Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
Pain during the period after surgery.
The period during a surgical operation.
Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.
Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
The period following a surgical operation.
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Surgery performed on the female genitalia.
A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).
A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.
A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a rapid onset of action and a longer duration of action than procaine hydrochloride. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1017)
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.
A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

The dose-response of caudal ropivacaine in children. (1/65)

BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine, a new local anesthetic, is less cardiotoxic in adults and is less likely to cause motor blockade than is bupivacaine. The authors evaluated the clinical effectiveness and hemodynamic effects of ropivacaine compared with bupivacaine and the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine when given for caudal blocks in 56 children 4.1 +/- 1.2 yr old (mean +/- SD). METHODS: Patients scheduled for inguinal hernia repair were randomly given a caudal injection (0.75 ml/kg) of ropivacaine, 0.25% (R0.25 group); ropivacaine, 0.5% (R0.5 group); or bupivacaine, 0.25% (B0.25 group). Postoperative measurements included the duration of analgesia, which was our primary outcome variable, and hemodynamic and respiratory monitoring for 4 h in the recovery room. Thereafter, analgesic requirements for the following 24 h were assessed by an independent observer on the ward using an observational pain-discomfort scale, which gives a cumulative score from 5 to 15 to estimate the quality of analgesia by assessment of behavioral objective parameters. Plasma levels of ropivacaine were measured before the procedure was started and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 45 min and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h after caudal block. RESULTS: A significantly longer (P < 0.0001) duration of analgesia (median [range]) was observed in the R0.5 group (1,440 [335-1,440] min), whereas the R0.25 group (208 [175-340] min) and the B0.25 group (220 [100-390] min) were comparable. All groups showed a significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate from baseline values, but differences between groups were not observed. CONCLUSION: Ropivacaine is well tolerated and provides effective analgesia when given for caudal blockade in small children for inguinal hernia repair.  (+info)

Confirmation of caudal needle placement using nerve stimulation. (2/65)

BACKGROUND: The study was designed to examine a new method of confirming proper caudal needle placement using nerve stimulation. METHODS: Thirty-two pediatric patients were studied. A 22-gauge insulated needle was inserted into the caudal canal via the sacral notch until a "pop" was felt. The needle placement was classified as correct or incorrect depending upon the presence or absence of anal sphincter contraction (S2-S4) to electrical simulation (1 to 10 mA). RESULTS: Three patients were excluded, two because they inadvertently received neuromuscular blockers and one because the patient's anatomy precluded any attempt at a caudal block. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were both 100% in predicting clinical outcomes of the caudal block. Six patients had a negative stimulation test after the first attempt to place the needle. Four of these went on to receive a second attempt of needle insertion after a subcutaneous bulge or resistance to local anesthetic injection were observed. Following needle reinsertion, positive stimulation tests were elicited. These patients received the local anesthetic injection with ease and had good analgesia postoperatively. No attempt was made to reinsert the needle in the remaining two patients with a negative stimulation test, as they did not show subcutaneous bulge or resistance upon injection. These patients had poor analgesia postoperatively. The positive predictive value of the test was greater than the presence of a "pop" alone (P < 0.05) but not significantly different (P = 0.492) over the presence of "pop" and easy injection. CONCLUSION: This test may be used as a teaching and adjuvant tool in performing caudal block.  (+info)

Caudal block in children: ropivacaine compared with bupivacaine. (3/65)

BACKGROUND: Bupivacaine provides reliable, long-lasting anesthesia and analgesia when given via the caudal route. Ropivacaine is a newer, long-acting local anesthetic that (at a concentration providing similar pain relief) has less motor nerve blockade and may have less cardiotoxicity than bupivacaine. METHODS: In a double-blind trial, 81 healthy children, undergoing ambulatory surgical procedures, were randomly allocated to receive caudal analgesia with either bupivacaine or ropivacaine, 0.25%, 1 mVkg. All blocks were placed by an attending anesthesiologist or an anesthesia fellow after induction of general anesthesia. RESULTS: Data were available for 75 children. There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline characteristics or in anesthesia, surgery, recovery room, or day surgery unit durations. The quality and duration of postoperative pain relief did not differ. Motor and sensory effects were similar. Time to first micturition did not differ. CONCLUSION: Ropivacaine (0.25%, 1 ml/kg) provided adequate postoperative analgesia with no difference from bupivacaine (0.25%, 1 ml/kg) in quality and duration of pain relief, motor and sensory effects, or time to first micturition in our study children.  (+info)

S(+)-ketamine for caudal block in paediatric anaesthesia. (4/65)

We have evaluated the intra- and postoperative analgesic efficacy of preservative-free S(+)-ketamine compared with bupivacaine for caudal block in paediatric hernia repair. After induction of general anaesthesia, 49 children undergoing hernia repair were given a caudal injection (0.75 ml kg-1) of S(+)-ketamine 0.5 mg kg-1 (group K1), S(+)-ketamine 1.0 mg kg-1 (group K2) or 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine 1:200,000 (group B). No additional analgesic drugs were required during operation in any of the groups. Haemodynamic and respiratory variables remained stable during the observation period. Mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in groups B and K2 compared with group K1 (300 (SD 96) min and 273 (123) min vs 203 (117) min; P < 0.05). Groups B and K2 required less analgesics in the postoperative period compared with group K1 (30% and 33% vs 72%; P < 0.05). Postoperative sedation scores were comparable between the three groups. We conclude that S(+)-ketamine 1.0 mg kg-1 for caudal block in children produced surgical and postoperative analgesia equivalent to that of bupivacaine.  (+info)

Caudal clonidine for postoperative analgesia in adults. (5/65)

We have assessed the analgesic efficacy and side effects of caudally administered clonidine in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. We studied 64 adult patients undergoing elective haemorrhoidectomy. Caudal block was performed in all patients using a mixture of 0.5% bupivacaine 35 mg with 2% lidocaine 140 mg and epinephrine 5 micrograms ml-1. Patients were allocated randomly to one of two groups. Clonidine 75 micrograms was added in group C and saline 1 ml in group S. Median time to first analgesic requirements was significantly longer in group C (mean 729 (SD 120) min) than in group S (276 (131) min) (P = 0.01). Bradycardia occurred in seven patients in group C but did not affect mean arterial pressure.  (+info)

Fissurectomy as a treatment for anal fissures in children. (6/65)

INTRODUCTION: Anal fissures, characterised by painful defecation and rectal bleeding, are common in both children and infants. A significant proportion are resistant to simple laxative therapy, and no simple surgical treatment has been described which does not risk compromising sphincteric function. This study reports the initial experience of fissurectomy as a treatment of this condition. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over a 36 month period, 37 children with an anal fissure were treated by fissurectomy. There were 14 boys and 23 girls, with an age range of 17 weeks to 12 years. Fissurectomy was performed under general anaesthetic, with additional caudal anaesthesia. Stay sutures were used to avoid the need for an anal retractor, thereby preventing stretching of the internal anal sphincter. Of the 37 operations, 36 (97%) were performed as day cases and all children were discharged on laxative therapy. RESULTS: At review, 6 weeks postoperatively, 30 (81%) were asymptomatic. Six (16%) patients were symptomatic; however, 4 of these had failed to comply with the postoperative laxative regimen. One patient failed follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Fissurectomy is a successful treatment for anal fissures, when combined with postoperative laxative therapy. As dilatation of the internal anal sphincter is not involved, the risk of iatrogenic faecal incontinence is obviated.  (+info)

Ropivacaine pharmacokinetics after caudal block in 1-8 year old children. (7/65)

We studied the pharmacokinetics after caudal block of ropivacaine (2 mg ml-1, 1 ml kg-1) performed in 20 children aged 1-8 yr undergoing subumbilical surgery, in this open, non-comparative, multicentre study. Venous blood samples were collected up to 12-36 h. The mean (SD) peak plasma concentration, 0.47 (0.16) mg litre-1, was achieved after 12-249 min. The free fraction was 5% and the highest individual peak plasma concentration of free ropivacaine was 0.04 mg litre-1. Clearance was 7.4 (1.9) ml min-1 kg-1 and the terminal half-life 3.2 (0.8) h. Thus, the free plasma concentrations of ropivacaine were well below those associated with toxic symptoms in adults and the capacity to eliminate ropivacaine seems to be well developed in this age group. In this open study of 20 patients, ropivacaine was well tolerated and provided satisfactory postoperative pain relief without observable motor block.  (+info)

Newborn blood levels of lidocaine and mepivacaine in the first postnatal day following maternal epidural anesthesia. (8/65)

Distribution and elimination of lidocaine and mepivacaine were studies in 114 subjects after obstetric epidural anesthesia, Epinephrine significantly lowered the concentrations of lidocaine in the mothers' circulations by about 33 per cent, and the concentrations of mepivacaine by about 22 per cent. It also significantly altered their concentrations in the newborns' circulations at delivery and in the first 4 hours after birth. More mepivacaine than lidocaine crossed the placenta. The mepivacaine concentration in the cord blood was 36 to 47 per cent higher, and the mean fetal to maternal ratio for mepivacaine without epinephrine was 0.64, in contrast to 0.52 for the equivalent lidocaine group. Of importance was the long persistance of either drug in the newborns' circulation. Detectable levels of lidocaine and mepivacaine were present until 8 and 24 hours after birth, respectively. Pharmacokinetic models revealed that the long-term rate of disappearance of lidocaine was approximately three times as fast as that of mepivacaine. Computed half-times averaged 3 hours for lidocaine and 9 hours for mepivacaine.  (+info)

Synonyms for caudal anesthesia in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for caudal anesthesia. 2 synonyms for caudal anesthesia: caudal anaesthesia, caudal block. What are synonyms for caudal anesthesia?
Caudal anesthesia was described at the turn of last century by two French physicians, Fernand Cathelin and Jean-Anthanase Sicard. The technique pre-dated the lumbar approach to epidural block by several years.1 Caudal anesthesia, however, did not gain in popularity immediately following its inception.
Combined Spinal and Caudal Epidural Anesthesia for Prolonged Surgical Procedures in Pediatric-Aged Patients: A Report of Two Cases
Combined Spinal and Caudal Epidural Anesthesia for Prolonged Surgical Procedures in Pediatric-Aged Patients: A Report of Two Cases
Comparing midazolam-bupivacaine and neostigmine-bupivacaine for caudal anesthesia among pediatric patients undergoing herniorrhaphy operations
Caudal anesthesia is the most common technique of epidural anesthesia in children. Caudal anesthesia is recommended for most surgical procedures of the lower part of the body, including herniorrhaphies; operations on the urinary tract, anus, and rectum; and orthopedic procedures on the pelvic girdle and lower extremities. Many anesthetic agents have been used for caudal anesthesia in pediatric patients, with lidocaine and Bupivacaine being most common. The major problems associated with this technique are the limited duration of analgesia and unwanted motor blockade.. Addition of medications that prolong analgesia after a single shot caudal block has been investigated. Several authors have mentioned a special interest in using an opioid like morphine in caudal block for postoperative analgesia. When low dose morphine is used, the side effects are lower than when higher dose of morphine are used. A larger and definitive study is needed to compare very low dose morphine via caudal administration ...
Life/form Pediatric Caudal Injection Simulator is widely used as a safe, easy, and effective method of regional anesthesia in pediatric surgery.
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A caudal block is a special type of anesthesia. The doctor injects a small amount of numbing medicine near the tailbone to decrease feeling below the umbilicus (belly button) for a short time. The caudal block is done while the child is asleep, before the surgery starts. The medicine bathes and numbs the nerves that carry feelings to the spinal cord. It is a safe and effective way to decrease pain after surgery. Caudal blocks can be given to patients as young as one week of age to adulthood. The final decision as to whether or not your child may have a caudal is made by your childs anesthesiologist and surgeon.
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The purpose of this study was to provide basic biometric data on Korean adults through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measurements of the distances between the apex of sacral hiatus (SH) and the termination of dural sac (DS), and between SH and conus medullaris (CM) because they are critical to the performance of epidural neuroplasty. A total of 200 patients (88 males and 112 females) with back pain, who had no spine fracture, significant spinal deformity, and spondyloisthesis were selected for this study. The subjects were of mean age 54.3 (20~84) years and mean height 161.3 cm (135~187). T2-weighted MRI images were used for correlation analysis to evaluate the relationships between the distances, and variables such as sex and height. In all patients, the mean distance between SH and DS was 62.8±9.4 mm and the mean distance between SH and CM was 232.2±21.8 mm. The minimum distance and the maximum distance between SH and DS were 34.8 mm and 93.9 mm respectively, and the minimum ...
Gibson PRJ, Johnston S, Lagopoulos J, Cummine JL.Transient loss of motor-evoked responses associated with caudal injection of morphine in a patient with spondylolisthesis undergoing spinal fusion. Pediatric Anesthesia 16: 568-572, No. 5, May 2006 - AustraliaGoogle Scholar ...
Whenever you plan on getting a caudal injection, you must prepare yourself mentally and physically and keep all the required information ready. There are a few things you can do to stay fully prepared for your injection.. First, when you visit your doctor, he/she will take your medical history. So keep a list of all the medications you are taking and X-ray reports of your CT scan, MRI, and any other tests you have undergone for the diagnosis and treatment of your pain.. It is best to avoid taking any medications before the process, especially if the injection is for diagnosis. This way, you can tell if the injection has worked or not. You may have to fast a few hours before your injection, but you must confirm this with your doctor.. When going for your injection, make sure to wear the comfiest clothes in your closet. Dont wear anything tight that would stick to your body, especially the area where youre getting the injection on.. If you feel sick or are suffering from mild flu or fever the ...
Looking for online definition of continuous caudal analgesia in the Medical Dictionary? continuous caudal analgesia explanation free. What is continuous caudal analgesia? Meaning of continuous caudal analgesia medical term. What does continuous caudal analgesia mean?
Ansermino, M, Basu, R, Vandebeek, C, Montgomery, C. Nonopioid additives to local anaesthetics for caudal blockade in children: a systematic review. Paediatr Anaesth. vol. 3. 2003. pp. 561-73. (A system review paper that compares caudal duration of analgesia with and without additives to local anesthetics.). Breschan, C, Jost, R, Krumpholz, R, Schaumberger, F, Stettner, H, Marhofer, P, Likar, R. A prospective study comparing the analgesic efficacy of levobupivacaine, ropivacaine and bupivacaine in pediatric patients undergoing caudal blockade. Paediatr Anaesth. vol. 15. 2005. pp. 301-6. (A prospective comparative study evaluating levobupivacaine, rupivacaine and bupivacaine for caudal block in children.). Elyas, R, Guerra, LA, Pike, J, DeCarli, C, Betolli, M, Bass, J, Chou, S, Sweeney, B, Rubin, S, Barrowman, N, Moher, D, Leonard, M. Is staging beneficial for Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy? A systematic review. J Urol. vol. 183. 2010 May. pp. 2012(An elecronic literature database search ...
Spinal, caudal, and epidural blocks were first used for surgical procedures at the turn of the twentieth century. These central blocks were widely used worldwide until reports of permanent neurological injury appeared, most prominently in the United Kingdom. However, a large-scale epidemiological study conducted in the 1950s indicated that complications were rare when these blocks were performed skillfully, with attention to asepsis, and when newer, safer local anesthetics were used. Today, neuraxial ...
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One infant was excluded due to a protocol violation and consent was withdrawn prior to anesthesia in another. The caudal block was unsuccessful in two infants. Of the 56 infants who completed the protocol, 45 (80%) had at least one episode of hypertension (mean arterial pressure >80 mm Hg) and/or movement that required adjusting the anesthesia regimen. In the majority of these cases, the remifentanil and/or dexmedetomidine doses were increased although six infants required rescue 0.3% sevoflurane and one required a propofol bolus. Ten infants had at least one episode of mild hypotension (mean arterial pressure 40-50 mm Hg) and four had at least one episode of moderate hypotension (mean arterial pressure ...
Another month down and I am still in awe at home fast these little people quickly forget from baby 1 to baby 2. One big thing that happened since last month was he had surgery. We didnt post much about it because it involves what some would consider sensitive subject matter but as you know, we like to share our experience in hope of helping others going through the same thing. He had Hypospadias surgery which involved redirecting his urethra, which we discovered had a 90 degree curve and pointed downward instead of up. We traveled to St. Louis to have the surgery with specialist Dr. Palagiri at Mercy Childrens. The scariest part for me was the Caudal Block anesthesia, which is similar to an epidural. Well, we are a week and a half out from surgery and he is healing great! The first few days were rough and it involved dressing changes and soaks but by day 5, the dressing came off and he was practically back to his old self. We have to avoid any type of straddle toys until after our ...
The Effectiveness of Caudal Block with Low Doses of Dexmedetomidine and Pethidine in Transrectal Prostate Biopsy: Preliminary Results ...
Caudal analgesia is the most popular and commonly used regional block in paediatric surgery. It continues to offer a safe and effective intra and postoperative analgesia for many surgical procedures in the region of the umbilicus and below. The use of local anaesthetics in combination with opioids has been demonstrated to improve caudal analgesia in children but has also been associated with side effects such as nausea and vomiting, pruritus, urinary retention, and potentially life threatening respiratory depression. Clonidine, an alpha, agonist has been used effectively for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. It has been shown to provide analgesia of variable efficacy and duration and to potentiate postoperative analgesia when used in combination with local anaesthetics or opioids via extradural and intradural routes. Furthermore, it lacks side effects that are associated with the use of systemic and spinal opioids but does demonstrate adverse effects including sedation, hypotension, and ...
Thirty-two patients aged 1 month to 9.5 yr were studied. Three patients were excluded from the study (two inadvertently received neuromuscular blockers and one patients anatomy precluded any attempt at a caudal block). Table 2 and Table 3summarize the comparison of this test with the clinical assessment for the remaining 29 patients. There were 23 positive and 6 negative results from the stimulation test after the first attempt to place the caudal needle. Four patients had a second placement attempt as improper needle position was suggested by clinical signs of subcutaneous bulging or tissue resistance upon injection of local anesthetics (Table 4). All these patients had good postoperative analgesia without opioids. No attempt was made to reinsert the caudal needle for the remaining two patients with negative stimulation tests as they did not have any clinical signs of improper needle placement. These patients were found to have poor analgesia such that intravenous morphine was given ...
Caudal Neuroplasty, Epidurolysis, Adhesiolysis or epidural lysis of adhesions is a procedure designed to reduce the fibrotic tissue that has formed in the epidural space after slipped disc surgery, with the aim of reducing the compression that this exerts on the nerves. It consists of the insertion of a specially designed catheter, guided by radiological control through the sacral hiatus (an opening that exists at the end of the sacrum ...
Treatment: it is imperative that the uterus is replaced correctly and full inverted to its normal position within the abdomen. The ewe will continue to strain, causing considerable distress, and suffering and re-prolapse if it is not replaced correctly. The best option is for a vet to replace the uterus, under extradural analgesia. The standard method is as follows: Infiltration of the vulva with 2% lignocaine solution affords some degree of analgesia in order to insert retention sutures but this technique is much inferior to caudal block. A Buhner suture of 5mm umbilical tape affords the best means of uterus retention. Antibiotics, either procaine penicillin or Oxytetracycline should be administered intramuscularly daily for 3 - 5 days after, in order to limit the bacterial infection of the traumatised tissues. NSAIDs to reduce pain should be given in correspondence to the ewes condition. Ewe milk yield will be reduced for a number of days after, lambs must be fed supplement. Unlike vaginal ...
Patients and methods: Thirty patients were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into two groups , Group A (n=15)received IVRA lidocaine 3 mg/kg 2% diluted with isotonic saline to 0.5% concentration, Group B (n=15) received lidocaine 3mg/kg 2% plus Ondansetron diluted with isotonic saline to 0.5% concentration ,hemodynamic variables and VAS were recorded before and after tourniquet inflation, tourniquet pain, post-operative pain and first analgesic requirement time till 6 hours postoperatively were recorded ...
Expertise in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of different medical conditions to include neurological and musculoskeletal problems. Conservative treatment of chronic pain. Expertise in spinal interventional procedures including epidural lumbar or caudal injections, facet joint injections/medial nerve branch blocks, trigger point injections, dry needle trigger point injections, sacroiliac joint injections, greater occipital nerve block and botulinum toxin injections; EMG and NCS. ...
The single most common block (40 percent) was a single-injection block in the pelvic area (caudal block) for procedures in the lower body (for example, hernia surgery). However, blocks of the peripheral nerves were common as well (35 percent), especially for surgery on the upper and lower limbs.. The large numbers of single-injection peripheral nerve blocks seemed related to increased use of ultrasound to guide local anesthetic injections. Ultrasound was used in more than 80 percent of upper-limb blocks and nearly 70 percent of lower-limb blocks.. As the use of regional anesthesia continues to increase, there is a lack of detailed and complete information on its safety in children. The best available studies, performed in Europe, are more than a decade old. Thus they may not reflect modern practice, including the use of ultrasound guidance.. Because complications of regional anesthesia are relatively uncommon, very large databases are needed to provide meaningful estimates of the true risks. ...
The single most common block (40 percent) was a single-injection block in the pelvic area (caudal block) for procedures in the lower body (for example, hernia surgery). However, blocks of the peripheral nerves were common as well (35 percent), especially for surgery on the upper and lower limbs.. The large numbers of single-injection peripheral nerve blocks seemed related to increased use of ultrasound to guide local anesthetic injections. Ultrasound was used in more than 80 percent of upper-limb blocks and nearly 70 percent of lower-limb blocks.. As the use of regional anesthesia continues to increase, there is a lack of detailed and complete information on its safety in children. The best available studies, performed in Europe, are more than a decade old. Thus they may not reflect modern practice, including the use of ultrasound guidance.. Because complications of regional anesthesia are relatively uncommon, very large databases are needed to provide meaningful estimates of the true risks. ...
Abstract of Paper: Comparative Study of Neostigmine and Ketamine as Additives to Plain Bupivacaine in Caudal Analgesia after Lower Abdominal Surgery in Pediatrics , Author: Omar Mohey Eldin A. El-Maksoud MD, Ehab El -Shebat Afifi MD, Ahmed Mostafa A. El-Hamid MD and Ahmed A. Mosaad M.Sc , Year: 2012 , Faculty of Medicine, Benha University
Levobupivacaine ((S)-1-butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-piperidinecarboxamide) is useful as an anesthetic, particularly in a patient who is disposed to adverse systemic side-effects, e.g., one who is CNS-compromised or predisposed to CNS side-effects. A unit dose of levobupivacaine comprising at least 75 mg to less than 200 mg of levobupivacaine is described herein.
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Levobupivacaine. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
Officially, the bollock-busting post-hardcore mob that is Poison The Well havent split up, but have merely gone on haitus. But we all know that really means weve split up, but this way we can still get together and do a tour and maybe put out another record in five years if we get bored / nostalgic / find ourselves in need of some quick cash.. [Read more →]. ...
2006-12-10 19:39:52 joshgrrr 5 stars HAHAHAHAHAHA didnt morph die? Well the X-Men initially thought he was dead, but as it turned out, he was abducted & manipulated by Mr. Sinister. He later broke free of Sinisters hold and took a hiatus to find himself ...
Leaders of a Ventura County-run HMO want the insurance plan to participate in the online marketplace being created through the federal health care overhaul.. Officials of the Ventura County Health Care Plan, which covers more than 20,000 people including county employees and people in the government program Healthy Families, will ask the Ventura County Board of Supervisors on Tuesday for approval to apply for a chance to offer coverage through the California Health Benefit Exchange.. ...
Beyaz, SG. Comparison of postoperative analgesic efficacy of caudal block versus dorsal penile nerve block with levobupivacaine for circumcision in children.. Korean J Pain . vol. 24. 2011. pp. 31-5. Cyna, A, Middleton, P. Caudal epidural block versus other methods of postoperative pain relief for circumcision in boys. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008. Holder, KJ, Peutrell, JM, Weir, PM. Regional anaesthesia for circumcision: subcutaneous ring block of the penis and subpubic penile block compared.. Eur J Anaesthesiol . vol. 14. 1997. pp. 495-8. Sandeman, DJ, Reiner, D, Dilley, AV, Bennett, MH, Kelly, KJ. A retrospective audit of three different regional anaesthetic techniques for circumcision in children. Anaesth Intensive Care . vol. 38. 2010. pp. 519-24. Weksler, N, Atias, I, Klevin, M, Rosenztsveig, V, Ovadia, L, Gurman, GM. Is penile block better than caudal epidural block for postcircumcision analgesia?. J Anesth . vol. 19. 2005. pp. 36-9. (These articles all provide specific ...
Bupivicaine hydrochloride is a long-acting local anaesthetic. Its use results in local anaesthesia lasting between 12-24 hours. The drug has been extensively used in thoracic and abdominal surgery and as caudal analgesia in obstetrics. It has also been used in nerve blocks.
Advice for mothers using Levobupivacaine (Chirocaine) while breastfeeding. Includes possible effects on breastfed infants and lactation.
Martinsburg City Councilman Richard Yauger said Wednesday he hopes to return soon to council meetings after about a six-month hiatus due to an infection.Yauger, 79, said a bad case of cellulitis
Popular DJ/producer Audiofreq has just announced an extended hiatus from the music scene, citing burnout and exhaustion as the main factors. Last year,
Anyone who is stupid, rude, judgmental and all-out retarded enough to think that two sold weeks of staring at a person who doesnt even know youre there because theyre ASLEEP doesnt take a physical and emotional toll on ANYBODY needs to take a look at the giant beam in their eye before they go grabbing at the mote they think is in yours ...
Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the effects of two different doses of intraarticular ketamine on visual analog scale (VAS) scores at rest and movement, time to first analgesic requirement, and 24-h morphine consumption in patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscectomy as well as to assess the frequency of postoperative nausea&vomiting, respiratory depression, pruritus, urinary retention, and constipation and to compare the time to discharge.. Patients and methods: This prospective randomized double- blind study was performed between August 2013 and August 2014 on 75 patients (32 males, 43 females; mean age 46.7±13 years; range, 18 to 75 years) with American Society of Anesthesiologists scores of I-II scheduled for unilateral meniscectomy. Patients were randomized to receive 0.5 ketamine (group K1), 1 ketamine (group K2) or saline (group S) to a total volume of 20 mL intraarticularly at the end of the surgery. All patients were performed periarticular 10 mL 0.5% ...
Lidocaine Hydrochloride Ampoules for Injection 2% supplied in a pack of 10. Product is a clear, colourless solution and contains 40 mg of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient in 2 ml.Lidocaine is a medication that is an anti-arrhythmic agent, and a local anaesthetic. Local anaesthesia by surface infiltration, epidural and caudal routes, dental anaesthesia, or regional anaesthesia during surgical procedures of ventricular arrhythmias associated with heart attack or cardiac surgery. Lidocaine may be administered by subcutaneous, intramuscular or intravenous injection - but is not intended for use in the eye.Displayed image may differ in quantity or strength. Pharmaceuticals will only be supplied on the instructions of a registered medical practitioner, quoting their GMC number. Return of pharmaceuticals will only be accepted if there is: an error in delivery, the product was damaged in transit, or in response to a batch recall.
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The number of ambulatory surgical procedures is growing and local anesthesia represents the technique of choice for outpatients undergoing minor surgery. The aim of this study was to verify whether differences exist in postoperative pain relief using equipotent doses of two long-acting local anesthetics, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine, in patients who underwent minor breast surgery. A series of 86 consecutive women (median age=55, range=39-75 years) with small (,2 cm in size) breast masses requiring surgical excision were prospectively enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly selected to receive 75 mg/ml ropivacaine (group A, 42 patients) or 5 mg/ml levobupivacaine (group B, 44 patient). For post-surgical measurement of pain intensity a visual analog scale (VAS) was used. The age of the patients (56.4±9.6 vs. 56.7 ±9.5 years; p=0.88) and operative time (38.4 ± vs. 39.8 ±5.0 min; p=0.16), did not differ significantly between the groups (A vs. B). Transient adverse effects were observed ...
Using Chemical Structural Indicators for Periodic Classification of Local Anaesthetics: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4010-8.ch009: Algorithms for classification and taxonomy based on criteria as information entropy and its production are proposed. Some local anaesthetics, currently in
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"Continuous Caudal Anesthesia in Obstetrics". American Journal of Surgery. American Journal of Surgery. Retrieved July 15, 2019 ... With the help of colleague Waldo B. Edwards, he also developed the continuous caudal anesthesia epidural administration to ... "The Western Reserve Anesthesia Machine, Oxygen Inhalator, And Resuscitator". Jama Network. Robert Hingson. Retrieved July 15, ... His awards include the Labat Award from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and the President's Volunteer Action Award ...
... and caudal anesthesia is presently the most common and safest modality for anesthesia in pregnant women. Early recognition of ... Greenhill, J.P. (September 7, 1944). "Manual Dilatation of the Cervix Under Caudal Anesthesia". American Journal of Obstetrics ... by procaine spinal anesthesia)". The study demonstrated that neuraxial anesthesia could be safely used to alleviate the pain of ... While spinal anesthesia would go on to be indispensable in the world of obstetrics, manual cervical dilation would fall out of ...
In 1941, Robert Hingson and Waldo Edwards recorded the use of continuous caudal anesthesia using an indwelling needle, ... Edwards WB, Hingson RA (1942). "Continuous caudal anesthesia in obstetrics". American Journal of Surgery. 57 (3): 459-64. doi: ... 42: 483-5. Marx GF (1994). "The first spinal anesthesia. Who deserves the laurels?". Regional Anesthesia. 19 (6): 429-30. PMID ... following which they described the use of a flexible catheter for continuous caudal anesthesia in a woman in labor in 1942. In ...
... the caudal approach to epidural anesthesia in 1901; and Fidel Pages, the lumbar epidural approach in 1921. In 1921, the first ... regional anesthesia, transplant anesthesia and trauma anesthesia.[citation needed] Obstetric anesthesiologists typically serve ... Obstetric anesthesia or obstetric anesthesiology, also known as ob-gyn anesthesia or ob-gyn anesthesiology, is a sub-specialty ... Anesthesia for cesarean sections (C-sections) most commonly uses neuraxial (regional) anesthesia due to its better safety ...
... such as spinal anesthesia, caudal anesthesia, and epidural anesthesia. The technique is used in surgery, obstetrics, and for ... History of neuraxial anesthesia Miller's Anesthesia (8 ed.). Elsevier. 2015. pp. 1684-1720. Basics of Anesthesia (7 ed.). ... Neuraxial anesthesia refers to local anesthetics placed around the nerves of the central nervous system, ... v t e (Anesthesia, All stub articles, Surgery stubs). ...
"Continuous Caudal Anesthesia During Labor and Delivery". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 21: 301-11. doi:10.1213/00000539-194201000- ... to study the use of continuous caudal anesthesia for analgesia during childbirth. Hingson and Edwards studied the caudal region ... The first use of continuous caudal anesthesia in a laboring woman was on January 6, 1942, when the wife of a United States ... With the use of continuous caudal anesthesia, the woman and her baby survived. The first described placement of a lumbar ...
Another feature identified with Malpuech syndrome is a caudal appendage. A caudal appendage is a congenital outgrowth stemming ... Successful general anesthesia followed. A rare follow-up of a male with Malpuech syndrome was presented by Priolo et al. (2007 ... For regional anesthesia, methods like spinal blocking are more difficult where scoliosis is present. In a 2010 report by ... Methods like tracheal intubation for management of the airway during general anesthesia can be hampered by the even smaller, or ...
EEG measures taken during anesthesia exhibit stereotypic changes as anesthetic depth increases. These changes include complex ... or from spinal cord caudal to the surgery. This allows direct monitoring of motor tracts in the spinal cord. EEG ... The signals change according to various factors, including anesthesia, tissue temperature, surgical stage, and tissue stresses ... The exam has 200 multiple choice questions covering 6 areas: Anesthesia, Neuroscience, Instrumentation, Electro-physiology, ...
Miller RD (November 2, 2006). Basics of Anesthesia. Churchill Livingstone. Ma TT, Wang YH, Jiang YF, Peng CB, Yan C, Liu ZG, Xu ... Bupivacaine is indicated for local infiltration, peripheral nerve block, sympathetic nerve block, and epidural and caudal ... However, it is approved for use at term in obstetrical anesthesia. Bupivacaine is excreted in breast milk. Risks of stopping ... It is the most commonly used local anesthetic in epidural anesthesia during labor, as well as in postoperative pain management ...
... caudal block in pediatric populations and anesthesia for robot-assisted surgery. New video segments were created for the ... Miller's Anesthesia Review Anesthetic Pharmacology: Physiologic Principles and Clinical Practice Miller's Anesthesia. W B ... One key book to read is Miller's Anesthesia. Miller, Lorraine M. Sdrales, Ronald D. (2013). Miller's anesthesia review (2nd ed ... Major updates include ten new chapters covering robot-administered anesthesia, non-operating room anesthesia, non-opioid ...
... epidural and caudal anesthesia). Topical anesthesia: local anesthetics that are specially formulated to diffuse through the ... Spinal anesthesia is a "one-shot" injection that provides rapid onset and profound sensory anesthesia with lower doses of ... General anesthesia (as opposed to sedation or regional anesthesia) has three main goals: lack of movement (paralysis), ... Alice Magaw, born in November 1860, is often referred to as "The Mother of Anesthesia". Her renown as the personal anesthesia ...
... anesthesia, caudal MeSH E03.155.086.231 - anesthesia, local MeSH E03.155.086.331 - anesthesia, spinal MeSH E03.155.086.711 - ... anesthesia, general MeSH E03.155.197.197 - anesthesia, inhalation MeSH E03. - anesthesia, closed-circuit MeSH ... anesthesia, intratracheal MeSH E03.155.308 - anesthesia, intravenous MeSH E03.155.364 - anesthesia, obstetrical MeSH E03.155. ... anesthesia, conduction MeSH E03.155.086.131 - anesthesia, epidural MeSH E03. - ...
... is used for regional anaesthesia including spinal anaesthesia, caudal anaesthesia and epidural anesthesia It is ... Chestnut: Obstetric Anesthesia, 3rd ed, p333. Hughes: Anesthesia for Obstetrics, 4th ed, p75. "Chloroprocaine". Drug ... mandibular nerve block or maxillary nerve block for dental anesthesia, ophthalmic anesthesia via infraorbital nerve block, ... "Chloroprocaine spinal anesthesia: back to the future?". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 100 (2): 549-52. doi:10.1213/01.ANE. ...
These results suggest that U-46619 elicits contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle by activating Ca2+ entry from the ... Vasoconstrictors mixed with local anesthetics are used to increase the duration of local anesthesia by constricting the blood ... 2005-08-01) [Published on Journal website 2005-07-26]. "Thromboxane A2-induced contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle ... Yagiela JA (1995). "Vasoconstrictor agents for local anesthesia". Anesth Prog. 42 (3-4): 116-20. PMC 2148913. PMID 8934977. ...
... repair is done under general anesthesia, most often supplemented by a nerve block to the penis or a caudal block to ... reduce the general anesthesia needed, and to minimize discomfort after surgery.[citation needed] Many techniques have been used ...
In lambs, tail docking at the distal end of the caudal folds tends to minimize docking effects on incidence of rectal prolapse ... Routine tail-docking without anesthesia is illegal in the EU. The practice continues among large US pig producers. Many breeds ...
"Manuel Martinez Curbelo And Continuous Lumbar Epidural Anesthesia" (PDF). Bulletin of Anesthesia History. 22 (4): 1-8. doi: ... In 1931, Aburel was the first to describe blocking the lumbar plexus during early labor, followed by a caudal epidural ... History of neuraxial anesthesia Collis, Rachel E.; Urquhart, John; Plaat, Felicity (2002). Textbook of Obstetric Anaesthesia. ...
Anesthesia (2000): 55: 208-211 Haslam, N., Parker, L., and Duggan, J.E. Effect of cricoid pressure on the view at laryngoscopy ... The slender ventral half, and the most caudal of the palpable laryngeal landmarks, is also referred to as the anterior cricoid ... Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 49(5), 503-507. Palmer, JHM, Ball, D.R. The effect of cricoids pressure on the cricoids ... Anesthesia (2005): 60: 41-47 Hocking, G., Roberts, F.L., Thew, M.E. Airway obstruction with cricoids pressure and lateral tilt ...
If the cyst is located in the caudal maxillary sinus, it may cause the eyeball on the affected side to bulge out of the orbit, ... or under general anesthesia. Treatment involves surgical removal of the cyst and any of the involved lining of the concha. The ...
Activity (limb movement) scores may be affected by the use of regional or caudal anaesthesia. Temperature, urine output, oral ... system is a commonly used scale for determining when postsurgical patients can be safely discharged from the post-anesthesia ...
For a front leg, this is when the lower leg is in front of the horse, i.e. angled forward, while the caudal phase is when the ... However, standing MRI tends to be cheaper, and it eliminates the risks of general anesthesia, such as further damage to the ... For a hind leg, the cranial phase occurs when the lower leg is under the body of the horse, and the caudal phase is when the ... A normal horse with have a cranial phase and a caudal phase of equal length: the horse will bring the leg as far forward as it ...
Treatment is possible in an emergency department under local anesthesia, but it is highly preferred to be formally admitted to ... Supralevator abscess forms from cephalad extension of the intersphincteric abscess above the levator ani or from caudal ... a hospital and to have the surgery performed in an operating room under general anesthesia. Generally speaking, a fairly small ... usually experiences an almost complete relief of the severe pain associated to his/her abscess upon waking from anesthesia; the ...
Structures that can be identified include the aorta, caudal pole of the left kidney, nephrosplenic ligament, caudal border of ... At times anesthesia and a rolling procedure, in which the horse is placed in left lateral recumbency and rolled to right ... Additionally, compression can place pressure on the caudal vena cava, leading to pooling of blood and hypovolemia. However, ... It may be performed standing or under general anesthesia, and is less invasive than an exploratory celiotomy (abdominal ...
The formation of the uterovaginal canal is thought to occur from the caudal to the cephalic portion, all while the urogenital ... therefore requiring no surgery or anesthesia. The procedure/technique can take months to complete, with regular compliance ... Females who have both Rokitansky-Mayer-Küster-Hauser syndrome and uterovaginal atresia are theorized to have a failing caudal ...
Under general or local anesthesia, the surgeon works through the nostrils, making an incision in the lining of the septum to ... Dropped nasal tip due to resection of the caudal margin. Rhinoplasty, surgery involving the entire nose Turbinectomy Empty nose ...
Caudal cross bite (CXB) - the mandible is wider than the maxilla in the area of the premolars. Instead of the upper fourth ... Basic dental cleaning under general anesthesia includes scaling to remove dental plaque, tartar, and calculus deposits, as well ... animal can only give limited information and a definitive oral examination can only be performed under general anesthesia. ...
Tsai, Tony; Greengrass, Roy (2007). "Spinal Anesthesia". In Hadzic, Admir (ed.). Textbook of Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain ... while axons from the heart also inhibit sympathetic nervous activity via the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) and possibly ... Spinal anesthesia: The Bezold-Jarisch reflex has been suggested as a possible cause of profound bradycardia and circulatory ... Miller's Anesthesia Ch.52 Pg. 1642 Smith, M. L. (May 1994). "Mechanisms of vasovagal syncope: relevance to postflight ...
The costiform is lateral, the mammillary is superior (cranial), and the accessory is inferior (caudal). The mammillary is ... "Virtual Spine - Online Learning Resource". Toronto Western Hospital Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management. Retrieved ...
Epidural anesthesia by a caudal approach had been known in the early 20th century, but a well-defined technique using lumbar ... epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia) Abdominal surgery (epidural anesthesia/spinal anesthesia, often combined ... Local anesthesia of body cavities includes intrapleural anesthesia and intra-articular anesthesia. Transincision (or transwound ... Typical operations performed under conduction anesthesia include: Dentistry (surface anesthesia, infiltration anesthesia or ...
While undergoing anesthesia, people with FOP may encounter difficulties with intubation, restrictive pulmonary disease, and ... Later the disease progresses in the ventral, appendicular, caudal and distal regions. However, it does not necessarily occur in ...
... glaucoma CATCH 22 syndrome Catecholamine hypertension Catel-Manzke syndrome Caudal appendage deafness Caudal duplication Caudal ... transport disease Coproporhyria Cor biloculare Cor pulmonale Cor triatriatum Cormier-Rustin-Munnich syndrome Corneal anesthesia ...
The caudal end of the male was asymmetrically alate and bore 10 pairs of papillae and two phasmidal apertures." The average ... A small female Gongylonema worm was surgically removed from her cheek mucosa under local anesthesia, and follow up treatment ...
The other part is from the caudal extensions of the fourth pharyngobranchial pouches which results in the parafollicular ... ISBN 978-0-07-139140-5. Macksey LF (2012). Surgical procedures and anesthetic implications: a handbook for nurse anesthesia ...
Signs and symptoms of cauda equina syndrome include: Severe back pain Saddle anesthesia (see diagram), i.e., anesthesia or ... This degeneration causes compressions in soft tissues and nerve root locations in the caudal area of the medulla, causing ... saddle anesthesia, urinary or fecal incontinence and sexual dysfunction are considered "red flags", i.e. features which require ...
Johnson, Joel O. (2013), "Autonomic Nervous System Physiology", Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia, Elsevier, pp. 208- ... caudal lumbar ganglia and sacral ganglia Prevertebral ganglia (celiac ganglion, aorticorenal ganglion, superior mesenteric ...
Use of regional anesthesia (with the recommendation of using a combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia) for laparoscopic ... In the case of reverse Trendelenburg position, pulmonary function tends to improve as there is a caudal shifting of viscera, ... surgery, as opposed to general anesthesia required for many non-laparoscopic procedures, can produce fewer complications and ...
Alpha-2 agonists often have a sedating effect and are commonly used as anesthesia enhancers in surgery, as well as in treatment ... Noradrenergic cell group A1 is located in the caudal ventrolateral part of the medulla, and plays a role in the control of body ...
In a study involving autobiographical recollection, the caudal part of the left PCC was the only brain structure highly active ... Latasch, L; Christ, R (March 1988). "[Problems in anesthesia of drug addicts]". Der Anaesthesist. 37 (3): 123-39. PMID 3289412 ... The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is the caudal part of the cingulate cortex, located posterior to the anterior cingulate ...
This is most strong when cholinergic input to the zona incerta is reduced as during slow-wave sleep and during anesthesia. The ... Plaha, P.; Khan, S.; Gill, S. (May 2008). "Bilateral stimulation of the caudal zona incerta nucleus for tremor control". ... of medium-sized multipolar or fusiform shaped cells that are more densely packed than the cells in the dorsal sector a caudal ...
Dorsal Penile Block Anesthesia (bupivacaine without epinephrine), Caudal block anesthesia, Dorsal Penile Block Anesthesia ... caudal anesthesia is one of the most common regional anesthetic techniques used. Also known as caudal block, it has been shown ... Deviation to pre-established anesthesia protocol Yes for Deviation to pre-established anesthesia protocol exclusion criteria 4 ... As a result, the objective of this superiority, randomized controlled trial is to assess whether the use of caudal anesthesia, ...
Reducing Pain after Inguinal Hernia Repair in Children: Caudal Anesthesia versus Ketorolac Tromethamine Anesthesiology ( ... Analgesic Effects of Caudal and Intramuscular S (+)-Ketamine in Children Anesthesiology (October 2000) ... CAUDAL ANESTHESIA. Anesthesiology 1966; 27:531 doi: ...
After induction of anesthesia, GroupAreceived caudal block using 1 ml/kg 0.2% ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine 0.3 μg/kg up to ... Comparison of Caudal Anesthesia and Ilioinguinal Block for Pediatric Inguinal Surgeries and Postoperative Analgesia. ... Comparison of Caudal Anesthesia and Ilioinguinal Block for Pediatric Inguinal Surgeries and Postoperative Analgesia. ... We aim to compare the caudal block and ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric block using the combination ofropivacaine and ...
Children were randomly divided into 2 groups in a double-blind fashion, and were given caudal anesthesia with 0.125% ... we examined the duration of post-operative analgesia in children when clonidine is added to bupivacaine in caudal anesthesia. ... Induction and maintenance of anesthesia were achieved using sodium thiopenthal, halothane and nitrous oxide. ... Children were randomly divided into 2 groups in a double-blind fashion, and were given caudal anesthesia with 0.125% ...
Spinal and epidural anesthesia are procedures that deliver medicines that numb parts of your body to block pain. They are given ... Spinal, epidural, and caudal anesthesia. In: Pardo MC, Miller RD, eds. Basics of Anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... Spinal and epidural anesthesia are procedures that deliver medicines that numb parts of your body to block pain. They are given ... Spinal and epidural anesthesia work well for certain procedures and do not require placing a breathing tube into the windpipe ( ...
It can be seen that 50% of them underwent caudal anesthesia, 34.67% spinal anesthesia, and 15.3% epidural anesthesia. ... For caudal anesthesia we used the combination of lidocaine and bupivacaine to obtain a quick start of anesthesia, motor ... She was given caudal anesthesia without using midazolam or ketamine. The youngest patient with spinal anesthesia was an infant ... Anesthesia y Analgesia. 1993;76: 925-927.. 35. Melman E, Arenas JA, Tandazo WE, Caudal anesthesia for pediatric surgery, an ...
Combined Spinal and Caudal Epidural Anesthesia for Prolonged Surgical Procedures in Pediatric-Aged Patients: A Report of Two ... Combined Spinal and Caudal Epidural Anesthesia for Prolonged Surgical Procedures in Pediatric-Aged Patients: A Report of Two ... To avoid this limitation, we report a technique combining spinal and caudal epidural anesthesia. We present two infants in whom ... Because of its short duration of action, spinal anesthesia in infants is generally limited to procedures lasting less than 70 ...
Lumbar and caudal epidural anesthesia should be used with extreme caution in persons with the following conditions: existing ... Epidural, caudal, or pudendal anesthesia may alter the forces of parturition through changes in uterine contractility or ... Use only the single-dose ampuls and single-dose vials for caudal or epidural anesthesia; the multiple-dose vials contain a ... When continuous lumbar or caudal epidural anesthesia is used for non-obstetrical procedures, more drug may be administered if ...
It is indicated in all longer lasting painful procedures in caudal regions. The technique of … ... Local, regional, and spinal anesthesia techniques are safe effective methods for providing anesthesia for common surg … ... Anesthesia in birds]. Grimm F. Grimm F. Tierarztl Prax. 1987;15(4):381-4. Tierarztl Prax. 1987. PMID: 3327199 Review. German. ... Anesthesia in swine]. Heinritzi K, König HE. Heinritzi K, et al. Tierarztl Prax. 1988;16(1):45-52. Tierarztl Prax. 1988. PMID: ...
For Infiltration, Nerve Block, Caudal and Epidural Anesthesia. Not for Spinal Anesthesia ... For Epidural and Retrobulbar Anesthesia Not for Obstetric Anesthesia Not for Spinal Anesthesia Methylparaben Free Warning: ... For Epidural and Retrobulbar Anesthesia Not for Obstetric Anesthesia Not for Spinal Anesthesia Methylparaben Free Warning: ... For Infiltration, Nerve Block, Caudal and Epidural Anesthesia Not for Spinal Anesthesia ...
Alpinia purpurata; Oriental traditional medicine; albino; anesthesia; antineoplastic activity; antineoplastic agents; ... antioxidants; blood serum; carcinoma; caudal vein; cervical dislocation; chloroform; ethyl acetate; herbal medicines; ...
... was infused intraventricularly as needed to maintain anesthesia. Wounds were treated daily until healed with nitrofurazone ... Caudal BLA. The baseline performance profile in rats with cannulas aimed at the cBLA was similar to the profile observed in ... Caudal BLA. A cocaine priming injection in combination with the conditioned S+ cocaine cues reinstated drug-seeking behavior on ... Caudal BLA. In contrast to the rBLA, bilateral lidocaine inactivation of the cBLA during cocaine maintenance test sessions ...
Basics of Anesthesia Lecture Series: 17. Spinal, Epidural, & Caudal Anesthesia w/Dr. Brenner. day:. Friday. date:. 09/30/2022. ... ANES) Basics of Anesthesia Lecture Series: 17. Spinal, Epidural, & Caudal Anesthesia w/Dr. Brenner. area:. location:. OR ...
Caudal anesthesia, in conjunction with GA, is commonly used in our institution, and we perform 40-50 blocks per month. ... and anesthesia pediatric-specific providers, and use of anesthesia drugs with a proven safety record in the pediatric ... 5 The rate of anesthesia mortality where the death occurred after induction of anesthesia, but before the start of surgery, was ... Registry classifies cardiac arrest as anesthesia related if anesthesia personnel or anesthetic process played some role.5 We ...
... endoscopic technique for interbody fusion combined with percutaneous screw fixation to obviate the need for general anesthesia ... Kakiuchi M, & Abe K: Preincisional caudal epidural blockade and the relief of pain after lumbar spine operations. Int Orthop 21 ... Kakiuchi M, & Abe K: Preincisional caudal epidural blockade and the relief of pain after lumbar spine operations. Int Orthop 21 ... Matheson D: Epidural anesthesia for lumbar laminectomy and spinal fusion. Can J Anaesth Soc J 149-157, 1960 ...
... a form of regional anesthesia involves the injection of certain anesthetic drugs into a fluid-filled space in which the spinal ... Assessment of an ultrasound-guided technique for catheterization of the caudal thoracic paravertebral space in dog cadavers. - ... Spinal Anesthesia Spinal anesthesia is a type of regional anesthesia. It is easy to administer & is suited for surgeries ... What is Spinal Anesthesia?. Spinal anesthesia is a form of regional anesthesia that involves the injection of certain ...
open inguinal hernia repair is feasible in infants with caudal anesthesia and spontaneous respiration.. Eur J Pediatr Surg. ...
Surgeries were conducted under general anesthesia using isofluorane administered via endotracheal intubation. Previous to the ... Petrides M, Pandya DN (2006) Efferent association pathways originating in the caudal prefrontal cortex in the macaque monkey. J ... 2A; Leavitt et al., 2013). The multielectrode array was inserted on the prearcuate convexity posterior to the caudal end of the ... Our conclusions therefore can only be applied to the most caudal aspect of the PFC in monkeys. Second, there is a significant ...
Caudal. Anesthesia, on the contrary, blocks pain in the lower back, stomach, and lower trunk. A baby. who is under general ... General anesthesia is the best option for infant circumcision. This will put the child completely to. sleep and relaxes his ... anesthesia wont feel the circumcision. He will be able go about his daily. routine without any pain. ...
Anesthesia. Caudal. Obstetrical analgesia. Surgical anesthesia. 1. 1. 1.5. 2. 1. 1.5. 20 to 30. 25 to 30. 15 to 20. 10 to 15. ... Lumbar and caudal epidural anesthesia should be used with extreme caution in persons with the following conditions: existing ... When continuous lumbar or caudal epidural anesthesia is used for non-obstetrical procedures, more drug may be administered if ... For continuous epidural or caudal anesthesia, the maximum recommended dosage should not be administered at intervals of less ...
The mothers had greater frequencies of threatened abortions, epidural caudal anesthesia use, labor induction, and labor ... epidural anesthesia, labor induction, and labor duration of less than 1 hour. These children were more often born first, had a ...
A comparison of buffered tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) and isoeugenol anesthesia for caudal fin clipping in zebrafish ( ... However, anesthesia long-term side effects remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess anesthesia quality ... and isoeugenol for the anesthesia of zebrafish undergoing caudal fin clipping. Eighty 9 mo Danio rerio (AB strain)... ... The use of proper anesthesia in zebrafish research is essential to ensure fish welfare and data reliability. ...
Older children usually have general inhalation anesthesia, whereas some anesthesia providers use spinal or continuous caudal ... Preemptive regional anesthesia, by ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block or by caudal block, decreases postoperative ... In children, umbilical hernia repair is best performed with general anesthesia, whereas in adults, regional or local anesthesia ... Local anesthesia is sufficient for most repairs in adults; however, prolonged procedures, repair of hernias with a large ...
Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. MRI was performed at the MRBa using a 1.5 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Avanto and 2 ... Caudal fossa respiratory epithelial cyst in a dog: clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and histopathologic findings. ...
... compared with the Hct for samples obtained from the caudal tail artery. When compared on the basis of metabolic class, sharks ... lower in blood samples collected from the cranial dorsal fin sinus compared with values for samples collected from the caudal ... Procedures-Blood samples were collected from the caudal tail artery followed by collection from the sinus located immediately ... caudal to the cranial dorsal fin. The Hct was determined for each sample and results were compared. Additionally, results for ...
Spinal, epidural, and caudal anesthesia. In: Pardo MC, Miller RD, eds. Basics of Anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... Spinal and epidural anesthesia. Intrathecal anesthesia; Subarachnoid anesthesia; Epidural. Spinal and epidural anesthesia are ... Spinal and epidural anesthesia work well for certain procedures and do not require placing a breathing tube into the windpipe ( ... Spinal and epidural anesthesia are generally safe. Ask your doctor about these possible complications:. *Allergic reaction to ...
Blood samples were collected via repeated phlebotomy of the caudal vein of each fish at three-time points; preanesthesia, ... Effects of Anesthesia and Elective Ovariectomy on Serial Blood Gases and Lactates in Yellow Perch and Walleye Pike: Can Lactate ... Mean pH decreased with anesthesia but returned to preanesthetic levels postsurgery. Mean lactate (±SD) increased from ... on a recirculating anesthesia machine for elective ovariectomy. ...
Deep anesthesia can cause a relaxation of the striated esophageal muscles and therefore be misinterpreted as dilation. ... It is likely the cause of esophagitis, when the inflammation mainly affects the caudal part of the esophagus. Gastroscopy with ... In patients with incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter, vomiting during anesthesia for endoscopy can lead to temporary ... Gastroesophageal reflux is difficult to assess due to esophageal relaxation during anesthesia causing opening of the lower ...

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