Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Anemia, Hemolytic: A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).Fanconi Anemia: Congenital disorder affecting all bone marrow elements, resulting in ANEMIA; LEUKOPENIA; and THROMBOPENIA, and associated with cardiac, renal, and limb malformations as well as dermal pigmentary changes. Spontaneous CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE is a feature of this disease along with predisposition to LEUKEMIA. There are at least 7 complementation groups in Fanconi anemia: FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, and FANCL. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=227650, August 20, 2004)Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Vitamin B 6: VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.Vitamin E Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Anemia, Pernicious: A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Vitamin K Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)Vitamin B 6 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Anemia, Megaloblastic: A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.Anemia, Sideroblastic: Anemia characterized by the presence of erythroblasts containing excessive deposits of iron in the marrow.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Anemia, Refractory: A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital: Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Equine Infectious Anemia: Viral disease of horses caused by the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV; INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS, EQUINE). It is characterized by intermittent fever, weakness, and anemia. Chronic infection consists of acute episodes with remissions.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Chicken anemia virus: The type species of GYROVIRUS, a small, non-enveloped DNA virus originally isolated from contaminated vaccines in Japan. It causes chicken infectious anemia and may possibly play a key role in hemorrhagic anemia syndrome, anemia dermatitis, and blue wing disease.Anemia, Dyserythropoietic, Congenital: A familial disorder characterized by ANEMIA with multinuclear ERYTHROBLASTS, karyorrhexis, asynchrony of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, and various nuclear abnormalities of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors (ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS). Type II is the most common of the 3 types; it is often referred to as HEMPAS, based on the Hereditary Erythroblast Multinuclearity with Positive Acidified Serum test.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan: A rare congenital hypoplastic anemia that usually presents early in infancy. The disease is characterized by a moderate to severe macrocytic anemia, occasional neutropenia or thrombocytosis, a normocellular bone marrow with erythroid hypoplasia, and an increased risk of developing leukemia. (Curr Opin Hematol 2000 Mar;7(2):85-94)Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Vitamin B Deficiency: A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins: A diverse group of proteins whose genetic MUTATIONS have been associated with the chromosomal instability syndrome FANCONI ANEMIA. Many of these proteins play important roles in protecting CELLS against OXIDATIVE STRESS.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Avitaminosis: A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Vitamin K 3: A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Anemia, Neonatal: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding: Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts: Chronic refractory anemia with granulocytopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Myeloblasts and progranulocytes constitute 5 to 40 percent of the nucleated marrow cells.Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that regulates the activities of CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE and GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE. It is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM, but moves to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to FANCE PROTEIN.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that undergoes mono-ubiquitination by FANCL PROTEIN in response to DNA DAMAGE. Also, in response to IONIZING RADIATION it can undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein. Modified FANCD2 interacts with BRCA2 PROTEIN in a stable complex with CHROMATIN, and it is involved in DNA REPAIR by homologous RECOMBINATION.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group A Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that is the most commonly mutated protein in FANCONI ANEMIA. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by PROTEIN KINASE B and forms a complex with FANCC PROTEIN in the CELL NUCLEUS.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Sodium-Coupled Vitamin C Transporters: Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital Nonspherocytic: Any one of a group of congenital hemolytic anemias in which there is no abnormal hemoglobin or spherocytosis and in which there is a defect of glycolysis in the erythrocyte. Common causes include deficiencies in GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE; PYRUVATE KINASE; and GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE.Pallor: A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Transcobalamins: A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases: OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.Methylmalonic Acid: A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Tocopherols: A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2: 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Vitamin D Response Element: A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group G Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE during MITOSIS. It forms a complex with other FANCONI ANEMIA PROTEINS and helps protect CELLS from DNA DAMAGE by genotoxic agents.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Carbon-Carbon Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.Dihydroxycholecalciferols: Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Coombs Test: A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.Intrinsic Factor: A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Xerophthalmia: Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hypervitaminosis A: A symptom complex resulting from ingesting excessive amounts of VITAMIN A.Erythrocytes, Abnormal: Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3: A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Pyridoxic Acid: The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Retinol-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Pancytopenia: Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Osmotic Fragility: RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Isavirus: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE containing one species: Infectious salmon anemia virus.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Pyridoxal: The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Hydroxocobalamin: Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group F Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein. It is an essential component of a nuclear core complex that protects the GENOME against CHROMOSOMAL INSTABILITY. It interacts directly with FANCG PROTEIN and helps stabilize a complex with FANCA PROTEIN and FANCC PROTEIN.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group E Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that interacts with FANCC PROTEIN and FANCD2 PROTEIN. It promotes the accumulation of FANCC protein in the CELL NUCLEUS.Fetal Hemoglobin: The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.gamma-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Tocotrienols: Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Schilling Test: A diagnostic test in which vitamin B12 is tagged with radioactive cobalt, taken orally, and gastrointestinal absorption is determined via measurement of the amount of radioactivity in a 24-hour urine collection.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Milk, HumanTretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Erythroblasts: Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma: Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
Malnutrition in Peru
WHO Global Database on Vitamin A Deficiency. Missing or empty ,url= (help) WHO. "Worldwide Prevalence of Anemia 1993-2005" (PDF ... They also found that the levels of anemia in preschoolers and pregnant women were respectively 50% and 43% in Peru. Anemia is a ... The World Health Organization (WHO) found that 15% of preschoolers in Peru were deficient in vitamin A. ... "Global Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in Populations at Risk 1995-2005". ...
Subbarow, Y.; Hastings, A.B.; Elkin, M. (1945). "Chemistry of Anti-Pernicious Anemia Substances of Liver". Vitamins and ... At Lederle, he developed a method to synthesize folic acid, Vitamin B9, based on work by Lucy Wills to isolate folic acid as a ... Subbarow, Y.; Jacobson, B.M.; Prochownick, V. (1936). "Studies of the pernicious anemia principle in liver. III. The isolation ... protective agent against anemia. After his work on folic acid and with considerable input from Dr. Sidney Farber, he developed ...
Sa Kaeo Refugee Camp
Vitamin E supplementation has not been shown to improve birth outcomes. Zinc supplementation has been associated with a ... Daily iron supplementation reduces the risk of maternal anemia. Studies of routine daily iron supplementation for pregnant ... In developed areas, such as Western Europe and the United States, certain nutrients such as Vitamin D and calcium, required for ... Basile LA, Taylor SN, Wagner CL, Quinones L, Hollis BW (2007). "Neonatal vitamin D status at birth at latitude 32 degrees 72': ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency results in megaloblastic anemia and may present as glossitis. The appearance of the tongue in vitamin ... The glossitis in vitamin B2 deficiency is described as magenta. Vitamin B3 deficiency (pellagra) can cause glossitis. Vitamin ... Apart from pernicious anemia discussed above, any other cause of vitamin B12 deficiency can cause glossitis, which tends to be ... Anemia and nutritional deficiencies (such as a deficiency in niacin, riboflavin, iron, or Vitamin E) must be treated, often by ...
Kidd, Patrick; David L. Mollin (October 26, 1957). "Megaloblastic Anaemia and Vitamin-B12 Deficiency After Anticonvulsant ... The idea that folic acid deficiency could cause megaloblastic anemia was not new. What was new was the idea that drugs could ... Folic acid had been found to alleviate the symptoms of megaloblastic anemia in the 1940s, not long after it was discovered, but ... Megaloblastic anemia is actually a group of related disorders with different causes that share morphological characteristics- ...
Deficiency can also cause anemia, due to oxidative damage to red blood cells. Commercial vitamin E supplements can be ... For example, the tocopherol content is 96% vitamin E in almonds and 9% vitamin E in poppy seeds. Vitamin E deficiency causes ... of vitamin E for adults of 300 mg alpha-tocopherol equivalents /day. For dietary purposes, vitamin E activity of vitamin E ... US Office of Dietary Supplements article on Vitamin E Vitamin E risk assessment, Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals, UK Food ...
Some sources state that deficiencies of vitamin A or pyridoxine are also linked. There is limited evidence that a diet high in ... For example, iron deficiency anemia is thought to cause depressed cell-mediated immunity. ... Malnutrition, whether by malabsorption, or poor diet, especially hematinic deficiencies (iron, vitamin B12, folic acid) can ...
"Tolerable Upper Intake Levels For Vitamins And Minerals" (PDF). European Food Safety Authority. 2006. "Iron Deficiency Anemia ... ISBN 0-87983-501-X. "Iron". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron ... It is used to fortify foods and treat iron deficiency anemia. Iron(III) sulfate is used in settling minute sewage particles in ... As for safety, the IOM also sets Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient. In ...
Vitamin C deficiency has been reported to possibly be associated with development of cephalohematomas. Skull x-ray or CT ... Rarely anaemia can develop needing blood transfusion. Do not aspirate to remove accumulated blood because of the risk of ... If severe the child may develop jaundice, anemia or hypotension. In some cases it may be an indication of a linear skull ... It is more prone to complications, especially anemia and bruising. No laboratory studies usually are necessary, though serum ...
As a supplement it is used to treat vitamin B12 deficiency including pernicious anemia. Other uses include cyanide poisoning, ... Inadequate use of vitamin B12, which may occur if antimetabolites for the vitamin are employed in the treatment of neoplasia ... Pernicious anemia, is not a cause of vitamin B12 deficiency, but rather the result of vitamin B12 deficiency. While it ... Vitamin B12 compounds are used as a prescription medicine (injection) for vitamin B12 replacement therapy, usually at 100 µg/ ...
... such as anaemia with vitamin B12 malabsorption). Routine blood tests may reveal anaemia, high CRP or low ... Low calcium and phosphate may give a clue toward osteomalacia from low vitamin D. Specific vitamins like vitamin D or micro ... Fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E & K) are affected in fat malabsorption. Prolonged prothrombin time can be caused by vitamin K ... Microcytic, macrocytic, or dimorphic anemia may reflect impaired iron, folate, or vitamin B12 absorption. Purpura, ...
People with megaloblastic anemia need to be tested for vitamin B12 deficiency before treatment with folic acid, because if the ... Other names include vitamin B9, vitamin Bc, vitamin M, folacin, and pteroyl-L-glutamate. Folate intake during pregnancy has ... CBC may indicate megaloblastic anemia but this could also be a sign of vitamin B12 deficiency. A serum folate of 3 μg/L or ... Vreugdenhil G, Wognum AW, van Eijk HG, Swaak AJ (February 1990). "Anaemia in rheumatoid arthritis: the role of iron, vitamin ...
This can be treated by giving the patient direct injections of vitamin B12. Iron-deficiency anemia can occur as the stomach ... This can lead to a type of anaemia known as megaloblastic anaemia (can also be caused by folate deficiency, or autoimmune ... Intrinsic factor is essential for the uptake of vitamin B12 in the terminal ileum and without it the patient will suffer from a ... disease where it is specifically known as pernicious anaemia) which severely reduces red-blood cell synthesis (known as ...
Mercury regulation in the United States
As for Vitamin B12 deficiency, it might cause anemia and confusion for the elderly population. Finally, for long term Vitamin C ... Other deficiencies that are observed with a persisting mercury intake are vitamin E, vitamin B12 and vitamin C. Long term ... Moreover, a variety of fish, milk, meat and wheat accompagned of Selenium, Zinc, magnesium, and Vitamin C, E and B allow an ... In order to avoid such deficiencies, a higher intake of those nutrients and vitamins are necessary. Methylmercury is a type of ...
The most common are vitamin B12 deficiency which results in a megaloblastic anemia and malabsorbtion of iron, leading to iron ... The inadequate production of intrinsic factor also leads to vitamin B12 malabsorption and pernicious anemia. AMAG is typically ... Type A gastritis primarily affects the body/fundus of the stomach, and is more common with pernicious anemia. Type B gastritis ... deficiency anaemia. It can be caused by persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, or can be autoimmune in origin. Those ...
Treatment of gastritis that leads to pernicious anemia consists of parenteral vitamin B-12 injection. Associated immune- ... and vitamins (including vitamin C, vitamin K, and the B complex of vitamins). Such deficiencies may be involved in the ... A check can exclude deficiencies in iron, calcium, prothrombin time, vitamin B-12, vitamin D, and thiamine. Complete blood ... The slowing of the body's basal metabolic rate associated with hypothyroidism Pernicious anemia where there is antibody ...
In patients with pernicious anemia or with deficiency due to impaired absorption, less than 10% of the radiolabeled vitamin B12 ... much of the ingested vitamin B12 will be excreted in the urine. A normal result shows at least 10% of the radiolabeled vitamin ... Several weeks of vitamin replacement are necessary, before epithelial damage to the G.I. tract from B12 deficiency is corrected ... The purpose of the test is to determine whether the patient has pernicious anemia. It is named for Robert F. Schilling. The ...
A deficiency of this vitamin causes certain types of anemia (low red blood cell count). Infant mortality rate can be a measure ... Breastmilk is a natural source of Vitamin A, and supplies the suckling infant with enough Vitamin A. Babies born in low to ... Vitamin A deficiency can lead to stunted growth, blindness, and increased mortality due to the lack of nutrients in the body. ... A few public health measures used to lower levels of iron deficiency anemia include iodize salt or drinking water, and include ...
1999). "Mutations in CUBN, encoding the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor, cubilin, cause hereditary megaloblastic anaemia ... Cubilin (CUBN) acts as a receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complexes. The role of receptor is supported by the presence ... Mutations in CUBN may play a role in autosomal recessive megaloblastic anemia. A complex of amnionless and cubilin forms the ... 1999). "The intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor, cubilin, is assembled into trimers via a coiled-coil alpha-helix". J. Biol. ...
DeLuca Biochemistry Building
It was the site of the discovery of vitamins A and B, as well as the development of vitamin D processing. The building was part ... Other research by Steenbock identified iron and copper as effective agents in the treatment of anemia. Steenbock made his most ... He then founded the "Steenbock Process" in 1928, a method of concentrating vitamin D by irradiating food. This method was ... In 1913, McCollum identified a molecule in egg yolks, vitamin A. The discovery was consistent with the nutrition element ...
These include blood tests to exclude anemia, deficiencies of iron, folate or vitamin B12 or celiac disease. However, the ... However, iron and vitamin supplements only infrequently improve the ulceration. The relationship to vitamin B12 deficiency has ... Hematinic deficiencies (vitamin B12, folic acid and iron), occurring singly or in combination, and with or without any ... Although these studies found that 0-42% of those with recurrent ulcers suffer from vitamin B12 deficiency, an association with ...
Louis Wade Sullivan
For those with pernicious anemia, vitamin B12 supplements are recommended either by mouth or by injection. People are usually ... When due to autoimmune problems, low red blood cells due to not enough vitamin B12 may occur, a condition known as pernicious ... anemia. Common causes include infection with Helicobacter pylori and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Less ...
... absorption of Vitamin B12. Pernicious anemia also leads to megaloblastic anemia. Atrophic gastritis, particularly in the ... In pernicious anemia, autoantibodies directed against parietal cells or intrinsic factor cause a reduction in vitamin B12 ... A long-term deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to megaloblastic anemia, characterized by large fragile erythrocytes. Pernicious ... It can be treated with injections of replacement vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin, hydroxocobalamin or cyanocobalamin). ...
These include blood tests to check for infection or anaemia, a urinalysis to look for signs of liver disease or diabetes ... It may also have chemical causes, such as poisoning, low blood sugar, or mineral or vitamin deficiencies. Chronic blood loss ... and spondyloarthropathy Blood disorders such as anemia and hemochromatosis Cancer, in which case it is called cancer fatigue ... frequently results in fatigue, as do other conditions that cause anemia. Fatigue is different from drowsiness, where a patient ...
Topical and oral preparations of nicotinamide (the amide form of vitamin B3) are alternative medical treatments. ... There are concerns that isotretinoin is linked to adverse effects, like depression, suicidality, and anemia. There is no clear ... Brescoll J, Daveluy S (February 2015). "A review of vitamin B12 in dermatology". American Journal of Clinical Dermatology ( ... Vitamin B12 may trigger skin outbreaks similar to acne (acneiform eruptions), or worsen existing acne when taken in doses ...
Health in Nepal
Control of Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) e) Control of Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA) f) Deworming of children aged 1 to 5 years ... These include high coverage of semiannual vitamin A supplementation and deworming; CB-IMCI; high rates of full child ... iron and vitamin A deficiency. Each type of malnutrition wrecks its own particular havoc on the human body, and to make matters ... vitamin A and deworming campaign, and the Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition program. National immunization ...
ଜଣ୍ଡିସ୍ - ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ
Required in the synthesis of vitamin B12, but because bacteria are required to synthesize the vitamin, it is usually considered ... Required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin to prevent anemia Meat, seafood, nuts, beans, dark chocolate ... IN: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Chromium, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum ... "NHS Choices:Vitamins and minerals - Others". Retrieved November 8, 2011.. *^ Corbridge, D. E. C. (1995-02-01). Phosphorus: An ...
Due to Isotretinoin's molecular relationship to Vitamin A, it should not be taken with Vitamin A supplements due to the danger ... It is a retinoid, meaning it is related to vitamin A, and is found in small quantities naturally in the body. Its isomer, ... Increasingly higher dosages will result in higher toxicity, resembling vitamin A toxicity. Adverse effects include: ... a natural vitamin A derivative which controls normal embryonic development. It is also associated with psychiatric side effects ...
Health in India
Sick children with chronic malnutrition, especially when accompanied by anaemia, often suffer from a lower learning capacity ... sometimes becoming terminal Vitamin A deficiency, which can lead to blindness or a weakened immune system Iodine deficiency, ... Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), also known as protein-calorie malnutrition Iron deficiency: nutritional anaemia which can ...
The role of vitamin D for general overall health is under close scrutiny at the moment with some researchers claiming vitamin D ... X-linked sideroblastic anemia. Endocrine. *Androgen insensitivity syndrome/Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy ... Wimalawansa SJ, Razzaque DM, Al-Daghri NM (December 2017). "Calcium and Vitamin D in Human Health: Hype or Real?". The Journal ... Some people with KS/CHH will have their levels checked and may be prescribed extra vitamin D tablets or injections to try to ...
Vitamin E). An adequate supply of vitamins can prevent diseases such as beriberi, anemia, and scurvy while an overdose of ... Vitamins are nutrients required in small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body. These are broken down in ... vitamins, minerals, enzymes, food additives, flavors, and colors. This discipline also encompasses how products change under ... nutrition as either water-soluble (Vitamin C) or fat-soluble ( ... They also act as vitamin carriers. Food proteins. Main ...
Risk factors for pigment stones include hemolytic anemias (such as from sickle-cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis), ... and vitamin C; low fluid consumption; and, at least for men, a high intake of carbohydrate, a high glycemic load, and ... "Studies on the Pathogenesis of Pigment Gallstones in Hemolytic Anemia". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 65 (6): 1301-8. doi ...
Blood transfusions may also be used to treat a severe anaemia or thrombocytopenia caused by a blood disease. People with ... The person receives nutritional formulas containing salts, glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins. ... a non-prescription IV solution of vitamins and minerals marketed as a hangover cure and general wellness remedy. The first ...
Human digestive system
Some vitamins, such as biotin and vitamin K produced by bacteria in the gut flora of the colon are also absorbed. ... A number of problems including malnutrition and anemia can arise from malabsorption, the abnormal absorption of nutrients in ... Saliva also contains a glycoprotein called haptocorrin which is a binding protein to vitamin B12. It binds with the vitamin ... produce a glycoprotein called intrinsic factor which is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin), ...
உயிர்ச்சத்து - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
Every Vitamin Page All Vitamins and Pseudo-Vitamins. Compiled by David Bennett. ... megaloblastic anemia),. நரம்பியக்கக் கோளாறு. இரைப்பை நலிவு. (உயிர் கொல்லி. இரத்தச்சோகை -. pernicious anaemia ),. தாவர உணவு. ... Vitamins and minerals - names and facts. *↑ Roth KS (1981). "Biotin in clinical medicine-a review". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34 (9): ... Abstract :Vitamine--vitamin. The early years of discovery. U.S. National Library of Medicine. [Online] 1997. PMID 9105273 [ ...
Family history, vitamin D deficiency, obesity, high levels of cleanliness. ... vitamin D deficiency, obesity, and high levels of cleanliness. Allergies occur when immunoglobulin E (IgE), part of the ... Autoimmune hemolytic anemia. *Immune thrombocytopenic purpura. *Bullous pemphigoid. *Pemphigus vulgaris. *Rheumatic fever ...
A mild case of anemia can cause shedding and hair loss. Among others, the B group of vitamins are the most important for ... The essential omega-3 fatty acids, protein, vitamin B12, and iron, found in fish sources, prevent a dry scalp and dull hair ... Vitamin B12 helps prevent the loss of hair and can be found in fish, eggs, chicken and milk. ... Scalp hair grows, on average, at a rate of about 1.25 centimeters per month, and shampoos or vitamins have not been shown to ...
Vitamin B was originally considered to have two components, a heat-labile vitamin B1 and a heat-stable vitamin B2. In the 1920s ... normochromic normocytic anemia). This is distinct from anemia caused by deficiency of folic acid (B9) or cyanocobalamin (B12), ... Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. As a supplement it is ... which causes anemia with large blood cells (megaloblastic anemia). Deficiency of riboflavin during pregnancy can result in ...
... anemia, atherosclerosis, autonomic dysfunction, hormonal abnormalities, obesity, hypovitaminosis D in men, ... "Association of low vitamin D levels with the frailty syndrome in men and women". J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 64 (1): 69-75 ... Chaves, PH; Semba, RD; Leng, SX; Woodman, RC; Ferrucci, L; Guralnik, JM; Fried, LP (Jun 2005). "Impact of anemia and ... anemia, relative deficiencies in anabolic hormones (androgens and growth hormone) and excess exposure to catabolic ...
Further information: Vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency can be extremely serious and lead to megaloblastic anemia, ... vitamin C, vitamin E, potassium and magnesium. They are possibly low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein. ... Information Sheet: Vitamin B12 Archived 22 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 26 April 2007. ... Vegetarians may get vitamin B12 from eggs and dairy products (milk, cheese, etc.); for some, this is adequate, while others ...
Stryer, Lubert (1995). "Vitamin D is derived from cholesterol by the ring-splitting action of light.". In: Biochemistry (Fourth ... The partial pressure of oxygen may be sufficient for example in anemia, but the hemoglobin content will be insufficient and ... Given enough supply of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid, EPO can stimulate RBC production, and hemoglobin and oxygen content ...
PPT - Neonatal Anemia PowerPoint Presentation - ID:563937
Anemia: Central venous hemoglobin , 13 g/dL or capillary hemoglobin , 14.5 g/dL in infant , 34 weeks and 0-28 days old Average ... Neonatal Anemia. Kirsten E. Crowley, MD June 2005. Definitions. ... Vitamin K dependent factor deficiency. *Failure to give vit K ... Fanconi Anemia Erica Antell -. what is fanconi anemia?. fanconi anemia is one of the inherited anemias that causes bone marrow ... Fanconi Anemia Erica Antell -. what is fanconi anemia?. fanconi anemia is one of the inherited anemias that causes bone marrow ...
What causes vitamin-deficiency anemia?
these two vitamins are needed to make red blood cells. ... anemia may occur when you dont enough vitamin b12 and folate ... What causes vitamin-deficiency anemia?. ANSWER Vitamin-deficiency anemia may occur when you dont enough vitamin B12 and folate ... What types of anemia result from bone marrow or stem cell problems? ... What causes iron-deficiency anemia?. NEXT QUESTION: ... Slideshow Vitamins You Need as You Age * Slideshow Supplements ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body ... Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low red blood cell count due to a lack (deficiency) of vitamin B12. ... Pernicious anemia, a type of vitamin B12 anemia that occurs when your body destroys cells that make intrinsic factor ... Shots of vitamin B12 can prevent anemia if youve had a surgery known to cause vitamin B12 deficiency. ...
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments
Learn what triggers this type of anemia, and how to treat it. ... Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia can make you feel tired, weak, ... Mayo Clinic: "Vitamin deficiency anemia: Diagnosis." "Vitamin deficiency anemia: Overview." "Vitamin deficiency anemia: ... What Causes Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia?. You can get vitamin B12 deficiency anemia if you dont get enough vitamin B12 in ... Usually, vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is easy to treat with diet and vitamin supplements. To increase the amount of vitamin ...
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia | Johns Hopkins Medicine
... of vitamin B12. This vitamin is needed to make red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of your body. ... Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a condition in which your body does not have enough healthy red blood cells, due to a lack ( ... Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia. Facebook Twitter Linkedin Pinterest Print. What is vitamin B12 deficiency anemia?. Vitamin B12 ... Anemias caused by a lack of vitamin B12 or a lack of folate are 2 types of megaloblastic anemia. With these types of anemia, ...
Prevention of Vitamin B12 Anemia Deficiency
Information regarding Vitamin B12 deficiency, what are its effects and how can this deficiency be prevented. Read on for more ... Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is drop in number of red blood cells in body. Lack of Vitamin B12 makes it difficult for the ... Prevention of Vitamin B12 anemia is possible. For people, where the real cause is their diet can try and include foods which ... Diet for Vitamin B12 anemia should include dairy products, eggs, meat, fish, etc. If people with vegetarian diet have ...
Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia - Symptoms - NHS
Read about the symptoms of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia, which usually develop gradually, but can worsen if the ... Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. If you have anaemia caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency, you may have other symptoms, such ... Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia can cause a wide range of symptoms. These usually develop gradually, but can worsen if ... Its important for vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia to be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible. ...
Vitamin B-12 Deficiency Anemia | University Hospitals
Vitamin B-12 Deficiency Anemia. What is vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia?. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia is a condition in which ... How is vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia treated?. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia and folate deficiency anemia often occur ... What causes vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia?. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia is more common in people whose families come from ... Who is at risk for vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia?. Risk factors for vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia include:. *A family history ...
Anemia: How Food and Vitamins Can Help
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia - Wikipedia
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. Other names. Pernicious anemia, Biermers anemia, Addisons anemia, Addison-Biermer anemia ... Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, of which pernicious anemia is a type, is a disease in which not enough red blood cells are ... June 2006). "Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: a systematic review of randomized ... Because pernicious anemia is due to a lack of intrinsic factor, it is not preventable. Vitamin B12 deficiency due to other ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia - Wikipedia
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, of which pernicious anemia is a type, is a disease in which not enough red blood cells are ... June 2006). "Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: a systematic review of randomized ... Vitamin B12 deficiency due to other causes may be prevented with a balanced diet or with supplements. Pernicious anemia can be ... Forms of vitamin B12 deficiency other than PA must be considered in the differential diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia. For ...
Vitamins and Atripla - Forum on Fatigue and Anemia - TheBody.com
Vitamins and HCTZ do not interact with HIV medications. Being HIV positive does not have a direct effect on hypertension and ... Ask the Experts > Forum on Fatigue and Anemia > Q & A Vitamins and Atripla. Mar 15, 2007 My question is regarding Atripla and ... Vitamins and HCTZ do not interact with HIV medications. Being HIV positive does not have a direct effect on hypertension and ...
Help Fight Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia -- Jack Shea Providing Healthy Living Resources | PRLog
... and millions more may be undiagnosed or at increased risk of developing anemia.~ National Anemia Action Council - PR10294602 ... Help Fight Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia. At least 3.4 million Americans have been diagnosed as anemic, ... What causes vitamin B12 deficiency anemia? B12 deficiency anemia (Megaloblastic anemia) has a variety of causes:. * Pernicious ... Large, dense, oversized red blood cells (RBCs) are seen in vitamin B12 deficiency anemia.. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia ...
Anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency (pernicious anaemia)
A lack of this vitamin can lead to anaemia. We look at the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. ... The body needs access to vitamin B12 to produce red blood cells. ... Anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency (pernicious anaemia). The ... Anaemia due to a lack of vitamin B12 is also called pernicious anaemia. ... Why does vitamin B12 deficiency cause anaemia? Red blood cells are made in the bone marrow and circulate in the blood. They ...
Vitamin B6 deficiency and anemia in pregnancy. | Herb News
Vitamin B6 deficiency and anemia in pregnancy.. By Teresa Koby on January 28, 2010 in All, Herbs, Nutrients, Science ... We conclude that it is important to take into account the deficiency of vitamin B6 besides iron in the evaluation of anemia ... The following review article shows the importance of B6 levels and the role that this vitamin plays in anemia during pregnancy. ... We observed that several pregnant women with anemia who were nonresponsive to iron supplementation also had vitamin B6 ...
Low vitamin D in kids may play a role in anemia | EurekAlert! Science News
Pediatricians from Johns Hopkins Childrens Center and elsewhere have discovered a link between low levels of vitamin D and ... While the findings show a clear link between low vitamin D levels and anemia, they do not prove that vitamin D deficiency ... Low vitamin D in kids may play a role in anemia News tips from the 2011 Annual Meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies, ... The lower the vitamin D levels, the lower the hemoglobin and the higher the risk for anemia, the researchers found. Children ...
Pediatric Chronic Anemia Medication: Vitamins, Iron Salts, Colony Stimulating Factors, Chelation Agents
Anemia that persists for 6 months or more (eg, hereditary spherocytosis [HS]) is clearly chronic; however, anemia that lasts ... only 2 months (eg, iron deficiency that is being treated) should also be considered chronic anemia, and other explanations must ... encoded search term (Pediatric Chronic Anemia) and Pediatric Chronic Anemia What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions ... This agent is used to treat megaloblastic anemia resulting from vitamin B-12 deficiency. Deoxyadenosylcobalamin and ...
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia | UW Health | Madison, WI
Discusses vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. Explains role of B12 in red blood cells, which carry oxygen through your body. Covers ... Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia. Topic Overview. What is vitamin B12 deficiency anemia?. Having vitamin B12 deficiency means that ... Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is treated with supplements of vitamin B12. Taking supplements brings your level of vitamin B12 ... Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia usually happens when the digestive system is not able to absorb the vitamin. This can happen if: ...
The Difference Between Iron Deficiency Anemia & Vitamin Deficiency Anemia | Livestrong.com
Iron deficiency anemia is from too little iron, while vitamin anemia is from a lack of B vitamins. ... Severe and mild anemia are caused by nutrient deficiencies. ... B12 Anemia vs. Iron Anemia. When it comes to B12 anemia vs. ... Increasing B Vitamin Intake. If your anemia is due to a lack of one of the B vitamins, its likely that youll need to up your ... The Difference Between Iron Deficiency Anemia & Vitamin Deficiency Anemia By Lindsay Boyers Updated May 27, 2019. ...
Effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 therapy for pernicious anemia and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia]. - PubMed - NCBI
Effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 therapy for pernicious anemia and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia].. [Article in Japanese] ... We investigated the efficacy of oral vitamin B12 (B12) therapy in patients with B12-deficiency anemia. Between June 1994 and ... June 2000, 17 patients, who were diagnosed as having B12-deficiency anemia and gave their informed consent, were enrolled in ...
Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Megaloblastic Anaemia after Total Gastrectomy | The BMJ
Obat Anemia Karena Kekurangan Vitamin B12 | url details | folkd.com
QnC Jelly Gamat merupakan solusi ampuh untuk mengobati dan menyembuhkan penyakit anemia Anda yang kekurangan vitamin... ... Belum Menemukan Obat Yang Cocok Untuk Menyembuhkan Penyakit Anemia Karena Kekurangan Vitamin B12.?? Disini kami punya solusi ... ampuh untuk mengobati penyakit anemia karena kekurangan vitamin B12. ... Punya Keluhan Dengan Penyakit Anemia Karena Kekurangan Vitamin B12.?? ...
Low vitamin D levels raise anemia risk in children, Hopkins-led study shows
Medical Wellness »Vitamin B »blood cell »blood sample »health care »red blood cells »vitamin D deficiency »vitamin D levels ... The sharpest spike in anemia risk occurred with mild vitamin D deficiency, defined as vitamin D levels below 30 nanograms per ... 2 percent) and considerably lower vitamin D levels overall, but their anemia risk didnt rise until their vitamin D levels ... The investigators say several mechanisms could account for the link between vitamin D and anemia, including vitamin Ds effects ...
Anemia Neuropathy Vitamin B12 | Diabetic Connect
Anemia, Neuropathy, & Vitamin B12. By Pauline B Latest Reply 2009-08-23 18:29:10 -0500 ... I have several kind of anemia (but not pernicious anemia that requires frequent injections of B12) and migraine headches (for ... I am taking procrit shots 3 xs a month for anemia. Looking forward to hearing what everyone has to say about this…Debe ... I have 3 conditions related to anemia that hes following, and Ive been checked out for the usual deseases that inhibit the ...
Vitamin D deficiencies linked to anemia
Vitamin D and anemia. The study, published in the Journal of Pediatrics, found that there were strong links between vitamin D ... A lack of vitamin D may contribute to anemia, according to researchers at Johns Hopkins Childrens Center. Vitamin D, found in ... Vitamin D is also connected with regulating inflammation in the body, which is often linked to anemia as well. The study ... The study found that kids with low levels of Vitamin D may be twice as likely to have anemia. While the research suggested a ...
Low Vitamin D, Anemia Linked - Renal and Urology News
... may lower the risk of anemia and elevated C-reactive protein levels may raise the risk. ... More in Anemia. Most CKD Patients With Anemia Show Limited Response ... In a 52-week trial, more than half of nondialysis- ... Study findings suggest that replacing vitamin D in patients with low levels of this vitamin may boost hemoglobin levels, Dr. ... Anemia in Dialysis Patients Linked With Hemorrhagic Stroke Patients with hemoglobin values of 9.7 g/dL or below had more than ...
Can You Get Vitamin B12 Anemia If You Had Your Gallbladder Removed? | Livestrong.com
If youve had your gallbladder removed, you may have trouble absorbing some vitamins. ... poor intake or absorption of this vitamin can cause a deficiency. ... Vitamin B-12 is important for your body to work properly; therefore, ... Vitamin B-12 is a member of the B complex family of vitamins, also known as cobalamin. The body needs B vitamins to use the ...
Vitamin B-12 Deficiency Anemia - AHealthyMe - Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts
... of vitamin B12. This vitamin is needed to make red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of your body. ... Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a condition in which your body does not have enough healthy red blood cells, due to a lack ( ... Vitamin B-12 Deficiency Anemia. What is vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia?. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia is a condition in which ... How is vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia treated?. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia and folate deficiency anemia often occur ...
Low vitamin D status may raise anaemia risk in children, warns study
Low levels of vitamin D in blood serum appear to be linked to an increase in childrens risk of anaemia, according to new ... Related tags: Vitamin d levels, Red blood cell, Vitamin d Low levels of vitamin D in blood serum appear to be linked to an ... When investigators looked at anaemia and vitamin D by race, the team found that black children had higher rates of anaemia ... The sharpest spike in anaemia risk occurred with mild vitamin D deficiency, defined as vitamin D levels below 30 nanograms per ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency: Can injections of the vitamin treat symptoms of anaemia? | Express.co.uk
... it means your body is lacking vitamin B12 - which is essential in keeping the nerve and blood cells healthy and helping to ... Vitamin B12 deficiency: Can injections reverse the symptoms of anaemia?. A vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to problems with the ... "Its important for vitamin B12 anaemia to be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible because, although many of the symptoms ... If, on the other hand, your B12 deficiency is caused by a lack of the vitamin in your diet, you will be prescribed vitamin B12 ...
PRIME PubMed | [Transient malabsorption of Vitamin B12 bound to intrinsic factor in pernicious anemia (author's transl)
Transient malabsorption of Vitamin B12 bound to intrinsic factor in pernicious anemia (authors transl) were found in PRIME ... Vitamin B12 absorption. A correctable intestinal defect in pernicious anemia.. *Schilling evaluation of pernicious anemia: ... AgedAnemia, PerniciousFemaleHumansIleumIntrinsic FactorMalabsorption SyndromesMiddle AgedSchilling TestTime FactorsVitamin B 12 ... Transient malabsorption of Vitamin B12 bound to intrinsic factor in pernicious anemia (authors transl)].. Nouv Rev Fr Hematol ...
HemoglobinNeurologicalAbsorptionSevereCobalaminHemolyticInfectionChicken anaemDeficiency anemiaNutritionalInjectionsSupplementsMegaloblastic anemiasLevels of vitaminWater solubleKnown as megaloblasticType of anemiaCaused by a vitamin B12 deficiDiagnosisSmall intestineIntakeTirednessTypes of anemiaFolate anaemiaBody'sAffectsEnough vitaminAndaAbnormallyBoneIronPrevalence of anaemiaSevere anemiaNutrientsBlood cellsInadequateCauses of vitamin b12 deficiMineralsChronic anemia and vitamin D deficienStomachAbsorb vitamin B12 from foodIntrinsic factor deficiencyAutoimmunePregnancyIncludeLackAbsorption of vitamin b-DeficientAnother B vitaminParenteral
- The hemoglobin level normalized each time after intramuscular vitamin B12 injection. (biomedcentral.com)
- The hemoglobin level normalized after intramuscular vitamin B12 injection and oral folate with unknown dosage. (biomedcentral.com)
- He was treated with intramuscular injection of vitamin B12 at the dosage of 0.5 mg every other day and his hemoglobin increased to 114 g/L. The patient had recurrent anemia 4 times from age 10 to 16 and the hemoglobin regained normal after B12 supplement. (biomedcentral.com)
- A Chinese patient presented with recurrent severe anemia since age 2 with low cobalamin level and a mild elevation of indirect bilirubin. (biomedcentral.com)
- The child was initially evaluated for severe anemia at the age of 2. (biomedcentral.com)
- Severe megaloblastic anemia, low cobalamin level and a mild elevation of indirect bilirubin were found. (biomedcentral.com)
- What causes vitamin-deficiency anemia? (webmd.com)
- Vitamin-deficiency anemia may occur when you don't enough vitamin B12 and folate in your system. (webmd.com)
- Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low red blood cell count due to a lack (deficiency) of vitamin B12 . (medlineplus.gov)
- Treatment depends on the cause of B12 deficiency anemia. (medlineplus.gov)
- Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia most often responds well to treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
- You can get vitamin B12 deficiency anemia if you don't get enough vitamin B12 in your diet from foods like milk, eggs, and meat. (webmd.com)
- When you don't have enough, you have a type of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia called "pernicious anemia. (webmd.com)
- Usually, vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is easy to treat with diet and vitamin supplements . (webmd.com)
- Vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia is more common in people whose families come from northern Europe. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- This type of B 12 deficiency anemia is called pernicious anemia. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Who is at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency anemia? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- What are the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia and folate deficiency anemia often occur together and can be hard to tell apart. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is drop in number of red blood cells in body. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
- In the US, women of childbearing age are more likely to suffer from iron-deficiency anemia than men. (empowher.com)
- Other than women of childbearing age, children and teens are the next most likely to suffer from iron-deficiency anemia. (empowher.com)
- Vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia , of which pernicious anemia is a type, is a disease in which not enough red blood cells are produced due to a deficiency of vitamin B 12 . (wikipedia.org)
- Large, dense, oversized red blood cells (RBCs) are seen in vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. (prlog.org)
- Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia develops gradually, allowing the body to adapt so that the anemia may be more severe than the symptoms indicate. (prlog.org)
- Doctors diagnose vitamin B12 deficiency anemia through blood tests that measure the level and appearance of red blood cells. (prlog.org)
- In vitamin deficiency anemia, you'll not only have fewer red blood cells, but the red blood cells that you do have will be large and underdeveloped. (prlog.org)
- Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia can often be successfully treated with supplements. (prlog.org)
- If your doctor has diagnosed you or you think you may be at risk for a vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, you need the safest, freshest and most effective B12 supplement available on the market today. (prlog.org)
- These agents are useful for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. (medscape.com)
- This is the mainstay treatment for patients with iron deficiency anemia. (medscape.com)
- Dietary iron deficiency anemia can be prevented by starting supplemental iron when infants are weaned off breast milk or regular formula at age 8-12 months. (medscape.com)
- The authors recommend 6 mg/kg/d of elemental iron for 6 months for infants and children with severe iron deficiency anemia. (medscape.com)
- Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia usually happens when the digestive system is not able to absorb the vitamin. (uwhealth.org)
- Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is treated with supplements of vitamin B12. (uwhealth.org)
- When it comes to B12 anemia vs. iron anemia, iron deficiency anemia is the most common type, according to the University of Rochester Medical Center . (livestrong.com)
- As with iron-deficiency anemia, a lack of vitamin B12 can also cause your body to make fewer healthy red blood cells. (livestrong.com)
- One of the most common causes of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a lack of intrinsic factor , a protein in the stomach that's vital to the proper absorption of vitamin B12. (livestrong.com)
- Intestinal surgery can also cause vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. (livestrong.com)
- Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a blood problem that occurs when there is not enough of this vitamin in the body. (lmh.org)
- Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia usually occurs when the body cannot absorb this vitamin from food. (lmh.org)
- If vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is suspected, the doctor will do a physical exam, take a medical history, and order blood tests that can help diagnose this condition. (lmh.org)
- Effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 therapy for pernicious anemia and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia]. (nih.gov)
- We investigated the efficacy of oral vitamin B12 (B12) therapy in patients with B12-deficiency anemia. (nih.gov)
- Between June 1994 and June 2000, 17 patients, who were diagnosed as having B12-deficiency anemia and gave their informed consent, were enrolled in this study. (nih.gov)
- Coexistence of folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency has been observed among adolescents with iron deficiency anemia, but limited evidence is available from India. (hindawi.com)
- Iron deficiency anemia is still a condition of a major public health concern for researchers and policy makers [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Iron deficiency anemia reflects the state of undernutrition among adolescents. (hindawi.com)
- Iron deficiency anemia occurs because of poor intake and absorption is the most common form of anemia [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- In India, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia had been reported to be 55.8% among females and 30.2% among males in age group of 15-19 years [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Limited studies reported that there is coexistence of folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency along with iron deficiency anemia [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- However, the symptoms of folate-deficiency anemia may be similar to other blood conditions or health problems. (theblackvault.com)
- People who already have folate-deficiency anemia may need to increase their dietary intake of folic acid , whether it's through their actual diet or supplementation. (theblackvault.com)
- Iron-deficiency anemia is the type that is linked to vitamin K. In this common condition, your body does not have enough erythrocytes, red blood cells that contain hemoglobin, an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen. (healthfully.com)
- Iron-deficiency anemia is usually caused by blood loss, poor nutrition or inadequate absorption of iron. (healthfully.com)
- Chapter 33: Management of Patients With Nonmalignant Hematologic Disorders - Page 927 Add a Note Question 4 See full question 17s The most common cause of iron-deficiency anemia in premenopausal women includes which of the following? (coursehero.com)
- Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in Saudi children and risks of iron deficiency anemia. (alliedacademies.org)
- In this study, we aim to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi children and whether it is associated with iron deficiency anemia in Saudi children. (alliedacademies.org)
- Then, we compared between patients with vitamin D deficiency and iron deficiency anemia. (alliedacademies.org)
- Our data showed that there was no association between vitamin D deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (p value=0.505). (alliedacademies.org)
- We could not demonstrate any significance of iron deficiency anemia as an independent risk factor for vitamin D deficiency. (alliedacademies.org)
- Vitamin D deficiency, Iron deficiency anemia, Saudi children. (alliedacademies.org)
- However, iron deficiency anemia is considered to be the cause in almost half of the cases [ 5 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- Although iron deficiency anemia affects mainly children, elderly and young women, it can occur in all age groups [ 5 , 6 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- The association between vitamin D deficiency and iron deficiency anemia has been studies [ 7 , 8 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- Many studies showed that vitamin D is independently associated with lower concentration of hemoglobin and subsequently iron deficiency anemia [ 9 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- However, other studies showed that vitamin D deficiency is not a risk factor for iron deficiency anemia [ 10 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- In this study, we aim to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi children and whether it is associated with iron deficiency anemia in Saudi children attending King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs-Western Region. (alliedacademies.org)
- Furthermore, we aim to estimate the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in children with vitamin D deficiency [ 11 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- The present study was conducted to investigate the oxidant-antioxidant status in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and to evaluate the antioxidant effect of vitamin E in IDA treatment. (tjh.com.tr)
- English: Peripheral blood film of a patient with iron deficiency anemia. (purehealthclinic.co.uk)
- Vitamin A deficiency may exacerbate iron -deficiency anemia . (purehealthclinic.co.uk)
- Vitamin A supplementation has beneficial effects on iron deficiency anemia and improves iron nutritional status among children and pregnant women. (purehealthclinic.co.uk)
- Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia worldwide. (encyclopedia.com)
- The onset of iron deficiency anemia is gradual and may not have early symptoms. (encyclopedia.com)
- Folic acid deficiency anemia is the most common type of megaloblastic anemia, arising from a problem with the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within the cells of the body. (encyclopedia.com)
- For folate deficiency anemia daily folic acid tablets are prescribed. (news-medical.net)
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- Iron-deficiency anemia is anemia caused by a lack of iron. (wikipedia.org)
- Iron-deficiency anemia affected about 1.48 billion people in 2015. (wikipedia.org)
- Iron-deficiency anemia is characterized by the sign of pallor (reduced oxyhemoglobin in skin or mucous membranes), and the symptoms of fatigue, lightheadedness, and weakness. (wikipedia.org)
- Because iron-deficiency anemia tends to develop slowly, adaptation occurs to the systemic effects that anemia causes, and the disease often goes unrecognized for some time. (wikipedia.org)
- A diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia requires further investigation into its cause. (wikipedia.org)
- In women of childbearing age, heavy menstrual periods can also cause iron-deficiency anemia. (wikipedia.org)
- Parasitic worms cause both inflammation and chronic blood loss by binding to a human's small-intestinal mucosa, and through their means of feeding and degradation, they can ultimately cause iron-deficiency anemia. (wikipedia.org)
- Women with menorrhagia (heavy menstrual periods) are at risk of iron-deficiency anemia because they are at higher-than-normal risk of losing a larger amount blood during menstruation than is replaced in their diet. (wikipedia.org)
- People who have other problems like lack of intrinsic factor, mal-absorption of Vitamin B12, such people can only be treated, most of the times this deficiency is treated by giving Vitamin B12 injections. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
- When conditions like mal-absorption, etc improve these injections are stopped, so that the body can make Vitamin B12 all by itself. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
- Vitamin B12 injections are the traditional treatment for pernicious anemia, but the supplement can also be taken orally in large doses. (empowher.com)
- Pernicious anemia can be easily treated with either injections or pills of vitamin B 12 . (wikipedia.org)
- I have several kind of anemia (but not pernicious anemia that requires frequent injections of B12) and migraine headches (for which I take another prescribed medication), and also take a PPI for GERD. (diabeticconnect.com)
- Vitamin B12 deficiency: Can injections of the vitamin treat symptoms of anaemia? (express.co.uk)
- However, it is possible to feed your body with B12 through injections of the vitamin. (express.co.uk)
- According to the NHS, a B12 deficiency is usually treated with injections of the vitamin in a form called hydroxocobalamin. (express.co.uk)
- Most cases of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can be easily treated with injections or tablets to replace the missing vitamins. (nhsinform.scot)
- Is pernicious anemia treated best with vitamin B12 injections? (drmirkin.com)
- Are you receiving Vitamin B12 injections? (the-insurance-surgery.co.uk)
- The University of Maryland Medical Center notes that vitamin K is so vital in blood clotting that newborn babies are given injections of this essential nutrient. (healthfully.com)
- If this antibody shows up, B12 cannot be absorbed, and the pateint has Pernicious Anaemia, and must be treated for life, usually with B12 injections. (healthunlocked.com)
- This can be treated by injections of vitamin B12. (news-medical.net)
- Vitamin B 12 deficiency has traditionally been treated with intramuscular injections, although oral and intranasal preparations are also available. (aafp.org)
- So far I've been able to find posts on anemia boards that mention migraines decreasing once B12 injections start, but other than that have not found much. (forumotion.net)
- Some people may respond to treatment by taking vitamin B12 supplements by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
- Depending on the cause of your vitamin B 12 deficiency, you may need to take vitamin B 12 supplements for the rest of your life. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Treatment may include vitamin B-12 supplements. (uhhospitals.org)
- Vitamin B 12 deficiency due to other causes may be prevented with a balanced diet or with supplements. (wikipedia.org)
- Supplements containing only B12, or B12 along with other B vitamins and/or folate, are readily available. (uwhealth.org)
- Taking supplements brings your level of vitamin B12 back to normal, so you do not have symptoms. (uwhealth.org)
- To keep your level of vitamin B12 normal, you will probably need to take supplements for the rest of your life. (uwhealth.org)
- Your vitamin B12 supplements might be pills or shots. (uwhealth.org)
- If our findings are confirmed through further research, low vitamin D levels may turn out to be a readily modifiable risk factor for anemia that we can easily tackle with supplements," says senior study investigator Jeffrey Fadrowski, M.D., M.H.S., also a pediatric kidney specialist at Johns Hopkins. (innovations-report.com)
- "If our findings are confirmed through further research, low vitamin D levels may turn out to be a readily modifiable risk factor for anaemia that we can easily tackle with supplements," said senior study investigator Dr Jeffrey Fadrowski, of Johns Hopkins. (nutraingredients.com)
- If their blood results indicate a serum ferritin of ≤ 15 micrograms/dL without the presence of an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), they will be invited to continue in the intervention portion of the study, where they will receive iron supplements as well as vitamin E (or placebo) for an eight week treatment period. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Vitamin D Supplements and Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease. (annals.org)
- Vitamin B12 supplements are usually given by injection at first. (nhsinform.scot)
- What are the effects of point-of-use fortification of foods with iron-containing micronutrient powders (MNP) alone, or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, on nutrition, health and development among children of preschool and school age (24 months to 12 years of age) compared with no intervention , a placebo (dummy pill) or regular iron-containing supplements (as drops, tablets or syrup)? (cochrane.org)
- To assess the burden of anaemia and osteoporosis in hip fracture patients, to determine the rate of blood transfusion per-operatively, to assess the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements and the use of anti-osteoporotic medications postoperatively. (org.pk)
- The ninety-fifth percentile of vitamin B 12 intake from both food and supplements was approximately 27 μg/day. (nih.gov)
- Vitamin C supplements helps absorb iron better. (news-medical.net)
- Folate tablets are usually prescribed along with Vitamin B12 supplements. (news-medical.net)
- Anemia during pregnancy can easily be treated by adding iron or vitamin supplements to your daily routine. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Treatment for iron deficiency anaemia involves increasing dietary iron intake or taking iron supplements to replace the missing iron in the body. (hse.ie)
- Iron supplements and vitamin C may be recommended. (wikipedia.org)
Levels of vitamin11
- Blood tests may show fewer but larger red blood cells , low numbers of young red blood cells , low levels of vitamin B 12 , and antibodies to intrinsic factor. (wikipedia.org)
- Pediatricians from Johns Hopkins Children's Center and elsewhere have discovered a link between low levels of vitamin D and anemia in children. (eurekalert.org)
- The study found that kids with low levels of Vitamin D may be twice as likely to have anemia. (privatemdlabs.com)
- Low levels of vitamin D in blood serum appear to be linked to an increase in children's risk of anaemia, according to new research. (nutraingredients.com)
- Fadrowski and his colleagues studied blood samples from more than 10,400 children, tracking levels of vitamin D and haemoglobin. (nutraingredients.com)
- However, many people with pernicious anemia do not have abnormally low blood levels of vitamin B12. (drmirkin.com)
- One report showed that two percent of Americans over 60 have low blood levels of vitamin B12, but the incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency causing nerve damage in older people is much higher than that, perhaps as high a 50 percent. (drmirkin.com)
- Low levels of vitamin K are caused by poor nutrition or a disorder of the intestines that stops it from being absorbed properly. (healthfully.com)
- According to a study published in the Journal of Pediatrics, low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of anemia in children. (doctortipster.com)
- They searched for evidence of anemia and low blood levels of vitamin D. Researchers have found that vitamin D levels were much lower in patients who had anemia. (doctortipster.com)
- Moreover, studies in rats have shown that iron deficiency alters plasma and liver levels of vitamin A (12, 13) . (purehealthclinic.co.uk)
- Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin. (stlukes-stl.com)
- Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water. (stlukes-stl.com)
- a water-soluble vitamin of the B-complex group. (moyak.com)
- Folate, like all B-vitamins, is water-soluble, meaning it dissolves in water and the body cannot store it in fat cells. (theblackvault.com)
Known as megaloblastic1
Type of anemia9
- People with this type of anemia often do well with treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
- This type of anemia means that your body doesn't have enough healthy red blood cells because you're low in vitamin B12 . (webmd.com)
- This type of anemia is usually found during a medical exam through a routine blood test. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Either a lack of vitamin B-12 or a lack of folate causes a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia (pernicious anemia). (uhhospitals.org)
- It may also be a side effect of a medication, so it's important that you work with your health care provider to confirm that you have anemia, which type of anemia it is, how severe it is and how to properly treat it. (prlog.org)
- This type of anemia, called pernicious anemia or megaloblastic anemia , is characterized by red blood cells that are larger than they should be and oval-shaped, instead of round. (livestrong.com)
- A type of anemia (low red blood cell count) caused by the body's inability to absorb vitamin b12. (icd10data.com)
- Treatment of anemia may depend on what type of anemia the patient has. (news-medical.net)
- This is the leading cause of anemia in the United States, and consequently, the most common type of anemia during pregnancy. (americanpregnancy.org)
Caused by a vitamin B12 defici1
- Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce or prevent complications related to a low vitamin B12 level. (medlineplus.gov)
- The diagnosis of pernicious anemia is often made late in the course of the disease after a person has suffered permanent nerve damage. (drmirkin.com)
- B12 deficiency - problems related to the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. (semanticscholar.org)
- A doctor may use the results of a vitamin B-12 test to help form their diagnosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- 2 Proper management of the patient with anemia requires a precise etiologic diagnosis. (aafp.org)
- Does anyone have a diagnosis of pernicious anemia? (forumotion.net)
- However, main causes can be classified as, diet which is low in vitamin B12, that is low intake of fish, dairy products, meat, eggs, etc. all these foods are a rich source of vitamin B12. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
- Other causes of low vitamin B 12 include not enough dietary intake (such as in a vegan diet ), celiac disease , or tapeworm infection . (wikipedia.org)
- therefore, poor intake or absorption of this vitamin can cause a deficiency. (livestrong.com)
- Although vitamin B-12 can still be absorbed well after this surgery, you may have to make dietary changes that interfere with vitamin B-12 intake. (livestrong.com)
- The aim of this move was to ensure that all women of childbearing age increased their intake of the B-group vitamin. (moyak.com)
- The median intake of vitamin B 12 from food in the United States was estimated to be approximately 5 μg/day for men and 3.5 μg/day for women. (nih.gov)
- There is not sufficient scientific evidence to set a Tolerable Upper Intake Level ( UL ) for vitamin B 12 at this time. (nih.gov)
- Symptoms of a vitamin B12 deficiency include: extreme tiredness, a lack of energy, pins and needles, mouth ulcers, a sore and red tongue, muscle weakness, disturbed vision, psychological problems and issues with memory, understanding and judgement. (express.co.uk)
- Dizziness , tiredness , weakness and feeling cold during these episodes may be related to the vascular event associated with rosacea contributed by anemia. (healthcaremagic.com)
- weakness, tiredness, anemia and recurring flu infections can be a feature of leukemia but not sufficient enough to diagnose you. (healthcaremagic.com)
- Anemia is defined as a deficiency of red blood cells and usually results in constant, unresolved tiredness. (ehow.co.uk)
Types of anemia7
- What types of anemia result from bone marrow or stem cell problems? (webmd.com)
- There are many types of anemia. (medlineplus.gov)
- With these types of anemia, the red blood cells don't develop normally. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Many types of anemia exist, each with its own cause - the cause may be an iron or vitamin deficiency, blood loss, a chronic illness, or a genetic or acquired defect or disease. (prlog.org)
- Both types of anemia are characterized by a smaller number of healthy red blood cells. (livestrong.com)
- More than 400 different types of anemia have been identified. (encyclopedia.com)
- There are over 400 different types of anemia , but some are more prevalent in pregnancy. (americanpregnancy.org)
- The Insurance Surgery is a leading life insurance specialist for people who have B12 Anaemia or Folate Anaemia. (the-insurance-surgery.co.uk)
- Underwriting for Vitamin B12 Anaemia or Folate Anaemia life insurance will depend on the following factors. (the-insurance-surgery.co.uk)
- If you have Vitamin B12 or Folate Anaemia and you have regular health checks with your GP and your Anaemia is under control, it is likely that most insurers will offer you standard life insurance cover with standard terms. (the-insurance-surgery.co.uk)
- If however you have experienced symptoms as a result of your Vitamin B12 or Folate Anaemia, an insurer will want to know which medications you are taking and whether you are seeking treatment via your GP to get your B12 levels back to a more normal level. (the-insurance-surgery.co.uk)
- An insurer may want to discuss your application with you in more detail to determine the severity of your Vitamin B12 or Folate Anaemia. (the-insurance-surgery.co.uk)
- At The Insurance Surgery, we have helped many people find the right Vitamin B12 or Folate Anaemia life insurance cover for their needs. (the-insurance-surgery.co.uk)
- There are also additional factors that could affect your Vitamin B12 or Folate Anaemia life insurance premiums. (the-insurance-surgery.co.uk)
- It is likely that you will be offered critical illness cover on standard terms if you suffer with Vitamin B12 or Folate Anaemia, but have symptoms that are under control with no health complications. (the-insurance-surgery.co.uk)
- The result is that fewer red blood cells are produced and available to carry oxygen to the body's cells, resulting in anemia. (empowher.com)
- The Schilling test measures the body's ability to absorb vitamin B12 from the bowel. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- This test identifies whether the gastric parietal cells, important for absorption of vitamin B12, are under attack from the body's immune system. (medichecks.com)
- A vitamin B-12 level test checks the amount of vitamin B-12 in the blood or urine to gauge the body's overall vitamin B-12 stores. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This is because vitamin B12 deficiency affects the way certain cells (epithelial cells) in the cervix look. (medlineplus.gov)
- Another cause of vitamin b12 deficiency is surgery, if a person had to undergo any surgery which affects production of intrinsic factor, it might cause deficiency. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
- Pernicious anemia usually affects adults. (empowher.com)
- The researchers found several possible links between vitamin D and anemia, one being that the nutrient affects the way that red blood cells are created in bone marrow. (privatemdlabs.com)
- Conclusion Anaemia affects one-quarter of the world's population and is concentrated in preschool-aged children and women, making it a global public health problem. (rero.ch)
- Iron deficiency anaemia affects up to 1 in 20 men and 1 in 20 post-menopausal women (after a woman's menstrual periods have stopped). (hse.ie)
- Your body must absorb enough vitamin B12. (medlineplus.gov)
- Certain health conditions can make it difficult for your body to absorb enough vitamin B12. (medlineplus.gov)
- He or she can help ensure that you get enough vitamin B-12 and other vitamins. (uhhospitals.org)
- Although pernicious anemia technically refers to cases resulting from not enough intrinsic factor, it is often used to describe all cases of anemia due to not enough vitamin B12. (wikipedia.org)
- You will also have blood tests to check the number of red blood cells and to see if your body has enough vitamin B12. (uwhealth.org)
- Without enough vitamin B12, the body does not produce enough red blood cells, and cells throughout the body do not get the oxygen they need. (lmh.org)
- QnC Jelly Gamat merupakan solusi ampuh untuk mengobati dan menyembuhkan penyakit anemia Anda yang kekurangan vitamin B12 secara alami. (folkd.com)
- Apabila anda hamil, anda mungkin berisiko menghidap anemia. (healthyvitagarden.com)
- Apabila anda mempunyai anemia, darah anda tidak mempunyai cukup sel-sel darah merah untuk membawa oksigen ke tisu-tisu anda dan untuk bayi anda. (healthyvitagarden.com)
- Website ini diusahakan oleh Fara Fadzil, a wife, a mommy, an engineer and a committed Shaklee Independent Distributor (ID: 860722) yang berkongsi tentang pelbagai tips dan memberi konsultasi percuma tentang cadangan vitamin Shaklee yang paling sesuai untuk anda dan seisi keluarga. (rahsiavitaminibu.com)
- Hubungi saya melalui sms/call/whatsapp/wechat di 012-3579599 atau email kepada [email protected] untuk mendapatkan vitamin anda hari ini juga! (rahsiavitaminibu.com)
- Anaemia is where you have fewer red blood cells than normal or you have an abnormally low amount of a substance called haemoglobin in each red blood cell. (www.nhs.uk)
- If your original cells have an inadequate supply of vitamin B12, your new red blood cells will be abnormally large and your white blood cells will have abnormal nuclei. (prlog.org)
- A lack of B12 causes the body to produce abnormally large red blood cells which can't function properly, which can cause anaemia. (express.co.uk)
- Anaemia is the general term for having either fewer red blood cells than normal or having an abnormally low amount of haemoglobin in each red blood cell. (express.co.uk)
- Vitamin B12 or B9 (commonly called folate) deficiency anaemia occurs when a lack of vitamin B12 or folate causes the body to produce abnormally large red blood cells that can't function properly. (nhsinform.scot)
- While the serum folate level was within normal range, serum vitamin B 12 level was abnormally low. (go.jp)
- An abnormally high vitamin B-12 status can be an early sign of liver disease, diabetes, or certain types of leukemia . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The investigators say several mechanisms could account for the link between vitamin D and anemia, including vitamin D's effects on red blood cell production in the bone marrow, as well as its ability to regulate immune inflammation, a known catalyst of anemia. (innovations-report.com)
- Long known for its role in bone development, vitamin D has recently been implicated in a wide range of disorders. (innovations-report.com)
- It is widely distributed in green leafy food items "foliage" and its deficiency will lead to megaloblastic anemia due to prolongation of synthesis phase of red blood cells and retarded maturation of germ cells in bone marrow. (hindawi.com)
- Normally produced by the kidneys, EPO fights anaemia by inducing the bone marrow to make red blood cells and prolonging the life span of existing red blood cells. (compamed-tradefair.com)
- On the one hand, this vitamin influences hematopoiesis in bone marrow ( red blood cell production ) and on the other hand, vitamin D is involved in inflammation and immunity. (doctortipster.com)
- 4 Despite that, in the United States only 2 % of all hip fracture patients are prescribed ideal drug therapy, including calcium, vitamin D3 and an anti-resorptive or bone-forming medication. (org.pk)
- As a result, the bone marrow makes fewer red blood cells, causing anemia. (nih.gov)
- Nutrients from food, such as iron and certain vitamins, ensure that your bone marrow remains healthy and is able to produce a constant supply of red blood cells. (hse.ie)
- Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia in pregnancy. (herbs.org)
- Our prospective study in healthy pregnant women showed that blood levels of iron, ferritin and vitamin B6, in particular, fell to the lower limit of the nonpregnant reference range by the third trimester. (herbs.org)
- Treatment should continue for about 2 months after correction of anemia and the etiological cause in order to replenish the body stores of iron. (medscape.com)
- In order for your body to create healthy red blood cells, it needs access to various compounds, including iron, vitamin B12 and folate. (livestrong.com)
- I have 3 conditions related to anemia that he's following, and I've been checked out for the usual deseases that inhibit the absorption of iron such as celiac disease. (diabeticconnect.com)
- The rationale for the study is to test whether addition of Vitamin E, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, improves the treatment response to supplemental iron. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Liquid supplement preparations of iron (both groups), Vitamin E (test) and placebo (control) will be distributed by the research pharmacy at Children's Hospital Colorado. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Iron requires haemglobin (Hb) synthesis in red blood cells and low level of Hb clinically determines anemia. (hindawi.com)
- For example, iron deficiency anaemia , which occurs when the body doesn't contain enough iron. (nhsinform.scot)
- Anaemia, the condition in which red blood cells have limited capacity to carry oxygen, frequently results after prolonged iron deficiency. (cochrane.org)
- In this process, a powdered premix containing iron, and possibly other vitamins and minerals, is added to foods either during or after cooking, or immediately before consumption to improve their nutritious value but not their flavour or colour. (cochrane.org)
- The review found that children receiving iron-containing MNP for point-of-use fortification of foods were at significantly lower risk of having anaemia and iron deficiency and had higher haemoglobin concentrations. (cochrane.org)
- Point-of-use fortification of foods with MNPs containing iron reduces anaemia and iron deficiency in preschool- and school-age children and seems feasible for public health purposes. (cochrane.org)
- It refers to the addition of iron alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals in powder form, to energy-containing foods (excluding beverages) at home or in any other place where meals are to be consumed. (cochrane.org)
- If you're feeling tired and run-down, check your iron, folate and vitamin B12 status with our comprehensive range of anaemia blood tests. (medichecks.com)
- This test measures the amount of iron in the blood to help identify iron deficiency anaemia or iron overload syndrome. (medichecks.com)
- A blood test that measures the amount of iron stored in the body used to diagnose anaemia or iron-overload. (medichecks.com)
- A blood test that checks for causes of anaemia, which includes a full blood count and tests for iron, ferritin and the active form of vitamin B12. (medichecks.com)
- Ten patients with IDA aged nine months were given only iron treatment, whereas another 10 patients were administered both iron and vitamin E. The complete blood count, plasma malonyldialdehyde (MDA) level, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase level, and the serum vitamin E level, both before and within the treatment phases were examined. (tjh.com.tr)
- These results suggest that iron administration in IDA treatment may stimulate lipid peroxidation, and that vitamin E supplied with iron may reduce the MDA production. (tjh.com.tr)
- The hematological indications of the findings of our study are that the reticulocyte response develops earlier and the microcytosis recovery occurs more rapidly in the vitamin E-administered group in comparison with the group treated with iron only. (tjh.com.tr)
- Iron Anaemia Not Resolving? (purehealthclinic.co.uk)
- Well, yes, people usually do know that Vitamin C taken at the same time as the iron helps absorption, but Vitamin A is a good addition too. (purehealthclinic.co.uk)
- Vitamin A is required for the effective use of iron in the body and sometimes it is a Vitamin A deficiency that is at the heart of the problem. (purehealthclinic.co.uk)
- The combination of supplemental vitamin A and iron seems to reduce anemia more effectively than either supplemental iron or vitamin A alone (11) . (purehealthclinic.co.uk)
- There is also a new study out, bit technical as it is focusing on the mechanism of why Vitamin A helps iron deficiency anaemia, but says the same thing in effect. (purehealthclinic.co.uk)
- Vitamin A deficiency modulates iron metabolism via ineffective erythropoiesis. (purehealthclinic.co.uk)
- You can even get iron complexed with Vitamin A and Vitamin C, like this one , or you can take them as separate products. (purehealthclinic.co.uk)
- it also tests Vitamin C levels so might be a useful one to do if you're struggling with your iron levels. (purehealthclinic.co.uk)
- Anemia develops when either blood loss, a slow-down in the production of new RBCs (erythropoiesis), or an increase in red cell destruction (hemolysis) causes significant reductions in RBCs, Hgb, iron levels, and the essential delivery of oxygen to body tissues. (encyclopedia.com)
- Unless the underlying cause of anemia, which may be continuous blood loss, haemolytic anemias, iron deficiency or increased demand states like pregnancy, are assessed and managed, the treatment remains incomplete. (news-medical.net)
- Anemia is managed with oral dose of 60 to 120 mg per day of iron. (news-medical.net)
- Iron deficiency anaemia occurs when there is a reduced number of red blood cells because the body does not have enough iron to produce them. (hse.ie)
- The most common type of anaemia is iron deficiency anaemia, which this article focuses on. (hse.ie)
- How common is iron deficiency anaemia? (hse.ie)
- Iron deficiency anaemia is more common in women who are still menstruating (having periods). (hse.ie)
- If you have iron deficiency anaemia, you may need to be monitored to check that the treatment is working and that your iron levels have returned to normal. (hse.ie)
- In some cases, further tests may be necessary to determine the underlying cause of your iron deficiency anaemia. (hse.ie)
- For example, if your anaemia is related to iron deficiency, you will need to take an iron supplement. (ehow.co.uk)
- In 2015 anemia due to iron deficiency resulted in about 54,000 deaths - down from 213,000 deaths in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
Prevalence of anaemia1
- Left untreated, serious problems can occur in prolonged and severe anemia. (prlog.org)
- Laboratory tests indicate severe anemia, significant neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. (coursehero.com)
- Spread fortified with vitamins and minerals induces catch-up growth and eradicates severe anemia in stunted refugee children aged 3-6 y. (semanticscholar.org)
- However, in very rare cases, women with severe anemia may need a blood transfusion. (americanpregnancy.org)
- These two vitamins are needed to make red blood cells. (webmd.com)
- Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your body needs vitamin B12 to make red blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you're low in vitamin B12, your red blood cells won't look normal. (webmd.com)
- This vitamin is needed to make red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of your body. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Lack of Vitamin B12 makes it difficult for the nervous system to produce red blood cells, and so arises the deficiency. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
- This vitamin is needed to make red blood cells. (uhhospitals.org)
- Anemia is any blood disorder in which the number and/or size of the red blood cells are decreased. (empowher.com)
- Thus cells that need rapid replenishment, such as blood cells, are most often affected by a deficiency of these vitamins. (empowher.com)
- Anemia is a condition in which your blood is low on healthy red blood cells. (prlog.org)
- The body needs access to vitamin B12 to produce red blood cells. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- You get anaemia when you don't have enough red blood cells. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- In cases of vitamin B12 deficiency, the red blood cells will be the usual colour but larger than normal. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Not having enough B12 can lead to anemia, which means your body does not have enough red blood cells to do the job. (uwhealth.org)
- Anemia, also known as 'low blood' or 'tired blood,' is the general term given to a medical condition in which the body doesn't make enough healthy red blood cells. (livestrong.com)
- Vitamin B12 helps make red blood cells. (lmh.org)
- Anemia, which occurs when the body doesn't have enough oxygen-carrying red blood cells, is believed to affect one in five children at some point in their lives, experts say. (innovations-report.com)
- Vitamin B-12 is also needed for other processes in the body, such as manufacturing new DNA and making red blood cells. (livestrong.com)
- We hoped that these newly invented vitamin E-containing dialysis filters would have some antioxidant properties - scavenging free radicals that may cause damage to cells in the body, including red blood cells. (compamed-tradefair.com)
- A person with Anaemia has a very low amount of haemoglobin in their red blood cells, and also has a smaller number of red blood cells. (the-insurance-surgery.co.uk)
- Pernicious anemia is a blood disorder in which red blood cells fail to develop normally. (discoveriesinmedicine.com)
- Not having enough folate in your body leads to anemia, a condition wherein the body cannot create a sufficient number of red blood cells. (theblackvault.com)
- A blood test to measure levels of active Vitamin B12 (holotranscobalamin), essential for healthy nerves, blood cells and DNA. (medichecks.com)
- Anemia can also be caused by the destruction of red blood cells or reduced red blood cell production. (encyclopedia.com)
- In this early stage of anemia, the red blood cells look normal, but they are reduced in number. (encyclopedia.com)
- Vitamin B-12 is necessary for several bodily processes, including nerve function and the production of DNA and red blood cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Pernicious anemia, which causes low levels of red blood cells, results from an inability to absorb vitamin B-12. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Treating anemia entails treating the condition of low haemoglobin and red blood cells in blood as well as detecting and treating the disease process that has led to the anemia. (news-medical.net)
- Anemia is a condition in which the body has fewer red blood cells than normal. (nih.gov)
- With anemia, red blood cells carry less oxygen to tissues and organs-particularly the heart and brain-and those tissues and organs may not function as well as they should. (nih.gov)
- Anemia is a medical condition in which there is not enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen to the tissues in the body. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Vitamin B-12 is also a necessary vitamin for the body to have to help with the production of red blood cells. (americanpregnancy.org)
- The cause of anemia truly comes down to how many red blood cells are being produced in the body and how healthy they are. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Anaemia occurs when there is a reduced number of red blood cells. (hse.ie)
- Anemia is usually diagnosed with the help of a complete blood count (CBC), which tells doctors the exact amount of red blood cells and haemoglobin in your blood. (ehow.co.uk)
- Also at the conference, a research team from the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio reported on a study suggesting that current guidelines developed as part of the NKF's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) are inadequate for correcting vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency (VDDI) in non-dialyzing CKD patients. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Inadequate Vitamin A (VA) status during pregnancy has been associated with maternal anemia and suboptimal newborn birth weight (BW). (springer.com)
Causes of vitamin b12 defici1
- Infants who are bottle-fed should receive supplemental nutrition for vitamin D, which has been shown to help the body absorb calcium, phosphorus and other essential vitamins and minerals. (privatemdlabs.com)
- LEHVOSS Nutrition offer a range of natural, organic certified, vegan and active vitamins and minerals. (nutraingredients.com)
- MNPs contained from two to 18 vitamins and minerals. (cochrane.org)
- As we get older, we do not absorb vitamins and minerals so efficiently due to lack of stomach acid. (healthunlocked.com)
Chronic anemia and vitamin D deficien2
- Untreated, chronic anemia and vitamin D deficiency can have wide-ranging health consequences, including organ damage, skeletal deformities and frequent fractures, and lead to premature osteoporosis in later life. (innovations-report.com)
- Children who have chronic anemia and vitamin D deficiency have more health problems such as impaired growth , skeletal deformities , fractures, premature osteoporosis and others. (doctortipster.com)
- Acid helps to release the active form of vitamin B12 in the stomach. (empowher.com)
- is a form of megaloblastic anemia caused by the absence of intrinsic factor-a chemical substance secreted by cells in the stomach that makes absorption of vitamin B12 possible. (empowher.com)
- Due to a higher risk of stomach cancer , those with pernicious anemia should be checked regularly for this. (wikipedia.org)
- The stomach produces a substance called intrinsic factor to absorb vitamin B12 from food. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- With pernicious anaemia there is an increased danger of developing stomach cancer . (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Normally, the vitamin is absorbed by your digestive system-your stomach and intestines. (uwhealth.org)
- In this anemia, your body destroys the cells in your stomach that help you absorb vitamin B12. (uwhealth.org)
- Intrinsic factor is a substance in the stomach that binds to vitamin B-12 so that the body can absorb it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Certain people are more at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency than others, especially those who have low stomach acid or other digestive issues. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Stomach acid separates vitamin B-12 from food so that the body can absorb it more efficiently. (medicalnewstoday.com)
Intrinsic factor deficiency1
- Pernicious anemia due to autoimmune problems occurs in about one per 1000 people. (wikipedia.org)
- Autoimmune mechanisms in pernicious anaemia & thyroid disease. (semanticscholar.org)
- A test for pernicious anaemia, an autoimmune condition which prevents the body from extracting and absorbing vitamin B12. (medichecks.com)
- The most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is an autoimmune condition called pernicious anaemia. (medichecks.com)
- Vitamin B6 deficiency and anemia in pregnancy. (herbs.org)
- The following review article shows the importance of B6 levels and the role that this vitamin plays in anemia during pregnancy. (herbs.org)
- Specific recommendations for each vitamin depends on age, gender, and other factors (such as pregnancy). (moyak.com)
- Poor serum retinol status throughout pregnancy was associated with maternal anemia at delivery in Amazonian women. (springer.com)
- Anemia during pregnancy is especially a concern because it is associated with low birth weight, premature birth and maternal mortality. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Anemia during pregnancy can be a mild condition and easily treated if caught early on. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Symptoms of anemia during pregnancy can be mild at first and often go unnoticed. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Preventing anemia during pregnancy is as easy as changing, or making additions, to your diet. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Treatment may include a shot of vitamin B12 once a month. (medlineplus.gov)
- For people, where the real cause is their diet can try and include foods which are rich in Vitamin B12. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
- Other causes include changes in the small bowel that limit how much vitamin B-12 you can absorb. (uhhospitals.org)
- It can also occur if a person's diet does not include enough of this vitamin. (lmh.org)
- Other symptoms of anaemia include irregular heartbeat, headache, lack of focus, dizziness and shortness of breath. (ehow.co.uk)
- You can prevent anemia caused by a lack of vitamin B12 by eating a well-balanced diet. (medlineplus.gov)
- Anemias caused by a lack of vitamin B 12 or a lack of folate are 2 types of megaloblastic anemia. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- For the body to absorb vitamin b12 better there is a requirement of a protein called intrinsic factor, lack of this protein too can cause deficiency. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
- Pernicious anemia refers to anemia that results from lack of intrinsic factor . (wikipedia.org)
- Because pernicious anemia is due to a lack of intrinsic factor, it is not preventable. (wikipedia.org)
- A lack of this vitamin can lead to anaemia. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Anaemia due to a lack of vitamin B12 is also called pernicious anaemia. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- This will show whether the anaemia is caused by a lack of intrinsic factor. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- A lack of vitamin D may contribute to anemia, according to researchers at Johns Hopkins Children's Center. (privatemdlabs.com)
- While the research suggested a connection between anemia and a lack of vitamin D, more study is needed to be sure of the connection. (privatemdlabs.com)
- Infants often have a lack of vitamin D, especially if they are bottle-fed. (privatemdlabs.com)
- If, on the other hand, your B12 deficiency is caused by a lack of the vitamin in your diet, you will be prescribed vitamin B12 tablets to take every day between meals. (express.co.uk)
- Pernicious anemia is due to lack of vitamin B12 which results in progressive nerve damage that causes forgetfulness, loss of ability to concentrate and abnormal nerve sensations such as burning, itching or loss of feeling. (drmirkin.com)
- Many older people who are diagnosed with senility actually suffer from lack of vitamin B12. (drmirkin.com)
- Lack of vitamin B12 also can cause heart attacks, so all people over 60 should be screened for B12 deficiency. (drmirkin.com)
- B12 Anaemia happens when there is a lack of vitamin B12 in a person's system. (the-insurance-surgery.co.uk)
- Individuals with vitamin B 12 deficiency caused by a lack of intrinsic factor require medical treatment. (nih.gov)
- I can see an improvement in him already, not only does he look better with a much better colour, he is a lot more cheerful which is lovely to see, I find it hard to see how the lack of a vitamin can make such a huge difference! (healthunlocked.com)
- Other forms of anaemia can be caused by a lack of vitamin B12 or folate in the body. (hse.ie)
Absorption of vitamin b-1
- Hi, I was just diagnosed in August and I have had some labwork done recently that shows I'm deficient in Vitamin D and folate. (celiac.com)
- Although it's uncommon, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency (with or without anaemia) can lead to complications, particularly if you've been deficient in vitamin B12 or folate for some time. (nhsinform.scot)
- Approximately one billion people worldwide are deficient in at least one vitamin or mineral (also known of micronutrients). (cochrane.org)
Another B vitamin3
- This vitamin B12 malabsorption was selective and reversible within a few months after treatment with parenteral vitamin B12. (unboundmedicine.com)
- We read with great interest the article by Dr. G. J. Ellis and his associates in the March 1966 issue of this journal on a patient with pernicious anemia who developed clinical evidence of combined system disease during the course of adequate parenteral vitamin B 12 therapy. (annals.org)
- I will receive parenteral vitamin B 12 therapy for the rest of my life. (coursehero.com)
- Parenteral vitamin B 12 may also be used. (mhmedical.com)