A malformation of the nervous system caused by failure of the anterior neuropore to close. Infants are born with intact spinal cords, cerebellums, and brainstems, but lack formation of neural structures above this level. The skull is only partially formed but the eyes are usually normal. This condition may be associated with folate deficiency. Affected infants are only capable of primitive (brain stem) reflexes and usually do not survive for more than two weeks. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p247)
A common congenital midline defect of fusion of the vertebral arch without protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges. The lesion is also covered by skin. L5 and S1 are the most common vertebrae involved. The condition may be associated with an overlying area of hyperpigmented skin, a dermal sinus, or an abnormal patch of hair. The majority of individuals with this malformation are asymptomatic although there is an increased incidence of tethered cord syndrome and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)
Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
A disorder present in the newborn infant in which constriction rings or bands, causing soft tissue depressions, encircle digits, extremities, or limbs and sometimes the neck, thorax, or abdomen. They may be associated with intrauterine amputations.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

The 'Mickey Mouse' sign and the diagnosis of anencephaly in early pregnancy. (1/149)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the sonographic screening for anencephaly in the first trimester in a low-risk obstetric population. METHODS: Since 1994, 5388 women attended our clinic for a first-trimester scan (11-14 weeks of gestation) and screening for structural and chromosomal abnormalities. The patients underwent transabdominal scanning, and transvaginal scanning if necessary. RESULTS: The ultrasonographic appearances of anencephaly in the first trimester are different from the familiar second-trimester signs. The cerebral hemispheres are present and exposed to the surrounding amniotic fluid. The ultrasound appearances in the coronal section of the head are best described as 'Mickey Mouse face'. There were six cases of anencephaly (incidence 1.1:1000). All cases were diagnosed in the first trimester and five demonstrated this sign. There were no false-positive diagnoses. The crown-rump length was significantly reduced in all affected fetuses. CONCLUSION: First-trimester ultrasonographic diagnosis of anencephaly is accurate, but sonographers should be familiar with the ultrasound appearances that are different from those in the second trimester.  (+info)

Neural tube defects along the Texas-Mexico border, 1993-1995. (2/149)

In response to a 1991 anencephaly cluster in Cameron County, Texas, a surveillance and neural tube defect (NTD) recurrence prevention project for NTDs was implemented in the 14 Texas-Mexico border counties. For 1993-1995, NTD-affected pregnancies were identified at all gestational ages through active surveillance of multiple case-ascertainment sources. There were 87 cases of anencephaly, 96 cases of spina bifida, and 14 cases of encephalocele for respective rates of 6.4, 7.1, and 1.1 per 10,000 live births. Of the 197 NTD case-women, 93% were Hispanic. The overall, Hispanic, and Anglo NTD rates were, respectively, 14.6, 14.9, and 10.6 per 10,000 live births. The NTD rate for El Paso County (9.8 per 10,000), the most northwestern Texas county, was significantly lower (p = 0.001) than the aggregate rate for the rest of the Texas border (17.1 per 10,000). The overall Texas border rate was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than a recently estimated rate of 9.3 for California and minimally higher than a recently adjusted rate of 11.3 for the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program counties (p = 0.052), both of which now reflect all gestational ages. Of the 197 Texas border cases, 85% (168 cases) reached a gestational age of > or =20 weeks. Excluding cases of <20 weeks' gestation in the rate had a more marked effect on reducing the anencephaly rate (4.9 per 10,000) than the spina bifida rate (6.7 per 10,000). A country of birth was known for 153 (83%) of the 184 Hispanic case-women: 63% were born in Mexico; 24%, in Texas; and 11%, elsewhere in the United States. Rates for Mexico-born Hispanic women (15.1 per 10,000) were significantly higher than rates for United States-born Hispanic women (9.5 per 10,000) (p = 0.006).  (+info)

East Ireland 1980-1994: epidemiology of neural tube defects. (3/149)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology of neural tube defects (NTD) in the eastern region of Ireland using the EUROCAT register of congenital malformations. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: EUROCAT registries monitor the prevalence of congenital anomalies in defined populations using multiple sources for case ascertainment. All cases of NTD on the Dublin EUROCAT register born between 1980 and 1994 were extracted and analysed. The crude birth prevalence rate for all NTD, spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocoele were calculated for each year. Parameters measured were: sex ratio, stillbirth rate, proportion of low birth-weight babies (< 2500 g) and the proportion who were premature (< 37 weeks gestation). MAIN RESULTS: Of 821 NTD cases, 419 (51.0%) had spina bifida, 322 (39.2%) had anencephaly, 69 (8.4%) had encephalocoele and 11 (1.3%) were iniencephalic. The crude birth prevalence of NTD decreased fourfold from 46.9/10,000 births in 1980 to 11.6/10,000 in 1994. The downward trend ceased during the early 1990's. Younger mothers had significantly higher rates of NTD affected births. Twenty two per cent of NTD cases had additional non-central nervous system anomalies. In 40 cases, there was a previous family history of NTD in siblings. Seasonal effects in birth prevalence were observed. Birth notification was the most frequent mechanism of ascertainment. CONCLUSION: There was a marked fall in the birth prevalence of NTD during the 15 year period. This change was real and not accounted for by pre-natal screening and diagnostic practises with termination of pregnancy, which is not legally permissible in Ireland. Dietary factors may have had an influence. Rates of NTD in this region are still higher than many other parts of Europe. Primary prevention strategies through increased folic acid intake are necessary to further reduce NTD affected births.  (+info)

Vasculature of the optic nerve in anencephaly. (4/149)

The optic nerves and globes obtained from 6 anencephalics were studied histologically and compared to normal specimens obtained from 4 stillborn infants as well as 1 case of septo-optic dysplasia. Special emphasis was placed on examination of the optic nerve, and it was found that an average of 48 vessels per high-power field were seen posterior to the lamina cribrosa in anencephalics. In contrast, control globes had an average of 12 vessels per high-power field. This suggested that an increase in the vasculature of the hypoplastic optic nerve is a characteristic feature of anencephalics.  (+info)

Congenital vertebral anomalies: aetiology and relationship to spina bifida cystica. (5/149)

A family survey of 337 patients with congenital vertebral anomalies has been carried out from the Scoliosis Clinics of Edinburgh and the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, London. From genetic and epidemiological evidence it is clear that multiple vertebral anomalies (without apparent spina bifida) are aetiologically related to anencephaly and spina bifida cystics, carrying a 5-10% risk to subsequent sibs for any one of these defects. The implications for prenatal diagnosis are discussed. Solitary hemivertebrae and localized anterior defects of the vertebral bodies causing kyphoscoliosis are sporadic (non-familial) in nature, carrying no risk to subsequent sibs.  (+info)

Potato avoidance during pregnancy in women with a previous infant with either anencephaly and/or spina bifida. (6/149)

This investigation is a direct attempt to test Renwick's (1972) hypothesis that 95% of anencephaly and spina bifida (ASB) is preventable by the avoidance of potatoes during pregnancy. Although the numbers involved in the study are small, the investigation fails to support the concept that short-term avoidance of potatoes before conception and throughout pregnancy in women who have had a previous ASB infant reduces the recurrence risk. In the potato-free group, of 23 pregnancies which went to term two infants had ASB (8-7%); whereas in the non-potato-free group, of 56 which went to term two infants had ASB (3-6%). The recurrence risk in both groups was about 5%. The incidence of ASB in the groups shows no significant difference (P = 0-58) and in the potato-free group was not reduced by 95% as postulated by Renwick.  (+info)

An investigation of space and space-time clustering in a large sample of infants with neural tube defects born in Cardiff. (7/149)

Altogether 406 infants with neural tube defects born in Cardiff between 1956-71 were investigated for evidence of space-time clustering and 100 similarly affected infants, together with matched controls born in Cardiff between 1964-66 were investigated for evidence of spatial clustering. No evidence of excessive prevalence in either dimension was observed.  (+info)

Maternal exposure to nitrate from drinking water and diet and risk for neural tube defects. (8/149)

In this population-based case-control study conducted in California between June 1989 and May 1991, the authors investigated the association between maternal periconceptional exposure to nitrate from drinking water and diet and risk for neural tube defects. The mothers of 538 cases and 539 nonmalformed controls were interviewed regarding residential history, consumption of tap water at home, and dietary intake during the periconceptional period. Dietary nitrate exposure was not associated with increased risk for neural tube defects. Exposure to nitrate in drinking water at concentrations above the 45 mg/liter maximum contaminant level was associated with increased risk for anencephaly (odds ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 15.4), but not for spina bifida. Increased risks for anencephaly were observed at nitrate levels below the maximum contaminant level among groundwater drinkers only (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1,4.1 for 5-15 mg/liter; OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 4.5 for 16-35 mg/liter; and OR = 6.9, 95% CI: 1.9, 24.9 for 36-67 mg/liter compared with <5 mg/liter). Adjustment for identified risk factors for anencephaly did not substantially alter these associations, nor did control for maternal dietary nitrate, total vitamin C intake, and quantity of tap water consumed. The lack of an observed elevation in risk for anencephaly in association with exposure to mixed water containing nitrate at levels comparable with the concentration in groundwater may indicate that something other than nitrate accounts for these findings.  (+info)

Anencephaly is a serious birth defect that affects the neural tube, which is the structure that develops into the brain and spinal cord. In anencephaly, the neural tube fails to close properly during fetal development, resulting in the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp.

Anencephaly is typically diagnosed through prenatal ultrasound or other imaging tests. Unfortunately, it is a fatal condition, and most babies with anencephaly do not survive birth or live for more than a few hours or days after birth.

The exact cause of anencephaly is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic factors as well as environmental influences such as folic acid deficiency and exposure to certain medications or chemicals during pregnancy. Pregnant women are often advised to take folic acid supplements to reduce the risk of neural tube defects, including anencephaly.

Spina Bifida Occulta is a type of spinal dysraphism, which is a birth defect involving incomplete closure of the spine. In Spina Bifida Occulta, the spinal bones (vertebrae) do not fully form and close around the spinal cord during fetal development, leaving a small gap or split in the lower back region. However, the spinal cord and nerves usually develop normally and are not exposed or damaged, unlike in more severe forms of spina bifida.

In many cases, individuals with Spina Bifida Occulta do not experience any symptoms and may not even know they have the condition unless it is discovered during an imaging test for another reason. In some instances, people with this condition might develop late-onset neurological symptoms or complications such as back pain, muscle weakness, or changes in bladder or bowel function.

It's essential to note that while Spina Bifida Occulta is generally less severe than other forms of spina bifida, it can still pose risks and may require medical evaluation and monitoring to ensure proper development and address any potential issues.

Spinal dysraphism is a broad term used to describe a group of congenital malformations of the spine and spinal cord. These defects occur during embryonic development when the neural tube, which eventually forms the brain and spinal cord, fails to close properly. This results in an incomplete development or formation of the spinal cord and/or vertebral column.

There are two main categories of spinal dysraphism: open (also called exposed or overt) and closed (also called hidden or occult). Open spinal dysraphisms, such as myelomeningocele and myelocele, involve exposure of the spinal cord and/or its coverings through an opening in the back. Closed spinal dysraphisms, such as lipomyelomeningocele, tethered cord syndrome, and diastematomyelia, are more subtle and may not be visibly apparent at birth.

Symptoms of spinal dysraphism can vary widely depending on the type and severity of the defect. They may include motor and sensory impairments, bowel and bladder dysfunction, orthopedic deformities, and increased risk for neurological complications such as hydrocephalus (accumulation of fluid in the brain). Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial to optimize outcomes and minimize potential complications.

Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects that affect the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They occur when the neural tube, which forms the early brain and spinal cord of the embryo, does not close properly during fetal development. This can result in various conditions such as:

1. Anencephaly: a severe defect where most of the brain and skull are missing. Infants with anencephaly are usually stillborn or die shortly after birth.
2. Spina bifida: a condition where the spine does not close properly, leaving a portion of the spinal cord and nerves exposed. This can result in various neurological problems, including paralysis, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain).
3. Encephalocele: a condition where the skull does not close properly, allowing the brain to protrude through an opening in the skull. This can result in various neurological problems, including developmental delays, vision and hearing impairments, and seizures.

NTDs are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as folic acid deficiency, obesity, diabetes, and exposure to certain medications during pregnancy. Folic acid supplementation before and during early pregnancy has been shown to reduce the risk of NTDs.

An Encephalocele is a type of neural tube defect that occurs when the bones of the skull do not close completely during fetal development. This results in a sac-like protrusion of the brain and the membranes that cover it through an opening in the skull. The sac may be visible on the scalp, forehead, or back of the head, and can vary in size. Encephaloceles can cause a range of symptoms, including developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, vision problems, and seizures, depending on the severity and location of the defect. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the encephalocele soon after birth to prevent further damage to the brain and improve outcomes.

Congenital abnormalities, also known as birth defects, are structural or functional anomalies that are present at birth. These abnormalities can develop at any point during fetal development, and they can affect any part of the body. They can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both.

Congenital abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may include structural defects such as heart defects, neural tube defects, and cleft lip and palate, as well as functional defects such as intellectual disabilities and sensory impairments. Some congenital abnormalities may be visible at birth, while others may not become apparent until later in life.

In some cases, congenital abnormalities may be detected through prenatal testing, such as ultrasound or amniocentesis. In other cases, they may not be diagnosed until after the baby is born. Treatment for congenital abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the defect, and may include surgery, therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

Twin pregnancy refers to a type of multiple pregnancy where a woman is carrying two fetuses simultaneously. There are two types of twin pregnancies: monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal). Monoygotic twins occur when a single fertilized egg (zygote) splits and develops into two separate embryos, resulting in identical twins who share the same genetic material. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, result from the fertilization of two separate eggs by two different sperm cells, leading to non-identical twins who have their own unique genetic material.

Twin pregnancies are associated with higher risks of complications compared to singleton pregnancies, including preterm labor, low birth weight, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia. Close monitoring by healthcare providers is essential to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the twins.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Fetal death, also known as stillbirth or intrauterine fetal demise, is defined as the death of a fetus at 20 weeks of gestation or later. The criteria for defining fetal death may vary slightly by country and jurisdiction, but in general, it refers to the loss of a pregnancy after the point at which the fetus is considered viable outside the womb.

Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including chromosomal abnormalities, placental problems, maternal health conditions, infections, and umbilical cord accidents. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may remain unknown.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound or other imaging tests, which can confirm the absence of a heartbeat or movement in the fetus. Once fetal death has been diagnosed, medical professionals will work with the parents to determine the best course of action for managing the pregnancy and delivering the fetus. This may involve waiting for labor to begin naturally, inducing labor, or performing a cesarean delivery.

Experiencing a fetal death can be a very difficult and emotional experience for parents, and it is important for them to receive supportive care from their healthcare providers, family members, and friends. Grief counseling and support groups may also be helpful in coping with the loss.

Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate, a type of B vitamin (B9). It is widely used in dietary supplements and fortified foods because it is more stable and has a longer shelf life than folate. Folate is essential for normal cell growth and metabolism, and it plays a critical role in the formation of DNA and RNA, the body's genetic material. Folic acid is also crucial during early pregnancy to prevent birth defects of the brain and spine called neural tube defects.

Medical Definition: "Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate (vitamin B9), a water-soluble vitamin involved in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. It is used in dietary supplementation and food fortification due to its stability and longer shelf life compared to folate. Folic acid is critical for normal cell growth, development, and red blood cell production."

'Diseases in Twins' is a field of study that focuses on the similarities and differences in the occurrence, development, and outcomes of diseases among twins. This research can provide valuable insights into the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to various medical conditions.

Twins can be classified into two types: monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins share 100% of their genes, while dizygotic twins share about 50%, similar to non-twin siblings. By comparing the concordance rates (the likelihood of both twins having the same disease) between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, researchers can estimate the heritability of a particular disease.

Studying diseases in twins also helps understand the role of environmental factors. When both twins develop the same disease, but they are discordant for certain risk factors (e.g., one twin smokes and the other does not), it suggests that the disease may have a stronger genetic component. On the other hand, when both twins share similar risk factors and develop the disease, it implies that environmental factors play a significant role.

Diseases in Twins research has contributed to our understanding of various medical conditions, including infectious diseases, cancer, mental health disorders, and developmental disorders. This knowledge can lead to better prevention strategies, early detection methods, and more targeted treatments for these diseases.

Amniotic Band Syndrome (ABS) is a group of congenital abnormalities that occur when the fetus becomes entangled in fibrous strands or bands of the amnion, the innermost membrane surrounding the developing embryo or fetus in the womb. These strands can constrict the fetal parts, leading to various deformities and limitations of growth, depending on the severity and location of the entanglement.

The medical definition of Amniotic Band Syndrome includes:

1. Constriction bands: These are the most common manifestation of ABS, where fibrous bands encircle a digit, limb, or other body parts, causing varying degrees of constriction and deformity. The constriction can lead to swelling, discoloration, and, in severe cases, amputation of the affected body part.
2. Amniotic band sequence (ABSq): This term is used interchangeably with ABS but emphasizes that multiple congenital abnormalities may result from a single etiology - entanglement in fibrous bands. The abnormalities can include cleft lip and palate, clubfoot, craniofacial deformities, and spinal defects, among others.
3. Limb-body wall complex (LBWC): This is a severe form of ABS where the fetus has extensive deformities involving multiple body parts, including limbs, abdominal wall, and organs. LBWC can be fatal in utero or during early infancy due to its severity.
4. ADAM complex: Acronym for Amniotic Deformation and Adhesion Malformation, this term refers to a specific pattern of deformities seen in ABS, including craniofacial defects, limb deformities, and abdominal wall defects.

The exact cause of amniotic band syndrome remains unknown, but it is not believed to be inherited or genetic. It is thought to occur randomly due to the rupture of the amnion during pregnancy, leading to the formation of fibrous bands that entangle the fetus.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds and protects the developing baby in the uterus. It is enclosed within the amniotic sac, which is a thin-walled sac that forms around the embryo during early pregnancy. The fluid is composed of fetal urine, lung secretions, and fluids that cross over from the mother's bloodstream through the placenta.

Amniotic fluid plays several important roles in pregnancy:

1. It provides a shock-absorbing cushion for the developing baby, protecting it from injury caused by movement or external forces.
2. It helps to maintain a constant temperature around the fetus, keeping it warm and comfortable.
3. It allows the developing baby to move freely within the uterus, promoting normal growth and development of the muscles and bones.
4. It provides a source of nutrients and hydration for the fetus, helping to support its growth and development.
5. It helps to prevent infection by providing a barrier between the fetus and the outside world.

Throughout pregnancy, the volume of amniotic fluid increases as the fetus grows. The amount of fluid typically peaks around 34-36 weeks of gestation, after which it begins to gradually decrease. Abnormalities in the volume of amniotic fluid can indicate problems with the developing baby or the pregnancy itself, and may require medical intervention.

Prenatal care is a type of preventive healthcare that focuses on providing regular check-ups and medical care to pregnant women, with the aim of ensuring the best possible health outcomes for both the mother and the developing fetus. It involves routine prenatal screenings and tests, such as blood pressure monitoring, urine analysis, weight checks, and ultrasounds, to assess the progress of the pregnancy and identify any potential health issues or complications early on.

Prenatal care also includes education and counseling on topics such as nutrition, exercise, and lifestyle choices that can affect pregnancy outcomes. It may involve referrals to specialists, such as obstetricians, perinatologists, or maternal-fetal medicine specialists, for high-risk pregnancies.

Overall, prenatal care is an essential component of ensuring a healthy pregnancy and reducing the risk of complications during childbirth and beyond.

Preconception care (PCC) refers to a set of interventions that aim to identify and modify biomedical, behavioral, and social risks to a woman's health or pregnancy outcome through prevention and management, before conception. PCC is designed to optimize the health status of women of reproductive age, and includes counseling and education about lifestyle modifications such as improving nutrition, achieving a healthy weight, stopping smoking and alcohol consumption, controlling chronic diseases, and avoiding teratogenic exposures. The goal of PCC is to reduce risks and improve the chances of a healthy pregnancy and baby.

Prenatal diagnosis is the medical testing of fetuses, embryos, or pregnant women to detect the presence or absence of certain genetic disorders or birth defects. These tests can be performed through various methods such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS), amniocentesis, or ultrasound. The goal of prenatal diagnosis is to provide early information about the health of the fetus so that parents and healthcare providers can make informed decisions about pregnancy management and newborn care. It allows for early intervention, treatment, or planning for the child's needs after birth.

"Fortified food" is a term used in the context of nutrition and dietary guidelines. It refers to a food product that has had nutrients added to it during manufacturing to enhance its nutritional value. These added nutrients can include vitamins, minerals, proteins, or other beneficial components. The goal of fortifying foods is often to address specific nutrient deficiencies in populations or to improve the overall nutritional quality of a food product. Examples of fortified foods include certain breakfast cereals that have added vitamins and minerals, as well as plant-based milk alternatives that are fortified with calcium and vitamin D to mimic the nutritional profile of cow's milk. It is important to note that while fortified foods can be a valuable source of essential nutrients, they should not replace whole, unprocessed foods in a balanced diet.

... can be diagnosed before delivery with a high degree of accuracy. Although anencephaly is a fatal condition, the ... Anencephaly is the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp that occurs during embryonic development. It is a ... A high anencephaly rate of 19.7 per 10,000 live births was found in 1990/1991 in Brownsville, Texas. A cluster of cases made ... In regards to anencephaly, those who oppose organ donation argue that it could open the door for involuntary organ donors such ...
Failure of the rostral end of the neural tube to close results in anencephaly, or lack of brain development, and is most often ... "Anencephaly". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2020-03-02. CDC (2018-08-31). "Spina Bifida Facts , CDC". Centers for Disease ... Failure of the cranial (superior) and caudal (inferior) neuropore closure results in conditions called anencephaly and spina ...
... acalvaria is sometimes confused with anencephaly or encephalocele. A distinguishable difference is that with anencephaly, the ... Anencephaly "Acalvaria." Right Diagnosis. Health Grades Inc., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. ...
It is rare to find an infant born with exencephaly, as most cases that are not early stages of anencephaly are usually ... Anencephaly Becker, R.; Mende, B.; Stiemer, B.; Entezami, M. (2000). "Sonographic markers of exencephaly at 9 1 3 weeks ... "Orphanet: Isolated anencephaly/exencephaly". www.orpha.net. Retrieved 2019-12-13. Badano, Jose L.; Norimasa Mitsuma; Phil L. ... This condition is usually found in embryos as an early stage of anencephaly. As an exencephalic pregnancy progresses, the ...
Anencephaly is shown to occur approximately twice as frequently in females. The number of boys born with 6 fingers is two times ... Hyperthermia causes anencephaly, which is when part of the brain and skull are absent in the infant. Mother exposure to ... "Facts about Anencephaly". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved ... Congenital anomalies of the nervous system include neural tube defects such as spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly. ...
Anencephaly is a fatal condition. Infants with anencephaly are stillborn in about 75 percent of cases. Newborns who survive die ... The condition is frequently, though not always, associated with anencephaly. The fetus is said to have acrania if it meets the ... "Anencephaly: Neural Tube Defect, Birth Defect, Causes, Prevention". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2021-03-14. Romero, Roberto; ... easier this disease is often differentially diagnosed with other diseases that can occur at the same time such as anencephaly ...
A high anencephaly rate of 19.7 per 10,000 live births was found and that neural tube defects in general, including spina ... In the spring of 1991 a cluster of anencephaly cases made national headlines and prompted a public health investigation. ... Xiao, Emily (July 2023). "Lessons from Brownsville's anencephaly cluster". The Lancet. 402 (10395): 17-19. doi:10.1016/s0140- ...
Anencephaly is a condition in which the baby develops with an open skull in some region. Rachischisis can develop in ... This defect often occurs with anencephaly. Craniorachischisis is a variant of rachischisis that occurs when the entire spinal ... cases of rachischisis are morphologically different from cases of anencephaly, so they are indeed two separate conditions. ... conjunction with anencephaly, increasing the amount of area that is exposed. Although these conditions closely resemble one ...
Townes, P. L.; Reuter, K.; Rosquete, E. E.; Magee, B. D. (March 1988). "XK aprosencephaly and anencephaly in sibs". American ...
Such is the case with anencephaly. Brain electrical activity can stop completely, or drop to such a low level as to be ...
... potential regulators involved in human anencephaly". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 42 (2): 367-74. ...
There have even been extremely rare cases of short-term survival into infancy with conditions as severe as anencephaly. However ... Dickman, Holly; Fletke, Kyle; Redfern, Roberta E (2016-10-31). "Prolonged unassisted survival in an infant with anencephaly". ... Examples of conditions generally considered incompatible with life include Potter's syndrome and anencephaly. Where disorders ...
Chatkupt, Surachat; Chervenak, Frank (February 1993). "Antepartum Diagnosis of Discordant Anencephaly in Dicephalic Conjoined ...
Chatkupt, Surachat; Chervenak, Frank (February 1993). "Antepartum Diagnosis of Discordant Anencephaly in Dicephalic Conjoined ...
al Muti Zaitoun A, Chang J, Booker M (1999). "Diprosopus (partially duplicated head) associated with anencephaly: a case report ... al Muti Zaitoun A, Chang J, Booker M (1999). "Diprosopus (partially duplicated head) associated with anencephaly: a case report ... Diprosopus often occurs in combination with other congenital disorders, particularly anencephaly, neural tube defect and ...
A scan of the foetus showed it suffering from anencephaly. This fatal foetal abnormality means the baby would not live for long ...
neurological abnormalities such as anencephaly, which impair the swallowing reflex. Anencephaly is failure of closure of the ... anencephaly, facial cleft, neck masses, tracheoesophageal fistula, and diaphragmatic hernias. An annular pancreas causing ...
The clinical spectrum of the disorder includes encephalocele, craniorachischisis, and anencephaly. In addition, these defects ...
Recent animal models indicating a possible association of TEAD2 with anencephaly. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000074219 ...
If the failure is instead in the cranial neuropore, anencephaly occurs. In this condition, the brain tissue is directly exposed ...
Illustration from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Anencephaly. Illustration from the Centers for Disease ...
... is a type of neural tube defect related to but distinct from other types such as anencephaly and encephalocele. ... along with more than six cases of anencephaly (both live births and stillbirths) per 1000 population. The reported overall ... "A 2017 global update on folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly". Birth Defects Research. 110 (14): 1139-1147. doi: ...
... anencephaly, and spina bifida. Children born with structural defects may have malformed limbs, heart problems, and facial ...
Anencephaly (without brain) is a severe neural tube defect that occurs when the anterior-most end of the neural tube fails to ... For example, anencephaly in humans can result from mutations in the NUAK2 kinase. Encephaloceles are characterized by ... Other genes such as TRIM36 have also been associated with anencephaly in humans. A deficiency of folate itself does not cause ... As reported by Bruno Reversade and colleagues, the inactivation of the NUAK2 kinase in humans leads to anencephaly. This fatal ...
Wald, N.J.; Brock, D.J.H.; Bonnar, J. (1974). "Prenatal Diagnosis of Spina Bifida and Anencephaly by Maternal Serum-Alpha- ...
Screening can also detect anatomical defects such as hydrocephalus, anencephaly, heart defects, and amniotic band syndrome. ... This screening is 80% and 90% sensitive for spina bifida and anencephaly, respectively.[citation needed] Amniotic fluid ... detection rate for neural tube defects such as anencephaly and open spina bifida. Performing tests to determine possible birth ... A higher maternal serum AFP level indicates a greater risk for anencephaly and open spina bifida. ...
... causing anencephaly.[citation needed] Craniorachischisis is on the extreme end of the dysraphism spectrum, wherein the entire ...
While anencephaly experiences a partial to total lack of the neurocranium, iniencephaly does not. In anencephaly, the ... Additional symptoms include: anencephaly (failure of major sections of the brain to form) encephalocele (cranial contents ... Cervical vertebrae are malformed and reduced in iniencephaly while they are almost normal in anencephaly.[citation needed] Even ...
Low folate levels are correlated with neural tube defects, such as anencephaly and spina bifida. UV rays can strip away folate ... 2005). "Decline in the prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly by race/ethnicity:1995-2002". Pediatrics. 116 (3): 580-586. ...
Charon, Pierre (2004). "Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844) and anencephaly: Contribution of one naturalist to medical ...
Anencephaly (pronounced an-en-sef-uh-lee) is a serious birth defect in which a baby is born without parts of the brain and ... What is anencephaly?. Anencephaly is a serious birth defect in which a baby is born without parts of the brain and skull. It is ... The causes of anencephaly among most infants are unknown. Some babies have anencephaly because of a change in their genes or ... Anencephaly is immediately seen at birth.. Treatments. There is no known cure or standard treatment for anencephaly. Almost all ...
Anencephaly can be diagnosed before delivery with a high degree of accuracy. Although anencephaly is a fatal condition, the ... Anencephaly is the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp that occurs during embryonic development. It is a ... A high anencephaly rate of 19.7 per 10,000 live births was found in 1990/1991 in Brownsville, Texas. A cluster of cases made ... In regards to anencephaly, those who oppose organ donation argue that it could open the door for involuntary organ donors such ...
Anencephaly is a condition that prevents the normal development of the brain and the bones of the skull. Explore symptoms, ... including anencephaly. Other possible maternal risk factors for anencephaly include diabetes mellitus, obesity, exposure to ... Most cases of anencephaly are sporadic, which means they occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. A ... Anencephaly is a condition that prevents the normal development of the brain and the bones of the skull. This condition results ...
Bedside emergency ultrasound played a key role in diagnosing this case of fetal anencephaly in early pregnancy. ... Emergency Ultrasound Diagnosis of Fetal Anencephaly. John W. Hall IV, BA; Nicolas Denne, MD; Joseph J. Minardi, MD; Debra ... We report a case of fetal anencephaly diagnosed by bedside emergency US in a patient presenting with first-trimester vaginal ... The EP noted the abnormal appearance of the fetal cranium and anencephaly was suspected. This finding was confirmed by a ...
Anencephaly is a serious developmental defect of the central nervous system in which the brain and cranial vault are grossly ... encoded search term (Anencephaly) and Anencephaly What to Read Next on Medscape ... Anencephaly. Updated: Sep 30, 2021 * Author: Robert G Best, PhD, FACMG; Chief Editor: Stephen L Nelson, Jr, MD, PhD, FAACPDM, ... Anencephaly is a part of the neural tube defect (NTD) spectrum. This defect results when the neural tube fails to close during ...
Anencephaly occurs when the cephalic or head end of the neural tube fails to close. ... Anencephaly is rare neurological disorder that involves a defect in the closure of the neural tube during fetal development. ... What is anencephaly?. Anencephaly is rare neurological disorder that involves a defect in the closure of the neural tube during ... Anencephaly occurs when the "cephalic" or head end of the neural tube fails to close, resulting in the absence of a major ...
You have to enable JavaScript in your browsers settings in order to use the eReader.. Or try downloading the content offline. DOWNLOAD ...
Anencephaly is the absence of a large part of the brain and the skull. ... Anencephaly occurs early in the development of an unborn baby. It results when the upper part of the neural tube fails to close ... Anencephaly is one of the most common neural tube defects. Neural tube defects are birth defects that affect the tissue that ... There is good evidence that folic acid can help reduce the risk for certain birth defects, including anencephaly. Women who are ...
This study provides useful information for health professionals caring for patients with a diagnosis of anencephaly. The ... The natural history of anencephaly Nidaa Obeidi 1 , Noirin Russell, John R Higgins, Keelin ODonoghue ... Anencephaly: changes in prenatal detection and birth status, 1972 through 1990. Limb CJ, Holmes LB. Limb CJ, et al. Am J Obstet ... Risk Factors of Anencephaly: A Case-Control Study in Dessie Town, North East Ethiopia. Abebe M, Afework M, Emamu B, Teshome D. ...
Born With Anencephaly, Her Son John Paul Only Lived 17 Minutes, But She Never Could Have Aborted Him. International , Dave ... Anencephaly-a serious neural tube defect in which the skull, scalp and brain do not develop properly. The baby is typically ... Cliona Johnsons son John Paul lived for 17 minutes after being born with anencephaly" is an incredibly powerful, life- ...
Results: The children of mothers who worked in agriculture in the ARP had a greater risk of anencephaly (OR = 4.57, 95% CI 1.05 ... Aims: To evaluate the association between parental occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly in ... Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis of the effect of maternal exposure to agricultural work on anencephaly and ... Maternal and paternal occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Anencephaly - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional ... Anencephaly is absence of the cerebral hemispheres. It is usually accompanied by a defect in the formation of the skull ... In anencephaly, the residual brain tissue consists of highly malformed neural tissue, which may be exposed completely or thinly ... read more is a type of anencephaly. ... Anencephaly By Stephen J. Falchek , MD, Nemours/Alfred I. ...
Anencephaly is a serious developmental defect of the central nervous system in which the brain and cranial vault are grossly ... encoded search term (Anencephaly) and Anencephaly What to Read Next on Medscape ... Anencephaly. Updated: Sep 30, 2021 * Author: Robert G Best, PhD, FACMG; Chief Editor: Stephen L Nelson, Jr, MD, PhD, FAACPDM, ... Anencephaly is a part of the neural tube defect (NTD) spectrum. This defect results when the neural tube fails to close during ...
Anencephaly occurs secondary to failure of closure of the anterior neuropore. Exencephaly occurs initially, followed by ... Anencephaly, sagittal section through cranium.. Last updated on Tuesday, April 21 2009 by gliageek ...
We showed them photos from the anencephaly.info Facebook group of babies with anencephaly. We even found pictures to show the ... Home Stories Pictures Support Group About Anencephaly Organ Donation Prevention Twins Prepare Family Bibliography Comfort ... She told us that the baby had anencephaly and that she would not be compatible with life. All the children heard this sad news ... Our son was 4 when our daughter, Ellis, was born with anencephaly. He was also at the ultrasound when we first found out. It ...
Anencephaly in Children. What is anencephaly in children?. Anencephaly is a condition that is present at birth (birth defect). ... Key points about anencephaly in children. *Anencephaly is a condition that is present at birth (birth defect). It affects the ... The diagnosis of anencephaly may be made during pregnancy. Tests done during pregnancy to check for anencephaly include: * ... How is anencephaly treated in a child?. There is no cure or standard treatment for anencephaly. Treatment is supportive. This ...
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida). Since 1992, a ... The anencephaly rate declined 36% from 1991 to 1995 and was unchanged from 1995 to 2005. ... QuickStats: Spina Bifida and Anencephaly Rates* --- United States, 1991, 1995, 2000, and 2005 ... spina bifida and anencephaly are considered underreported on birth certificates. Additional information is available at http:// ...
Home Stories Pictures Support Group About Anencephaly Organ Donation Prevention Twins Prepare Family Bibliography Comfort ... My doctor also lost his baby to anencephaly, so I was somewhat relieved to have someone who understood. He brought me a framed ... Your other baby is missing his skull, the medical term is called anencephaly. He only has a brain stem. If your anencephalic ... I later found out that babies born with anencephaly are in fact "incompatible with life" and are born blind, deaf and ...
Anencephaly Anencephaly (pronounced an-en-SEF-uh-lee) is a more severe, but less common, type of NTD. This condition occurs ... There is no treatment for anencephaly or iniencephaly.2 Infants with these conditions usually die shortly after birth. ... Infants with anencephaly are either stillborn or die soon after birth.4 ... Other abnormalities may exist as well, such as a cleft lip and palate, cardiovascular irregularities, anencephaly, and ...
Anencephaly and neural tube closure defects are complex malformations that are likely caused by the interaction of multiple ... Alterations in dozens of genes in fetuses with anencephaly and in their mothers may influence the risk of developing neural ... Comprehensive differential diagnostic panel for Anencephaly and neural tube defects comprising 8 or 13 curated genes, ... Therefore, the inheritance of neural tube defects and anencephaly is generally multifactorial. Inconspicuous molecular genetic ...
Anencephaly. Some studies have found that variations (polymorphisms) in the MTHFR gene have been associated with a small ... Anencephaly is one of the most common types of neural tube defect. Affected individuals are missing large parts of the brain ...
Is anencephaly always fatal?. Anencephaly is a fatal condition. Most babies with anencephaly pass away before birth, and the ... Can anencephaly happen twice?. Once youve had a pregnancy affected by anencephaly, there is a 1 in 50 chance of it happening ... Can people with anencephaly think?. As a result, people with anencephaly are missing large parts of the brain called the ... Do babies with anencephaly feel pain?. A baby born with anencephaly is usually blind, deaf, unconscious, and unable to feel ...
In anencephaly, most of the brain and skull do not develop. Babies with anencephaly are usually either stillborn or die shortly ... Anencephaly: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) * Spina bifida: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of ... Anencephaly (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) * Encephaloceles (National Institute of Neurological ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Anencephaly (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Arnold-Chiari Malformation (National ...
... insights into anencephaly on R Discovery, your go-to avenue for effective literature search. ... insights into anencephaly, published in Journal of Community Genetics 7 on 2015-08-18 by Emma Alfaro+4. Read the article ... Anencephaly is a lethal malformation characterized by the absence of the skull and both cerebral hemispheres caused by ... 2012) have reduced the number of deaths by anencephaly by about 50 % in the post-fortification period compared to the pre- ...
Overdose of the oral anticoagulant warfarin (Coumadin), or drug interactions with warfarin, can lead to toxicity. Similarly, toxicity can result from exposure to superwarfarins, which are long-acting anticoagulants used in rodenticides.
Anencephaly. 1.9 (0.8-4.4). Encephalocele. 1.4 (0.3-6.9). Microcephaly. 1.7 (0.3-8.3). ...
Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK), a variant of renal dysplasia, is one of the most frequently identified congenital anomalies of the urinary tract. This article reviews the definition, embryology, epidemiology, etiology, pathology, clinical manifestations, associated malformations, natural history, differential diagnosis, complications, e...
... of the embryos presenting with varying degrees of spina bifida and anencephaly. In addition, the neuroepithelium in Brca1- ...
  • Since the United States began fortifying grains with folic acid, there has been a 28% decline in pregnancies affected by neural tube defects (spina bifida and anencephaly). (cdc.gov)
  • Because of challenges associated with the reporting of birth defects during the period immediately after birth, spina bifida and anencephaly are considered underreported on birth certificates. (cdc.gov)
  • These chemicals exposure also resulted in birth defects same as the defects as found in humans -- spina bifida and anencephaly. (indiatvnews.com)
  • The Texas Birth Defects Registry provided data on NTD cases (spina bifida and anencephaly) delivered between 1999 and 2004. (cdc.gov)
  • Folic acid has been shown to be important in neural tube formation since at least 1991, and as a subtype of neural tube defect, folic acid may play a role in anencephaly. (wikipedia.org)
  • A woman who has had one child with a neural tube defect such as anencephaly has about a 3% risk of having another child with a neural tube defect, as opposed to the background rate of 0.1% occurrence in the population at large. (wikipedia.org)
  • The maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP screening) and detailed fetal ultrasound can be useful for screening for neural tube defects such as spina bifida or anencephaly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anencephaly happens if the upper part of the neural tube does not close all the way. (cdc.gov)
  • Getting enough folic acid before and during early pregnancy can help prevent neural tube defects, such as anencephaly. (cdc.gov)
  • Because anencephaly is caused by abnormalities of the neural tube, it is classified as a neural tube defect. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anencephaly is one of the most common types of neural tube defect, affecting about 1 in 1,000 pregnancies. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Changes in dozens of genes in individuals with anencephaly and in their mothers may influence the risk of developing this type of neural tube defect. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Changes in other genes related to folate processing and genes involved in the development of the neural tube have also been studied as potential risk factors for anencephaly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Studies have shown that women who take supplements containing folic acid (the synthetic form of folate) before they get pregnant and very early in their pregnancy are significantly less likely to have a baby with a neural tube defect, including anencephaly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • That's why anencephaly is a type of cephalic disorder called a neural tube defect . (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Anencephaly is a common type of neural tube defect. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • A problem with how the neural tube forms and closes causes anencephaly. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Anencephaly happens when the top part of the neural tube doesn't close during embryonic development. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • But if you had a child with a neural tube defect (NTD) before, like spina bifida , you have a higher chance of having a baby with anencephaly. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Hydranencephaly vs. ANENCEPHALY is a neural tube defect that occurs when the cephalic (head) end of the neural tube fails to close, usually between the 23rd and 26th days of pregnancy, resulting in the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp. (vdhmachines.com)
  • Anencephaly is a part of the neural tube defect (NTD) spectrum. (medscape.com)
  • Anencephaly results from failure of neural tube closure at the cranial end of the developing embryo. (medscape.com)
  • Anencephaly is an incredibly rare condition to which the brain and cranial vault are underdeveloped due to embryonic neural tube failure of growth, resulting in amniotic fluid exposure upon the brain causing neural degeneration (thus inciting an array of events causing cranial collapse and mutations). (6brains.com)
  • Anencephaly is a neural tube defect considered incompatible with life. (endingawantedpregnancy.com)
  • Anencephaly is a neural tube defect , which is a set of birth defects affecting the spine, spinal cord, and the brain. (firstcry.com)
  • Neural tube defects differ in severity, and anencephaly is on the severe end of the spectrum. (firstcry.com)
  • Anencephaly and spina bifida are neural tube defects that affect 1 in 1,000 pregnancies. (firstcry.com)
  • However, if you have had a child with a neural tube defect earlier, then there is a risk of having another baby with anencephaly. (firstcry.com)
  • Parents who have had a child with anencephaly are at 4% to 10% higher risk of having another child with neural tube defects in future pregnancies. (firstcry.com)
  • Recently, the antidepressant medication Effexor has been linked to the neural tube birth defect anencephaly, which has neither a cure nor any treatment options. (drug-attorneys.com)
  • Anencephaly is a neural tube defect, a type of birth defect that usually happens within the very first month of a pregnancy before a woman even knows that she is carrying a child. (drug-attorneys.com)
  • When the neural tube fails to fully close, the result is anencephaly. (drug-attorneys.com)
  • Anencephaly and rachischisis are extremely severe forms of neural tube defects, in which an extensive opening in the cranial and vertebral bone is present with an absence of variable amounts of the brain, spinal cord, nerve roots, and meninges. (medscape.com)
  • Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida). (cdc.gov)
  • Anencephaly is the most severe form of neural tube defect, the brain tissue as well as a portion of the spinal cord are absent. (ratguide.com)
  • Not getting enough folic acid (vitamin B9) when you're pregnant puts you at a higher risk of having a baby with anencephaly. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • There are certain risk factors that contribute to the chance of having a baby with anencephaly. (firstcry.com)
  • How Many Babies are Born with Anencephaly? (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers estimate that about 1 in every 4,600 babies is born with anencephaly in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Some babies have anencephaly because of a change in their genes or chromosomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Almost all babies born with anencephaly will die shortly after birth. (cdc.gov)
  • Because these nervous system abnormalities are so severe, almost all babies with anencephaly die before birth or within a few hours or days after birth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Since anencephaly affects how the brain develops, babies born with anencephaly usually live only a few minutes, hours or days. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • It is with this in mind that we have made the choice to share the stories of the brief, but wonderful lives of babies with anencephaly. (anencephaly.info)
  • Anencephaly does not support life, and babies afflicted with this neural condition are stillborn, or die within hours or days of birth. (firstcry.com)
  • Unfortunately, babies born with anencephaly never gain consciousness or carry out the physical functions of the body, mainly because many important parts of the brain are missing. (firstcry.com)
  • Women who are obese before pregnancy can deliver babies with anencephaly. (firstcry.com)
  • Women who have had a previous pregnancy with a baby afflicted with anencephaly, who have low folic acid levels, consume drugs or painkillers, or suffer from obesity and diabetes are at risk of having babies with anencephaly. (firstcry.com)
  • Unfortunately, there is currently no treatment or cure available for Anencephaly and babies born with this condition will most likely never gain consciousness and die shortly following their birth. (drug-attorneys.com)
  • In most cases, babies with anencephaly are stillborn or die shortly after birth. (healthline.com)
  • Anencephaly is characterized by an incomplete growth of the top of the skull and brain in babies. (lawyerworks.com)
  • What are the signs of anencephaly? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The most evident signs of anencephaly are lost parts of the skull, mainly the bones at the back of the head. (firstcry.com)
  • Due to the presence of the brainstem, children with anencephaly have almost all the primitive reflexes of a newborn, responding to auditory, vestibular and painful stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, we have chosen to allow the stories to read as written so that parents could feel safe in sharing their unique experiences of giving birth to their children with anencephaly. (anencephaly.info)
  • Although some individuals with anencephaly may be born with a main brain stem, the lack of a functioning cerebrum permanently rules out the possibility of ever gaining awareness of their surroundings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Diagnosis is Anencephaly and the Parents Ask About Organ Donation: Now What? (ssrn.com)
  • Anencephaly might also be caused by a combination of genes and other factors, such as the things the mother comes in contact with in the environment or what the mother eats or drinks, or certain medicines she uses during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Anencephaly can be diagnosed during pregnancy or after the baby is born. (cdc.gov)
  • Other possible maternal risk factors for anencephaly include diabetes mellitus, obesity, exposure to high heat (such as a fever or use of a hot tub or sauna) in early pregnancy, and the use of certain anti-seizure medications during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A healthcare provider will offer tests to detect conditions like anencephaly during pregnancy. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Potato avoidance during pregnancy in women with a previous infant with either anencephaly and/or spina bifida. (bmj.com)
  • Adequate folic acid consumption during pregnancy is protective against anencephaly. (medscape.com)
  • Anencephaly develops early in the pregnancy. (firstcry.com)
  • Environmental factors, nutrition , and genes during pregnancy affect and cause anencephaly. (firstcry.com)
  • The disabilities which ultrasound can detect are those which show up in the picture of the fetus, for example, anencephaly (by the twelfth week of pregnancy), spina bifida (by the twentieth week), disorders of the skeleton, central nervous system, heart, kidneys, or urinary tract. (faqs.org)
  • The causes of anencephaly among most infants are unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • An estimated 1 in 10,000 infants in the United States is born with anencephaly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Folic acid has been shown to be an efficacious preventive agent that reduces the potential risk of anencephaly and other NTDs by approximately two thirds. (medscape.com)
  • Most pregnancies with anencephaly end in miscarriage or stillbirth . (clevelandclinic.org)
  • But since most anencephaly pregnancies end in miscarriage, the condition only affects an estimated 1 in 10,000 newborns in the United States. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The effectiveness of a prenatal screening programme in reducing the birth prevalence of anencephaly and spina bifida (ASB) is influenced by three principal factors: the proportion of affected pregnancies screened (uptake), the proportion of affected pregnancies detected on screening (sensitivity) and the proportion of affected pregnancies terminated when detected (compliance). (gla.ac.uk)
  • Increasing proportions of affected pregnancies screened, detected and terminated were observed, to a greater degree for anencephaly than for spina bifida. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Anencephaly is a medical condition that affects 1 out of 1,000 pregnancies, with most of them ending up in miscarriages . (firstcry.com)
  • Anencephaly wasn't the only severe birth defect confirmed by the CDC, however. (rt.com)
  • "No statistically significant differences were identified between cases and controls, and a clear cause of the elevated prevalence of anencephaly was not determined," the CDC report stated. (rt.com)
  • Anencephaly, like other forms of NTDs, generally follows a multifactorial pattern of transmission, with interaction of multiple genes as well as environmental factors, although neither the genes nor the environmental factors are well characterized. (medscape.com)
  • Folate antimetabolites, maternal diabetes, maternal obesity, mycotoxins in contaminated corn meal, arsenic, and hyperthermia in early development have been identified as stressors that increase the risk of NTDs, including anencephaly. (medscape.com)
  • While these induced NTDs are usually spina bifida, the chance of anencephaly is probably increased as well. (medscape.com)
  • Using the number of fetal deaths due to anencephaly and myelomeningocele, we estimated the proportion of all fetal deaths due to anencephaly, myelomeningocele, and NTDs (anencephaly + myelomeningocele) during pre- and post-fortification period in Argentina. (bvsalud.org)
  • We also estimated the ratio of fetal deaths due to anencephaly, myelomeningocele, and NTDs (anencephaly + myelomeningocele) to 10,000 live births. (bvsalud.org)
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We found a significant decrease in the risk of all fetal deaths due to NTDs, particularly anencephaly, in Argentina over the study period, with most reduction observed during the mandatory flour fortification era (introduced in Argentina in 2002). (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition to anencephaly, Effexor and other antidepressants have also been linked to heart defects, stomach wall defects, autism spectrum disorders, cranial skull defects, and others. (drug-attorneys.com)
  • Anencephaly can often be diagnosed before birth through an ultrasound examination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anencephaly would result in an abnormal result on a blood or serum screening test or it might be seen during an ultrasound (which creates pictures of the body). (cdc.gov)
  • Anencephaly (pronounced an-en-sef-uh-lee) is a serious birth defect in which a baby is born without parts of the brain and skull. (cdc.gov)
  • Anencephaly is immediately seen at birth. (cdc.gov)
  • Anencephaly is a fatal birth defect. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Anencephaly is a birth defect (congenital disorder) where a baby is born without parts of their brain and skull. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Anencephaly is usually an isolated birth defect and not associated with other malformations or anomalies. (medscape.com)
  • Anencephaly is a lethal condition affecting 1 in 5,000-10,000 birth, roughly 450 cases are documented per year. (6brains.com)
  • Anencephaly is a birth defect that affects the brain and the bones of the skull. (firstcry.com)
  • Sometimes Effexor anencephaly can be diagnosed prior to birth, but it can be seen immediately at the time of the birth. (drug-attorneys.com)
  • According to research performed by the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, taking the SNRI antidepressant Effexor while pregnant results in the risk of the baby being born with Anencephaly more than six times. (drug-attorneys.com)
  • Many families do not believe that they were adequately forewarned about the increased risk of birth defects like Anencephaly prior to taking the medication. (drug-attorneys.com)
  • In the three years prior to January 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found there had been 23 cases of anencephaly - a birth defect in which a child is born without parts of their brain or skull - reported in three Washington counties: Benton, Franklin and Yakima. (rt.com)
  • According to a report by the Texas Department of State Health Services, this practice could potentially prevent 50-75 percent of birth defects like anencephaly. (rt.com)
  • Anencephaly can be detected prenatally with ultrasonography and may first be suspected as a result of an elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening test. (medscape.com)
  • Other factors that could play a role are socioeconomic status, maternal age, educational status, and other environmental factors that could augment the risk of developing anencephaly. (firstcry.com)
  • Levels of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and 17-ketosteroids in maternal and cord plasma in term anencephaly. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • The anencephaly rate declined 36% from 1991 to 1995 and was unchanged from 1995 to 2005. (cdc.gov)
  • Meroanencephaly is a rare form of anencephaly characterized by malformed cranial bones, a median cranial defect, and a cranial protrusion called area cerebrovasculosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most cases of anencephaly follow a multifactorial pattern of inheritance, with interaction of multiple genes as well as environmental factors. (medscape.com)
  • The vast majority of isolated anencephaly cases are multifactorial in their inheritance pattern, implicating multiple genes interacting with environmental agents and chance events. (medscape.com)
  • The risk of fetal death due to anencephaly and myelomeningocele decreases between 2005 and 2019 by 67% and 51% respectively (p (bvsalud.org)
  • Anencephaly is the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp that occurs during embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anencephaly is a condition that prevents the normal development of the brain and the bones of the skull. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anencephaly is a serious developmental defect of the central nervous system in which the brain and cranial vault are grossly malformed. (vdhmachines.com)
  • In anencephaly, the residual brain tissue consists of highly malformed neural tissue, which may be exposed completely or thinly covered with skin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • With Effexor Anencephaly, the baby will be missing parts of the brain, and the remaining portion of the brain will most likely not be covered by the skull or skin. (drug-attorneys.com)
  • Ashley-Koch went on to note that considering the three affected Washington counties contain a significant agricultural presence, the anencephaly cases could be linked to prolonged exposure to pesticides or mold. (rt.com)
  • In some cases, anencephaly might not be diagnosed until after the baby is born. (cdc.gov)
  • Most cases of anencephaly are sporadic, which means they occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Records of 93 cases of anencephaly from three maternity hospitals in Singapore between 1976 and 1980 were analysed. (bmj.com)
  • In some cases, anencephaly may be caused by a chromosome abnormality, or it may be part of a more complex process involving single-gene defects or disruption of the amniotic membrane. (medscape.com)
  • A very small percentage of cases of anencephaly are hereditary. (firstcry.com)
  • Since the publication of the report last year, another eight or nine cases of anencephaly and spina bifida have been reported by Susie Ball, a counselor at the Central Washington Genetics Program. (rt.com)
  • The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) describes the presentation of this condition as follows: "A baby born with anencephaly is usually blind, deaf, unaware of its surroundings and unable to feel pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you have carried a baby with anencephaly to term and want to share your story with us, e-mail us, we would be more than happy to add a page for your baby. (anencephaly.info)
  • As reported by Bruno Reversade and colleagues, the homozygous inactivation of the NUAK2 kinase leads to anencephaly in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anencephaly is a complex condition that is likely caused by the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • City size alone was not related to incidence of deaths from anencephaly. (cdc.gov)
  • Omran, M. , McLoone, P. , Stone, D. , Aitken, D. and Crossley, J. (1993) Factors limiting the effectiveness of prenatal screening for anencephaly and spina bifida in a high-risk area. (gla.ac.uk)
  • No significant correlation between anencephaly and local seasonal conditions could be found for Singapore. (bmj.com)
  • Researchers have also examined environmental factors that could contribute to the risk of anencephaly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, it is unclear how these factors may influence the risk of anencephaly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are the risk factors for anencephaly? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Although the exact cause of anencephaly is unknown, it is believed to be a result of an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. (firstcry.com)
  • Preliminary screening indicated an association between mortality rates due to anencephaly and city growth factors, geomagnetic flux, and water magnesium levels. (cdc.gov)
  • No significant associations were observed between anencephaly and benzene or between any of the NTD phenotypes and toluene, ethylbenzene, or xylene. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 1 ] For a more complete description of anencephaly, see the seminal work by Lemire, Beckwith, and Warkany in 1978. (medscape.com)
  • For parents who have had a child with anencephaly, the risk of having another affected child is increased compared with the risk in the general population. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It's quite hard to find fathers expressing their feelings about their child with anencephaly. (anencephaly.info)
  • When a child is born with Anencephaly caused by Effexor, many women decide to file a lawsuit against the company behind this medication. (drug-attorneys.com)