g., NSAIDs for their anti-inflammatory effects). In veterinary science, local anesthetic agents such as lidocaine and bupivacaine, and opioids such as morphine and alpha-2 agonists, are given into the epidural (or sometimes the subarachnoid space) to provide anesthesia and analgesia. These agents can be given as a single dose or as a continuous infusion via catheter. Placing an epidural catheter also allows for administration of the agent at the most efficacious site (e.g., thoracic or lumbar sites).. Local anesthetics can be administered to both the conscious and unconscious patient. In situations where general anesthesia is unadvisable, lidocaine or bupivacaine can be administered into the epidural space to provide anesthesia for surgery or other procedures of the hindlegs, perineum, and some laparotomy procedures. Lidocaine (1 ...
IMBELLONI, Luiz Eduardo; FORNASARI, Marcos and FIALHO, José Carlos. Combined spinal epidural anesthesia during colon surgery in a high-risk patient: case report. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2009, vol.59, n.6, pp.741-745. ISSN 0034-7094. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942009000600010.. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA) has advantages over single injection epidural or subarachnoid blockades. The objective of this report was to present a case in which segmental subarachnoid block can be an effective technique for gastrointestinal surgery with spontaneous respiration. CASE REPORT: Patient with physical status ASA III, with diabetes mellitus type II, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was scheduled for resection of a right colon tumor. Combined spinal epidural block was performed in the T5-T6 space and 8 mg of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine with 50 µg of morphine were injected in the subarachnoid space. The epidural catheter (20G) was ...
For those rats receiving an epidural injection, an epidural catheter was inserted under the same surgical condition. A PE-10 tube (outer diameter 0.61 mm) (Clay Adams, Parsippany, NJ) was inserted according to the method described previously.10 Briefly, a 1- to 2-cm midline skin incision was made at the most prominent thoracic spinal process (T13). Using a pair of microscissors, a small hole was made in the middle of ligament flavum, and a PE-10 tube was gently advanced approximately 3 cm caudally into the epidural space with the catheter tip being placed at the level between the L4 and L5 nerve roots. The proximal end of the epidural catheter was tunneled subcutaneously and secured to the posterior cervical area to facilitate epidural injection. Incisions were closed with a 6.0 nylon suture or wound clip. To confirm correct epidural catheter placement, negative aspiration of spinal fluid was confirmed after each catheter implantation, and 2% lidocaine (0.15 ml) was injected through the catheter ...
Regional Anesthesia Regional anesthesia involves numbing a specific area of the body, without affecting your brain or breathing. Because you remain conscious, you will be given sedatives to relax you and put you in a light sleep.The two types of regional anesthesia used most frequently in joint replacement surgery are spinal blocks and epidural blocks. For surgery below the hip, a combination block that targets the lumbar plexus and the sciatic nerve can numb only one leg.Spinal BlockIn a spinal block, the anesthesia is injected into the fluid surrounding the spinal cord in the lower part of your back. This produces a rapid numbing effect that can last for hours, depending on the drug used.Epidural BlockAn epidural block uses a small tube (catheter) inserted in your lower back to deliver large quantities of local anesthetics over a longer time period. The epidural block and the spinal block are administered in a very similar location; however, the epidural catheter is placed slightly closer to ...
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Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) is a major component in modern "Fast-Track" concepts developed in visceral surgery. Due to the success of these concepts, TEA has gained widespread acceptance in other operative fields. Modern concepts for treating ovarian cancer favor a radical surgical approach. Only few studies concentrated on the influence of TEA on perioperative morbidity, analgesia and perioperative quality of life in patients with ovarian cancer. We conducted a prospective randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of TEA for perioperative analgesia compared with a conventional opioid based approach using the Numeric Analog Scale (NAS) and the ppp33-questionnaire. 102 patients were enrolled, of which completed 84 the trial. No differences in baseline characteristics were found between the groups. NAS was significantly lower (p , 0.01) in the TEA group while both groups had a relatively low median NAS , 3. In all aspects of the ppp33-questionnaire, we found no significant differences ...
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article{f23cdbe5-c459-4135-8a0e-eac919072a8d, abstract = {Complement activation was studied in 45 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty under epidural anesthesia. The patients were randomly allocated to three groups. In Group I blood loss was replaced with microaggregate-poor erythrocyte concentrate (SAGM-ERC) plus 3% dextran-60 as plasma substitute, and postoperative analgesia was maintained with intramuscular ketobemidone. In Group II blood loss was replaced as in Group I, but epidural anesthesia was prolonged 12 h postoperatively and kept at a level of T4 with 0.5% bupivacaine. In Group III blood loss was replaced with non-frozen stored plasma plus SAGM-ERC, and postoperative analgesia was maintained with ketobemidone as in Group I. All groups received pre- and postoperative thrombo-prophylaxis with dextran. The plasma concentration of C3a-des-arginine (C3a-desArg) was measured by radioimmunoassay preoperatively, immediately after operation and 3, 6 and 18 h postoperatively. No ...
Easing the pain of childbirth with epidural anesthesia may increase the likelihood that a woman will need a Caesarean-section delivery, Boston researchers report. In a study of 1,733 women giving birth for the first time, researchers found that women who received an epidural were almost four times as likely to undergo a C-section as women who did not receive an epidural. An epidural may necessitate a C-section by relaxing the pelvic muscles so much that a woman is unable to push properly during labor, the researchers noted in the study, published in the December issue of the journal Obstetrics and Gynecology. Another possibility is that an epidural somehow prolongs labor beyond what is generally considered normal, prompting doctors to then perform a C-section, they suggested. "This adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that epidural anesthesia is associated with Caesarean delivery," said lead researcher Dr. Ellice Lieberman, an associate professor of obstetrics, gynecology and ...
Synonyms for Epiderral in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Epiderral. 3 synonyms for epidural: epidural anaesthesia, epidural anesthesia, extradural. What are synonyms for Epiderral?
A first time mommy-to-be was brought in for induction. She was induced with Pitocin, an IV uterine muscle stimulant. She was having really strong, Pitocin induced contractions that were difficult to tolerate, so she decided on an epidural. The mothers BP drastically and suddenly lowered after she had received epidural anesthesia. We call this "bottoming out" and while its not common, its also not really that unusual post epidural. Mostly it is prevented by getting a large amount of IV fluids in immediately preceding the administration of the epidural anesthesia. When this mothers BP "bottomed out" her OB happened to be in the room. The babys heart rate started dropping also. Standard procedure when this happens post epidural is to open of the main IV line "wide open" to give a large amount of IV fluids super fast to counteract the sudden drop in BP. As the babys heart rate dropped, the MD rushed over to the mothers IV stand and opened up one of her IV fluids to run in "wide open." It was ...
The needle assembly of the present invention includes a hollow cannula having a sharp distal end, a hollow stylet having a blunt distal end with a radial opening and an interior deflection surface near the radial opening, and a mechanism for biasing the stylet in a first position where the blunt distal end of the stylet extends beyond the sharp distal end of the cannula. Preferably, the hollow cannula hub has a proximal end which is coupled, e.g., via insert molding, to a hollow cannula hub. Likewise, the stylet preferably includes a proximal end which is coupled, e.g., via insert molding, to a hollow stylet hub which is longitudinally movable within the hollow cannula hub. The mechanism for biasing typically comprises a spring inside the cannula hub which biases the stylet hub to the first position where the blunt distal end of the stylet extends beyond the sharp distal end of the cannula. The stylet is movable against the spring to a second position where the sharp distal end of the cannula extends
It always completely dumbfounds me when I hear someone say that epidurals are harmless. That if you "have" ( Ill comment on this later ) to have one, dont feel bad about it. Its no big deal. Women either dont know ( lack of education surrounding epidurals ) or dont care ( their comfort is more important than babys safety ) about the risks and side effects of an epidural. After all, why should anyone point it out when its not PC to do so. When you point out that it carries risk, and the motivation behind getting one is purely selfish...youre being judgemental, not factual. Sorry ladies, Im not afraid to offend with the truth ...
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Photo essay from hospital. Auto-controlled epidural. Hand of a pregnant woman holding the epidural controller. - Stock Image C004/0245
I made this mistake once and it was awful ! A friend of mine made the same mistake this week and again it was awful ! If you have a patient with an epidural post for pain do not give Nubain. It
Choice of anesthesia. 1. Would you choose epidural anesthesia? Why or why not?. 2. If not, what is your choice?. 3. What is the significance of her preeclampsia to your choice?. 4. What is the significance of her diabetes to your choice?. III. General anesthesia. 1. The patient desires to be asleep. She has been NPO for six hours. How would you induce anesthesia?. 2. What agents would you use for induction?. 3. What agents would you use for intubation?. 4. How will you maintain anesthesia?. 5. What is the implication of magnesium therapy to your choice of muscle relaxants?. 6. Would you continue the magnesium into the operating room?. IV. Neonatal resuscitation. 1. The baby is delivered with poor muscle tone, no spontaneous respiration, and a pulse of 84 bpm. Another anesthesiologist can watch the mother. What is your priority in managing the newborn?. 2. Would you give bicarbonate?. 3. Would you give glucose?. 4. What laboratory tests would you desire? Explain.. ...
1. What is the etiology?. 2. Does it matter? Explain.. 3. What is your choice of anesthetic technique?. 4. What if the patient is asthmatic and wheezing?. 5. Would you use spinal or epidural anesthesia?. 6. Is the "double setup" useful?. 7. What is it?. ...
Differential epidurals find the types of nerves carrying pain signals by blocking one group at a time with progressively stronger local anesthetic solutions.
Cold knife cone biopsy: This method is done inside a medical center. A surgical scalpel or simply a laser is made use of to remove the tissue in place of a heated wire. You might get anesthesia throughout the operation (either a basic anesthesia, where you are asleep, or perhaps a spinal or epidural anesthesia, where an injection into the area across the spinal twine will make you numb underneath the waist ...
All women who requested epidural anesthesia were eligible for the study unless there was a contraindication to the procedure or delivery was imminent. Patients were provided with information about epidurals and the study before labor and were given more information when admitted to the delivery unit. More than 1,000 women were randomly assigned to groups using one of three epidural techniques. Traditional epidural was provided to 353 women, low-dose combined spinal epidural to 351, and low-dose infusion epidural to 350. Patient assignment could not be concealed, but the investigators were not involved in any decisions concerning the clinical management of the patients. In addition, the research midwives who interviewed the patients during the follow-up period were not informed of the treatment allocations. Data were collected throughout delivery, by interview 24 to 48 hours after delivery, and by questionnaire one year after delivery. Follow-up was achieved in 99 percent of patients.. The normal ...
I always wondered why there isnt more epidural anesthesia using in the immediate post op period in the US compared to other countries. Thats my impression from the testimonials but I am not sure that is true. This study suggests they should be more.
The Accuro portable ultrasound for epidural anesthesia, finds the exact location and depth - and is designed to help you reduce the number of unnecessary needle
The Accuro portable ultrasound for epidural anesthesia, finds the exact location and depth - and is designed to help you reduce the number of unnecessary needle
Several years ago, a mans severe wheezing stopped within 20 minutes of starting epidural anesthesia. The wheezing remained absent during the 155 minutes t
Did you know that as common as anesthesia is, scientists have very little idea of HOW it actually works? Kind of surprising, considering that anesthesia is a very common medical practice.
Methods All newborns # 32 GA (n = 250, Jan 2004-Oct 2005) with RDS were intubated, given surfactant, and then extubated to NCPAP. For data analysis, infants were divided into 3 GA groups 23-26, 27-29, and 30-32 weeks. Comparisons within GA groups were made using ANOVA with Students t-test for post hoc analysis. ...
Looking for online definition of continuous epidural anesthesia in the Medical Dictionary? continuous epidural anesthesia explanation free. What is continuous epidural anesthesia? Meaning of continuous epidural anesthesia medical term. What does continuous epidural anesthesia mean?
Epidural administration (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater) is a medical route of administration in which a drug or contrast agent is injected into the epidural space of the spinal cord. Techniques such as epidural analgesia and epidural anaesthesia employ this route of administration. The epidural route is frequently employed by certain physicians and nurse anaesthetists to administer diagnostic (e.g. radiocontrast agents) and therapeutic (e.g., glucocorticoids) chemical substances, as well as certain analgesic and local anaesthetic agents. Epidural techniques frequently involve injection of drugs through a catheter placed into the epidural space. The injection can result in a loss of sensation-including the sensation of pain-by blocking the transmission of signals through nerve fibres in or near the spinal cord. The technique of "single-shot" lumbar epidural anaesthesia was first developed in 1921 by Spanish military surgeon Fidel Pagés (1886-1923). Spinal anaesthesia is a ...
Nogues et al (21) reported one case of a subarachnoid cyst and an intradural extramedullary spinal lesion in a patient that had undergone lumbar epidural anesthesia complicated by a total spinal , one year earlier. A second patient had prolonged sensory block after epidural anesthesia; six years later, a subarachnoid cyst (from C7 to T6 and a syrinx from T9 downwards) were found at MRI with mild descent of cerebellar tonsils . The third patient that had epidural anesthesia, developed unsteady gait, urinary dysfunction and legs weakness. She was found to have hyperreflexia and bilateral clonus; at MRI a cystic collection with multiple septa were noted from T1 to T10 and a tethered cord. An intramedullary cyst was also seen from T10 to T12. Dense arachnoiditis was found in the thoracic and lumbar regions requiring a lumbo-peritoneal shunt. All patients had a gradually deteriorating course thereafter. In every case, substantial doses of lidocaine 2�ere used as anesthetic. The authors postulated ...
Can epidural anesthesia be used for gallbladder surgery instead of general - Is general anesthesia during gallbladder surgery safe for copd patients? Well. Depends on how severe the COPD if you can be safe you need to be evaluated pre op by anesthesia doctor
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of different platelet transfusion thresholds prior to the insertion of a lumbar puncture or epidural anaesthesia in people with thrombocytopenia (low platelet count).
Surgical instrument for epidural anesthesia comprising a needle and catheter associated therewith which slides in the needle. The catheter has a set of main axial reference marks coinciding with an index on the needle. A reading will indicate the length of the catheter extending from the distal end of the needle. The catheter also includes a set of auxiliary reference marks distinguishable from the main reference marks.
Learn more about Spinal and Epidural Anesthesia at West Florida Hospital DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctorrevision ...
Relative cardiovascular stability has been found to be one of the major advantages of epidural anesthesia and, depending on the nature of the case, a moderate degree of hypotension may be tolerated...
These will guarantee adequate power supply throughout last essential months and Vitamin Okay helps in blood clotting. Again, taken in isolation and without every other early anaesthessia of pregnancy epidural anaesthesia during pregnancy urination can even occur on account of things like diabetes, and increase in fluid consumption or a urinary infection. You must feel more energetic by the end of the third month. This implies you can develop diabetes, although you are no longer pregnant. I do know simply how you are feeling, besides I am forty two!. Dorsett has the coaching and sources to help correctly diagnose and treat hirsutism, a hormonal condition marked by extreme hair progress. Notably in the event you suffer from morning sickness, pay attention to your limits. You might not experience fatigue each single month, however chances are high youve got skilled PMS fatigue before. On those nights, try sleeping with just a bit bit of sunshine, whether that is the natural moonlight or a night ...
Use preservative-free preparations for spinal or epidural anesthesia.Epidural Preparations - Common agents: bupivacaine, fentanyl, ropivacaine - Determine volume of epidural additives.Combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia (CSE) is a regional anaesthetic technique, which combines the benefits of both spinal anaesthesia and epidural anaesthesia.Baricity and patient position overwhelmingly affect the block height.Epidural Analgesia and Acute Pain Management. thoracic epidural analgesia produced by a small-dose.Nausea which occurs after a spinal alerts the physician to the possibility of a high spinal and hypotension severe enough to cause a stroke, thus nausea is a critical warning sign, although it can also be caused by a predominance of residual parasympathetic activity.Sympathectomy-induced hypotension can reduce surgical bleeding, but if extreme can place the patient at risk for various infarctions.Patients usually receive some form of sedation prior to insertion.Spinal subarachnoid space is ...
Epidural anaesthesia (EA) is a widely used method for medical pain treatment. An important prerequisite for a successful EA procedure is the correct placement of the needle in the epidural space. The whoosh test has been recommended as a guide for successful epidural needle placement in humans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the whoosh test and the epidural pressure waves measurement (EPWM) in dogs. The intraoperative need of analgesics served as a control. Eighty dogs undergoing elective surgery were included in the study. Epidural anaesthesia (EA) was performed under general anaesthesia with dogs in lateral recumbency. The epidural needle was placed in the lumbosacral space. After placing the epidural needle, two ml of air were injected whilst a stethoscope was placed immediately cranially to the needle. If a whoosh sound was identified the whoosh test was judged positive, if not negative. Thereafter the EPWM was performed. Depending if a wave was identifiable or not, the ...
Multimodal anaesthesia, combining epidural catheter and general anaesthesia, is a common technique in thoracic surgery, however, epidural catheter placement is not always possible. Recently, erector spinae plane block has been described, which provides analgesia like that of the epidural block, although unilateral, and which has been used in various procedures at thoracic level. At present, there are no studies comparing the efficacy or safety of this block with those commonly used in thoracic surgery. However, its safety profile and contraindications seem different from those of the epidural catheter, since its placement is done under ultrasound view, the needle introduction is done in plane and the ultrasound target, the transverse process, is easily identifiable and is relatively remote from major neural or vascular structures and the pleura ...
Epidural and spinal blocks are types of anesthesia in which a local anesthetic is injected near the spinal cord and nerve roots. It blocks pain from an entire region of the body, such as the belly, the hips, the legs, or the pelvis. Epidural and spinal anesthesia are used mainly for surgery of the lower belly and the legs. Epidural anesthesia is often used in childbirth. But it can also be used to help control pain after major surgery to the belly or chest.. Epidural anesthesia involves the insertion of a hollow needle and a small, flexible catheter into the space between the spinal column and outer membrane of the spinal cord (epidural space) in the middle or lower back. The area where the needle will be inserted is numbed with a local anesthetic. Then the needle is inserted and removed after the catheter has passed through it. The catheter remains in place. The anesthetic medicine is injected into the catheter to numb the body above and below the point of injection as needed. The catheter is ...
For making the final decisions are taken into account a lot of things - its kind of the upcoming surgery, and the patients health and personal experience of the anesthesiologist, and opportunities. Carefully weighing all of these factors, the anesthesiologist first determines the possible types of anesthesia , and then selects the best one option.. In general, the concept of "best anesthesia" includes many aspects, the most important of which are security, safety, ease, comfort and quality.. 1. Safety anesthesia is determined by the severity of the risks and potential complications of anesthesia. Safest form of anesthesia is a local anesthesia , and the largest number of risks associated with general anesthesia . Occupies an intermediate position block anesthesia , but it is only possible when conducting operations on the limbs. Neuraxial anesthesia techniques, which include spinaland epidural anesthesia, in the scale of security occupy a special position. Thus, compared to general anesthesia, ...
An attachment for a loss of resistance syringe of the type used for inserting a epidural needle into the epidural space of a patient for administration of anesthesia includes an elastomeric band attached between diametrically opposed points of a ring dimensioned to slide onto the barrel and be retained against finger flange on the syringe, the band having a length such that an intermediate portion engaged to a thumb end of the syringe piston will bias the piston for return from a drawn to a depressed position for injecting the syringe contents, the band being characterized in that the bias is insufficient to inject the fluid into tissues normally encountered between the skin and the epidural space of a patient.
Definition of sympathetic blockade in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is sympathetic blockade? Meaning of sympathetic blockade as a legal term. What does sympathetic blockade mean in law?
regional anesthesia resulting from injection of an anesthetic into the epidural space of the spinal cord; sensation is lost in the abdominal and genital and pelvic areas; used in childbirth and gynecological surgery. ...
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether anesthesia affects graft patency after lower extremity arterial in situ bypass surgery. METHODS: This investigation was a retrospective study using a national database on vascular surgical patients at a single medical institution. We assessed a total of 822 patients exposed to infrainguinal in situ bypass vascular surgery over the period of January 2000 to September 2010. RESULTS: All patients included in the study (age [mean ± SD] 70.8 ± 9.7 years) underwent infrainguinal in situ bypass (n = 885) for lower extremity revascularization under epidural (n = 386) or general (n = 499) anesthesia. Thirty-day mortality (3.4% for epidural anesthesia versus 4.4% general anesthesia; P = 0.414) and comorbidity were comparable in the 2 groups. Graft occlusion within 7 days after surgery was reported in 93 patients, with a similar incidence in the epidural (10.1%) and general (10.8%) anesthesia groups (P = 0.730). When examining a subgroup of ...
en] Clonidine or epinephrine are frequently combined to epidural local anesthetics to strengthen sensory block and prolong analgesia. Both drugs impair the hemodynamic profile of central neural blockade but the effects of their combination on arterial pressure and heart rate are not known and were examined in this double-blind prospective randomised study. Forty four patients scheduled for lumbar disc surgery were allocated to two groups. Epidural anesthesia was obtained by administration of 150 micrograms clonidine in 15 ml bupivacaine 0.25% solution without (group C) or with (group C + E) 37.5 micrograms epinephrine. Systolic, mean, diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured throughout the study. Combined epidural and general anesthesia induced a significant decrease in arterial pressure and heart rate in both groups. SAP and MAP decreased significantly less in the patients receiving epinephrine. Low dose epidural epinephrine decreases arterial pressure instability during ...
Caudal anesthesia was described at the turn of last century by two French physicians, Fernand Cathelin and Jean-Anthanase Sicard. The technique pre-dated the lumbar approach to epidural block by several years.1 Caudal anesthesia, however, did not gain in popularity immediately following its inception.
What is the issue? Women often give birth in upright positions like kneeling, standing or squatting. Some women give birth on their backs in what are known as supine positions - including dorsal (the woman flat on her back), lateral (the woman lying on her side), semi-recumbent (where the woman is angled partly upright) or lithotomy (where the womans legs are held up in stirrups). Birth position can be influenced by many different factors including setting, mothers choice, caregiver preference, or medical intervention. This Cochrane review assessed the possible benefits and risks to the mother and baby, by giving birth in upright positions compared with supine positions and also looked at some individual upright positions for benefits and harms.. Why is this important? Giving birth in the supine position may have been adopted to make it more convenient for midwives and obstetricians to assist the labour and birth. However, many women report that giving birth on their backs feels painful, ...
Looking for acute sympathetic blockade? Find out information about acute sympathetic blockade. 1. Anatomy physiol of or relating to the division of the autonomic nervous system that acts in opposition to the parasympathetic system accelerating the... Explanation of acute sympathetic blockade
Definition of neural blockade in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is neural blockade? Meaning of neural blockade as a legal term. What does neural blockade mean in law?
What is an epidural catheter? An epidural catheter is a small tube placed through the skin in a space between the bones of the spine and the spinal cord. The size of the catheter is about the same as a
A: There are three main categories of anesthesia: local, regional, and general. Each has many forms and uses.. In local anesthesia, the anesthetic drug is usually injected into the tissue to numb just the specific location of your body requiring minor surgery, for example, on the hand or foot.. In regional anesthesia, your anesthesiologist makes an injection near a cluster of nerves to numb the area of your body that requires surgery. You may remain awake, or you may be given a sedative. You do not see or feel the actual surgery take place. There are several kinds of regional anesthesia. Two of the most frequently used are spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia, which are produced by injections made with great exactness in the appropriate areas of the back. They are frequently preferred for childbirth and prostate surgery.. In general anesthesia, you are unconscious and have no awareness or other sensations. There are a number of general anesthetic drugs. Some are gases or vapors inhaled ...
During epidural administration of MARCAINE, 0.5% and 0.75% solutions should be administered in incremental doses of 3 mL to 5 mL with sufficient time between doses to detect toxic manifestations of unintentional intravascular or intrathecal injection. Injections should be made slowly, with frequent aspirations before and during the injection to avoid intravascular injection. Syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection in continuous (intermittent) catheter techniques. An intravascular injection is still possible even if aspirations for blood are negative.. During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and the effects monitored before the full dose is given. When using a "continuous" catheter technique, test doses should be given prior to both the original and all reinforcing doses, because plastic tubing in the epidural space can migrate into a blood vessel or through the dura. When ...
Other Course Information A. Objectives 1. Describe the obstetrical patient for anesthesia to include pre-operative assessment considering normal obstetrical physiology and the more common pathophysiologies, pain management, cesarean section care, proper positioning, and epidural anesthesia. 2. Examine the principles of neonatal and pediatric anesthesia during pre-operative assessment, operating room and equipment set-up, appraisal of normal physiology and pathophysiology, and post anesthesia pain management. 3. Provide care for geriatric surgical patients for anesthesia to include: physical assessment, selection and administration of the anesthesia techniques, management of the anesthetic and post-operative care. 4. Summarize the components of the anesthesia evaluation and health examination across the life span to include physical, mental, developmental and social health related to interactions with patients and families in need of anesthesia services or consultation. 5. Promote application of ...
General: The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Standard textbooks should be consulted for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures.. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS). The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection when using indwelling catheter techniques. During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and that the patient be monitored for central nervous system toxicity and cardiovascular toxicity, as well as for signs of unintended intrathecal administration before proceeding. When clinical conditions permit, consideration ...
General:. The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Standard textbooks should be consulted for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures.. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS). The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection when using indwelling catheter techniques. During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and that the patient be monitored for central nervous system toxicity and cardiovascular toxicity, as well as for signs of unintended intrathecal administration before proceeding. When clinical conditions permit, ...
epidural anaesthesia and caesarean, epidural analgesia on outcomes of labor, labour epidural, association of epidural and caesarean delivery in childbirth
Why Change?. According to the Institute of Medicines Crossing the Quality Chasm: a New Health System for the 21st Century: "Patients should receive care based on the best available scientific knowledge. Care should not vary illogically from clinician to clinician or from place to place." Our group has focused our efforts on implementing updated evidence-based medicine initiatives for surgical patients with a special emphasis on the total knee replacement population. Knee replacement is already one of the most common types of surgery in the United States (over 700,000 procedures per year). Given an aging population, the volume of knee replacement surgeries is expected to increase to over 3 million by the year 2030.. We now have sufficient evidence to support "neuraxial anesthesia" (such as a spinal or epidural) as the preferred intraoperative anesthetic technique for knee replacement patients. With neuraxial anesthesia, an injection in the back temporarily numbs the legs and allows for painless ...
Affiliation:島根大学,医学部,教授, Research Field:Anesthesiology/Resuscitation studies,Anesthesiology/Resuscitation studies, Keywords:epidural anesthesia,局所麻酔薬,脊椎麻酔,硬膜外麻酔,spinal anesthesia,local anesthetic,neurotoxicity,lidocaine,リドカイン,epinephrine, # of Research Projects:2, # of Research Products:4
Around the world, virtually every child born in a hospital had an Apgar score recorded at one minute after birth and at five minutes after birth. It quickly became clear that a baby with a terrible Apgar score at one minute could often be resuscitated-with measures like oxygen and warming-to an excellent score at five minutes. Spinal and then epidural anesthesia were found to produce babies with better scores than general anesthesia. Neonatal intensive-care units sprang into existence. Prenatal ultrasound came into use to detect problems for deliveries in advance. Fetal heart monitors became standard. Over the years, hundreds of adjustments in care were made, resulting in whats sometimes called "the obstetrics package." And that package has produced dramatic results. In the United States today, a full-term baby dies in just one out of five hundred childbirths, and a mother dies in one in ten thousand. If the statistics of 1940 had persisted, fifteen thousand mothers would have died last year ...
Around the world, virtually every child born in a hospital had an Apgar score recorded at one minute after birth and at five minutes after birth. It quickly became clear that a baby with a terrible Apgar score at one minute could often be resuscitated-with measures like oxygen and warming-to an excellent score at five minutes. Spinal and then epidural anesthesia were found to produce babies with better scores than general anesthesia. Neonatal intensive-care units sprang into existence. Prenatal ultrasound came into use to detect problems for deliveries in advance. Fetal heart monitors became standard. Over the years, hundreds of adjustments in care were made, resulting in whats sometimes called "the obstetrics package." And that package has produced dramatic results. In the United States today, a full-term baby dies in just one out of five hundred childbirths, and a mother dies in one in ten thousand. If the statistics of 1940 had persisted, fifteen thousand mothers would have died last year ...
Siranda Torvaldsen, from the University of Sydney, and colleagues from other institutions in Australia studied 1280 women who had given birth between March and October 1997 in the Australian Capital Territory. Of these women, 416 (33%) had an epidural during the birth of their baby, 172 (41%) of whom also had a caesarean section. Torvaldsen et al.s results show that although most (93%) women breastfed their baby in the first week, epidural anesthesia was significantly associated with difficulty breastfeeding in the few days after birth and with partial breastfeeding in the first week after delivery. In addition, the 416 women who had epidurals were twice as likely to completely stop breastfeeding before six months compared with women who used no analgesia, after controlling for maternal age and education. Seventy-two percent of women who had no analgesia were breastfeeding at 24 weeks compared with 53% who received pethidine or epidurals containing bupivacaine and fentanyl (an opioid).. The ...
Your child needs medicine to manage pain. He or she may have an epidural infusion to get this medicine. This page explains what an epidural infusion is and what will happen when your child has one.
Comparing midazolam-bupivacaine and neostigmine-bupivacaine for caudal anesthesia among pediatric patients undergoing herniorrhaphy operations
Clearly, a woman ingesting opiod on a regular basis during pregnancy is more traumatizing that the relatively short time she is drugged during labor and birth. But for the woman who would not dream of using opiods or even tylenol during gestation, but without question uses epidural anesthesia for labor and birth, HOW do we KNOW that even the short time during labor is safe for the baby? Looking at the history of scientific research that shows the mulitple complications of epidural to mother and baby**, how do we know that "one-time use" of opiods during labor and birth does not contribute to future psychological, emotional, and addiction issues ...
In an environment that is free of exaggerated fears of childbirth, the Maternal-FER appears to provide the grace that can only be matched in a medical setting through the use of epidural anesthesia. Often (but not always) the M-FER is further facilitated by submerging the mother in deep water after she has reached 5cm dilatation and encouraging her and her husband or partner focus together while limiting the caregiver interruptions to as few as possible (FHTs q 30 minutes, minimum vag exams or manipulations), thus permitting the mother to feel both secure and unobserved. Unfortunately this spontaneous birth reflex is easily disturbed and often (but not always) obliterated by medicalization and/or hospitalization during the intrapartum period.. Sexual Nature of Physiological Parturition: The Maternal-FER appears to represent in parturition what sex researchers Drs Master and Johnson identified as the orgasmic plateau, that is to say a natural state of being during which an overriding internal ...
Looking for online definition of segmental dorsolumbar epidural block in the Medical Dictionary? segmental dorsolumbar epidural block explanation free. What is segmental dorsolumbar epidural block? Meaning of segmental dorsolumbar epidural block medical term. What does segmental dorsolumbar epidural block mean?
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The use of neuraxial anesthesia in patients with type I ACM with or without syringomyelia has been reported in several cases of obstetric deliveries (8-12) and in one small retrospective case series (13). In two case reports, the ACM was unknown at the time of delivery and only diagnosed subsequently because of adverse neurological outcomes (8,10). In the first case, spinal anesthesia was performed for Cesarean delivery; a postdural puncture headache was unsuccessfully treated with a blood patch on Day 6 postpartum, and subsequent MRI resulted in the diagnosis of type I ACM. After prolonged steroid therapy, the postdural puncture headache resolved (10). In the second case, an inadvertent dural puncture during labor analgesia was complicated two weeks later by nystagmus and oscillopsia; a type I ACM was diagnosed and treated with decompressive surgery (8). Since then, two publications reported the uneventful use of epidural anesthesia for Cesarean deliveries in women with diagnosed type 1 ACM: ...
Spinal epidural abscess has rarely been associated with the use of epidural catheters. We describe two patients with epidural abscesses that occurred in relation to the use of temporary epidural catheters; a literature review yielded 20 additional well-described cases. The mean age of these 22 patients was 49.9 years, the median duration of epidural catheter use was 3 days, and the median time to onset of clinical symptoms after catheter placement was 5 days. The majority of patients (63.6%) had major neurological deficits, and 22.7% also had concomitant meningitis. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen. Despite antibiotic therapy and drainage procedures, 38% of the patients continued to have neurological deficits. These unusual but serious complications of temporary epidural catheter use require efficient and accurate diagnostic evaluation, as they can be substantial.. ...
Authors: Jessica Booth, M.D. et al. Anesthesiology 7 2017, Vol.127, 50-57.. Background: The addition of opioids to epidural local anesthetic reduces local anesthetic consumption by 20% but at the expense of side effects and time spent for regulatory compliance paperwork. Epidural neostigmine also reduces local anesthetic use. The authors hypothesized that epidural bupivacaine with neostigmine would decrease total hourly bupivacaine use compared with epidural bupivacaine with fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia.. Methods: A total of 215 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II, laboring parturients requesting labor epidural analgesia consented to the study and were randomized to receive 0.125% bupivacaine with the addition of either fentanyl (2 μg/ml) or neostigmine (2, 4, or 8 μg/ml). The primary outcome was total hourly local anesthetic consumption, defined as total patient-controlled epidural analgesia use and top-ups (expressed as milliliters of 0.125% ...
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, official publication of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, is a bimonthly journal that publishes peer-reviewed scientific and clinical studies to advance the understanding and clinical application of regional techniques for surgical anesthesia and postoperative analgesia. Coverage includes perioperative pain, chronic pain, obstetric anesthesia, pediatric anesthesia, outcome studies, and complications. Practical issues such as choice of anesthetics and technical challenges are addressed. The journal has a special interest in all forms of research pertaining to ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia and to education in regional anesthesia and pain medicine. Published for over thirty years, this respected journal also serves as the official publication of ASRAs affiliates, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, the Asian and Oceanic Society of Regional Anesthesia, and the Latin American Society of Regional Anesthesia
AIM To investigate the effect of anaesthetic agents on transcutaneous bilirubin levels during the first 24 h in neonates delivered by caesarean section. METHODS A total of 168 neonates delivered by caesarean section, during which sevoflurane was used for general anaesthesia (group A), bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia (group B), levobupivacaine for epidural anaesthesia (group C) and 155 neonates delivered vaginally were included in the study. Transcutaneous bilirubin levels (TBLs) of infants were measured during the first 24 h and compared with each other. RESULTS The TBLs in neonates delivered vaginally were higher than those delivered by caesarean section, but the difference was not significant. TBLs were higher in groups A and C than in group B (p = 0.034, p = 0.011 respectively). TBLs were higher in group C than in group A, but the difference was not significant (p | 0.05). When the groups were compared with vaginal delivery group, TBLs in groups A and C were found higher (p = 0.03, p = 0.022
Spinal epidural hematoma is bleeding into the epidural space in the spine. These may arise spontaneously (e.g. during childbirth), or as a rare complication of epiduralanaesthesia or of surgery (such as laminectomy).[citation needed] Symptoms usually include back pain which radiates to the arms or the legs. They may cause pressure on the spinal cord or cauda equina, which may present as pain, muscle weakness, or dysfunction of the bladder and bowel. The best way to confirm the diagnosis is MRI. Risk factors include anatomical abnormalities and bleeding disorders. Treatment is generally with emergency surgery. The risk following epidural anaesthesia is difficult to quantify; estimates vary from 1 per 10,000 to 1 per 100,000 epidural anaesthetics.[citation needed] The anatomy of the epidural space is such that spinal epidural hematoma has a different presentation from intracranial epidural hematoma. In the spine, the epidural space contains loose fatty tissue and a network of large, thin-walled ...

Home - COANA - Colorado Association of Nurse AnesthetistsHome - COANA - Colorado Association of Nurse Anesthetists

Examples of regional anesthesia include spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, brachial plexus block anesthesia, Bier Block ... Is anesthesia safe?. Anesthesia is safer today than at any time in history. It has been estimated that a patient is more likely ... What is anesthesia?. Anesthesia is the art and science of reducing or eliminating pain. Each year, more than 26 million people ... AANA Nurse Anesthesia Annual Congress. September 21 - 25, 2018. Boston, MA. October 6, 2018. 2018 CoANA Fall Anesthesia Update ...
more infohttps://www.coana.org/

Interview with Dawn Clark, MSN, CRNA, DNP - Certified Registered Nurse AnesthetistInterview with Dawn Clark, MSN, CRNA, DNP - Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist

When I work on the Labor and Delivery unit, I place epidural catheters for laboring mothers, place spinal anesthesia if the ... and how does pediatric anesthesia differ from adult anesthesia and geriatric anesthesia? What goes into developing an effective ... Intra-operative anesthesia is the anesthesia the patient receives in the OR. When the patient arrives in the OR, the monitors ... Depending on the anesthesia needed either the patient receives regional anesthesia such as a spinal anesthetic or a general ...
more infohttps://www.onlinefnpprograms.com/career-interviews/dawn-clark-certified-registered-nurse-anesthetist.html

Use / Supervision of Certified Registered Nurse AnesthetistsUse / Supervision of Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists

A CRNA is a licensed registered nurse who has completed additional training in anesthesia in an accredited program and is ... devices and epidural catheters. CRNAs do not have authority to independently prescribe or write medical orders. ... A CRNA is authorized under regulations to administer anesthesia as part of a medical regimen and, if credentialed, may perform ... Many healthcare facilities and practices utilize certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) to administer anesthesia to ...
more infohttps://www.mlmic.com/blog/physicians/proper-use-and-supervision-of-certified-registered-nurse-anesthetists/

Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Technical Standards | Samuel Merritt UniversityCertified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Technical Standards | Samuel Merritt University

Legibly record/document evaluations, anesthesia care notes in standard anesthesia records in hospital settings in a timely ... epidural catheters, peripheral nerve blocks). ... Master of Science in Nursing - Nurse Anesthesia. *Doctor of ... anesthesia induction, maintenance and emergence, c) post-anesthesia care, and d) peri-anesthetic and clinical support functions ... The stated mission of the nurse anesthesia program at Samuel Merritt University is to educate and prepare certified registered ...
more infohttp://samuelmerritt.edu/nursing/crna_nursing/technical_requirements

epidural anesthesiaepidural anesthesia

See also ,b>anesthesia,/b>, ,b>spinal cord,/b>. ... epidural anesthesia. Phonetic. ,b,ep,/b,-ih-,b,DUR,/b,-uhl an- ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.org/cancer/glossary/glossary/e/epidural_anesthesia.html

Epidural AnesthesiaEpidural Anesthesia

Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Epidural Anesthesia in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of ... Epidural Anesthesia. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Epidural Anesthesia in minutes with SmartDraw. ... Epidural Anesthesia. Sagittal section of lumbar area of spinal column showing pertinent anatomy.. Needle inserted into epidural ...
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Epidural AnesthesiaEpidural Anesthesia

... , Combination Regional Anesthesia in Labor, Walking Epidural. ... Anesthesia, Epidural, Anesthesia, Extradural, Anesthesia, Peridural, Extradural Anesthesia, Peridural Anesthesia, Epidural ... Local anaesthet epidural block, LA - LA epidural block, epidural anesthesia (treatment), epidural anesthesia, epidural ... Epidural Anesthesia Aka: Epidural Anesthesia, Combination Regional Anesthesia in Labor, Walking Epidural ...
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Epidural Anesthesia - What You Need to KnowEpidural Anesthesia - What You Need to Know

Care guide for Epidural Anesthesia. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care ... Epidural anesthesia is medicine used to numb you so you do not feel pain during surgery. Epidural anesthesia is injected into ... He will tell you which medicines to take or not take before you have epidural anesthesia. He may tell you not to eat or drink ... How do I prepare for epidural anesthesia?. Tell your healthcare provider if you or anyone in your family has ever had problems ...
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Epidural Anesthesia-Analgesia and Patient Outcomes: A PerspectiveEpidural Anesthesia-Analgesia and Patient Outcomes: A Perspective

Use of perioperative epidural anesthesia-analgesia (compared to general anesthesia and systemic opioids) has been shown to be ... V. Svircevic, D. Van Dijk, A. P. Nierich et al., "Meta-analysis of thoracic epidural anesthesia versus general anesthesia for ... Use of epidural anesthesia-analgesia may also result in an improvement in cardiac outcomes. A local anesthetic-based regimen ... Use of epidural anesthesia-analgesia in these multidisciplinary pathways has been shown to decrease hospital length of stay and ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/aan/2014/948164/

Laparoscopic Hepatectomy Under Epidural Anesthesia : Annals of SurgeryLaparoscopic Hepatectomy Under Epidural Anesthesia : Annals of Surgery

Laparoscopic Hepatectomy Under Epidural Anesthesia. Yamamoto, Kentaroh MD, PhD; Ishizawa, Takeaki MD, PhD; Kokudo, Norihiro MD ... Home , August 2014 - Volume 260 - Issue 2 , Laparoscopic Hepatectomy Under Epidural Anesthesia ...
more infohttps://journals.lww.com/annalsofsurgery/Citation/2014/08000/Laparoscopic_Hepatectomy_Under_Epidural_Anesthesia.34.aspx

Patent US5024662 - Resistance syringe for epidural anesthesia - Google PatentsPatent US5024662 - Resistance syringe for epidural anesthesia - Google Patents

... syringe of the type used for inserting a epidural needle into the epidural space of a patient for administration of anesthesia ... in that the bias is insufficient to inject the fluid into tissues normally encountered between the skin and the epidural space ... Epidural anesthesia involves the injection of a suitable liquid anesthetic substance into the epidural space which surrounds ... 7. A kit of parts for use in the administration of epidural anesthesia, comprising:. a disposable syringe including a syringe ...
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Epidural Anesthesia | Blausen MedicalEpidural Anesthesia | Blausen Medical

This membrane is called the dura, hence the name, epidural. Once the needle is in position, the anesthesia provider will ensure ... To help alleviate the discomfort of childbirth, many women will elect to have a procedure called an epidural to numb the lower ... Once she is in position, the anesthesia provider locates the appropriate section of her spine, cleans the area, and injects a ... Next, a thin catheter is threaded through the needle into the epidural space. Medication is then administered through this ...
more infohttps://blausen.com/en/video/epidural-anesthesia/

Epidural AnesthesiaEpidural Anesthesia

... is the injection of a numbing medicine into the space around the spinal nerves in the ... Epidural anesthesia may be used for certain types of surgery on the lower body or to control pain during childbirth. When a ... Next, the needle is inserted, and a catheter is threaded through the needle into the epidural space. Then the needle is removed ... woman has an epidural anesthetic during childbirth, she will feel much less pain from her contractions. ...
more infohttps://myhealth.alberta.ca/health/pages/conditions.aspx?hwid=ste122096

Using Epidural Anesthesia During Labor: Benefits and RisksUsing Epidural Anesthesia During Labor: Benefits and Risks

Epidural anesthesia is regional anesthesia that blocks pain in certain areas. ... Epidural anesthesia is the most popular method of pain relief during labor. ... What is epidural anesthesia?. Epidural anesthesia is a regional anesthesia that blocks pain in a particular region of the body ... Using Epidural Anesthesia During Labor: Benefits and Risks. Epidural anesthesia is the most popular method of pain relief ...
more infohttp://americanpregnancy.org/labor-and-birth/epidural/

COSM  » Spinal and Epidural AnesthesiaCOSM » Spinal and Epidural Anesthesia

Spinal and epidural anesthesia are injections of liquid drugs into the area surrounding the spinal cord to cause numbness in an ...
more infohttp://arthroscopy.com/folio/spinal-and-eqidural-anesthesia/

Anesthetic Techniques - Combination Spinal-Epidural AnesthesiaAnesthetic Techniques - Combination Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia

In some cases, an epidural cathedral will be placed to provide pain relief after surgery. ... Combination spinal-epidural anesthesia is a regional anesthesia technique used in many orthopedic procedures below the waist. ... Spinals and Epidurals are used very often at the Hospital for Special Surgery for any surgery below the waist. All of these ... You will notice at the end of your surgery that you will have some tape along your back, tracing the line of the epidural ...
more infohttps://www.hss.edu/anesthesiology-combination-spinal-epidural.asp

Spinal and epidural anesthesia: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaSpinal and epidural anesthesia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Spinal and epidural anesthesia are medicines that numb parts of your body to block pain. They are given through shots in or ... Spinal and epidural anesthesia have fewer side effects and risks than general anesthesia (asleep and pain-free). People usually ... Spinal, epidural, and caudal anesthesia. In: Miller RD, ed. Millers Anesthesia. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ... Spinal and epidural anesthesia are medicines that numb parts of your body to block pain. They are given through shots in or ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007413.htm

Epidural anesthesia - Stock Image C004/0245 - Science Photo LibraryEpidural anesthesia - Stock Image C004/0245 - Science Photo Library

Auto-controlled epidural. Hand of a pregnant woman holding the epidural controller. - Stock Image C004/0245 ... Keywords: adult, anesthesia, audit, auto-controlled epidural, bed, close-up, control, delivery, doctor, epidural, female, fetal ... Auto-controlled epidural. Hand of a pregnant woman holding the epidural controller. ... monitoring, hand, health, hospital, human, injection, labor ward, local anesthesia, lying down, maternity hospital, medicine, ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/104468/view

Epidural anesthesia - Stock Image C006/3338 - Science Photo LibraryEpidural anesthesia - Stock Image C006/3338 - Science Photo Library

The anesthesiologist is placing the epidural : injection of the anesthetic product. - Stock Image C006/3338 ... Keywords: 20 to 30 years old, adult, anaesthetic, anaesthetise, anesthesia, anesthesiologist, anesthetic, birthing, catheter, ... The anesthesiologist is placing the epidural : injection of the anesthetic product.. Release details: Model release not ... local anesthesia, maternity hospital, medical personnel, medicine, middle eastern, obstetric, patient, person, pregnant, ...
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Nubain and Epidural Anesthesia, in case you didnt know | allnursesNubain and Epidural Anesthesia, in case you didn't know | allnurses

If you have a patient with an epidural post for pain do not give Nubain. It ... Nubain and Epidural Anesthesia, in case you didnt know Help Your Peers! Submit a school review today! ... I was taught not to give Nubain to a patient on epidural narcs by anesthesia, we were instructed to call for a new order for ... it is fine for epidural patients if the epidural is just a type of local (marcaine...etc..) if there is an opioid in it (fent ...
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Spinal and Epidural Anesthesia - Lahey HealthSpinal and Epidural Anesthesia - Lahey Health

Giving spinal or epidural anesthesia usually takes about 15 minutes.. *Spinal anesthesia-begins working right after the ... Spinal Block; Epidural Block). Definition. These 2 types of anesthesia numb your body from the chest down to the legs. The ... If you received epidural anesthesia, the tube may be left in place to give you more medication. When you no longer need pain ... If you are getting epidural anesthesia, it may be delivered the same way. But, if you need more than one dose, you will have a ...
more infohttps://www.lahey.org/health-library/spinal-and-epidural-anesthesia-408/

Epidural anesthesia during labor and stress incontinence after delivery.Epidural anesthesia during labor and stress incontinence after delivery.

To test the hypothesis that epidural anesthesia during labor prevents the development of stress incontinence after vaginal ... who did not receive epidural anesthesia, a marginally significant difference (P = .05). Those who had epidural anesthesia also ... Anesthesia, Epidural*. Female. Humans. Labor, Obstetric*. Pregnancy. Puerperal Disorders / prevention & control*. Urinary ... One year after delivery, three of 42 (7%) in the epidural anesthesia group had stress incontinence, compared with five of 163 ( ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Epidural-anesthesia-during-labor-stress/8233276.html

Spinal and Epidural Anesthesia | Blake Medical Center | Bradenton, FLSpinal and Epidural Anesthesia | Blake Medical Center | Bradenton, FL

Learn more about Spinal and Epidural Anesthesia at Blake Medical Center DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ... Giving spinal or epidural anesthesia usually takes about 15 minutes.. *Spinal anesthesia-begins working right after the ... If you received epidural anesthesia, the tube may be left in place to give you more medication. When you no longer need pain ... If you are getting epidural anesthesia, it may be delivered the same way. But, if you need more than one dose, you will have a ...
more infohttps://blakemedicalcenter.com/hl/?/43847/anesthesia&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1

Spinal and Epidural Anesthesia | Sky Ridge Medical CenterSpinal and Epidural Anesthesia | Sky Ridge Medical Center

Learn more about Spinal and Epidural Anesthesia at Sky Ridge Medical Center DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ... Giving spinal or epidural anesthesia usually takes about 15 minutes.. *Spinal anesthesia-begins working right after the ... If you received epidural anesthesia, the tube may be left in place to give you more medication. When you no longer need pain ... If you are getting epidural anesthesia, it may be delivered the same way. But, if you need more than one dose, you will have a ...
more infohttps://skyridgemedcenter.com/hl/?/43847/spinal-anesthesia

Combined Spinal Epidural Anesthesia Trays, Pain Management | Smiths MedicalCombined Spinal Epidural Anesthesia Trays, Pain Management | Smiths Medical

Combined Spinal Epidural Anesthesia Trays (CSE) from Smiths Medical include all necessary prep and procedural components to ... Combined Spinal Epidural Anesthesia Trays. Reorder Code. Tuohy Needle. Pencil Point Spinal Needle. Epidural Catheter. LOR ... Smiths Medical (Combined Spinal Epidural Anesthesia) trays include all necessary prep and procedural components. Trays are ... Smiths Medical (Combined Spinal Epidural Anesthesia) trays include all necessary prep and procedural components. Trays are ...
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  • Thromboelastography (TEG) can be used to evaluate overall coagulation function, but its ability to reduce risk of epidural hematoma has not been proven. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Now once we actually get you comfortable, if your body makes a big change, let's say you go from two centimeters to five centimeters really quick like that, the epidurals typically can't keep up with that and often times we come back and we administer more medicine through the epidural. (empowher.com)
  • He will tell you which medicines to take or not take before you have epidural anesthesia. (drugs.com)
  • Tell your doctor about any allergies or health conditions you have, what medicines you are taking, and what anesthesia or sedation you have had before. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a consequence we would rather come back a series of time and give you incremental boluses of medicines to tailor your epidural to your specifications rather than just plastering everybody at the bed because, again, if we give too much medicine then you can't wiggle your toes, you can't feel anything and anything like that. (empowher.com)
  • An epidural block can be used for a Cesarean delivery. (medicinenet.com)
  • Fifteen minutes after epidural anesthesia, 62.5% of levobupivacaine group patients experienced Bromage 2 or 3 motor block, whereas the same event was documented in 72.7% of bupivacaine group patients (p = 0.83). (scielo.br)
  • The lowest platelet count that an anesthesia provider will consider before placing a neuraxial block depends partly on the comfort level of the provider and partly on the risk/benefit ratio to the patient. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)