Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Anesthesia, IntratrachealIntraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Anesthesia and Analgesia: Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.EthersMidazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Intraoperative Awareness: Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Neuromuscular Blockade: The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Hypotension, Controlled: Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nurse Anesthetists: Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.Vecuronium Bromide: Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Atracurium: A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Ethyl EthersTiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Tourniquets: Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Propoxycaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a rapid onset of action and a longer duration of action than procaine hydrochloride. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1017)Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.gamma-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Recovery Room: Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.

Spinal epidural abscess associated with epidural catheterization: report of a case and a review of the literature. (1/613)

We describe a 53-year-old man who developed a catheter-related epidural abscess 8 days after left upper lobectomy for lung cancer. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected in a culture of the epidural pus. Magnetic resonance imaging was essential for the diagnosis of epidural abscess and for determining the extent of spread. The patient was treated by laminectomy and administration of appropriate antibiotics, with almost complete recovery, except for urinary retention. A literature search yielded 29 additional cases of catheter-related epidural abscess. The median duration of catheterization was 4 days and the median time to onset of the clinical symptoms after catheter placement was 8 days. Eleven of the 30 patients had some underlying disorders, including malignancy or herpes zoster, or were receiving steroids. Nine of the 10 patients with thoracic epidural abscess had persistent neurological deficits, whereas 12 of the 15 patients with lumbar epidural abscess showed a full recovery after treatment. Surgical decompression was not required in six patients without significant neurological deficits, who recovered following antibiotic treatment (four patients) or percutaneous drainage (two patients). Thoracic catheters are associated with a disproportionately high incidence of epidural abscess and persistent neurological sequelae following treatment.  (+info)

Comparison of three solutions of ropivacaine/fentanyl for postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia. (2/613)

BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine, 0.2%, is a new local anesthetic approved for epidural analgesia. The addition of 4 microg/ml fentanyl improves analgesia from epidural ropivacaine. Use of a lower concentration of ropivacaine-fentanyl may further improve analgesia or decrease side effects. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery were randomized in a double-blinded manner to receive one of three solutions: 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl 0.1% ropivacaine-2 microg fentanyl, or 0.05% ropivacaine-1 microg fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia after standardized combined epidural and general anesthesia. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia settings and adjustments for the three solutions were standardized to deliver equivalent drug doses. Pain scores (rest, cough, and ambulation), side effects (nausea, pruritus, sedation, motor block, hypotension, and orthostasis), and patient-controlled epidural analgesia consumption were measured for 48 h. RESULTS: All three solutions produced equivalent analgesia. Motor block was significantly more common (30 vs. 0%) and more intense with the 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl solution. Other side effects were equivalent between solutions and mild in severity. A significantly smaller volume of 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl solution was used, whereas the 0.1% ropivacaine-2 microg fentanyl group used a significantly greater amount of ropivacaine and fentanyl. CONCLUSIONS: Lesser concentrations of ropivacaine and fentanyl provide comparable analgesia with less motor block despite the use of similar amounts of ropivacaine and fentanyl. This finding suggests that concentration of local anesthetic solution at low doses is a primary determinant of motor block with patient-controlled epidural analgesia after lower abdominal surgery.  (+info)

Ballistic shock wave lithotripsy in an 18-year-old thoroughbred gelding. (3/613)

Prolonged postoperative recuperation time and restricted exercise were circumvented by using ballistic shock wave lithotripsy to break up an 8-cm diameter vesical calculus and by flushing out the sand-like residue under epidural anesthesia with the horse standing. Recovery was uneventful.  (+info)

Assessing introduction of spinal anaesthesia for obstetric procedures. (4/613)

To assess the impact of introducing spinal anaesthesia for obstetric operative procedures on use of general anaesthesia and quality of regional anaesthesia in a unit with an established epidural service a retrospective analysis of routinely collected data on method of anaesthesia, efficacy, and complications was carried out. Data were collected from 1988 to 1991 on 1670 obstetric patients requiring an operative procedure. The introduction of spinal anaesthesia in 1989 significantly reduced the proportion of operative procedures performed under general anaesthesia, from 60% (234/390) in 1988 to 30% (124/414) in 1991. The decrease was most pronounced for manual removal of the placenta (88%, 48/55 v 9%, 3/34) and emergency caesarean section (67%, 129/193) v 38%, 87/229). Epidural anaesthesia decreased in use most significantly for elective caesarean section (65%, 77/118 v 3% 3/113; x2=139, p<0.0001). The incidence of severe pain and need for conversion to general anaesthesia was significantly less with spinal anaesthesia (0%, 0/207 v 3%, 5/156; p<0.05). Hypotension was not a problem, and the incidence of headache after spinal anaesthetic decreased over the period studied. Introducing spinal anaesthesia therefore reduced the need for general anaesthesia and improved the quality of regional anaesthesia.  (+info)

Quantitative and selective assessment of sensory block during lumbar epidural anaesthesia with 1% or 2% lidocaine. (5/613)

We have examined sensory block during lumbar epidural anaesthesia using a cutaneous current perception threshold (CPT) sensory testing device in 20 patients who received 10 ml of either 1% or 2% lidocaine (lignocaine). CPT at 2000, 250 and 5 Hz stimulation at the trigeminal (V), ninth thoracic (T9) and second lumbar (L2) dermatomes, and dermatomal levels of block to light touch, temperature and pinprick discrimination were measured before and every 5 min until 60 min after epidural lidocaine. There were significant differences between 1% and 2% epidural lidocaine in all CPT at T9 and L2, in addition to maximal cephalad spread of the three sensory modalities. After 2% lidocaine, all CPT increased significantly at T9 and L2. In contrast, only at 250 and 5 Hz for L2 did epidural block with 1% lidocaine produce significant increases in CPT. Maximal level of loss of touch sensation after 1% lidocaine was significantly lower than that of cold and pinprick sensations. We conclude that the dose of lidocaine affected intensity of sensory block during lumbar epidural anaesthesia. In addition, differential neural block resulting from epidural anaesthesia appeared to be associated with a differential effect on nerve fibres of different sizes.  (+info)

Epidural catheter tip position and distribution of injectate evaluated by computed tomography. (6/613)

BACKGROUND: The distribution of solutions injected into the epidural space has not been determined. The author therefore examined the site of catheter tips and the spread of contrast material in the epidural space using computed tomographic (CT) imaging in patients receiving successful epidural analgesia. METHODS: Lumbar epidural catheters were placed in 20 female patients by a midline technique. Anesthetic effect was determined by motor and sensory examinations during analgesic infusion. CT images were obtained for identification of the catheter tip and after radiographic contrast injection of 4 ml and then an additional 10 ml. RESULTS: Catheter tips were most often found lateral to the dura in the intervertebral foramen. In these subjects with normally functioning epidural analgesia, there was remarkable interindividual variability in patterns of spread, including various amounts of anterior passage, layering along the dura, and compression of the dura creating a posterior fold. Accumulation becomes more symmetric with increasing injectate volume. Spread through the intervertebral foramina was seen in all subjects. Air and fat in the region of the catheter interfered with solution spread in three subjects, but only over a limited area. Asymmetry in anesthetic effect was attributable to catheter position. No substantial barriers to solution spread were observed. CONCLUSIONS: A variety of catheter tip positions and patterns of solution spread underlie normal epidural anesthesia. Nonuniform distribution of injectate is common and is compatible with uniform anesthesia. Posterior midline structures play a minimal role in impeding distribution of injectate. A far lateral catheter position is a more common cause of asymmetric block than anatomic barriers to solution spread.  (+info)

Anaesthetic management of a woman who became paraplegic at 22 weeks' gestation after a spontaneous spinal cord haemorrhage secondary to a presumed arteriovenous malformation. (7/613)

A 19-yr-old woman developed a paraplegia with a T10 sensory level at 22 weeks' gestation. The spinal injury was caused by spontaneous bleed of a presumed arteriovenous malformation in the spinal cord. She presented for Caesarean section at term because of the breech position of her fetus. The successful use of a combined spinal epidural-regional anaesthetic is described and the risks of general and regional anaesthesia are discussed.  (+info)

Spinal versus epidural anesthesia for cesarean section in severely preeclamptic patients: a retrospective survey. (8/613)

BACKGROUND: Selection of spinal anesthesia for severely preeclamptic patients requiring cesarean section is controversial. Significant maternal hypotension is believed to be more likely with spinal compared with epidural anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to assess, in a large retrospective clinical series, the blood pressure effects of spinal and epidural anesthesia in severely preeclamptic patients requiring cesarean section. METHODS: The computerized medical records database was reviewed for all preeclamptic patients having cesarean section between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1996. All nonlaboring severely preeclamptic patients receiving either spinal or epidural anesthesia for cesarean section were included for analysis. The lowest recorded blood pressures were compared for the 20-min period before induction of regional anesthesia, the period from induction of regional anesthesia to delivery, and the period from delivery to the end of operation. RESULTS: Study groups included 103 women receiving spinal anesthesia and 35 receiving epidural anesthesia. Changes in the lowest mean blood pressure were similar after epidural or spinal anesthesia. Intraoperative ephedrine use was similar for both groups. Intraoperative crystalloid administration was statistically greater for patients receiving spinal versus epidural anesthesia (1780 +/- 838 vs. 1359 +/- 674 ml, respectively). Neonatal Apgar scores and incidence of maternal intensive care unit admission or postoperative pulmonary edema were also similar. CONCLUSION: Although we cannot exclude the possibility that the spinal and epidural anesthesia groups were dissimilar, the magnitudes of maternal blood pressure declines were similar after spinal or epidural anesthesia in this series of severely preeclamptic patients receiving cesarean section. Maternal and fetal outcomes also were similar.  (+info)

Results With EA TEA, plasma proANP decreased following induction of anesthesia to the end of surgery (13%; 113±68 to 99±49 pmol/L; p=0.026), but that was not the case in the LA group (3%; 97±44 to 94±49 pmol/L; p=0.565) despite equal fluid balance (+1584±582 vs +1560±563 mL; p=0.888). Accordingly, the EA group required excessive treatment with vasopressors to maintain MAP ,60 mm Hg during surgery (2.7±2 vs 1.6±1.4 ephedrine boluses; p=0.033 and infusion of phenylephrine for 216±86 vs 58±91 min; p,0.001). Plasma proANP and fluid balance were correlated only for EA patients (r=0.44; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.91; p=0.033). ...
Background. To evaluate whether thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) can reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).. Methods. Forty-one patients undergoing CABG were treated with TEA intraoperatively and postoperatively. Another 80 patients served as the control group. The sympathetic and parasympathetic activities were evaluated by analysis of neuropeptides, catecholamines and heart rate variability (HRV), preoperatively and postoperatively.. Results. Postoperative AF occurred in 31.7% of the TEA-treated patients and in 36.3% of the untreated patients (p = 0.77). TEA significantly suppressed sympathetic activity, as indicated by a less pronounced increase of norepinephrine and epinephrine (p = 0.03, p = 0.02) and a significant decrease of neuropeptide Y (p = 0.01) postoperatively in TEA-treated patients compared to untreated patients. The HRV variable expressing sympathetic activity was significantly lower and the postoperative increase in heart ...
BACKGROUND: Many anesthesia methods have been studies in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to explore the effects of combined intravenous and inhalation anesthesia and combined general and epidural anesthesia on cellular immune function and neuroendocrine function in patients with HCC before and after surgery. METHODS: Between September 2012 and April 2014, 72 patients who underwent a hepatectomy in our hospital were enrolled. RESULTS: Compared with the combined intravenous and inhalation anesthesia group, the combined general and epidural anesthesia group demonstrated increased CD4(+) /CD8(+) T cells 0 hr after surgery, increased CD3(+) , CD4(+) , CD4(+) /CD8(+) cells, and IFN-γ levels 12 hr after surgery, and increased CD3(+) , CD4(+) , and CD4(+) /CD8(+) cells 24 hr after surgery (all P , 0 ...
... is the injection of a numbing medicine into the space around the spinal nerves in the lower back. The medicine numbs the body below and sometimes above the point of injection. The person may remain awake and may have some control of the numbed area.. The skin where a needle will be inserted is first numbed with a local anesthetic. Next, the needle is inserted, and a catheter is threaded through the needle into the epidural space. Then the needle is removed, while the catheter stays in place. The anesthetic is then delivered through the catheter. Medicine that makes the person sleepy also may be used by injecting it into a vein, depending on the procedure being done.. Epidural anesthesia may be used for certain types of surgery on the lower body or to control pain during childbirth. When a woman has an epidural anesthetic during childbirth, she will feel much less pain from her contractions. ...
Learn about Pregnancy Epidurals, when to have a Spinal Epidural, the effect of an Epidural Block and proper use of Epidural Anaesthesia.
Epidural anesthesia is the most popular method of pain relief during labor. Epidural anesthesia is regional anesthesia that blocks pain in certain areas.
The Procedure. Epidural anaesthesia is given by an anaesthetist. It is given in the active phase of labour. There is hardly any pain during the insertion.. You are made to lie on your side or made to sit up. After which the part is cleaned with an antiseptic. A nurse will assist you in making the correct posture and you are asked to be still for some time. Firstly a local anaethetic agent (to numb your skin) is infiltrated and then a needle prick is made in the spine. . After this a very thin tube is placed and the needle is withdrawn completely. The tube is kept in place with the help of a tape. It is through this tube that the medicine is injected from time to time within the limits of safety for you and your baby the drugs are adjusted according to the patients needs.. What happens after the Procedure?. After the procedure you will be able to move around but you have to be careful not to slide in bed in order to avoid pulling the catheter out. After epidural anaesthesia the pain decreases ...
Purpose To develop a 3D anatomical model for teaching canine epidural anesthesia (3DMEA) and to assess its efficacy for teaching and learning prior to the use of live animals. Methods The creation of 3DMEA was based on 3D optical scanning and 3D printing of canine bone pieces of the fifth to the seventh lumbar vertebrae, sacrum and pelvis. A total of 20 male dogs were scheduled for castration. 20 veterinary students watched a video showing epidural anesthesia in dogs before the clinical attempt and were assigned to control or 3DMEA groups. Students in the 3DMEA group trained in the model after the video. For the clinical trial, the epidural procedure was performed by students under the veterinary supervision. When observed the absence of response to nociceptive stimuli, the epidural was considered successful. Then, all students answered a questionnaire evaluating the main difficulty founded in the technique and its degree of difficulty. Results The 3DMEA group reported a lower degree of ...
The impact of hypotensive epidural anesthesia on distal and proximal tissue perfusion in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Journal of Anesthesia and Clinical Research. 2013 ...
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Spinal and epidural anesthesia are injections of liquid drugs into the area surrounding the spinal cord to cause numbness in an area of the body.. ...
Anesthesia. Anesthesia involves medications that cause loss of sensation, including pudendal block, epidural anesthesia and analgesia, spinal anesthesia and analgesia, and general anesthesia. The most common anesthesia is an epidural, also called an epidural block. This anesthesia involves infusing numbing medications through a thin catheter that has been inserted into the space that surrounds the spinal cord in the lower back, causing loss of sensation of the lower body. Infusions of medications may be increased or stopped as needed. Epidural anesthesia may be used during labor and for vaginal and cesarean births. The most common complication of epidural anesthesia is low blood pressure in the mother. Because of this, most woman need to have an intravenous infusion of fluids before epidural anesthesia is given ...
Anesthesia. Anesthesia involves medications that cause loss of sensation, including pudendal block, epidural anesthesia and analgesia, spinal anesthesia and analgesia, and general anesthesia. The most common anesthesia is an epidural, also called an epidural block. This anesthesia involves infusing numbing medications through a thin catheter that has been inserted into the space that surrounds the spinal cord in the lower back, causing loss of sensation of the lower body. Infusions of medications may be increased or stopped as needed. Epidural anesthesia may be used during labor and for vaginal and cesarean births. The most common complication of epidural anesthesia is low blood pressure in the mother. Because of this, most woman need to have an intravenous infusion of fluids before epidural anesthesia is given ...
Epidural anesthesia allows continual highly effective relief of labor pain, using only small amounts of medication deposited directly on the spinal nerves. With proper medication combinations and dose adjustments this pain relief can be achieved, optimally without losing the ability to control movement in any part of the body.
Epidural Anesthesia Catheter is made of special nylon with good elasticity, high tensile strength, not easy to break. It is with clear scale mark and X-ray obstructing line, which nicely fix the location. It can be placed in human body for a long time, and used for anesthesia before and after ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thoracoscopic operation with local and epidural anesthesia in the treatment of pneumothorax after lung transplantation. AU - Sugimoto, Seiichiro. AU - Date, Hiroshi. AU - Sugimoto, Ryujiro. AU - Okazaki, Megumi. AU - Aoe, Motoi. AU - Sano, Yoshifumi. AU - Shimizu, Nobuyoshi. PY - 2005/10. Y1 - 2005/10. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=26444478505&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=26444478505&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.06.019. DO - 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.06.019. M3 - Article. C2 - 16214553. AN - SCOPUS:26444478505. VL - 130. SP - 1219. EP - 1220. JO - Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. JF - Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. SN - 0022-5223. IS - 4. ER - ...
Learn more about Spinal and Epidural Anesthesia at Blake Medical Center DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctorrevision ...
Tips to help with your thrombocytopenia: Thrombocytopenia Pregnancy Epidural Anesthesia. My thrombocytopenia, Online resources for thrombocytopenia.
Care guide for Epidural Anesthesia. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
A prospective randomized trial of lidocaine 30 mg versus 45 mg for epidural test dose for intrathecal injection in the obstetric population.
This set of medical illustrations depicts lumbar facet and epidural block injections performed for the management of low back pain. The first two illustrations show bilateral facet capsule injections made into the lower back at the L3-4, L4-5 and L5-S1 levels. Labeled structures in the lumbar facet block drawings include lumbar vertebra, spinal nerve root and injection sites. The third illustration shows an epidural block injection at the L5-S1 level. The dura and epidural vessels are illustrated and labeled in this image.
[Caudal epidural block in children during catheter cerebral angiography (authors transl)].: Nineteen panangiographies under caudal epidural block were performe
IMBELLONI, Luiz Eduardo; FORNASARI, Marcos and FIALHO, José Carlos. Combined spinal epidural anesthesia during colon surgery in a high-risk patient: case report. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2009, vol.59, n.6, pp.741-745. ISSN 0034-7094. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942009000600010.. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA) has advantages over single injection epidural or subarachnoid blockades. The objective of this report was to present a case in which segmental subarachnoid block can be an effective technique for gastrointestinal surgery with spontaneous respiration. CASE REPORT: Patient with physical status ASA III, with diabetes mellitus type II, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was scheduled for resection of a right colon tumor. Combined spinal epidural block was performed in the T5-T6 space and 8 mg of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine with 50 µg of morphine were injected in the subarachnoid space. The epidural catheter (20G) was ...
Spinal and epidural anaesthesia were compared in 65 patients undergoing hip arthroplasty, with regard to the degree of sensory and motor blockade, cardiovascular effects, operating conditions, the dose of propofol required to produce satisfactory hypnosis, and complications. Epidural anaesthesia was successful in 30 patients using an initial dose of 15 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine, and spinal anaesthesia in 32 patients, using 4 ml 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine. The two techniques were similar with regard to the level of sensory blockade (T8), degree of hypotension and perioperative haemorrhage ...
For those rats receiving an epidural injection, an epidural catheter was inserted under the same surgical condition. A PE-10 tube (outer diameter 0.61 mm) (Clay Adams, Parsippany, NJ) was inserted according to the method described previously.10 Briefly, a 1- to 2-cm midline skin incision was made at the most prominent thoracic spinal process (T13). Using a pair of microscissors, a small hole was made in the middle of ligament flavum, and a PE-10 tube was gently advanced approximately 3 cm caudally into the epidural space with the catheter tip being placed at the level between the L4 and L5 nerve roots. The proximal end of the epidural catheter was tunneled subcutaneously and secured to the posterior cervical area to facilitate epidural injection. Incisions were closed with a 6.0 nylon suture or wound clip. To confirm correct epidural catheter placement, negative aspiration of spinal fluid was confirmed after each catheter implantation, and 2% lidocaine (0.15 ml) was injected through the catheter ...
Regional Anesthesia Regional anesthesia involves numbing a specific area of the body, without affecting your brain or breathing. Because you remain conscious, you will be given sedatives to relax you and put you in a light sleep.The two types of regional anesthesia used most frequently in joint replacement surgery are spinal blocks and epidural blocks. For surgery below the hip, a combination block that targets the lumbar plexus and the sciatic nerve can numb only one leg.Spinal BlockIn a spinal block, the anesthesia is injected into the fluid surrounding the spinal cord in the lower part of your back. This produces a rapid numbing effect that can last for hours, depending on the drug used.Epidural BlockAn epidural block uses a small tube (catheter) inserted in your lower back to deliver large quantities of local anesthetics over a longer time period. The epidural block and the spinal block are administered in a very similar location; however, the epidural catheter is placed slightly closer to ...
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Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) is a major component in modern "Fast-Track" concepts developed in visceral surgery. Due to the success of these concepts, TEA has gained widespread acceptance in other operative fields. Modern concepts for treating ovarian cancer favor a radical surgical approach. Only few studies concentrated on the influence of TEA on perioperative morbidity, analgesia and perioperative quality of life in patients with ovarian cancer. We conducted a prospective randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of TEA for perioperative analgesia compared with a conventional opioid based approach using the Numeric Analog Scale (NAS) and the ppp33-questionnaire. 102 patients were enrolled, of which completed 84 the trial. No differences in baseline characteristics were found between the groups. NAS was significantly lower (p , 0.01) in the TEA group while both groups had a relatively low median NAS , 3. In all aspects of the ppp33-questionnaire, we found no significant differences ...
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article{f23cdbe5-c459-4135-8a0e-eac919072a8d, abstract = {Complement activation was studied in 45 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty under epidural anesthesia. The patients were randomly allocated to three groups. In Group I blood loss was replaced with microaggregate-poor erythrocyte concentrate (SAGM-ERC) plus 3% dextran-60 as plasma substitute, and postoperative analgesia was maintained with intramuscular ketobemidone. In Group II blood loss was replaced as in Group I, but epidural anesthesia was prolonged 12 h postoperatively and kept at a level of T4 with 0.5% bupivacaine. In Group III blood loss was replaced with non-frozen stored plasma plus SAGM-ERC, and postoperative analgesia was maintained with ketobemidone as in Group I. All groups received pre- and postoperative thrombo-prophylaxis with dextran. The plasma concentration of C3a-des-arginine (C3a-desArg) was measured by radioimmunoassay preoperatively, immediately after operation and 3, 6 and 18 h postoperatively. No ...
Study Regional and Neuraxial Anesthesia flashcards from Brian cho's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Easing the pain of childbirth with epidural anesthesia may increase the likelihood that a woman will need a Caesarean-section delivery, Boston researchers report. In a study of 1,733 women giving birth for the first time, researchers found that women who received an epidural were almost four times as likely to undergo a C-section as women who did not receive an epidural. An epidural may necessitate a C-section by relaxing the pelvic muscles so much that a woman is unable to push properly during labor, the researchers noted in the study, published in the December issue of the journal Obstetrics and Gynecology. Another possibility is that an epidural somehow prolongs labor beyond what is generally considered normal, prompting doctors to then perform a C-section, they suggested. "This adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that epidural anesthesia is associated with Caesarean delivery," said lead researcher Dr. Ellice Lieberman, an associate professor of obstetrics, gynecology and ...
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Epidural anesthesia is an effective form of childbirth pain relief. Epidural anesthesia is the injection of a numbing medicine into the space around the spinal nerves in the lower back. It numbs the area above and below the point of injection and allows you to remain awake during the delivery. It can be used for either...
A first time mommy-to-be was brought in for induction. She was induced with Pitocin, an IV uterine muscle stimulant. She was having really strong, Pitocin induced contractions that were difficult to tolerate, so she decided on an epidural. The mothers BP drastically and suddenly lowered after she had received epidural anesthesia. We call this "bottoming out" and while its not common, its also not really that unusual post epidural. Mostly it is prevented by getting a large amount of IV fluids in immediately preceding the administration of the epidural anesthesia. When this mothers BP "bottomed out" her OB happened to be in the room. The babys heart rate started dropping also. Standard procedure when this happens post epidural is to open of the main IV line "wide open" to give a large amount of IV fluids super fast to counteract the sudden drop in BP. As the babys heart rate dropped, the MD rushed over to the mothers IV stand and opened up one of her IV fluids to run in "wide open." It was ...
It always completely dumbfounds me when I hear someone say that epidurals are harmless. That if you "have" ( Ill comment on this later ) to have one, dont feel bad about it. Its no big deal. Women either dont know ( lack of education surrounding epidurals ) or dont care ( their comfort is more important than babys safety ) about the risks and side effects of an epidural. After all, why should anyone point it out when its not PC to do so. When you point out that it carries risk, and the motivation behind getting one is purely selfish...youre being judgemental, not factual. Sorry ladies, Im not afraid to offend with the truth ...
Photo essay from hospital. Auto-controlled epidural. Hand of a pregnant woman holding the epidural controller. - Stock Image C004/0245
I made this mistake once and it was awful ! A friend of mine made the same mistake this week and again it was awful ! If you have a patient with an epidural post for pain do not give Nubain. It
Choice of anesthesia. 1. Would you choose epidural anesthesia? Why or why not?. 2. If not, what is your choice?. 3. What is the significance of her preeclampsia to your choice?. 4. What is the significance of her diabetes to your choice?. III. General anesthesia. 1. The patient desires to be asleep. She has been NPO for six hours. How would you induce anesthesia?. 2. What agents would you use for induction?. 3. What agents would you use for intubation?. 4. How will you maintain anesthesia?. 5. What is the implication of magnesium therapy to your choice of muscle relaxants?. 6. Would you continue the magnesium into the operating room?. IV. Neonatal resuscitation. 1. The baby is delivered with poor muscle tone, no spontaneous respiration, and a pulse of 84 bpm. Another anesthesiologist can watch the mother. What is your priority in managing the newborn?. 2. Would you give bicarbonate?. 3. Would you give glucose?. 4. What laboratory tests would you desire? Explain.. ...
Additional epidural anaesthesia and post-operative analgesia supported by literature: less opioid use, faster wakeup, earlier return of bowel function, diminished inflammatory response, protection against DVT, better respiratory function. Contraindicated in patients with sepsis or coagulopathy. Test prior to induction ...
1. What is the etiology?. 2. Does it matter? Explain.. 3. What is your choice of anesthetic technique?. 4. What if the patient is asthmatic and wheezing?. 5. Would you use spinal or epidural anesthesia?. 6. Is the "double setup" useful?. 7. What is it?. ...
Differential epidurals find the types of nerves carrying pain signals by blocking one group at a time with progressively stronger local anesthetic solutions.
Cold knife cone biopsy: This method is done inside a medical center. A surgical scalpel or simply a laser is made use of to remove the tissue in place of a heated wire. You might get anesthesia throughout the operation (either a basic anesthesia, where you are asleep, or perhaps a spinal or epidural anesthesia, where an injection into the area across the spinal twine will make you numb underneath the waist ...
All women who requested epidural anesthesia were eligible for the study unless there was a contraindication to the procedure or delivery was imminent. Patients were provided with information about epidurals and the study before labor and were given more information when admitted to the delivery unit. More than 1,000 women were randomly assigned to groups using one of three epidural techniques. Traditional epidural was provided to 353 women, low-dose combined spinal epidural to 351, and low-dose infusion epidural to 350. Patient assignment could not be concealed, but the investigators were not involved in any decisions concerning the clinical management of the patients. In addition, the research midwives who interviewed the patients during the follow-up period were not informed of the treatment allocations. Data were collected throughout delivery, by interview 24 to 48 hours after delivery, and by questionnaire one year after delivery. Follow-up was achieved in 99 percent of patients.. The normal ...
I always wondered why there isnt more epidural anesthesia using in the immediate post op period in the US compared to other countries. Thats my impression from the testimonials but I am not sure that is true. This study suggests they should be more.
GRAVIDA 3; PARA 1. NO PROBLEMS WITH PREGNANCY. MOTHER HAD STRESS ULCER IN HER MOUTH DURING PREGNANCY. TWIN GESTATION IN SAME AMNIOTIC SAC WITH TWO PLACENTAS, BORN AT 36 WEEK GESTATION VIA C-SECTION DUE TO FAILURE OF LABOR PROGRESS. EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA. ...
The Accuro portable ultrasound for epidural anesthesia, finds the exact location and depth - and is designed to help you reduce the number of unnecessary needle
The Accuro portable ultrasound for epidural anesthesia, finds the exact location and depth - and is designed to help you reduce the number of unnecessary needle
Several years ago, a mans severe wheezing stopped within 20 minutes of starting epidural anesthesia. The wheezing remained absent during the 155 minutes t
Did you know that as common as anesthesia is, scientists have very little idea of HOW it actually works? Kind of surprising, considering that anesthesia is a very common medical practice.
... in conjunction with epidural anesthesia; in overdose of ganglion blockers, alpha-adrenergic blockers, neuroleptics, anesthetics ...
To provide continuous epidural analgesia or anesthesia, a small hollow catheter may be threaded through the epidural needle ... Frölich, MA; Caton, D (July 2001). "Pioneers in epidural needle design". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 93 (1): 215-20. doi:10.1097/ ... Frölich, MA; Caton, D (July 2001). "Pioneers in epidural needle design". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 93 (1): 215-20. doi:10.1097/ ... Literally, an epidural needle is simply a needle that is placed into the epidural space. ...
... epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia). *Abdominal surgery (epidural anesthesia/spinal anesthesia, often ... spinal/epidural anesthesia). *Bone and joint surgery of the pelvis, hip, and leg (spinal/epidural anesthesia, peripheral nerve ... making epidural anesthesia still a highly successful technique. Besides its many uses for surgery, epidural anesthesia is ... plexus anesthesia). Spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia merge into the central nervous system. ...
Matsukawa T, Sessler DI, Christensen R, Ozaki M, Schroeder M (1995). "Heat flow and distribution during epidural anesthesia". ... Saager L, Hesler BD, You J, Turan A, Mascha EJ, Sessler DI, Kurz A (2014). "Intraoperative transitions of anesthesia care and ... They were also among the first anesthesia investigators to conduct large-scale registry research. Taking advantage of dense ... While the effects of anesthesia have traditionally been considered to dissipate within hours of surgery, there is increasing ...
Due to his early accidental death, his pioneering work in epidural anesthesia (or metameric anesthesia as he called it) went ... Fidel Pagés published an article in July 1921 called "Anestesia Metamérica" (i.e. metameric anesthesia or epidural anesthesia) ... Two of his main contributions during this time are the publication of his seminal article on epidural anesthesia and a series ... History of neuraxial anesthesia Leon Visser (2001). "Epidural Anaesthesia". Update in Anaesthesia (13): 1. Archived from the ...
Epidural procedure History of neuraxial anesthesia Odom's indicator Dogliotti, AM (1933). "Research and clinical observations ... It is a method for the identification of the epidural space, a potential space. As a needle is advanced through the ligamentum ... Wilson MJA (2007). "Epidural endeavour and the pressure principle". Anaesthesia. 62 (4): 319-324. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2007. ... Naulty JS, Ostheimer GW, Datta S, Knapp R, Weiss JB (November 1982). "Incidence of venous air embolism during epidural catheter ...
Fetal acidosis, 2-chloroprocaine, and epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Feb 1;151(3):322-4. ... It is not used in intravenous regional anesthesia due to the risk of thrombophlebitis.[citation needed] ... Chloroprocaine (pKa 8.7) is the drug of choice for epidural analgesia and a decompensating fetus, because it does not ... "Comparison of bupivacaine and 2-chloroprocaine for spinal anesthesia for outpatient surgery: a double-blind randomized trial." ...
Epidural anesthesia and delivery also can cause the overflow incontinence. Overflow incontinence occurs when the patient's ...
Epidural anesthesia and hyperbaric oxygen therapy also have vasodilator effect. In chronic cases, lumbar sympathectomy may be ...
chapter= ignored (help) Keech, Brian M. (2015). "Thoracic epidural analgesia in a child with multiple traumatic rib fractures ... ". Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 27 (8): 685-691. doi:10.1016/j.jclinane.2015.05.008. ISSN 0952-8180. PMID 26118312. Bounakis ... Stroud, Andrea M.; Tulanont, Darena D.; Coates, Thomasena E.; Goodney, Philip P.; Croitoru, Daniel P. (2014). "Epidural ...
Studies among ewes demonstrated that it is blocked by epidural anesthesia. In their studies among mice, Niles Newton and ... Blockade of the Ferguson reflex by lumbar epidural anaesthesia in the parturient sheep: effects on oxytocin secretion and ...
In epidural anesthesia or intrathecal analgesia. *For palliative care (i.e. to lessen pain without curing the underlying reason ...
Epidural tezampanel, an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, produces postoperative analgesia in rats. Anesthesia and Analgesia. ... Effect of intrathecal non-NMDA EAA receptor antagonist LY293558 in rats: a new class of drugs for spinal anesthesia. ...
Anesthesia Gardner, WJ; Licklider JC (1959). "Auditory analgesia in dental operations". J Am Dent Assoc. 59: 1144-1149. PMID ... This measure is similar to breathing exercises during cramps before administration of epidurals. It has also been suggested ... Anesthesia Progress. 16 (1): 8-14. PMC 2235527 . PMID 5250548. "Nonpharmacologic Approaches to Relieve Labor Pain: Music and ...
Through the injection of a person's own blood into the area of the hole in the dura, an epidural blood patch uses blood's ... Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. 56 (8): 609-13. doi:10.1007/s12630-009-9121-y. PMID 19495908. Mea, E.; Chiapparini, L.; ... Once identified, the leak can often be repaired by an epidural blood patch, an injection of the patient's own blood at the site ... This may be an initial presentation of a spontaneous CSF leak or appear after treatment such as an epidural patch, and likely ...
epidural (synonym: peridural) (injection or infusion into the epidural space), e.g. epidural anesthesia ... "Anesthesia-analgesia.org. 1999-06-22. Retrieved 2010-08-19.. *^ a b "Crystal Meth: The Effects". Fenway Community Health. ... intrathecal (into the spinal canal) is most commonly used for spinal anesthesia and chemotherapy ... It can be used both for local effect as in allergy testing and typical local anesthesia, as well as systemic effects when the ...
An Efficient Alternative to Counteract Hypotension During Combined General/Epidural Anesthesia". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 90 (6 ...
... can be administered as part of an anesthesia technique called TIVA (Total Intravenous Anesthesia) using computer ... As such, it has been used for analgesia in labor successfully; however, it is not as effective as epidural analgesia. In ... Intranasal self-administration of remifentanil as the foray into opioid abuse by an anesthesia resident. Anesthesia & Analgesia ... The use of remifentanil has made possible the use of high-dose opioid and low-dose hypnotic anesthesia, due to synergism ...
The procedure can be performed under general, regional (spinal or epidural) or even local anesthesia. Access to the patient's ...
General anesthesia is usually required, but postoperative spinal instability is typically limited. Since this procedure is a ... Some major complications that can occur are cerebrospinal fluid leaks, dural tears, infection, or epidural hematomas. Death is ... Laminotomies require general or spinal anesthesia and frequently require a hospital stay following the procedure- although the ...
It is a common side-effect of spinal anesthesia and lumbar puncture and may occasionally accidentally occur in epidural ... This approach can also prevent PDPH headaches caused by over-penetration during epidural anesthesia (where dural puncture was ... A small amount of the person's blood is injected into the epidural space near the site of the original puncture; the resulting ... The procedure carries the typical risks of any epidural puncture. However, it is effective, and further intervention is rarely ...
... peripheral nerve blocks and spinal-epidural anesthesia. It is especially applicable where those techniques are contra-indicated ...
It is the most commonly used local anesthetic in epidural anesthesia during labor, as well as in postoperative pain management ... The 0.75% formulation is contraindicated in epidural anesthesia during labor because of the association with refractory cardiac ... Concentrated bupivacaine is not recommended for epidural freezing. Epidural freezing may also increase the length of labor. It ... It is used by injecting it into the area, around a nerve that supplies the area, or into the spinal canal's epidural space. It ...
Thoracic epidural analgesia or paravertebral blockade have shown to be the most effective methods for post-thoracotomy pain ... However, contraindications to neuraxial anesthesia include hypovolemia, shock, increase in ICP, coagulopathy or ... Treatment to aid pain relief for this condition includes intra-thoracic nerve blocks/opiates and epidurals, although results ...
The first two types are usually done under local or epidural anesthesia, and take about 30 minutes to perform. An inguinal ... orchiectomy is sometimes done under general anesthesia, and takes from 30 minutes to an hour to complete. ...
Additionally, Strauss has published on peripheral and central line catheters, anesthesia and surgical devices, safety injection ... devices, sharps disposal units, spinal and epidural catheters and vaccination devices. The retreat for health artists, Le ...
A CRNA is a licensed registered nurse who has completed additional training in anesthesia in an accredited program and is ... devices and epidural catheters. CRNAs do not have authority to independently prescribe or write medical orders. ... A CRNA is authorized under regulations to administer anesthesia as part of a medical regimen and, if credentialed, may perform ... Many healthcare facilities and practices utilize certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) to administer anesthesia to ...
Legibly record/document evaluations, anesthesia care notes in standard anesthesia records in hospital settings in a timely ... epidural catheters, peripheral nerve blocks). ... Master of Science in Nursing - Nurse Anesthesia. *Doctor of ... anesthesia induction, maintenance and emergence, c) post-anesthesia care, and d) peri-anesthetic and clinical support functions ... The stated mission of the nurse anesthesia program at Samuel Merritt University is to educate and prepare certified registered ...
Examples of regional anesthesia include spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, brachial plexus block anesthesia, Bier Block ... Is anesthesia safe?. Anesthesia is safer today than at any time in history. It has been estimated that a patient is more likely ... What is anesthesia?. Anesthesia is the art and science of reducing or eliminating pain. Each year, more than 26 million people ... AANA Nurse Anesthesia Annual Congress. September 21 - 25, 2018. Boston, MA. October 6, 2018. 2018 CoANA Fall Anesthesia Update ...
When I work on the Labor and Delivery unit, I place epidural catheters for laboring mothers, place spinal anesthesia if the ... and how does pediatric anesthesia differ from adult anesthesia and geriatric anesthesia? What goes into developing an effective ... Intra-operative anesthesia is the anesthesia the patient receives in the OR. When the patient arrives in the OR, the monitors ... Depending on the anesthesia needed either the patient receives regional anesthesia such as a spinal anesthetic or a general ...
Spinal and epidural anesthesia are procedures that deliver medicines that numb parts of your body to block pain. They are given ... Spinal, epidural, and caudal anesthesia. In: Pardo MC, Miller RD, eds. Basics of Anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... Spinal and epidural anesthesia are procedures that deliver medicines that numb parts of your body to block pain. They are given ... Spinal and epidural anesthesia work well for certain procedures and do not require placing a breathing tube into the windpipe ( ...
See also ,b>anesthesia,/b>, ,b>spinal cord,/b>. ... epidural anesthesia. Phonetic. ,b,ep,/b,-ih-,b,DUR,/b,-uhl an- ...
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Epidural Anesthesia in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of ... Epidural Anesthesia. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Epidural Anesthesia in minutes with SmartDraw. ... Epidural Anesthesia. Sagittal section of lumbar area of spinal column showing pertinent anatomy.. Needle inserted into epidural ...
Learn about pregnancy birth pain relief options during childbirth such as spinal and epidural blocks. local anesthesia, ... Epidural anesthesia is a popular choice for pain control because it does not affect your ability to push during labor. With ... An epidural block takes about 10 to 20 minutes to work, and because a catheter is inserted into the epidural space, the effects ... An anesthesiologist typically administers this type of anesthesia. With an epidural block, the medicine is injected into the ...
... , Combination Regional Anesthesia in Labor, Walking Epidural. ... Anesthesia, Epidural, Anesthesia, Extradural, Anesthesia, Peridural, Extradural Anesthesia, Peridural Anesthesia, Epidural ... Local anaesthet epidural block, LA - LA epidural block, epidural anesthesia (treatment), epidural anesthesia, epidural ... Epidural Anesthesia Aka: Epidural Anesthesia, Combination Regional Anesthesia in Labor, Walking Epidural ...
... syringe of the type used for inserting a epidural needle into the epidural space of a patient for administration of anesthesia ... in that the bias is insufficient to inject the fluid into tissues normally encountered between the skin and the epidural space ... Epidural anesthesia involves the injection of a suitable liquid anesthetic substance into the epidural space which surrounds ... 7. A kit of parts for use in the administration of epidural anesthesia, comprising:. a disposable syringe including a syringe ...
Care guide for Epidural Anesthesia. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care ... Epidural anesthesia is medicine used to numb you so you do not feel pain during surgery. Epidural anesthesia is injected into ... He will tell you which medicines to take or not take before you have epidural anesthesia. He may tell you not to eat or drink ... How do I prepare for epidural anesthesia?. Tell your healthcare provider if you or anyone in your family has ever had problems ...
Laparoscopic Hepatectomy Under Epidural Anesthesia. Yamamoto, Kentaroh MD, PhD; Ishizawa, Takeaki MD, PhD; Kokudo, Norihiro MD ... Home , August 2014 - Volume 260 - Issue 2 , Laparoscopic Hepatectomy Under Epidural Anesthesia ...
Use of perioperative epidural anesthesia-analgesia (compared to general anesthesia and systemic opioids) has been shown to be ... V. Svircevic, D. Van Dijk, A. P. Nierich et al., "Meta-analysis of thoracic epidural anesthesia versus general anesthesia for ... Use of epidural anesthesia-analgesia may also result in an improvement in cardiac outcomes. A local anesthetic-based regimen ... Use of epidural anesthesia-analgesia in these multidisciplinary pathways has been shown to decrease hospital length of stay and ...
Epidural and spinal anesthesia are used mainly for surgery of the lower belly and the legs. Epidural anesthesia is often used ... Headaches are less common with epidural anesthesia.. Epidural and spinal anesthesia are usually combined with other medicines ... Epidural and spinal blocks are types of anesthesia in which a local anesthetic is injected near the spinal cord and nerve roots ... Epidural anesthesia involves the insertion of a hollow needle and a small, flexible catheter into the space between the spinal ...
Subdural and epidural hematomas following epidural anesthesia. A literature review].. [Article in German] ... Of 434 cases of epidural, subdural, and intracranial haematomas published in the last 2-3 decades, 61 had developed following ... Compared with the frequency of spinal, epidural, and caudal anaesthetic procedures throughout the world, haematomas of the ... spinal, epidural or caudal anaesthetic procedures; 29 haematomas were around the spinal cord and 32, within the cranium. The ...
Periosteal Entrapment of an Epidural Catheter in the Intrathecal Space * The Effects of the Reverse Trendelenburg Position on ... Home , December 1992 - Volume 75 - Issue 6 , Removal of a Tenacious Epidural Catheter ... Postoperative Recovery After Desflurane, Propofol, or Isoflurane Anesthesia Among Morbidly Obese Patients: A Prospective, ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Anesthesia & Analgesia.. ...
Epidural anesthesia is regional anesthesia that blocks pain in certain areas. ... Epidural anesthesia is the most popular method of pain relief during labor. ... What is epidural anesthesia?. Epidural anesthesia is regional anesthesia that blocks pain in a particular region of the body. ... Using Epidural Anesthesia During Labor: Benefits and Risks. Epidural anesthesia is the most popular method of pain relief ...
Spinal and epidural anesthesia are injections of liquid drugs into the area surrounding the spinal cord to cause numbness in an ...
Epidural Anesthesia For epidural anesthesia, only the following available specific products of Lidocaine Hydrochloride ... Epidural Anesthesia For an epidural test dose, only the following available specific product of Lidocaine Hydrochloride and ... 15950-20 CONTINUOUS EPIDURAL 18G HUSTEAD - regional anesthesia kit To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste ... In epidural anesthesia, the dosage varies with the number of dermatomes to be anesthetized (generally 2−3 mL of the indicated ...
If you have a patient with an epidural post for pain do not give Nubain. It ... Nubain and Epidural Anesthesia, in case you didnt know Help Your Peers! Submit a school review today! ... I was taught not to give Nubain to a patient on epidural narcs by anesthesia, we were instructed to call for a new order for ... it is fine for epidural patients if the epidural is just a type of local (marcaine...etc..) if there is an opioid in it (fent ...
Epidural Anesthesia. For epidural anesthesia, only the following available specific products of Lidocaine Hydrochloride ... A3588-20 PORTEX SINGLE SHOT EPIDURAL- anesthesia conduction kit To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it ... In epidural anesthesia, the dosage varies with the number of dermatomes to be anesthetized (generally 2−3 mL of the indicated ... However, spinal and epidural anesthesia have also been reported to prolong the second stage of labor by removing the ...
... Ditza Vilhena,1 Luís ... We report a case in which a patient sustained orthopedic surgery under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia complicated by ... S. Gültekin and S. Özcan, "Does hearing loss after spinal anesthesia differ between young and elderly patients?" Anesthesia and ... We report a case in which a patient was submitted to orthopedic surgery under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSEA) ...
In some cases, an epidural cathedral will be placed to provide pain relief after surgery. ... Combination spinal-epidural anesthesia is a regional anesthesia technique used in many orthopedic procedures below the waist. ... Spinals and Epidurals are used very often at the Hospital for Special Surgery for any surgery below the waist. All of these ... You will notice at the end of your surgery that you will have some tape along your back, tracing the line of the epidural ...
The anesthesiologist is placing the epidural : injection of the anesthetic product. - Stock Image C006/3338 ... Keywords: 20 to 30 years old, adult, anaesthetic, anaesthetise, anesthesia, anesthesiologist, anesthetic, birthing, catheter, ... The anesthesiologist is placing the epidural : injection of the anesthetic product.. Release details: Model release not ... local anesthesia, maternity hospital, medical personnel, medicine, middle eastern, obstetric, patient, person, pregnant, ...
Auto-controlled epidural. Hand of a pregnant woman holding the epidural controller. - Stock Image C004/0245 ... Keywords: adult, anesthesia, audit, auto-controlled epidural, bed, close-up, control, delivery, doctor, epidural, female, fetal ... Auto-controlled epidural. Hand of a pregnant woman holding the epidural controller. ... monitoring, hand, health, hospital, human, injection, labor ward, local anesthesia, lying down, maternity hospital, medicine, ...
  • As Assistant Chief CRNA, Dr. Clark provides general, regional, and peripheral anesthesia to pediatric, adult, and obstetrical patients, while also completing administrative duties such as coordinating improvements to policies and procedures, overseeing the tasks of anesthesia staff, and managing continuing education sessions for CRNAs at the Medical Center. (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • Many healthcare facilities and practices utilize certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) to administer anesthesia to patients. (mlmic.com)
  • A CRNA is a licensed registered nurse who has completed additional training in anesthesia in an accredited program and is certified by a national organization to give anesthesia to patients. (mlmic.com)
  • In addition to her clinical and staff leadership, Dr. Clark has an extensive background in nurse anesthesia education, having served as a Clinical Coordinator during her time at UC Davis Medical Center, as a Clinical Preceptor for Samuel Merritt University CRNA students, and as Assistant Professor and Co-Chairperson for the Admission Committee at Samuel Merritt University's Program of Nurse Anesthesia. (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • Dr. Clark earned her BSN from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in 1986, her MSN with a concentration in Nurse Anesthesia in 1997 from Samuel Merritt University, and her DNP in Leadership and Education in 2012 from Rush University. (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • OnlineFNPPrograms.com] Could we please have an overview of your professional and academic path in nurse anesthesia? (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • I knew I needed the experience in critical care as well as emergency room in order to apply to the Program of Nurse Anesthesia (PNA) at Samuel Merritt University (SMU) in Oakland, CA. Additional requirements for the SMU PNA were: BSN, grade point average (GPA) of 3.5 or higher, proof of leadership ability, the graduate record exam, reference letters, and basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) certification. (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • My first job as a CRNA was at the University of California- Davis Medical Center (UCDMC) in Sacramento, CA. I was the clinical coordinator for the SMU PNA students at UCDMC and became a preceptor to nurse anesthesia students in the operating room (OR). (onlinefnpprograms.com)
  • A CRNA is authorized under regulations to administer anesthesia as part of a medical regimen and, if credentialed, may perform a variety of functions under the supervision of a physician, including diagnostic spinal taps, placement of endoscopes and insertion of bronchoscopes, "Bougie" devices and epidural catheters. (mlmic.com)
  • Results: Experienced anesthetists found the simulator to be life-like for almost all the aspects of epidural or spinal insertion and that the overall impression was that the simulator could provide a useful tool for training of epidural and spinal techniques. (minervamedica.it)
  • abstract = "Background: Although epidural anesthesia (EA) can significantly disrupt the function of the respiratory system, data concerning its effects on respiratory muscle activity and the resulting motion of the chest wall are scarce. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Headache resulting from dural puncture in epidural and spinal anesthesia is usually secondary to a CSF leak. (elsevier.com)
  • Placement is done by inserting a catheter in the epidural space between vertebrae in the lower back. (lovetoknow.com)
  • Effective postoperative pain relief from epidural analgesia has numerous benefits including earlier ambulation, facilitating weaning from ventilators, reducing time spent in a catabolic state, and lowering circulating stress hormone levels. (nysora.com)
  • We found that certain women who experience good pain relief from epidural analgesia are less likely to exhibit depressive symptoms in the postpartum period," lead researcher Grace Lim, M.D., said in a release for the findings , which were presented at the American Society of Anesthesiologists 2016 meeting. (fitpregnancy.com)
  • Spinals and Epidurals are used very often at the Hospital for Special Surgery for any surgery below the waist. (hss.edu)
  • Recent findings suggest that epidural use can go a long way beyond labor pain relief: According to scientists from Magee Women's Hospital in Pittsburgh, epidural anesthesia may also reduce your long-term risk of developing postpartum depression. (fitpregnancy.com)
  • 18 years, surgery within 12 hours of hospital admission, or contraindications to the use of epidural block. (acpjc.org)
  • Methods: Hemodynamic data, frequencies of either high or total spinal block, and maternal and neonatal outcome data were gathered from the anesthesia records of all parturients at the Amphia Hospital, undergoing intrapartum CD between January 1, 2001 and May 1, 2005. (eur.nl)
  • A CSE technique provides more rapid onset of analgesia and more first-stage analgesia compared with a traditional epidural technique,' concludes the new study, led by Dr David Gambling of Sharp Mary Birch Hospital for Women and Newborns, San Diego, Calif. (iars.org)
  • The new study is the first to directly compare epidural versus CSE for labor analgesia in a busy private maternity hospital. (iars.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively determine the safety and efficacy of epidural anesthesia when administered by obstetricians in a community hospital. (afar.info)
  • According to the American Pregnancy Association, over 50 percent of women who deliver in a hospital will receive an epidural. (livestrong.com)
  • If your baby doesn't latch well at first or you have other breastfeeding problems because of your epidural, ask hospital staff (preferably a lactation consultant) to help you express colostrum and feed it with a small cup or eyedropper. (ybirth.com)