Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Atrioventricular Node: A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Bone Conduction: Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Refractory Period, Electrophysiological: The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac: Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Atrioventricular Block: Impaired impulse conduction from HEART ATRIA to HEART VENTRICLES. AV block can mean delayed or completely blocked impulse conduction.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Electrodiagnosis: Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Aphasia, Conduction: A type of fluent aphasia characterized by an impaired ability to repeat one and two word phrases, despite retained comprehension. This condition is associated with dominant hemisphere lesions involving the arcuate fasciculus (a white matter projection between Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and adjacent structures. Like patients with Wernicke aphasia (APHASIA, WERNICKE), patients with conduction aphasia are fluent but commit paraphasic errors during attempts at written and oral forms of communication. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p482; Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p142; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p848)Atrial Flutter: Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Anesthesia, IntratrachealIntraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Purkinje Fibers: Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Anesthesia and Analgesia: Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Peroneal Nerve: The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Ranvier's Nodes: Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Tachycardia, Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry: Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Body Surface Potential Mapping: Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)Chloralose: A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.Bundle-Branch Block: A form of heart block in which the electrical stimulation of HEART VENTRICLES is interrupted at either one of the branches of BUNDLE OF HIS thus preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles.EthersHypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Tachycardia, Supraventricular: A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Polyneuropathies: Diseases of multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. Polyneuropathies usually are characterized by symmetrical, bilateral distal motor and sensory impairment with a graded increase in severity distally. The pathological processes affecting peripheral nerves include degeneration of the axon, myelin or both. The various forms of polyneuropathy are categorized by the type of nerve affected (e.g., sensory, motor, or autonomic), by the distribution of nerve injury (e.g., distal vs. proximal), by nerve component primarily affected (e.g., demyelinating vs. axonal), by etiology, or by pattern of inheritance.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Tachycardia, Paroxysmal: Abnormally rapid heartbeats with sudden onset and cessation.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Hypotension, Controlled: Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Flecainide: A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial ARRHYTHMIAS and TACHYCARDIAS.Intraoperative Awareness: Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Neuromuscular Blockade: The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Procainamide: A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging: Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.Cardiac Complexes, Premature: A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Sick Sinus Syndrome: A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Cardiac Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical activity and characteristics of the HEART; MYOCARDIUM; and CARDIOMYOCYTES.Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Brugada Syndrome: An autosomal dominant defect of cardiac conduction that is characterized by an abnormal ST-segment in leads V1-V3 on the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM resembling a right BUNDLE-BRANCH BLOCK; high risk of VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA; or VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION; SYNCOPAL EPISODE; and possible sudden death. This syndrome is linked to mutations of gene encoding the cardiac SODIUM CHANNEL alpha subunit.

Command-related distribution of regional cerebral blood flow during attempted handgrip. (1/262)

To localize a central nervous feed-forward mechanism involved in cardiovascular regulation during exercise, brain activation patterns were measured in eight subjects by employing positron emission tomography and oxygen-15-labeled water. Scans were performed at rest and during rhythmic handgrip before and after axillary blockade with bupivacaine. After the blockade, handgrip strength was reduced to 25% (range 0-50%) of control values, whereas handgrip-induced heart rate and blood pressure increases were unaffected (13 +/- 3 beats/min and 12 +/- 5 mmHg, respectively; means +/- SE). Before regional anesthesia, handgrip caused increased activation in the contralateral sensory motor area, the supplementary motor area, and the ipsilateral cerebellum. We found no evidence for changes in the activation pattern due to an interaction between handgrip and regional anesthesia. This was true for both the blocked and unblocked arm. It remains unclear whether the activated areas are responsible for the increase in cardiovascular variables, but neural feedback from the contracting muscles was not necessary for the activation in the mentioned areas during rhythmic handgrip.  (+info)

Carotid endarterectomy under regional anesthesia. (2/262)

Regional anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy is a simple, reliable, and virtually complication-free technique. We began to perform a series of carotid endarterectomy under regional anesthesia at our institution in May 1990. This report describes our experience with 180 operated patients from May 1990 till December 1995, with regional anesthesia. All patients were operated with microsurgery and we utilized the deeply cervical plexus block at the C-4 level associated with superficial block, along the posterior border of the externocleidomastoid muscle. The main advantage of this technique of anesthesia is that it is the only exact method of assessing the need of a shunt by using the neurological status of the awaken patient during trial carotid cross-clamping. The regional anesthesia allows carotid endarterectomy to be safely performed on patients with advanced cardiac disease or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were not good candidates for general anesthesia. In this 180 patients we performed 198 consecutive endarterectomies (10% bilateral) with a total morbidity-mortality rate of 2.0%.  (+info)

Intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier block) in a dog. (3/262)

Intravenous regional anesthesia was used in an adult dog as part of a balanced approach to general anesthesia for amputation of the 4th digit of its right hind limb. It allowed the concentration of isoflurane to be reduced to 0.5%.  (+info)

Effects of general and locoregional anesthesia on reproductive outcome for in vitro fertilization: a meta-analysis. (4/262)

The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate prospective trials of general or locoregional anesthesia on reproductive outcomes (cleavage and pregnancy rate) for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Of 115 published studies retrieved from a search of articles indexed on MEDLINE from 1966 to February 1999, four studies with distinct general and locoregional anesthesia were deemed eligible for meta- analysis. The pooled relative risk and odds ratios were calculated. A test for homogeneity was also performed. The pooled log odds ratio was 1.03 (95% CI 0.90-1.18) in cleavage rate and 0.71 (95% CI 0.47-1.08) in pregnancy rate. Heterogeneity was negative. Cleavage and pregnancy rates were not significantly different in both the general anesthesia and locoregional anesthesia groups. Both anesthetic techniques were favorable to IVF procedure by available published evidence when anesthesia was needed.  (+info)

Severe vasovagal attack during regional anaesthesia for caesarean section. (5/262)

A patient experienced a severe vasovagal attack during regional anaesthesia for elective Caesarean section. The combination of vagal over-activity and sympathetic block produced profound hypotension that threatened the life of the mother and infant. The vasovagal syndrome is described, and its prevention and management discussed.  (+info)

The effect of anesthetic technique on postoperative outcomes in hip fracture repair. (6/262)

BACKGROUND: The impact of anesthetic choice on postoperative mortality and morbidity has not been determined with certainty. METHODS: The authors evaluated the effect of type of anesthesia on postoperative mortality and morbidity in a retrospective cohort study of consecutive hip fracture patients, aged 60 yr or older, who underwent surgical repair at 20 US hospitals between 1983 and 1993. The primary outcome was defined as death within 30 days of the operative procedure. The secondary outcomes were postoperative 7-day mortality, postoperative myocardial infarction, postoperative pneumonia, postoperative congestive heart failure, and postoperative change in mental status. Numerous comorbid conditions were controlled for individually and by several comorbidity indices using logistic regression. RESULTS: General anesthesia was used in 6,206 patients (65.8%) and regional anesthesia in 3,219 patients (3,078 spinal anesthesia and 141 epidural anesthesia). The 30-day mortality rate in the general anesthesia group was 4.4%, compared with 5.4% in the regional anesthesia group (unadjusted odds ratio = 0.80; 95% confidence interval = 0.66-0.97). However, the adjusted odds ratio for general anesthesia increased to 1.08 (0.84-1.38). The adjusted odds ratios for general anesthesia versus regional anesthesia for the 7-day mortality was 0.90 (0.59-1.39) and for postoperative morbidity outcomes were as follows: myocardial infarction: adjusted odds ratio = 1.17 (0.80-1.70); congestive heart failure: adjusted odds ratio = 1.04 (0.80-1.36); pneumonia: adjusted odds ratio = 1.21 (0.87-1.68); postoperative change in mental status: adjusted odds ratio = 1.08 (0.95-1.22). CONCLUSIONS: The authors were unable to demonstrate that regional anesthesia was associated with better outcome than was general anesthesia in this large observational study of elderly patients with hip fracture. These results suggest that the type of anesthesia used should depend on factors other than any associated risks of mortality or morbidity.  (+info)

Ophthalmic regional anesthesia: medial canthus episcleral (sub-tenon) anesthesia is more efficient than peribulbar anesthesia: A double-blind randomized study. (7/262)

BACKGROUND: Regional anesthesia and especially peribulbar anesthesia commonly is used for cataract surgery. Failure rates and need for reinjection remains high, however, with peribulbar anesthesia. Single-injection high-volume medial canthus episcleral (sub-Tenon's) anesthesia has proven to be an efficient and safe alternative to peribulbar anesthesia. METHODS: The authors, in a blind study, compared the effectiveness of both techniques in 66 patients randomly assigned to episcleral anesthesia or single-injection peribulbar anesthesia. Motor blockade (akinesia) was used as the main index of anesthesia effectiveness. It was assessed using an 18-point scale (0-3 for each of the four directions of the gaze, lid opening, and lid closing, the total being from 0 = normal mobility to 18 = no movement at all). This score was compared between the groups 1, 5, 10, and 15 min after injection and at the end of the surgical procedures. Time to onset of the blockade also was compared between the two groups, as was the incidence of incomplete blockade with a need for supplemental injection and the satisfaction of the surgeon, patient, and anesthesiologist. RESULTS: Episcleral anesthesia provided a quicker onset of anesthesia, a better akinesia score, and a lower rate of incomplete blockade necessitating reinjection (0 vs. 39%; P < 0.0001) than peribulbar anesthesia. Even after supplemental injection, peribulbar anesthesia had a lower akinesia score than did episcleral anesthesia. Peribulbar anesthesia began to wear off during surgery, whereas episcleral anesthesia did not. CONCLUSION: Medial canthus single-injection episcleral anesthesia is a suitable alternative to peribulbar anesthesia. It provides better akinesia, with a quicker onset and more constancy in effectiveness.  (+info)

General versus regional anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. (8/262)

Hip fracture surgery is common and the population at risk is generally elderly. There is no consensus of opinion regarding the safest form of anaesthesia for these patients. We performed a meta-analysis of 15 randomized trials that compare morbidity and mortality associated with general or regional anaesthesia for hip fracture patients. There was a reduced 1-month mortality and incidence of deep vein thrombosis in the regional anaesthesia group. Operations performed under general anaesthesia had a reduction in operation time. No other outcome measures reached a statistically significant difference. There was a tendency towards a lower incidence of myocardial infarction, confusion and postoperative hypoxia in the regional anaesthetic group, and cerebrovascular accident and intra-operative hypotension in the general anaesthetic group. We conclude that there are marginal advantages for regional anaesthesia compared to general anaesthesia for hip fracture patients in terms of early mortality and risk of deep vein thrombosis.  (+info)

Ross, A.K., Eck, J.B. and Tobias, J.D. (2000) Pediatric regional anesthesia Beyond the caudal. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 91, 16-26.
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, official publication of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, is a bimonthly journal that publishes peer-reviewed scientific and clinical studies to advance the understanding and clinical application of regional techniques for surgical anesthesia and postoperative analgesia. Coverage includes perioperative pain, chronic pain, obstetric anesthesia, pediatric anesthesia, outcome studies, and complications. Practical issues such as choice of anesthetics and technical challenges are addressed. The journal has a special interest in all forms of research pertaining to ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia and to education in regional anesthesia and pain medicine. Published for over thirty years, this respected journal also serves as the official publication of ASRAs affiliates, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, the Asian and Oceanic Society of Regional Anesthesia, and the Latin American Society of Regional Anesthesia
American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Advancing the science and practice of regional anesthesiology and pain medicine to improve patient outcomes through research, education, and advocacy Four Penn Center West, Suite 401 Pittsburgh, PA 15276 855.795.ASRA toll-free in USA 412.471.2718 [email protected] ...
Routine use of regional anesthesia for patients having surgery is supported by general safety and proven effectiveness as a targeted modality in the prevention and treatment of acute pain. Recently, perioperative physicians have become much more interested in improving long-term outcomes after surgery rather than focusing on the well-established short-term benefits of regional anesthesia. This interest has raised important questions regarding the potential influence of regional anesthesia on morbidity and mortality, persistent pain and cancer prognosis. Tissue injury is responsible for the inflammatory reaction and physiologic stress response observed during the perioperative period and can influence a patients recovery trajectory. Regional anesthesia can modulate the inflammatory response through the direct anti-inflammatory effect of local anesthetics, blocking neural afferents, and blunting sympathetic activation. Moreover, continuous techniques (e.g., epidural and perineural catheters) that ...
Ultrasound has revolutionized the practice of regional anesthesia, yet there remains a paucity of good resources on ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia in children. This book offers a much-needed practical guide to all the major ultrasound-guided blocks in pediatric patients, including neuraxial, truncal, upper and lower limb blocks. The core principles of good clinical practice in regional anesthesia are described and discussed, including the pharmacology of local anesthetics in children, the performance of regional anesthesia, the management of complications, and the clinical anatomy of each block. Every block chapter provides both a "how to" section and also a comprehensive literature review, with an up-to-date and relevant bibliography for reference and further reading. Chapters are illustrated with unique anatomical images and detailed descriptions. Both trainee and experienced anesthesiologists will find this an essential resource for the safe and effective performance of modern regional ...
Nerve blocks and regional anesthesia are commonly used to manage acutely painful conditions. These procedures are becoming commonplace in order to limit the use of opioid medications. "Single-shot" blocks using long acting anesthetics provide significant pain relief for patients. Continuous regional anesthesia using extended stay catheters and infusion pumps may offer ongoing pain control for up to 7 days. Applications for regional anesthesia are ever expanding, but it is challenging for busy clinicians to confidently learn these practical skills.. Topics covered in the Regional Anesthesia for Acute Care Providers course and lab sessions include:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Local anaesthetics and regional anaesthesia versus conventional analgesia for preventing persistent postoperative pain in adults and children. AU - Weinstein, Erica J.. AU - Levene, Jacob L.. AU - Cohen, Marc S.. AU - Andreae, Doerthe A.. AU - Chao, Jerry Y.. AU - Johnson, Matthew. AU - Hall, Charles B.. AU - Andreae, Michael H.. PY - 2018/4/25. Y1 - 2018/4/25. N2 - Background: Regional anaesthesia may reduce the rate of persistent postoperative pain (PPP), a frequent and debilitating condition. This review was originally published in 2012 and updated in 2017. Objectives: To compare local anaesthetics and regional anaesthesia versus conventional analgesia for the prevention of PPP beyond three months in adults and children undergoing elective surgery. Search methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase to December 2016 without any language restriction. We used a combination of free text search and controlled vocabulary search. We limited results to randomized controlled ...
The advent of ultrasound guidance has led to a renewed interest in regional anesthesia of the lower limb. In keeping with the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicines ongoing commitment to provide intensive evidence-based education, this article presents a complete update of the 2005 comprehensive review on lower extremity peripheral nerve blocks. The current review article strives to (1) summarize the pertinent anatomy of the lumbar and sacral plexuses, (2) discuss the optimal approaches and techniques for lower limb regional anesthesia, (3) present evidence to guide the selection of pharmacological agents and adjuvants, (4) describe potential complications associated with lower extremity nerve blocks, and (5) identify informational gaps pertaining to outcomes, which warrant further investigation.
Neurologic complications as an adverse effect occur in all types of regional anesthesia. Reviewing the literature, the incidence spreads from 0.02 up to 3 percent. The incidence remains unclear because of different types of definitions, too. In this study, we evaluate all patients receiving peripheral regional anesthesia 24 hours after block performance according to a standardized study protocol. In case of any conspicuousness concerning motoric or sensory function or pain, the patient will be evaluated again after 48 hours. Further on, in case of neurologic dysfunction, periods of investigation will be after 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year. This study includes the definition for nerve damage concerning motoric and sensory neural function and pain.. The patients will be recruited among all patients from our hospital receiving continuous peripheral regional anesthesia. ...
Practice both central line placement and regional anesthesia with our SmarTissue Regional Anesthesia and Vascular Access Training Package with Articulating Head The Regional Anesthesia with SmarTissue Trainer is the only nerve block training solution that provides instructors and users a feedback mechanism to gain procedural accuracy and enhance the training experience during
... Summary GlobalDatas new report, Asia-Pacific Regional Anesthesia Disposables Market Outlook to - Market research report and industry analysis - 9815699
Dr. Sehmbi completed his MD in Anesthesiology from India in 2009. He subsequently completed his fellowship in Regional Anesthesia from UK and successfully obtained his European Diploma of Anesthesia and Intensive care (EDAIC) and European Diploma of Regional Anesthesia (EDRA) in 2012. He went on to complete both Regional anesthesia fellowship, and Chronic pain fellowship at Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto in 2015-2016. He joined our department as an Advance Clinical Fellow, pursuing clinical research over the last year.. Dr. Sehmbis interests include adult regional anesthesia, management of chronic pain in surgical patients, education in regional anesthesia, clinical trials and other research methodology. He has authored MCQs in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Therapy, which remains the only accomplished book in the field for EDRA exam. Currently he serves as a Honorary Lecturer for the MSc in Regional Anesthesia (University of East Anglia, UK) and as a board member on the EDRA ...
Background: There is consistent and significant variation in neuraxial anesthesia use for hip fracture surgery across jurisdictions. We measured the association of hospital-level utilization of neuraxial anesthesia, independent of patient-level use, with 30-day survival (primary outcome) and length of stay and costs (secondary outcomes). Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data in Ontario, Canada. We identified all hip fracture patients more than 65 yr of age from 2002 to 2014. For each patient, we measured the proportion of hip fracture patients at their hospital who received neuraxial anesthesia in the year before their surgery. Multilevel, multivariable regression was used to measure the association of log-transformed hospital-level neuraxial anesthetic-use proportion with outcomes, controlling for patient-level anesthesia type and confounders. Results: Of 107,317 patients, 57,080 (53.2%) had a neuraxial anesthetic; utilization varied from 0 to ...
Providing competent regional anesthesia care entails not just technical proficiency in performing blocks but also skills in clinical decision making, working on a team, and quality improvement.[5-7] Those nontechnical skills can be more difficult to teach and assess than technical proficiency yet are critical components of competency in regional anesthesia. Focusing regional anesthesia education on a small number of proven blocks and their associated safety and clinical decision pathways allows residents to learn both the technical and nontechnical aspects of those blocks. Developing critical decision-making skills for selected blocks in residency can serve as a template for future decision making in regional anesthesia and will prepare residents to incorporate yet-to-be described regional anesthesia techniques into their clinical practice following completion of their residency training.. The number of regional anesthesia techniques taught to ensure competence during residency may vary between ...
The single most common block (40 percent) was a single-injection block in the pelvic area (caudal block) for procedures in the lower body (for example, hernia surgery). However, blocks of the peripheral nerves were common as well (35 percent), especially for surgery on the upper and lower limbs.. The large numbers of single-injection peripheral nerve blocks seemed related to increased use of ultrasound to guide local anesthetic injections. Ultrasound was used in more than 80 percent of upper-limb blocks and nearly 70 percent of lower-limb blocks.. As the use of regional anesthesia continues to increase, there is a lack of detailed and complete information on its safety in children. The best available studies, performed in Europe, are more than a decade old. Thus they may not reflect modern practice, including the use of ultrasound guidance.. Because complications of regional anesthesia are relatively uncommon, very large databases are needed to provide meaningful estimates of the true risks. ...
The single most common block (40 percent) was a single-injection block in the pelvic area (caudal block) for procedures in the lower body (for example, hernia surgery). However, blocks of the peripheral nerves were common as well (35 percent), especially for surgery on the upper and lower limbs.. The large numbers of single-injection peripheral nerve blocks seemed related to increased use of ultrasound to guide local anesthetic injections. Ultrasound was used in more than 80 percent of upper-limb blocks and nearly 70 percent of lower-limb blocks.. As the use of regional anesthesia continues to increase, there is a lack of detailed and complete information on its safety in children. The best available studies, performed in Europe, are more than a decade old. Thus they may not reflect modern practice, including the use of ultrasound guidance.. Because complications of regional anesthesia are relatively uncommon, very large databases are needed to provide meaningful estimates of the true risks. ...
Section Seven. Intravenous Regional Blocks for the Upper & Lower Extremity. In: Hadzic A. Hadzic A Ed. Admir Hadzic.eds. NYSORA Textbook of Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2007. http://accessanesthesiology.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=413§ionid=39828192. Accessed January 20, 2018 ...
Today, the crisis of drug shortages threatens to reverse the many advances in perioperative pain control that have been achieved. Local anesthetics or "numbing medications" represent a class of drugs that is our strongest weapon against opioids. These drugs (e.g., bupivacaine, lidocaine, ropivacaine) are currently in shortage. Targeted injections of local anesthetic in the form of regional anesthesia eliminate sensation at the site of surgery and can obviate the need for injectable opioids (e.g., fentanyl, hydromorphone, morphine) which also happen to be in short supply. Local anesthetics are also the critical ingredient in providing epidural pain relief and spinal anesthesia for childbirth. Without them, new moms will miss the first moments of their babies lives.. The following are potential ramifications of the current drug shortages affecting anesthesia and pain management on patient care:. Decreased Quality of Acute Pain Management. Regional anesthesia techniques, which include spinal, ...
Local and Regional Anesthesia; With Chapters on Spinal, Epidural, Paravertebral, and Parasacral Analgesia, and on Other Applications of Local and Regional Anesthesia to the Surgery of the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat, and to Dental Practice by Carroll Woolsey 1874- Allen, 9781371295431, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
This unique Masterclass Boot camp program offers the most intensive course in a clinical setting. It helps transfer the knowledge from workshops to clinical practice by following the NYSORA team in a busy orthopedic practice. This educational opportunity is designed for participants seeking the most practical and standardized acquisition of skills and confidence in ultrasound-guided orthopedic regional anesthesia. Equally suited for delegates seeking confirmation of their own practice, improve organization, and wanting to learn the leadership skills required to organize an orthopedic regional anesthesia service and improve patient flow. ...
I was recently asked to provide a list of my "Top 10" regional anesthesia research articles from 2016 and not to include my own. So for what its worth (not much!), Im sharing them below in no particular order.. In my humble opinion, these articles from 2016 have already influenced my clinical practice, taught me to look at something differently, or made me think of a new research question.. Trends in the Use of Regional Anesthesia: Neuraxial and Peripheral Nerve Blocks. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2016 Jan-Feb;41(1):43-9. doi: 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000342.. The Second American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Evidence-Based Medicine Assessment of Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia: Executive Summary. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2016 Mar-Apr;41(2):181-94. doi: 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000331.. Teaching ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia remotely: a feasibility study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2016 Aug;60(7):995-1002. doi: 10.1111/aas.12695.. Paravertebral block versus thoracic epidural for ...
1) Loss of feeling or awareness. A general anesthetic puts the person to sleep. A local anesthetic causes loss of feeling in a part of the body such as a tooth or an area of skin without affecting consciousness. Regional anesthesia numbs a larger part of the body such as a leg or arm, also without affecting consciousness. The term "conduction anesthesia" encompasses both local and regional anesthetic techniques. Many surgical procedures can be done with conduction anesthesia without significant pain. In many situations, such as a C-section, conduction anesthesia is safer and therefore preferable to general anesthesia. However, there are also many types of surgery in which general anesthesia is clearly appropriate. (2) Total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensibility, induced by disease, injury, acupuncture, or an anesthetic, such as chloroform or nitrous oxide. Local or general insensibility to pain with or without the loss of consciousness, induced by an anesthetic. A drug, ...
WEDNESDAY, June 17, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Anesthesiologists can help save the planet, a new study suggests.. Increased use of regional anesthesia instead of general anesthesia may help reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, according to researchers at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City.. Unlike general anesthesia, regional anesthesia doesnt use volatile halogenated agents, such as desflurane, or nitrous oxide. These are greenhouse gases that can remain in the atmosphere for up to 114 years, the researchers noted.. Instead of those gases, regional anesthesia uses a local nerve block along with intravenous sedatives.. "Increasing the use of regional anesthesia is potentially good for the climate, improves the quality of care (at least for hip and knee replacements), and may allow individual practitioners to take personal responsibility in the fight against global warming," said Dr. Christopher Wu, an anesthesiologist at the hospital, and ...
A patient is on anticoagulant therapy for a prosthetic mitral valve, and is scheduled for surgery. Should she receive regional anesthesia?. Regional anesthesia is possible if it is clearly indicated. Since the risk of thrombosis or embolism is increased without anticoagulation, and if general anesthesia carries more risk in this setting, timing can be co-ordinated so that minimal risk of thrombosis and neuraxial bleeding occur.. 2. How does one manage the dis-continuation of oral anticoagulant therapy?. Discontinue oral therapy three to five days prior to surgery, and begin intravenous heparin also. Stop heparin four to six hours prior to regional anesthesia, and restart after one hour if needed. If surgical bleeding is to be significant, restart after twelve or more hours.. 3. Can regional anesthesia be performed on a patient taking aspirin for osteoarthritis?. Yes, if there is no history of bleeding or bruising, spinal or epidural anesthesia is appropriate ...
The study population will consist of patients who are scheduled for open laparoscopic or laparoscopic assisted surgery for colon cancer. Patients will randomized into one of two groups. The intervention group will receive combined regional and general anesthesia during surgery. Postoperative pain treatment will be based on regional anesthesia techniques. The Control group will receive general anesthesia during surgery. Postoperative pain treatment will be based primarily on opioids. After surgery, patients will be followed daily during their hospital stay. Patients will be contacted by telephone every 6 months for five years. Quality of life questionnaires will be administered at these follow ups ...
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TUESDAY, June 24, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Hip fracture surgery patients who are given regional anesthesia have a slightly lower risk of death and a slightly shorter hospital stay than those who receive general anesthesia, a new study shows. Regional anesthesia involves delivery of anesthesia directly to the affected part of the body without putting the patient to sleep.
Microorganisms from exogenous or endogenous sources may gain access to the subarachnoid, epidural, or tissue space surrounding peripheral nerves in several ways. Microorganisms from the patients or anesthesia practitioners flora can be inoculated directly when a catheter or needle is inserted into those spaces. Several reports in the literature suggest that infections are on occasion caused by the anesthesia practitioners flora.1-3 For example, Trautmann and colleagues reported a case of meningitis caused by a Staphylococcus aureus strain that was identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to the S. aureus isolate from the anesthesiologists nose.2 Microorganisms can also enter the epidural space by hematogenous spread from other body sites, such as infected skin,2,4 or by migrating along the catheter tract.5,6 Several case reports suggested that infection was caused by spread of bacteria from infected sites through the bloodstream to the epidural space.7-9 Others maintain that infections ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The successful use of regional anesthesia to prevent involuntary movements in a patient undergoing awake craniotomy. AU - Gebhard, Ralf E.. AU - Berry, James. AU - Maggio, William W.. AU - Gollas, Adrian. AU - Chelly, Jacques E.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033766898&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033766898&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1213/00000539-200011000-00034. DO - 10.1213/00000539-200011000-00034. M3 - Article. C2 - 11049914. AN - SCOPUS:0033766898. VL - 91. SP - 1230. EP - 1231. JO - Anesthesia and Analgesia. JF - Anesthesia and Analgesia. SN - 0003-2999. IS - 5. ER - ...
Ultrasound has become a recent "standard" to perform regional anesthesia. This website features single shot and continuous nerve block techniques ...
Regional Anesthesia: The Journal of Neural Blockade in Obstetrics, Surgery, & Pain Control Sep 1990, 15 (5) 237-241; DOI: 10.1136/rapm-00115550-199015050-00004 ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sedation is a well recognized technique to improve patients acceptance and comfort during regional anesthesia. The use of this technique is growing exponentially and is nowadays applied not only in the operating room but also in many other different locations within and outside the hospital. RECENT FINDINGS: Different methods of applying sedation are used. Recent studies have shown that the target-controlled infusion technique is advantageous in this context, as the incidence of side effects is lower and the amount of infused drugs is decreased. Several devices have been investigated in this setting, but, to date, none of them has been shown to be reliable. The combination of propofol and remifentanil for the purpose of analgosedation is increasingly used. The benefits of these drugs given simultaneously are supported by several investigations. Dexmedetomidine, the most recently introduced sedative, still needs to be more extensively studied in this context. Nurse-driven ...
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Two types of regional anesthesia do not make patients more prone to falls in the first days after having knee replacement surgery as some have previously suggested, according to a study based on nearly 200,000 patient records in the March issue of Anesthesiology.
Hi, I will shortly be going in for TKR, and just today heard about Regional Anesthesia, I believe its a spinal block, has anyone had this, and is it
The fourth edition of this highly successful textbook discusses the practical applications of the various methods of regional anaesthesia, including ultrasound, as well as giving an account of their theoretical aspects. The well-established author team use their experience to provide a practical and stimulating book which reflects everyday clinical activity, supplemented by high definition ultrasound images and schematic diagrams.
This Friday, June 20th at this years 2014 International Symposium of Ultrasound for Regional Anesthesia, Pain Medicine and Peri-Operative Application (ISURA), Havels own Shelly Ast will be on hand to discuss the benefits of Havels leading products. These include some of … Continue reading →. ...
Originally authored by Michael F. Mulroy, MD, this respected title has helped practitioners provide effective regional anesthesia for nearly 30 years. This clinical reference has evolved with the many changes in this specialty to continue bringing you the up-to-date, clinically focused, hands-on guidance you need to offer your patients the best care.
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Always have the regional anesthesia trays you need when you need them with B. Braun. Over the past several years, the company has invested $1 billion to cr
Page 5-This is our online resource for Regional Anesthesia. It includes Basic, Intermediate and Advanced Techniques with pictures and videos compliments of nysora. Only SRNA/CRNA groups can see this fourm
Page 8-This is our online resource for Regional Anesthesia. It includes Basic, Intermediate and Advanced Techniques with pictures and videos compliments of nysora. Only SRNA/CRNA groups can see this fourm
Pris: 653,-. pocket, 2011. Midlertidig utsolgt. Kjøp boken Current Concepts in Regional Anaesthesia av J. W. Kleef, A. G. Burm, J. Spierdijk (ISBN 9789400960176) hos Adlibris.com. Fri frakt.
My name is Ulises Pantaleon Rodriguez and I am a fourth year nursing student currently finishing my integrative practicum and final consolidation on the orthopaedic inpatient surgery floor at University Hospital in London, Ontario. I have had prior placements within this field of nursing and have been drawn towards orthopaedic placements due to my interest in sports medicine and the musculoskeletal system of the body. Through multiple orthopaedic placements I have witnessed first-hand the crippling effects of pain on patients, causing both physical and psychological distress. As a result I have encountered a multitude of different pain management control techniques ranging from pharmacological to non-pharmacological in nature. Through my experience on the orthopaedic inpatient surgery floor, I encountered the use of continuous infusion regional anesthetic catheters, commonly known as nerve block catheters. This innovative pain management technique yielded a plethora of different results for different
Dr. Awad is a staff anesthesiologist at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and an assistant professor with the University of Toronto. His academic research interests include ultrasound guided regional anesthesia in addition to educational practices in regional anesthesia. Dr. Awad also has a special interest in facilitation of patient discharge following lower limb joint arthroplasty procedures. His research has been published in the British Journal of Anesthesia, the Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine as well as Anesthesia and Analgesia.. ...
August Karl Gustav Bier (24 November 1861 - 12 March 1949) was a German surgeon. He was the first to perform spinal anesthesia and intravenous regional anesthesia. After professorships in Greifswald and Bonn, Bier became Geheimrat Professor of Surgery and Chief Surgeon at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin in Berlin. On 16 August 1898, Bier performed the first operation under spinal anesthesia at the Royal Surgical Hospital of the University of Kiel. The patient was scheduled to undergo segmental resection of his left ankle, which was severely infected with tuberculosis, but he dreaded the prospect of general anesthesia because he had suffered severe adverse side effects during multiple previous operations. Therefore, Bier suggested "cocainization" of the spinal cord as an alternative to general anesthesia. Bier injected 15 mg of cocaine intrathecally, which was sufficient to allow him to perform the operation. The subject was fully conscious during the operation, but felt no pain. Two hours ...
PRECAUTIONS General: The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Standard textbooks should be consulted for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures.. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS). The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection when using indwelling catheter techniques. During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and that the patient be monitored for central nervous system toxicity and cardiovascular toxicity, as well as for signs of unintended intrathecal administration before proceeding. When clinical conditions permit, ...
PRECAUTIONS General: The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Standard textbooks should be consulted for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures.. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS). The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection when using indwelling catheter techniques. During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and that the patient be monitored for central nervous system toxicity and cardiovascular toxicity, as well as for signs of unintended intrathecal administration before proceeding. When clinical conditions permit, ...
This book presents the most important aspects of modern clinical use of local anaesthetic drugs and of local and regional anaesthetic techniques. Special...
House discovers a new symptom: regional anesthesia. House orders a nerve conduction study. Taub and Kutner find an intercostal ...
Typical operations performed under conduction anesthesia include: Dentistry (surface anesthesia, infiltration anesthesia or ... epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia) Abdominal surgery (epidural anesthesia/spinal anesthesia, often combined ... Sometimes, conduction anesthesia is combined with general anesthesia or sedation for the patient's comfort and ease of surgery ... Some typical uses of conduction anesthesia for acute pain are: Labor pain (epidural anesthesia, pudendal nerve blocks) ...
Anomalous conduction via accessory pathways (APs) create the re-entry circuit (which are also called bypass tracts), that exist ... Cardiovascular Physiology & Anesthesia. Morgan, Jr. GE, Mikhail MS, Murray MJ. Chapter 19. Clinical Anesthesiology. 4th ed. New ... Mechanisms of Cardiac Arrhythmias and Conduction Disturbances. In V. Fuster, R.A. Walsh, R.A. Harrington (Eds). ... conduction velocity) of impulse. AV reentrant tachycardia AV nodal reentrant tachycardia "Cardiac Arrhythmias". Retrieved 2007- ...
... and certain anesthesia. Any situations requiring the administration of anesthesia or succinylcholine (e.g., surgical procedures ... Primary literature suggests the children may have a higher rate of cardiac physical and conduction abnormalities which may ... and palate Anesthesia may be dangerous in these patients: "According to the medical literature, in some cases, individuals with ... Anesthesia and Analgesia. 60 (7): 534-6. doi:10.1213/00000539-198107000-00016. PMID 7195672. Dearlove OR, Perkins R (March 2003 ...
While under anesthesia, people with FOP may encounter difficulties with intubation, restrictive pulmonary disease, and changes ... in the electrical conduction system of the heart. Activities that increase the risk of falling or soft tissue injury should be ...
Anesthesia and Analgesia. 98 (2): 533-6, table of contents. doi:10.1213/01.ane.0000096181.89116.d2. PMID 14742401. Dabu-Bondoc ... "EEG oscillations and binaural beat as compared with electromagnetic headphones and air-conduction headphones", Psychophysiology ... Anesthesia and Analgesia. 97 (3): 772-5. doi:10.1213/01.ane.0000076145.83783.e7. PMID 12933400. Hemi-Sync Website Monroe ... that EEG changes did not occur when the standard electromagnetic headphones of Monroe's setup were replaced by air conduction ...
It is the most commonly used local anesthetic in epidural anesthesia during labor, as well as in postoperative pain management ... Without depolarization, no initiation or conduction of a pain signal can occur. The rate of systemic absorption of bupivacaine ... However, it is approved for use at term in obstetrical anesthesia. Bupivacaine is excreted in breast milk. Risks of ... The 0.75% formulation is contraindicated in epidural anesthesia during labor because of the association with refractory cardiac ...
The main use for this drug is to produce anesthesia to mucus membranes to numb and help control the pain in that area. The ... but it is believed that the active ingredients reversibly block nerve conduction therefore causing the numbing sensation. This ... The dosage should be applied directly to the site where anesthesia is required. The dosage should be modified according to the ... The actual mechanism for the onset of anesthesia is unknown, ...
If the local anesthesia injections provide temporary pain relief, then RFA is performed on the nerve(s) that responded well to ... Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a medical procedure in which part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, tumor or ... The nerves to be ablated are identified through injections of local anesthesia (such as lidocaine) prior to the RFA procedure. ... The patient is awake during the procedure, so risks associated with general anesthesia are avoided. An intravenous line may be ...
... anesthesia, conduction MeSH E03.155.086.131 --- anesthesia, epidural MeSH E03.155.086.131.100 --- anesthesia, caudal MeSH ... anesthesia, inhalation MeSH E03.155.197.197.280 --- anesthesia, closed-circuit MeSH E03.155.197.364 --- anesthesia, rectal MeSH ... E03.155.253 --- anesthesia, intratracheal MeSH E03.155.308 --- anesthesia, intravenous MeSH E03.155.364 --- anesthesia, ... anesthesia, dental MeSH E03.155.141.481 --- hypnosis, dental MeSH E03.155.197 --- anesthesia, general MeSH E03.155.197.197 --- ...
Additionally, M2 receptors reduce the contractile forces of the atrial cardiac muscle and reduce the conduction velocity of the ... Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. 37 (2): 219-222. doi:10.1007/BF03005473. Deepak A. Rao; Le, Tao; Bhushan, Vikas (2007). First ...
Marx GF (1994). "The first spinal anesthesia. Who deserves the laurels?". Regional Anesthesia. 19 (6): 429-30. PMID 7848956.. ... Clarkson CW, Hondeghem LM (1985). "Mechanism for bupivacaine depression of cardiac conduction: fast block of sodium channels ... There is less chances of hypotension after epidural anesthesia as compared to spinal anesthesia ... "Anesthesia". Harvard University Press. Retrieved April 18, 2014.. *^ Thorp JA, Breedlove G (1996). "Epidural analgesia in labor ...
Anesthesia and Analgesia. 98 (2): 533-6, table of contents. doi:10.1213/01.ane.0000096181.89116.d2. PMID 14742401. Dabu-Bondoc ... "EEG oscillations and binaural beat as compared with electromagnetic headphones and air-conduction headphones", Psychophysiology ... Anesthesia and Analgesia. 97 (3): 772-5. doi:10.1213/01.ane.0000076145.83783.e7. PMID 12933400. Hemi-Sync Website and other ... Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol 110 1, January 2010, p208-210 "Accessing Anomalous States of Consciousness with a Binaural Beat ...
Regional anesthesia is aimed at anesthetizing a larger part of the body such as a leg or arm. Conduction anesthesia encompasses ... New York School of Regional Anesthesia Anesthesia Books General information and tutorials in peripheral regional anesthesia [1 ... The following terms are often used interchangeably: Local anesthesia, in a strict sense, is anesthesia of a small part of the ... Topical anesthesia (surface) Infiltration Plexus block Epidural (extradural) block Spinal anesthesia (subarachnoid block) ...
Anesthesia is used to control pain by using medicines that reversibly block nerve conduction near the site of administration, ... In this level called Anesthesia, a combination of general anesthesia and spinal or major regional anesthesia. It does not ... "twilight anesthesia." The same drugs used in general anesthesia are also used for twilight anesthesia, except in smaller doses ... Play media Twilight anesthesia is an anesthetic technique where a mild dose of general anesthesia is applied to induce ...
Mert T, Gunes Y, Guven M, Gunay I, Ozcengiz D (March 2002). "Comparison of nerve conduction blocks by an opioid and a local ... Butterworth JF, Strichartz GR (April 1990). "Molecular mechanisms of local anesthesia: a review". Anesthesiology. 72 (4): 711- ... Mitolo-Chieppa D, Carratu MR (May 1983). "Anaesthetic drugs: electrophysiological bases of their conduction blocking effect". ...
Bone conduction ABR thresholds can be used if other limitations are present, but thresholds are not as accurate as ABR ... Most patients (especially infants) are given light anesthesia when test transtympanically. Chloral Hydrate is a commonly ... Auditory system Bone conduction auditory brainstem response Cochlea EEG Evoked potential Otoacoustic emission Eggermont, Jos J ... non-cooperative subjects even in sleep sedation or anesthesia without influence of age and vigilance (contrary to cortical ...
The first one is local anesthesia (topical, infiltrational, topical mucosal and inhalational, spinal and Bier's intravenous). ... Trimecaine must not be used at hypersensitivity on amide anesthetics, hypervolemia, hypotension, cardial conduction defects, ...
Local anesthesia Schmidt JL, Blockus LE, Richards RK. The Pharmacology of Pramoxine Hydrochloride: A New Topical Local ... blocking both initiation and conduction of nerve impulses. Depolarization and repolarization of excitable neural membranes is ...
Nerve conduction studies can be used to delineate sural nerve lesions. Treatment will depend on the cause of the neuropathy. ... In one study, regional anesthesia of the foot and ankle, when performed by surgeons, was completely successful 95% of the time ... Myerson, M. S.; Ruland, C. M.; Allon, S. M. (1992). "Regional Anesthesia for Foot and Ankle Surgery". Foot & Ankle ... Because this technique requires few injections to reach adequate anesthesia, a smaller volume of anesthetic is needed. The ...
The procedure can be performed in a doctor's office setting with local anesthesia and leaves very little scarring compared to ... When ablating tissue near the AV node (a special conduction center that carries electrical impulses from the atria to the ... Another type of cryoablation is used to restore normal electrical conduction by freezing tissue or heart pathways that ... Techniques also exist where incisions are used in the open heart to interrupt abnormal electrical conduction (Maze procedure). ...
... induction of anesthesia, placement of surgical instrumentation into the thorax or as a benign, temporary phenomenon. In Pulsus ... Hypothyroidism Betablocker therapy Digoxin Myocardial Infarction Destruction or degeneration of the cardiac conduction system ...
There is no conscious sensation of the electric shock because of the anesthesia used beforehand. Convulsive therapy was ... problems with peripheral nerve conduction and sensation, inadequate balance and coordination, among other symptoms. Electrical ... for Hyperhidrosis with the device called iontophoresis As part of electrodiagnosis diagnostic tests including nerve conduction ...
Anesthesia awareness occurs when general anesthesia is inadequately maintained, for a number of reasons. Typically, anesthesia ... When used in state-sanctioned lethal injection, bolus potassium injection affects the electrical conduction of heart muscle. ... often used for anesthesia induction and for medically induced coma. The typical anesthesia induction dose is 0.35 grams. Loss ... Barbiturates are used only for induction of anesthesia and these drugs rapidly and reliably induce anesthesia, but wear off ...
It can be used to start or maintain anesthesia. Often another medication, however, is used to start anesthesia due to airway ... Isoflurane inhibits conduction in activated potassium channels. Isoflurane also affects intracellular molecules. It activates ... It is usually used to maintain a state of general anesthesia that has been induced with another drug, such as thiopentone or ... Apr 2007). "Anesthesia-Alzheimer disease link probed". JAMA. 297 (16): 1760. doi:10.1001/jama.297.16.1760. PMID 17456811. Seto ...
Bissonnette, Bruno (2010). Pediatric Anesthesia. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 1182. ISBN 9781607950936.. ... Conduction aphasia. *Anomic aphasia. *Global aphasia. *Transcortical sensory aphasia. *Transcortical motor aphasia ...
Heart conduction disturbances: sick sinus syndrome. In: Papadakis MA, Tierney LM, McPhee SJ. Current medical diagnosis & ... Sinus node dysfunction can occur perioperatively because of increased vagal tone caused by anesthesia or surgical intervention. ... Patients with no signs of atrioventricular conduction abnormalities should be treated with an atrial-based pacemaker.18 Pacing ... combinations of sino-atrial and atrioventricular nodal conduction disturbances, and atrial tachyarrhythmias. Sick sinus ...
This slows the conduction of electrical signals in the heart muscle, which in turn, helps to restore a regular ... It is a fast-acting form of local anesthesia that often starts to work within five minutes. The effects wear off in a ... Injections of it are used to provide local anesthesia during various minor surgical procedures. It is also available in ... An injection can be used to provide local anesthesia during minor surgical procedures like eye surgery, dental surgery& ...
A3535 PORTEX PROCEDURAL- anesthesia conduction kit To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your ... The onset of anesthesia, the duration of anesthesia and the degree of muscular relaxation are proportional to the volume and ... Epidural Anesthesia. For epidural anesthesia, only the following available specific products of Lidocaine Hydrochloride ... depth of anesthesia and degree of muscular relaxation required, duration of anesthesia required, and the physical condition of ...
A3588-20 PORTEX SINGLE SHOT EPIDURAL- anesthesia conduction kit To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it ... The onset of anesthesia, the duration of anesthesia and the degree of muscular relaxation are proportional to the volume and ... A3588-20 PORTEX SINGLE SHOT EPIDURAL- anesthesia conduction kit Number of versions: 2. ... Epidural Anesthesia. For epidural anesthesia, only the following available specific products of Lidocaine Hydrochloride ...
Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity Is Useful for Patients with Tetrodotoxin. Yamazaki, Mitsuaki MD, PhD; Shibuya, Nobuko MD, PhD ... Home , April 1995 - Volume 80 - Issue 4 , Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity Is Useful for Patients with... ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Anesthesia & Analgesia.. ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Anesthesia & Analgesia.. ...
The effects of anesthesia on measures of nerve conduction velocity in male C57Bl6/J mice.. Oh SS1, Hayes JM, Sims-Robinson C, ... The effects of anesthesia on measures of nerve conduction velocity in male C57Bl6/J mice ... The effects of anesthesia on measures of nerve conduction velocity in male C57Bl6/J mice ... All parameters were measured under anesthesia in mice 24 weeks of age and within 5 min of anesthesia. * = p , 0.05 ...
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A1216 MIDAZOLAM FOR CONDUCTION OF THIOPENTAL ANESTHESIA IN PATIENTS You will receive an email whenever this article is ... A1216 MIDAZOLAM FOR CONDUCTION OF THIOPENTAL ANESTHESIA IN PATIENTS. Anesthesiology 9 1990, Vol.73, NA. doi: ... H. R. Vinik, E. L. Bradley, I. Kissin; A1216 MIDAZOLAM FOR CONDUCTION OF THIOPENTAL ANESTHESIA IN PATIENTS. Anesthesiology 1990 ...
Anesthesiology Conduction anesthesia Anesthesia, Conduction & Public Health Anesthesia, Conduction Medicine & Public Health ...
Anesthesia, Conduction. Known as: Conduction anesthesia, Regional Anesthesia, regional anaesthesia (More). A temporary loss of ... Both regional anesthesia and general anesthesia have been proposed to provide optimal ambulatory anesthesia. We searched ... The tumescent technique for local anesthesia permits regional local anesthesia of the skin and subcutaneous tissues by direct… ... A comparison of regional versus general anesthesia for ambulatory anesthesia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. ...
Anesthesia in dental surgery. by: Mead, Sterling Vernon, 1888- Published: (1935) * Conduction and infiltration anesthesia, by: ... Conduction, infiltration and general anesthesia in dentistry / Main Author: Nevin, Mendel, 1881-1950.. ... Local anesthesia in dentistry, with special reference to infiltration and conduction; a guide for dentists, oral surgeons and ... Conduction, infiltration and general anesthesia in dentistry, by: Nevin, Mendel, 1881-1950. Published: (1948) ...
What is obstetrical anesthesia? Meaning of obstetrical anesthesia medical term. What does obstetrical anesthesia mean? ... Looking for online definition of obstetrical anesthesia in the Medical Dictionary? obstetrical anesthesia explanation free. ... conduction anesthesia. Block anesthesia. crossed anesthesia. Anesthesia of the side opposite to the site of a central nervous ... stocking anesthesia, Infiltration anesthesia, Local anesthesia, One lung anesthesia, Tumescent anesthesia, Vocal anesthesia. ...
Helpful Anesthesia Billing Guidelines Resources Hello, Does anyone have any reputable [online] anesthesia coding resources with ... Nerve conduction tests. 95885 I have a question 95885 when dr. performs this on both sides would I bill 95885 with 2 units, or ... clear instructions on calculating time units? Ive been directed to the Anesthesia website, but did not locate information ...
Plasma Levels of Lidocaine (Xylocaine®) in Mother and Newborn Following Obstetrical Conduction Anesthesia. Anesthesiology 9 ... Plasma Levels of Lidocaine (Xylocaine®) in Mother and Newborn Following Obstetrical Conduction Anesthesia ... Plasma Levels of Lidocaine (Xylocaine®) in Mother and Newborn Following Obstetrical Conduction Anesthesia ... in Mother and Newborn Following Obstetrical Conduction Anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1968;29(5):951-958. ...
Neurosurgical Anesthesia; Obstetric Anesthesia; Pain Mechanisms; Pain Medicine; Pediatric Anesthesia; Regional Anesthesia; ... Ambulatory Anesthesia; Anesthetic Pharmacology; Cardiovascular Anesthesia; Critical Care and Trauma; Economics, Education, and ... Backed by internationally-known authorities who serve on the Editorial Board and as Section Editors, Anesthesia &Analgesia is ... No other journal can match Anesthesia & Analgesia for its original and significant contributions to the anesthesiology field. ...
Why are some cesarean deliveries performed with general anesthesia without a clinical indication? What are the complications ... Cardiac conduction disorders. 1,800 (0.4%). 135 (0.5%). 1.25 (1.05-1.49). 0.015. Obesity. 15,567 (3.5%). 652 (2.5%). 0.69 (0.64 ... Neuraxial Anesthesia (N = 439,583). General Anesthesia (N = 26,431). Crude OR (95% CI). P Value*. Adjusted OR† (95% CI). P ... Temporal Trends in the Use of General Anesthesia. General anesthesia rate was calculated for each 2-year interval of the 12- ...
Anesthesia conduction kit.. Definition. This product code has been established in accordance with the May 20, 1997, Guidance ... Ophthalmic, Anesthesia, Respiratory, ENT and Dental Devices (OHT1). ENT, Sleep Disordered Breathing, Respiratory and Anesthesia ...
Anesthesia conduction catheter. US7004923. Mar 21, 2002. Feb 28, 2006. I-Flow Corporation. Catheter for uniform delivery of ... Anesthesia conduction catheter. US7510550. May 12, 2003. Mar 31, 2009. I-Flow Corporation. Catheter for uniform delivery of ... Anesthesia conduction catheter for delivery of electrical stimulus. US20110190592 *. Apr 12, 2011. Aug 4, 2011. Applied Medical ... Anesthesia conduction catheter. US6689110. Nov 25, 2002. Feb 10, 2004. Micor, Inc.. ...
Hugh J McMillan; Peter B Kang;] -- This book describes how to perform nerve conduction studies and electromyography in children ... Anesthesia and sedation issues --. Nerve Conduction Studies --. Sensory studies --. Motor studies --. Repetitive stimulation -- ... Anesthesia and sedation issues -- Nerve Conduction Studies -- Sensory studies -- Motor studies -- Repetitive stimulation -- ... u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> This book describes how to perform nerve conduction studies and electromyography ...
Anesthesia Breathing Circuit Kit (Adult & Pediatric). Anesthesia Conduction Kit. Anesthesia Kit. Arterial Blood Sampling Kit. ... Brachial Plexus Anesthesia Kit. Caudal Anesthesia Kit. Continuous Brachial Plexus Block Tray. Custom Anesthesia Tray. Epidural ... Regional Anesthesia Kit. Spinal Anesthesia Kit. Spinal Epidural Anesthesia Kit. Tracheal Suction Set. Tracheobronchial Suction ... Obstetrical Anesthesia Kit. Obstetrical Vacuum Delivery Kit. Pap Smear Kit. Paracervical Anesthesia Kit. Pelvic Exam Kit. ...
Why are some cesarean deliveries performed with general anesthesia without a clinical indication? What are the complications ... Cardiac conduction disorders. 1,800 (0.4%). 135 (0.5%). 1.25 (1.05-1.49). 0.015. Obesity. 15,567 (3.5%). 652 (2.5%). 0.69 (0.64 ... Neuraxial Anesthesia (N = 439,583). General Anesthesia (N = 26,431). Crude OR (95% CI). P Value*. Adjusted OR† (95% CI). P ... Neuraxial Anesthesia (N = 439,583). General Anesthesia (N = 26,431). Crude OR (95% CI). P Value. ...
Needle, Conduction, Anesthetic (W/Wo Introducer). Class 2. BSP. §868.5140. Anesthesia Conduction Kit. Class 2. CAZ. ...
... conduction, or block, anesthesia (the production of insensibility of a part by interrupting the conduction of a sensory nerve ... Other articles where Regional nerve block anesthesia is discussed: William Stewart Halsted: By self-experimentation he ... Alternative Titles: block anesthesia, conduction anesthesia. Learn about this topic in these articles:. development by Halsted ... to produce what is called regional nerve block anesthesia. In this situation, conduction in both motor and sensory fibres is ...
mandibular foramen (MA-MF) were greater in the group of patients with unsuccessful anesthesia (p > 0.05). It is concluded that ... mandibular foramen (ARR-MF) show greater distances in the group of patients with successful anesthesia, while the variables of ... of those with unsuccessful anesthesia. The variables mandibular notch vs. mandibular foramen (MN-MF) and the anterior ramus ... orthopantomographs in 50 patients with successful and 94 patients with unsuccessful inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia. ...
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  • Specifically, the invention relates to systems and methods of providing anesthesia to tissue using a catheter and introducer needle assembly, and applying a current to the needle assembly to create stimulation in the tissue to identify a target needle depth at which to deliver the anesthesia. (google.com)
  • Microorganisms from the patient's or anesthesia practitioner's flora can be inoculated directly when a catheter or needle is inserted into those spaces. (nysora.com)
  • Regional anesthesia is increasingly integrated as an important part of multimodal enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols, which aim to decrease the cost, enhance safety, and improve the patient's subjective experience during and after hospitalization. (springer.com)
  • In certain instances, it is desirable to provide anesthesia at a point in a patient's tissue proximate to a nerve. (google.com)
  • Interventions of the health care team will be individualized based on the type of procedure the patient has undergone and the type of anesthesia administered. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although used clinically as a racemic mixture, S (−)-bupivacaine appears less toxic than the R (+)-enantiomer despite at least equal potency for local anesthesia. (ahajournals.org)
  • [ 9 , 10 ] Further reduction in this rate could be a potential area for clinical interventions to improve the safety and quality of obstetric anesthesia care and reduce anesthesia-related morbidity. (medscape.com)
  • Covers common cardiovascular disorders and practical treatment methods for cardiac failure, cardiac arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, cardiopulmonary arrest, as well as procedures for resuscitation. (elsevier.com)
  • The latest coverage on common cardiovascular disorders and practical treatment methods addresses topics, such as: cardiac failure, cardiac arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, cardiopulmonary arrest, and more. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmias and Conduction Disturbances 18. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Five adverse events were analyzed: (1) the composite outcome of death or cardiac arrest, (2) anesthesia-related complications, (3) severe anesthesia-related complications, (4) surgical site infections, and (5) venous thromboembolic events (Supplemental Digital Content Table 2, http://links.lww.com/ALN/B862 ). (medscape.com)