Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Anemia, Hemolytic: A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).Fanconi Anemia: Congenital disorder affecting all bone marrow elements, resulting in ANEMIA; LEUKOPENIA; and THROMBOPENIA, and associated with cardiac, renal, and limb malformations as well as dermal pigmentary changes. Spontaneous CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE is a feature of this disease along with predisposition to LEUKEMIA. There are at least 7 complementation groups in Fanconi anemia: FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, and FANCL. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=227650, August 20, 2004)Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Anemia, Pernicious: A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Anemia, Sideroblastic: Anemia characterized by the presence of erythroblasts containing excessive deposits of iron in the marrow.Anemia, Megaloblastic: A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Anemia, Refractory: A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy.Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital: Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.Equine Infectious Anemia: Viral disease of horses caused by the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV; INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS, EQUINE). It is characterized by intermittent fever, weakness, and anemia. Chronic infection consists of acute episodes with remissions.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Chicken anemia virus: The type species of GYROVIRUS, a small, non-enveloped DNA virus originally isolated from contaminated vaccines in Japan. It causes chicken infectious anemia and may possibly play a key role in hemorrhagic anemia syndrome, anemia dermatitis, and blue wing disease.Anemia, Dyserythropoietic, Congenital: A familial disorder characterized by ANEMIA with multinuclear ERYTHROBLASTS, karyorrhexis, asynchrony of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, and various nuclear abnormalities of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors (ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS). Type II is the most common of the 3 types; it is often referred to as HEMPAS, based on the Hereditary Erythroblast Multinuclearity with Positive Acidified Serum test.Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan: A rare congenital hypoplastic anemia that usually presents early in infancy. The disease is characterized by a moderate to severe macrocytic anemia, occasional neutropenia or thrombocytosis, a normocellular bone marrow with erythroid hypoplasia, and an increased risk of developing leukemia. (Curr Opin Hematol 2000 Mar;7(2):85-94)Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins: A diverse group of proteins whose genetic MUTATIONS have been associated with the chromosomal instability syndrome FANCONI ANEMIA. Many of these proteins play important roles in protecting CELLS against OXIDATIVE STRESS.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Anemia, Neonatal: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts: Chronic refractory anemia with granulocytopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Myeloblasts and progranulocytes constitute 5 to 40 percent of the nucleated marrow cells.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that regulates the activities of CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE and GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE. It is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM, but moves to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to FANCE PROTEIN.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that undergoes mono-ubiquitination by FANCL PROTEIN in response to DNA DAMAGE. Also, in response to IONIZING RADIATION it can undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein. Modified FANCD2 interacts with BRCA2 PROTEIN in a stable complex with CHROMATIN, and it is involved in DNA REPAIR by homologous RECOMBINATION.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group A Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that is the most commonly mutated protein in FANCONI ANEMIA. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by PROTEIN KINASE B and forms a complex with FANCC PROTEIN in the CELL NUCLEUS.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital Nonspherocytic: Any one of a group of congenital hemolytic anemias in which there is no abnormal hemoglobin or spherocytosis and in which there is a defect of glycolysis in the erythrocyte. Common causes include deficiencies in GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE; PYRUVATE KINASE; and GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE.Pallor: A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group G Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE during MITOSIS. It forms a complex with other FANCONI ANEMIA PROTEINS and helps protect CELLS from DNA DAMAGE by genotoxic agents.Coombs Test: A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Erythrocytes, Abnormal: Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Isavirus: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE containing one species: Infectious salmon anemia virus.Pancytopenia: Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group F Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein. It is an essential component of a nuclear core complex that protects the GENOME against CHROMOSOMAL INSTABILITY. It interacts directly with FANCG PROTEIN and helps stabilize a complex with FANCA PROTEIN and FANCC PROTEIN.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group E Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that interacts with FANCC PROTEIN and FANCD2 PROTEIN. It promotes the accumulation of FANCC protein in the CELL NUCLEUS.Fetal Hemoglobin: The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.Erythroblasts: Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.Osmotic Fragility: RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Heinz Bodies: Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Hemoglobinopathies: A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Intrinsic Factor: A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.alpha-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.Spherocytosis, Hereditary: A group of familial congenital hemolytic anemias characterized by numerous abnormally shaped erythrocytes which are generally spheroidal. The erythrocytes have increased osmotic fragility and are abnormally permeable to sodium ions.Rh Isoimmunization: The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Antisickling Agents: Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.Parvovirus B19, Human: The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Hemoglobins, Abnormal: Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal: A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Hematologic Diseases: Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Reticulocytosis: An increase in circulating RETICULOCYTES, which is among the simplest and most reliable signs of accelerated ERYTHROCYTE production. Reticulocytosis occurs during active BLOOD regeneration (stimulation of red bone marrow) and in certain types of ANEMIA, particularly CONGENITAL HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Bone Marrow DiseasesHematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine: In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.5-Aminolevulinate Synthetase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC 2.3.1.37.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Thrombocytosis: Increased numbers of platelets in the peripheral blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Oxymetholone: A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties. It is used mainly in the treatment of anemias. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002), this compound may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hemoglobin E: An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. It is most frequently observed in southeast Asian populations.Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure: Suppression of erythropoiesis with little or no abnormality of leukocyte or platelet production.Glucaric Acid: A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Erythroblastosis, Fetal: A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.

Autoantibodies to gastrin in patients with pernicious anaemia--a novel antibody. (1/227)

Autoantibodies arise when there is a breakdown in immunological tolerance. Autoantibodies to parietal cells and intrinsic factor are found in autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AAG) and are associated with elevated plasma gastrin. Endogenous gastrin autoantibodies have not been described to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of autoantibodies to gastrin. Plasma from 50,000 patients, including more than 2000 with AAG, was tested. Gastrin was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in whole plasma and the presence of autoantibody determined by using a control which omitted assay antibody. The quantity and affinity of gastrin autoantibodies was assessed. Three patients had autoantibodies to gastrin. All three had AAG and pernicious anaemia (PA). The antibodies were of low titre and relatively high affinity. Free circulating plasma gastrin levels were within the normal range, but total gastrin levels were elevated. This is the first description of autoantibodies to endogenous gastrin. The incidence of antibodies to gastrin is low, they are found in association with PA, and they may lead to falsely low measurements of plasma gastrin.  (+info)

Potential difference across the normal and the abnormal gastric mucosa in man. (2/227)

The mucosal potential difference in the body of the stomach was measured in 18 patients with gastric ulcers, five with gastritis, and three with pernicious anaemia. The results were compared with those of 12 normal volunteers. Significantly lower than normal levels were found in the groups of patients with gastric ulcers and gastritis. The patients with pernicious anaemia had even lower potential differences. In an additional 25 subjects, measurements were made in the duodenal bulb and at five sites in the stomach under direct vision at endoscopy. Biopsies were taken from each site for histology. Subjects with gastritis at the high lesser curve had a significantly lower potential difference at that site than those without gastritis. In the latter group, the potential difference at the high lesser curve was as low as in the antrum, and invariably lower than at the high greater curve.  (+info)

Immunomodulation by vitamin B12: augmentation of CD8+ T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cell activity in vitamin B12-deficient patients by methyl-B12 treatment. (3/227)

It has been suggested that vitamin B12 (vit.B12) plays an important role in immune system regulation, but the details are still obscure. In order to examine the action of vit.B12 on cells of the human immune system, lymphocyte subpopulations and NK cell activity were evaluated in 11 patients with vit.B12 deficiency anaemia and in 13 control subjects. Decreases in the number of lymphocytes and CD8+ cells and in the proportion of CD4+ cells, an abnormally high CD4/CD8 ratio, and suppressed NK cell activity were noted in patients compared with control subjects. In all 11 patients and eight control subjects, these immune parameters were evaluated before and after methyl-B12 injection. The lymphocyte counts and number of CD8+ cells increased both in patients and in control subjects. The high CD4/CD8 ratio and suppressed NK cell activity were improved by methyl-B12 treatment. Augmentation of CD3-CD16+ cells occurred in patients after methyl-B12 treatment. In contrast, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, lectin-stimulated lymphocyte blast formation, and serum levels of immunoglobulins were not changed by methyl-B12 treatment. These results indicate that vit.B12 might play an important role in cellular immunity, especially relativing to CD8+ cells and the NK cell system, which suggests effects on cytotoxic cells. We conclude that vit.B12 acts as an immunomodulator for cellular immunity.  (+info)

The rise in circulating gastrin with age is due to increases in gastric autoimmunity and Helicobacter pylori infection. (4/227)

To assess the effect of increasing age on circulating gastrin, we surveyed serum gastrin, Helicobactor pylori seroantibody status and gastric autoimmunity in 366 hospitalized patients aged 15-90 years. Data were subjected to multivariate analysis, using logarithmic transformation to normalize the distribution of gastrin concentrations (presented as geometric means and 95% CIs). The frequency of H. pylori-positive antibody status increased with age from 28% in the second decade to > 70% beyond the fourth decade. Fasting gastrin concentrations rose significantly from 44 ng/l (41-48) in the second decade to 95 ng/l (67-131) by the eighth decade (p = 0.001) in the total group. Twenty-seven patients (6.8% of the total) tested positive for gastric auto-antibodies: 2% of patients in the second decade, rising to 15.9% in the eighth decade. These patients formed a distinct group with respect to circulating gastrin concentrations. Excluding these 27, fasting gastrin concentrations still rose significantly, from 44 ng/l (41-48) in the second decade, to 67 ng/l (50-89) in the eighth decade (p = 0.003) in the remaining 341 patients. Fasting gastrin concentrations were significantly higher in patients who were H. pylori-seropositive (59 ng/l, 54-64 vs. sero-negative 41 ng/l, 37-46) (p = 0.002), and there was no increase in circulating gastrin concentrations with increasing age in either the H. pylori-positive or the H. pylori-negative group. The increase in circulating fasting gastrin observed with increasing age is due to an increased incidence of gastric antibodies associated with auto-immune atrophic gastritis, and an increased incidence of H. pylori infection.  (+info)

Thyrogastric autoimmune disease. Studies on the cell-mediated immune system and histocompatibility antigens. (5/227)

Cell-mediated immune responses were studied in autoimmune diseases of thyrogastric type, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and autoimmune pernicious anaemia-type gastritis. Specific cell-mediated immunity was investigated by the leucocyte migration inhibition procedure, and general cell-mediated immunity (T-cell performance) was studied by standard in vivo and in vitro tests. In thyrogastric autoimmune diseases inhibition of migration of leucocytes was induced by thyroglobulin and gastric parietal cell microsomes; under conditions of presumably low cellular sensitization, stimulation of migration was observed. There was no depression of general cell-mediated immunity, in contrast to what occurs in systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases. A weak association of autoimmune gastritis with HL-A3 and HL-A7 (P LESS THAN 0.05) lost significance when an appropriate correction was applied; this weakness with HL-A clearly does not explain the strong genetic component in thyroid and gastric autoimmunity.  (+info)

Measles antibodies and autoantibodies in autoimmune disorders. (6/227)

Measles CF antibodies have been examined in the sera of patients with a variety of clinical disorders associated with the production of autoantibodies. Previous reports of high-titre reactions in DLE and chronic active hepatitis have been confirmed, the titres in the latter disorder being particularly elevated. Mean antibody titres to measles in patients with rheumatoid arthritis were significantly lower than in matched controls, and an inverse correlation between measles antibody levels and serum globulin levels was found. Measles antibody titres in patients with myasthenia gravis and primary biliary cirrhosis did not differ significantly from those found in controls. However, subdivision of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis and primary biliary cirrhosis showed that the presence of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) was associated with significantly increased measles antibody levels compared with the ANA-negative sera. The presence of gastric parietal cell antibody or thyroid microsomal antibody did not appear to be associated with increased measles antibody levels, whether or not they occurred in association with previous anaemia or thyroid disease. Possible explanations for these findings in terms of immune complex formation and immune hyper-reactivity are discussed.  (+info)

Serum leptin levels in patients with sideropenic and pernicious anemia: the influence of anemia treatment. (7/227)

Leptin is a 16 kDa protein hormone involved in food intake, energy expenditure regulation and numerous other physiological processes. Recently, leptin has been demonstrated to stimulate hematopoietic stem cells in vitro. The aim of our study was to measure serum leptin and erythropoietin levels in patients with sideropenic (n = 18) and pernicious anemia (n=7) before and during anemia treatment. Blood samples for the blood count, leptin and erythropoietin determinations were obtained by venepunction at the time of the diagnosis of anemia and after partial and complete anemia recovery. The relationships of serum leptin levels to erythropoietin levels and blood count parameters were also studied. No significant differences in serum leptin levels between the groups studied were found. The serum leptin levels in none of groups were modified by treatment of anemia (basal levels, the levels during treatment and after anemia recovery were 13.1+/-14.5 vs 12.8+/-15.6 vs 12.0+/-14.8 ng/ml in patients with sideropenic anemia and 7.8+/-8.5 vs 9.5+/-10.0 vs 8.9+/-6.6 ng/ml in patients with pernicious anemia). The erythropoietin levels were higher at the time of anemia in both groups and decreased significantly after partial or complete recovery. Serum leptin levels in both groups correlated positively with the body mass index. No significant relationships were found between serum leptin levels and erythropoietin values or various parameters of the peripheral blood count. We conclude that serum leptin levels in patients with sideropenic and pernicious anemia positively correlate with the body mass index but are not influenced by the treatment of anemia.  (+info)

Screening for hypothyroidism in elderly inpatients. (8/227)

Routine biochemical screening for hypothyroidism in 2000 geriatric inpatients proved valuable and practicable and yielded 46 cases (2.3%). A non-specific clinical picture was particularly common, with less than a third of the cases showing "typical" signs and symptoms. Psychiatric manifestations, especially depression, were important and frequent and responded well to thyroxine. There was a preponderance of female cases of hypothyroidism and a strong association with other autoimmune diseases, notably pernicious anaemia and rheumatoid arthritis.  (+info)

This book could save you years of ill health! Vitamin B12 deficiency, often caused by pernicious anaemia, can be a devastating condition if left untreated, leading to irreversible nerve damage and disability after years of exhaustion and mental fog. Its symptoms creep up on sufferers and are under-recognized by doctors; tests to confirm it and underlying pernicious anaemia, are problematic. Martyn Hooper, the founder of the Pernicious Anaemia Society, now brings together vital information about the condition and real-life stories - including his own and those of many members of the Society - that will help sufferers and their friends and families recognize the condition and understand how best to tackle it. In particular, the book draws on the findings of a survey of Society members that give new clarity to the complex issues involved. Click here for the latest information and advice from The Pernicious Anaemia Society in Martyn Hoopers new book: What you need to know about Pernicious Anaemia and
It affects males and females equally. The most common form, Adult Onset Pernicious Anemia, affects people after the age of 35 years. Studies suggest that about 1% of the elderly population is affected. Congenital Pernicious Anemia is very rare and has an onset of age between 4 and 28 months. Juvenile Pernicious Anemia has symptoms similar to the adult-onset type, seems to occur between the ages of 4 and 20 years. North America and in Europe among people of Scandinavian, English, or Irish descent has the higher prevalence. It is extremely rare among Asians. Approximately 1.9% of cases may go undiagnosed. Pernicious anemia shows a 10-fold increase in patients with multiple myeloma and a 250-fold increase in adults with immunoglobulin deficiency. ...
Diabetes mellitus is mentioned by Giffin and Bowler1 as being one of the diseases which may be associated with anemia. Joslin2 in a series of six thousand diabetics observed five instances in which diabetes mellitus and pernicious anemia co-existed. Adams3 found three such cases in a five year period, during which time two thousand patients with diabetes mellitus and one thousand patients with pernicious anemia were observed. Wright4 found two instances out of 475 patients with diabetes mellitus and 84 patients with pernicious anemia. Goudsmit5 reports five cases out of a total of 1063 cases of diabetes and 379 cases ...
Doctors treat pernicious anemia by replacing the missing vitamin B12 in the body. People who have pernicious anemia may need lifelong treatment. The goals of treating pernicious anemia include:
Get information, facts, and pictures about Pernicious Anemia at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Pernicious Anemia easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
In the present paper are presented the considerations which have convinced the writer that pernicious anemia and sprue are two distinct disease entities, and that the former is not a final picture of the latter or vice-versa, as Christian (1) and others have suggested. On the basis of a detailed study of 45 cases of sprue in Porto Rico, the conclusion has been reached that in the average case the diagnosis is easily made by the general practitioner in routine examination. It is only occasionally, and this in the advanced stage of sprue,-the so-called sprue cachexia,-that the clinical picture bears such a resemblance to pernicious anemia as to readily lead to confusion. Even in these instances the writer is convinced that a thorough clinical and laboratory examination by the ordinary methods available in the average hospital will establish an absolute diagnosis in over 75 per cent of the cases.
of them : I have confirmed pernicious anemia (confirmed by bone marrow biopsy ), in which I have to get ...-Italian ancestry to be able to cause the pernicious anemia , and the thallesemia, even though these diseases seem ...
List of 24 disease causes of Pernicious anemia, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Pernicious anemia.
Causes and natural remedies for Anemia, including dietary changes, supplements and a comprehensive Wellness Program - Anemia, Sickle Cell Anemia, Hemolytic Anemia, Aplastic Anemia, Pernicious Anemia, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Anemia Symptoms, Anemia Treatment, Iron Deficiency, Natural Treatments for Anemia, Anemia Homeopathic Remedies, Anemia Causes
Addisonian or idiopathic pernicious anemia is a complex disease resulting from a lack of specific factors necessary (1) for the normal growth and development of
Pernicious anaemia is the most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in the UK.. Pernicious anaemia is an autoimmune condition that affects your stomach. An autoimmune condition means your immune system (the bodys natural defence system that protects against illness and infection) attacks your bodys healthy cells.. In your stomach, vitamin B12 is combined with a protein called intrinsic factor. This mix of vitamin B12 and intrinsic factor is then absorbed into the body in part of the gut called the distal ileum.. Pernicious anaemia causes your immune system to attack the cells in your stomach that produce the intrinsic factor, which means your body is unable to absorb vitamin B12.. The exact cause of pernicious anaemia is unknown, but the condition is more common in women around 60 years of age, people with a family history of the condition and those with another autoimmune condition, such as Addisons disease or vitiligo. ...
Anemia is a deficiency in red blood cells. Iron, B12 and folic acid are required to produce red blood cells. Pernicious anemia is a condition in which there is thinning of the lining of the stomach with a subsequent lack of production of a substance called intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is produced by the cells of the stomach - it is required for the absorption of B12 from the small intestine. So, sufferers of this condition become vitamin B12 deficient. This situation causes anemia ...
Jul 2, 2017. Factsheet Still symptomatic after treatment 1. Contrary to what most physicians believe, the symptoms of Pernicious Anaemia (Autoimmune Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis) do no disappear once replacement therapy using manufactured Vitamin B12 has begun. 2. Patients who ...
Hello, I am feeling a bit confused about a possible (or possibly not) diagnosis of Pernicious Anemia. I am hoping those of you with experience in having this ruled in or out might share your wisdom. I apologize upfront for this being a long post. A little history... 1. My B12 levels have been low for a while. When
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Question - 22 yr old, diagnosed with Pernicious Anemia. On injections, sublingual pills, Adderall for ADD. Switched to Ritalina la, feeling tired, dizzy. How to cure it?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Ritalin, Ask a Hematologist
and the not so good part?. Well, about 6 weeks before my Pernicious Anaemia diagnosis, I started experiencing numbness and tingling, like pins and needles but not quite that, in my finger tips. As it was only in my left hand initially I (stupidly!) put this down to excessive guitar playing. Thats really quite terrible terminology because as any musician knows there is, of course, No Such Thing as excessive guitar playing! Pfft!. Anywho… despite finding it really strange I actually just ignored it for a couple of weeks. Until it spread to my other hand. Actually, I would have probably ignored this too if it hadnt been for the horrendous neck and back clicking that Id been experiencing for a number of months as well as the interference with guitar practice. Now, I dont go rushing off to the docs for the slightest ache and pain (childbirth with no pain relief gives me a pretty high threshold for deciding whats painful and whats not!) but when there are multiple symptoms cropping up then ...
Hi, I am really getting down about this. I have been on B12 injections 12 wkly for years for low B12 but was tested and told I do not have pernicious anaemia. There is family history though as my...
Learn more about Pernicious Anemia at Atlanta Outpatient Surgery Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Qvigstad, G., Qvigstad, T., Westre, B., Sandvik, A. K., Brenna, E. and Waldum, H. L. (2002), Neuroendocrine differentiation in gastric adenocarcinomas associated with severe hypergastrinemia and/or pernicious anemia. APMIS, 110: 132-139. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0463.2002.100302.x ...
Learn more about Pernicious Anemia at TriStar Southern Hills DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Pernicious anaemia is a result of your bodys immune system attacking the cells within the stomach that produce a protein vital for the absorption of vitamin B12.. Meat, fish and dairy products all naturally contain Vitamin B12, which is normally absorbed into the body through the stomach. For this process to occur, gastric parietal cells in the stomach release a protein called intrinsic factor.. People who have pernicious anaemia unfortunately produce antibodies which attack these gastric parietal cells. As a result, the amount of intrinsic factor. Due to this deficiency the body is anaemic because it cannot produce red blood cells that are fully functional and therefore do not carry enough oxygen.. As vitamin B12 is crucial for many biochemical reactions, such as protecting your nerve cells through myelin production, converting fat into energy, and supporting red blood cell production, the results of pernicious anemia can be debilitating.. As mentioned above, eating meat and dairy products ...
There are many forms of anemia such as pernicious anemia. Pernicious anemia is when your body cannot absorb vitamin b12 from food you eat, as your body attacks the cells in your stomach(1). This is an auto-immune disease. It is a complex disorder and consists of hematological, gastric and immunological alterations[1]. The inability to absorb b12 vitamins stems from lack of a protein called Intrinsic factor(IF) that is made in stomach. The lack of IF occurs as a result of the activity of body immunes system that attacks and destroys cells that produce IF.There are also other factors that play a key role in b12 deficiency such as strict vegetarian diet, infections, surgery. Pernicious anemia is also called macrocytic anemia[2]. When there is a defficiency in b12 vitamin, the body produces abnormally large red blood cells called marocytes. Due to such large size, macrocytes will not be able to leave bone marrow, where they are made, and enter bloodstream. This decreases the amount of ...
Pernicious anemia earned its name because it was once a fatal illness before treatment options were discovered. Now, it is common knowledge in the medical community that pernicious anemia--also known as megaloblastic anemia--can be treated with vitamin B12. As such, vitamin B12 and pernicious anemia are intrinsically linked. What is Pernicious Anemia? Anemia is a medical condition in which the body decreases its production of red blood cells, the bloods hemoglobin count decreases, and/or the blood ...
Many had been said, from olden times, on the relation between digestive organ (esp. stomach) and hematopoiesis, and it has been much clarified in appreciation of the discovery of liver therapy for pernicious anemia by Minot and Murphy (1926), the dissertation of the in-and extrinsic factors theory by Castle and Townsend (1929), and of the studies of many other authorities. The atrophy of the stomach is responsible for the occurrence of anemia and it has been reported that the microcytic or pernicious anemia had often been observed after total gastrectomy in man. But in the animal there were no report of cases of pernicious anemia after total gastrectomy. The author has performed the animal experiment in rats, after resecting the right portion of stomach as Jacobson etc. had done and also the left portion of the stomach. That has been resulted the lack of storage and stirring of diet. In these rats were observed the blood picture of peripheral and of bone marrow for 400 days after operation. ...
Executive summary: Liver therapy for pernicious anemia. Military service: US Army (1917-18). As a young man, William Murphys only interest was in practicing medicine, but he could not afford tuition to medical school. Instead he taught math in public schools, saving from each paycheck for eventual admission to the University of Oregon Medical School, where, after one year of study, he was unable to afford his second years tuition. He spent two years in the Army, before discovering and applying for a peculiar fellowship at Harvard, endowed by 1885 alumnus William Stanislaus Murphy (no relation) specifically to help fund "collegiate education of men of the name of Murphy." The fund for Murphys has since been depleted, but it allowed William Murphy to become Dr Murphy in 1922.. He then practiced in Boston and taught at Harvard, where he was drawn into research into research on diabetes mellitus and pernicious anemia. Working with Dr George R. Minot, Murphy noted that anemia patients showed marked ...
Morning all, I have been supplementing with Thorne basic B which contains 400 Methyl folate since my result in May was 7.36 (3.89-26.8). This week I rechecked and the level was 11 but a different range (2.91-50). Is this better or much the same? Ive also increased the amount of green leafy veg and am a bit puzzled as what to do next.. B12 is now above 1083 (140-724) as I had also supplemented with 5000 Methyl b12 which I will now reduce to 1000 daily.. I also take levothyroxine and have posted on Thyroid site- levels now good.. I still have tingling in my hands and left foot, otherwise feel much better.. Just wonder how to improve folate now, Clivealive are you there, thanks ...
B-12 shots are given to prevent or correct a deficiency of vitamin B-12, reports Mayo Clinic. These shots are also given to people with a condition called pernicious anemia. Pernicious anemia is a...
Hi, has any research been done with regard to vitamin B12 deficiency in people with PD? My husand is going through a difficult phase with this deficiency; the symptoms of which appear to mimic PD such as protein problem…
How ironic is this? My husband has a B12 deficiency, yet he eats meat and dairy. He has been very ill and due to severe ankle and hand joint swelling I brought him to the emergency room yesterday. We waited eight hours to be seen. We thought he had lymes disease but its much worse. Not only does he have a B12 deficiency, he has rheumatoid arthritis, diffuse lung disease (still not clear on what this means and we are waiting on more test results) and a low white blood cell count. They
Hi. Posting for a friend who has symptoms of B12 deficiency. I have her B12...folate and Vit D results which I will try to upload. Please...
Making injectable B12 available over the counter from pharmacies will help save lives and will help to save money and time for the NHS.. You may have been denied your B12 injections due to COVID 19.. You may have failed to achieve a diagnosis due to your GPs lack of knowledge of the condition.. You may be struggling with your symptoms due to under treatment of your deficiency.. You may be buying supplies from another country due to lack of treatment from your GP.. You may however, be in the enviable position of being allowed to collect your prescribed ampoule from a chemist and have been taught by your GP Practice to self inject.. Whichever bracket you fall into, can you help? Do you want to be able to buy B12 OTC from your pharmacy?. Do you want to be able to treat yourself when you need to, rather than when restrictive guidance allows?. NOW is the time to act, to take your future into your own hands and try with me to make B12 OTC.. Our Struggling NHS. The NHS was in trouble long before COVID ...
Lhermittes sign is a phenomenon classically associated with Multiple Sclerosis although it is actually a symptom of various other conditions. One of these being…guess what?….B12 deficiency!. Ok so that was that mystery solved but now what? Well, Im currently waiting for an appointment for a MRI scan. This will establish if and where any damage has been caused. To either my brain or the spinal cord.. YouTube - MRI Scan - what happens. Its fair to say Im a little nervous. Having read sooooo much (maybe a little too much) I am well aware of the possible outcomes. Worst case scenario? Irreversible damage to either. Ive read about SACD, subacute combined degeneration, which basically means life will never be the same. At the age of 34 this is kinda scary. I still consider myself quite young and have a huge amount of things left on my to do list.. However, I have read that damage, if caught early enough, may be partially or even fully reversible. So Im staying positive with that in mind. ...
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The main causes of vitamin B12 deficiency include vitamin B12 malabsorption from food, pernicious anemia, postsurgical malabsorption, and dietary deficiency. However, in many cases, the cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is unknown. The following groups are among those most likely to be vitamin B12 deficient.. Older adults: Atrophic gastritis, a condition affecting 10%-30% of older adults, decreases secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, resulting in decreased absorption of vitamin B12. Decreased hydrochloric acid levels might also increase the growth of normal intestinal bacteria that use vitamin B12, further reducing the amount of vitamin B12 available to the bodY.. Individuals with atrophic gastritis are unable to absorb the vitamin B12 that is naturally present in food. Most, however, can absorb the synthetic vitamin B12 added to fortified foods and dietary supplements. As a result, the IOM recommends that adults older than 50 years obtain most of their vitamin B12 from vitamin ...
Pernicious anaemia is undeniably associated with vitamin B12 deficiency, but the association between subnormal vitamin B12 concentrations and anaemia in older people is unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the association between subnormal vitamin B12 concentrations and anaemia in older people. Clinical queries for aetiology and treatment in bibliographic databases (PubMed [01/1949-10/2009]; EMBASE [01/1980-10/2009]) were used. Reference lists were checked for additional relevant studies. Observational studies (≥50 participants) and randomized placebo-controlled intervention trials (RCTs) were considered. 25 studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one observational cross-sectional studies (total number of participants n = 16185) showed inconsistent results. In one longitudinal observational study, low vitamin B12 concentrations were not associated with an increased risk of anaemia (total n = 423). The 3 RCTs (total n = 210) were well-designed and showed no effect of vitamin
Many herbs are described as useful for anemia. However, do we know what KIND of anemia a person has? To deliver the best treatment, we need to know whats causing it. Usually the first thing that comes to mind is an iron deficiency, so we offer iron-building herbs. That wont help if the anemia results from other causes. For example, Pernicious Anemia is related to B12 deficiency. B12 deficiency can result from lack of intrinsic factor, altered ph in the small intestine, failure to absorb it in the illeum. So iron rich herbs arent of much use there.. When you click on Anemia (Pathophysiology) the view changes. Now you see it under a broad heading of Anemia, which is under Blood Disorders.. ...
The causes of Vitamin B12 Malabsorption might surprise you. If youve been told that you dont have intrinsic factor or that you have pernicious anemia, your doctor might be WRONG. Find out what might
Vitamin B12. Polarised light micrograph of crystals of cyanocobalamin, also known as Vitamin B12. This is one of the water-soluble B-complex vitamins, and is necessary for the synthesis of nucleic acids and the maintainance of myelin in the nervous system. Vitamin B12 deficiency affects almost all body tissues. The most serious effects of this are pernicious anaemia and a degeneration of the nervous system. Vitamin B12 is contained only in foods of animal origin, especially liver, fish and eggs. Recommended adult daily intake is 3-4 microgrammes. Magnification x4 at 35mm size. - Stock Image A613/0258
Vitamin B12, molecular model. Vitamin B12(cobalamin) is an essential nutrient that humans are unable to produce and need to obtain from their diet. It is found in meat, fish poultry and dairy products. Vitamin B12 is needed for producing red blood cells and for a healthy nervous system. Deficiency can lead to pernicious anaemia, with symptoms including tiredness, dizziness and a reduced sense of taste. Vitamin B12s chemical formula is C63H88CoN14O14P. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon ( grey), hydrogen (light orange), cobalt (orange), nitrogen (blue), oxygen (red) and phosphorus (green). - Stock Image F008/9419
Vitamin B-12 is essential for the proper production of blood platelets and red and white blood cells, the manufacture of vital substances needed for cell function, and the metabolism of nutrients necessary for cell growth. It participates in a variety of cellular reactions to release energy from carbohydrates, fats and protein. Vitamin B-12 helps maintain the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers from each other. People with Vitamin B-12 deficiency show irregular destruction of the myelin sheaths, which eventually causes paralysis and death. Vitamin B-12 levels decrease with age and various measures of cognitive impairment are associated with reduced B-12 status. The most important use of Vitamin B-12 is to treat the symptoms of pernicious anemia. Vitamin B9 (folate) and vitamin B12 are critical to the health of the nervous system and to a process that clears homocysteine from the blood. Vitamins B-12, B-6, and B-9 (folate) work closely together to control blood levels of the amino acid ...
Food sources of vitamin B12. Dietitians of Canada website. Available at: https://www.dietitians.ca/Your-Health/Nutrition-A-Z/Vitamins/Food-Sources-of-Vitamin-B12.aspx. Accessed November 7, 2017. Pernicious anemia. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116294/Pernicious-anemia . Updated May 17, 2017. Accessed November 7, 2017. Vitamin B12. American Association of Clinical Chemistry-Lab Tests Online website. Available at: http://www.labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/vitamin%5Fb12/glance.html. Updated April 24, 2015. Accessed November 7, 2017. Vitamin B12. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T233168/Vitamin-B12 . Updated November 6, 2017. Accessed November 7, 2017. Vitamin B12 deficiency. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116899 . Updated December 4, 2015. Accessed November 7, 2017. ...
Some medicines can be given sublingual, which means "under the tongue". The reason for this method of administration is that some medications can enter the bloodstream better or faster this way.. For example, B12 is a vitamin that for decades was given as an injection because when someone has Pernicious Anemia they cannot absorb it from the intestines due to a lack of a chemical called intrinsic factor that "grabs" it and pulls it into the bloodstream. A few years ago it was noted that if given sublingual, it would be adequately absorbed, eliminating the need for an injection.. Another example is when a patient in Hospice care is near death, unable to swallow but having pain, the pain medication can be given as a liquid under the tongue, where it is absorbed quickly and gives rapid pain relief.. A pill designed to be given orally will rarely be able to be administered sublingually. A pharmacist can tell you if a certain medication has a coating and absorption profile that will allow this form of ...
Anemia is a blood condition in which the hemoglobin is lower than the average value of a normal person or the red blood cells is fewer than normal Introduction Chapter 1 Anemia Chapter 2 Interesting Facts about Anemia Chapter 3 Treatment of Anemia Chapter 4 Iron Deficiency Anemia Chapter 5 Hemolytic Anemia Chapter 6 Aplastic Anemia Chapter 7 Thalassemia Chapter 8 Pernicious Anemia Epilogue ...
Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient for your nerves- it helps to maintain myelin, a fatty substance that coats the nerve cells of your brain and spinal cord, insulating them from inflammation and exposure to viruses. Myelin also supports communication between the nerve cells, providing a slick surface for quick and effective delivery.. When you dont have enough vitamin B12 to maintain myelin, the result is a breakdown of the myelin sheath, called demyelination, which impairs your nervous system functioning. Vitamin B12 deficiency, or pernicious anemia, is a common cause of foot numbness, painful tingling, and other forms of nerve damage that occur when the myelin sheath become diminished.. To treat foot numbness caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, it is essential to replenish your vitamin B12 levels immediately. Many supplements like vitamin B12 shots, sublingual vitamin B12, or other over-the-counter (OTC) nonedible forms of vitamin B12 are effective for getting your vitamin B12 levels back to ...
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of your RBCs. The MCV is elevated when your RBCs are larger than normal (macrocytic), for example in anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. When the MCV is decreased, your RBCs are smaller than normal (microcytic), such as is seen in iron deficiency anemia or thalassemias. The normal range for MCV is 80 to 100. You should get checked for both B12 deficiency and folate deficiency. IDA, B12 deficiency and folate deficiency can all co-exist. And it doesnt hurt to have your thyroid levels checked as well. Many people who have Pernicious Anaemia, a more progressive form of B12 deficiency, also have IDA and/or folate anaemia and thryoiditis ...
Thiamine ( Vitamin B1) is an essential component to energy products, carbohydrate metabolism and nerve function at the cellular level.. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) assists with the production of cellular energy and helps to regenerate the liver while supporting normal cellular health.. Niacin (Vitamin B3) is important for the product of carbohydrates into an energy source. It can lower cholesterol and regulates blood sugar. *May cause niacin flush.. Pyridoxine HCL (Vitamin B6) is supportive to the cardiovascular and specifically blood vessels. It is assimilated when B12, magnesium and folic acid are present.. Folic Acid (Vitamin B9) prevents heart disease and birth defects. It must have B6 and B12 to work fully.. Methylcobalamin (Vitamin B12) is essential for red blood cell production, immune function and nervous system function. It works with Vitamin B6 to support the cardiovascular system. You may have heard of pernicious anemia which is a lack of B12.. Biotin (Vitamin B7) helps to convert fats ...
Vitamin B12 is important for production of red blood cells which carry oxygen around the body - low levels can cause anaemia with associated symptoms of lack of energy and fatigue. It is also important in metabolism and for the nervous system and prolonged lack of vitamin B12 may cause nerve damage. Vitamin B12 is almost entirely found in meat and animal food products.. Around 70% of vitamin B12 is bound to carrier proteins in your blood. This test measures the level of unbound or active B12 which is available for your cells.. A common reason for elevated B12 is over-supplementation. Raised levels of vitamin B12 may indicate a blood or liver disorder.. Low levels are seen in people with pernicious anaemia, an autoimmune disease which prevents the absorption of vitamin B12, or anyone who suffers from absorption problems such as the elderly, people with inflammatory bowel conditions and alcoholics. Vegetarians and vegans can also be low in vitamin B12, especially if they dont consume foods which ...
High dose vitamin B12 in its most effective form. Promotes healthy nerve function. Helps prevent pernicious anemia. Pleasant tasting lozenge for enhanced absorption. Methylcobalamin is the active, coenzyme form of vitamin B12. Cyanocobalamin, the most common form of suppleme...
ISBN 1-885987-11-0. Conrad, Marcel (4 October 2006). "Pernicious Anemia". Retrieved 2 June 2008. Vieira, E.; Cleaton-Jones, P ...
He was a member of the Pernicious Anemia Committee at Harvard and served on the Anti-Anemia Preparation Advisory Board of the U ... Nobel e-Museum: George R. Minot - Biography "Red-Blooded Doctors Cure Anemia" Pernicious Anemia, a Victory for Science George ... Whipple given for their work on the treatment of blood anemia. They all discovered an effective treatment for pernicious anemia ... Treatment of pernicious anemia by a special diet. George R. Minot and William P. Murphy". Nutr. Rev. 36 (2): 50-52. February ...
B12 deficiency is often associated with pernicious anemia, as it is the most common cause. Pernicious anemia results from an ... people with pernicious anemia often present with typical symptoms of anemia, such as pale skin, dizziness, and fatigue. Among ... However, pernicious anemia is the most common cause of B12 deficiency in North American and European populations. Those ... Epstein, Franklin H.; Toh, Ban-Hock; Van Driel, Ian R.; Gleeson, Paul A. (1997). "Pernicious Anemia". New England Journal of ...
"MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Pernicious anemia". Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-05. Moake JL ...
BLOOD DESTRUCTION IN PERNICIOUS ANEMIA". J. Exp. Med. 34 (2): 147-166. doi:10.1084/jem.34.2.147. PMC 2128079 . PMID 19868545. ...
Bieler, Henry G. (1931). "The Etiology of Pernicious Anemia". Clinical Medicine And Surgery. 38 (9): 635. Bieler, Henry G. ( ...
Ungar B, Mathews J, Tait B, Cowling D (1981). "HLA-DR patterns in pernicious anaemia". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 282 (6266): 768- ... DR15 is positively associated Goodpasture syndrome, early age onset multiple sclerosis, pernicious anaemia, sarcoidosis, ...
She died there of pernicious anemia. Grimes, William (September 16, 2008 ). Nina Lawson, Tamer of the Met's Wigs and Egos, Is ...
In patients with pernicious anemia or with deficiency due to impaired absorption, less than 10% of the radiolabeled vitamin B12 ... The purpose of the test is to determine whether the patient has pernicious anemia. It is named for Robert F. Schilling. The ... This is by definition pernicious anemia. A low result on the second test implies abnormal intestinal absorption (malabsorption ... Zuckier LS, Chervu LR (September 1984). "Schilling evaluation of pernicious anemia: current status". Journal of Nuclear ...
This can lead to pernicious anemia. However, a rare abnormality of AMN can also cause vitamin B12 anemia; this condition is ... and subsequent macrocytic anemia. The most common cause of Vitamin B12 deficiency is deficiency of the intrinsic factor (IF) ... megaloblastic anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency is most commonly caused by an autoimmune mediated deficiency in intrinsic ...
Aitelli, Cristi; Wasson, Lori; Page, Ray (2004-03-01). "Pernicious anemia: presentations mimicking acute leukemia". Southern ... a definitive diagnosis usually requires an adequate bone marrow aspiration and biopsy as well as ruling out pernicious anemia ( ... A drop in red blood cell count (anemia) can cause fatigue, paleness, and shortness of breath. A lack of platelets can lead to ... This leads to neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. The symptoms of AML are, in turn, often due to the low numbers of ...
Hogan died of pernicious anemia in 1926. Mercer, James K (1913). Ohio Legislative History: 1909-1913. Columbus: Edward T Miller ...
Lathrop died of pernicious anemia in 1918. She was interred at West Cemetery in Granby, near her friends Chapin and Gray. Her ...
It is usually associated with pernicious anemia. The onset is gradual and uniform. The pathological findings of subacute ... looking for megaloblastic anemia if there is also folic acid deficiency or macrocytic anemia. The Schilling Test is no longer ...
George Minot, co-recipient of the 1934 Nobel Prize for the development of the first effective treatment for pernicious anemia, ... A Century of Curiosity About Pernicious Anemia". Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association. 73: 54- ... was therefore also responsible for the discovery of a cure for pernicious anemia. The work published by Banting, Best, Collip ...
She died in Italy of pernicious anemia. Although Lyubov Dostoyevskaya was Orthodox, the funeral rite was Catholic by mistake. A ...
Pernicious anemia also leads to megaloblastic anemia. Atrophic gastritis, particularly in the elderly, will cause an inability ... In pernicious anemia, autoantibodies directed against parietal cells or intrinsic factor cause a reduction in vitamin B12 ... Pernicious anaemia results from autoimmune destruction of gastric parietal cells, precluding the synthesis of intrinsic factor ... A long-term deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to megaloblastic anemia, characterized by large fragile erythrocytes. ...
Assay of anti-pernicious anemia factor with Euglena. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 70, 118-120. Hutner, S.H., Provasoli, L. Schatz ...
McCoy died January 5, 1926 from pernicious anemia. In November of that year the Army National Guard post he worked to create ...
Subbarow, Y.; Jacobson, B.M.; Prochownick, V. (1936). "Studies of the pernicious anemia principle in liver. III. The isolation ... Subbarow, Y.; Hastings, A.B.; Elkin, M. (1945). "Chemistry of Anti-Pernicious Anemia Substances of Liver". Vitamins and ... based on work by Lucy Wills to isolate folic acid as a protective agent against anemia. After his work on folic acid and with ...
Pernicious anemia in an eight-year-old girl; additional observations in a case previously reported as nutritional anemia in an ...
Meyer, Leo M. (1 January 1947). "Folic Acid In The Treatment Of Pernicious Anemia" (PDF). Blood. 2 (1): 50-62. PMID 20278334. ... The idea that folic acid deficiency could cause megaloblastic anemia was not new. What was new was the idea that drugs could ... Folic acid had been found to alleviate the symptoms of megaloblastic anemia in the 1940s, not long after it was discovered, but ... Megaloblastic anemia is actually a group of related disorders with different causes that share morphological characteristics- ...
... have been observed in a handful of cases in patients with pernicious anemia, lead poisoning, certain other ... Kass, L (July 1975). "Origin and composition of Cabot rings in pernicious anemia". American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 64 ( ...
As a supplement it is used to treat vitamin B12 deficiency including pernicious anemia. Other uses include cyanide poisoning, ... and patients with pernicious anemia who have optic neuropathy. In a newly diagnosed vitamin B12-deficient patient, normally ... which may occur if antimetabolites for the vitamin are employed in the treatment of neoplasia Pernicious anemia, is not a cause ... While it technically refers to anemia caused specifically by autoimmune deficiency of intrinsic factor, it is commonly used to ...
Park died of pernicious anemia in the Inveresk poorhouse. Note: Park played only in The Open Championship. DNP = Did not play " ...
Iron-deficiency anemia (or iron-deficiency anaemia) is a common type of anemia. It is caused by not having enough iron in food, not absorbing the iron in food, and/or losing iron because of bleeding. Iron deficiency causes approximately half of all anemia cases worldwide, and affects women more often than men. This is partly because most women have periods (menstruate). There are probably more than one billion people who have anemia.[1] Anemia is most common in areas like Brazil or Central Africa. Asia, Central America and Eastern Europe are affected too, with North America least affected. Symptoms include pale skin, tiredness, and weakness. Anemia can be diagnosed with a blood test by finding out if there is little enough hemoglobin in the blood. ...
The term macrocytic is from Greek words meaning "large cell". A macrocytic class of anemia is an anemia (defined as blood with an insufficient concentration of hemoglobin) in which the red blood cells (erythrocytes) are larger than their normal volume. The normal erythrocyte volume in humans is about 80 to 100 femtoliters (fL= 10−15 L). In metric terms the size is given in equivalent cubic micrometers (1 μm3 = 1 fL). The condition of having erythrocytes which (on average) are too large, is called macrocytosis. In contrast, in microcytic anemia, the erythrocytes are smaller than normal. In a macrocytic anemia, the larger red cells are always associated with insufficient numbers of cells and often also insufficient hemoglobin content per cell. Both of these factors work to the opposite effect of larger cell size, to finally result in a total blood hemoglobin concentration that is less than normal (i.e., anemia). Macrocytic ...
Anemia (antzinako grezieraz: ἀναιμία, anaimia, "odol gabezia"; ἀν- an-, "gabe" eta αἷμα haima, "odol" hitzetatik) odolaren egoera berezia da, hematien edota hemoglobinaren urritasuna ezaugarri duena. Bera bakarrik azal daiteke, edo beste prozesu zabalago baten agerpena izan. Anemia dagoenean odolak oxigenoa garraiatzeko duen gaitasuna murrizturik dago eta, ondorioz, gorputzeko ehunek eta organoek ohi baino oxigeno gutxiago jasotzen dute. Izan ere, hematietan dagoen hemoglobina molekula da oxigeno garraiatzaile nagusia. Anemiaren ondorioetako bat ehunen hipoxia da. Mota desberdin asko daude, eta horietako bakoitza kausa desberdinak eragina da. Hainbat ikuspegitatik sailka daitezke, dela kausa sortzailearen arabera, edota ondorioz ateratzen den odolaren morfologiaren arabera, baina ez mota batekoak (anemia aplasikoa, anemia hemolitikoa, anemia ferropenikoa, etab.) eta ez bestekoak (anemia ...
... , or anemia of chronic inflammation, is a form of anemia seen in chronic infection, chronic immune activation, and malignancy. These conditions all produce massive elevation of Interleukin-6, which stimulates hepcidin production and release from the liver, which in turn reduces the iron carrier protein ferroportin so that access of iron to the circulation is reduced. Other mechanisms may also play a role, such as reduced erythropoiesis. Anemia of chronic inflammation is the preferred term since not all chronic diseases are associated with this form of anemia. Anemia is considered when RBCs count : < 4.5 million in males < 3.9 million in females Or Hemoglobin ( Hb ) content : < 13.5 gm % in males < 11.5 gm % in females In response to inflammatory cytokines, increasingly IL-6, the liver produces increased amounts of hepcidin. Hepcidin in turn causes increased internalisation of ferroportin molecules on cell membranes which ...
In a healthy person, a red blood cell survives 90 to 120 days in the circulation, so about 1% of human red blood cells break down each day[citation needed]. The spleen (part of the reticulo-endothelial system) is the main organ that removes old and damaged RBCs from the circulation. In healthy individuals, the breakdown and removal of RBCs from the circulation is matched by the production of new RBCs in the bone marrow. In conditions where the rate of RBC breakdown is increased, the body initially compensates by producing more RBCs; however, breakdown of RBCs can exceed the rate that the body can make RBCs, and so anemia can develop. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of hemoglobin, can accumulate in the blood, causing jaundice. In general, hemolytic anemia occurs as a modification of the RBC life cycle. That is, instead of being collected at the end of its useful life and disposed of normally, the RBC disintegrates in a manner allowing free iron-containing molecules to reach ...
Anemia aplasikoa hezur muinaren funtzionamendu okerraren ondorioz sortutako anemia da. Hezur muinak ez ditu eritrozitoak behar bezala sortzen, eta horien gabezia odolean anemia eragiten du. Eritrozitoak ez ezik, odoleko beste zelulak ere (leukozitoak eta plaketak) ez dira hezur muinean zuzen sortzen. ...
Dimorphic anemia means two types of anemia at the same time. For example, macrocytic hypochromic, due to hookworm infestation leading to not enough of both iron and vitamin B12 or folic acid or following a blood transfusion. ...
Janz TG, Johnson RL, Rubenstein SD (November 2013). "Anemia in the emergency department: evaluation and treatment". Emergency Medicine Practice. 15 (11): 1-15, quiz 15-6. PMID 24716235. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2016-10-18 ...
Bitamina honen gabeziak anemia kaltegarri izeneko gaitza eragiten du: eritrozitoen kopurua asko jaisten da (eritropoiesiak akats larriak baititu), eta kalte neurologiko eta gastrointestinalak agertzen dira. Behar den baino gutxiago hartzen denean, anemia kaltegarria agertzen ez bada ere, beste gaitz batzuk etor daitezke: nekea, depresioa eta oroimen ahula, besteak beste. Azpimarratu behar da bitamina hau heste meharrean xurgatua izan dadin beharrezkoa dela urdailak ekoizten duen FI faktorea ("faktore intrintsekoa"). Faktorerik ezean hartutako kobalamina ez da xurgatzen eta ez da odolera iristen, anemia kaltegarria agertuz. ...
Yr anhwylder y gwaed mwyaf cyffredin yw Aneamia, sef lleihad yn y nifer arferol o gelloedd gwaed coch neu lai na'r maint arferol o haemoglobin yn y gwaed a achosir gan ddiffyg haearn yn y deiet.[1] ...
অবর্ধক রক্তশূন্যতা (ইংরেজি: Aplastic anemia) একটি রোগ যাতে অস্থিমজ্জার কোষগুলি যথেষ্ট পরিমাণে নতুন রক্তকোষ উৎপাদন করে না, ফলে রক্তে এই কোষগুলির স্বল্পতা দেখা যায়। সাধারণত রক্তশূন্যতা বলতে কেবল লোহিত রক্তকণিকার অভাব বোঝালেও অবর্ধক রক্তশূন্যতায় তিন ধরনের রক্তকোষের (লোহিত কণিকা, শ্বেতকণিকা এবং অণুচক্রিকা) উৎপাদনই হ্রাস পায়। . ...
Vnetje srednjega ušesa je vnetna bolezen srednjega ušesa, ki jo povzročajo mikroorganizmi. Navadno je akutno, gnojno ali serozno, z bolečino, lahko z vročino in vnetjem zgornje dihalne poti.[1]. Srednje uho leži za bobničem in je v normalnih razmerah, ko smo zdravi, napolnjeno z zrakom. Ob okužbi se mikroorganizmi začnejo razmnoževati in votlinica za bobničem se napolni s tekočino ali gnojem, ki prične potiskati na bobnič. Zato se pri vnetju ušes pogosto pojavi bolečina. Mikroorganizmi običajno pridejo v srednje uho iz žrela in nosau skozi ušesno trobljo, ki povezuje žrelo in nos z ušesom. Vnetje srednjega ušesa se pri dojenčkih in otrocih pojavlja pogosteje kot odrasli, saj je njihova ušesna troblja kratka. Nekateri otroci so manj odporni za okužbe in se jim vnetje ponavlja. Bakterijsko vnetje srednjega ušesa se lahko zdravi z ustreznim antibiotikom, ki ga predpiše zdravnik.. ...
દરિયા-સ્તરના દબાણે સ્વસ્થ માનવ શ્વસન હવામાં ધમનીય લોહીના નમૂના પૈકીનો લગભગ 98.5% જેટલો પ્રાણવાયુ Hgb(હિમોગ્લોબિન) સાથે ભળી જાય છે. લગભગ 1.5% જેટલા નમૂના અન્ય રક્ત પ્રવાહીઓમાં ભળી જાય છે અને હિમોગ્લોબિન સાથે સંકળાતો નથી. સસ્તનોમાં અને અન્ય અનેક જાતોમાં હિમોગ્લોબિનના કણો એ પ્રાણવાયુના પ્રાથમિક પરિવાહકો છે(અપવાદ માટે જુઓ નીચે). હિમોગ્લોબિનની પ્રાણવાયુ બંધનકર્તા ક્ષમતા અંદાજે 1.36 અને.37 ...
... tests to confirm it and underlying pernicious anaemia, are problematic. Martyn Hooper, the founder of the Pernicious Anaemia ... Click here for the latest information and advice from The Pernicious Anaemia Society in Martyn Hoopers new book: What you need ... often caused by pernicious anaemia, can be a devastating condition if left untreated, leading to irreversible nerve damage and ... to know about Pernicious Anaemia and Vitamin B12 Deficiency ... Pernicious Anaemia eBook £4.99. £3.33. Add to basket. About ...
Fundraise or donate to The Pernicious Anaemia Society with JustGiving, the worlds leading online fundraising platform, helping ... About Pernicious Anaemia Society. We provide information, help and support to sufferers of Pernicious Anaemia (PA) including ... Pernicious Anaemia Society. We Provide Information, Advice and Support to patients with Pernicious Anaemia. ... Our Mission: To secure a full and comprehensive review of the way in which Pernicious Anaemia is diagnosed and treated that ...
Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body ... Macrocytic achylic anemia; Congenital pernicious anemia; Juvenile pernicious anemia; Vitamin B12 deficiency (malabsorption); ... pernicious anemia is passed down through families. This is called congenital pernicious anemia. Babies with this type of anemia ... Anemia - intrinsic factor; Anemia - IF; Anemia - atrophic gastritis; Biermer anemia; Addison anemia ...
The Pernicious Anaemia Society (PAS) says patients are needlessly suffering.. Claire McDonald from Reading is one of those who ... Image caption Sufferers of pernicious anaemia receive top-up jabs of vitamin B12 on the NHS once every three months, but many ... Sufferers of pernicious anaemia, which causes memory loss, extreme fatigue and irrational behaviour, receive an NHS vitamin B12 ... Image caption Pernicious Anaemia Society founder Martyn Hooper says more needs to be done for patients who are "needlessly ...
Pernicious Anaemia of Pregnancy. Br Med J 1943; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.4281.105 (Published 23 January 1943) Cite ...
Cancer and Pernicious Anaemia. Br Med J 1939; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4117.1116 (Published 02 December 1939) Cite ...
News-Medical.Net provides this medical information service in accordance with these terms and conditions. Please note that medical information found on this website is designed to support, not to replace the relationship between patient and physician/doctor and the medical advice they may provide. ...
... What Is Pernicious Anaemia?. Pernicious anaemia occurs when the body fails to produce enough vitamin B12, ... The most obvious sign of anaemia is extreme tiredness. About pernicious anaemia. Pernicious anaemia is the result of a shortage ... What are the causes of pernicious anaemia?. Main causes. Pernicious anaemia is mainly the result of a deficiency in vitamin B12 ... Pernicious anaemias impact on the body. Individuals who suffer with pernicious anaemia typically experience tiredness and feel ...
Raise free funds for Pernicious Anaemia Society today by shopping online via Easyfundraising. Click now to shop at no extra ...
... *Medical Editor: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR William C. Shiel Jr., ... In addition to the pernicious anemia I am having severe lower back and leg pain. I have osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. ... Pernicious anemia is an immune disorder characterized by the production of antibodies to cells of the stomach (parietal cells) ... I was diagnosed with pernicious anemia. I received injections weekly and then monthly. I was told that I would have to have ...
Mary Todd Lincoln May Have Had Pernicious Anemia. In a new book, a physician and scholar argues that a deficiency in vitamin ... Lincolns era: Pernicious anemia didnt even appear in English-language medical literature until 1874, eight years before she ... Few serious cases of pernicious anemia occur today, as blood tests can diagnose the condition early on and doctors can treat it ... In addition, the pernicious anemia could explain her irritability, and the delusions and hallucinations she increasingly ...
A lack of this vitamin can lead to anaemia. We look at the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. ... Anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency (pernicious anaemia). The body needs access to vitamin B12 to produce red blood cells. A ... Anaemia due to a lack of vitamin B12 is also called pernicious anaemia. ... How is pernicious anaemia diagnosed? A blood sample is taken and sent off to the laboratory. An analysis of the red blood cells ...
The cause and treatment of pernicious anemia were discovered more than 80 years ago. Unfortunately, even today there still are ... pernicious anemia doesnt always cause anemia: In some people, it causes brain and spinal cord damage without causing anemia. ... This is called anemia.. There are many different causes of anemia. Severe, untreated B12 deficiency is called "pernicious" ... Symptoms of pernicious anemia tend to develop slowly and can be subtle. As the condition worsens, you may experience:. • ...
361 patients with pernicious anemia experience fatigue, pain, anxious mood, depressed mood, and insomnia and use Vitamin B12 ... Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on pernicious anemia at PatientsLikeMe. ... and Buprenorphine patch to treat their pernicious anemia and its symptoms. ... What is pernicious anemia?. Pernicious anemia is a decrease in red blood cells that occurs when the body cannot properly absorb ...
... diagnosis of Pernicious Anemia. I am hoping those of you with experience in having this ruled in or out might share your wisdom ... Pernicious Anemia? Hello, I am feeling a bit confused about a possible (or possibly not) diagnosis of Pernicious Anemia. I am ... 5. My father had Pernicious Anemia, but we are not sure if it was due to age, hereditary, or Pancreatic Cancer.. Where I am at ... 1. Are my lab results, symptoms, and history indicative or not indicative of Pernicious Anemia?. 2. Would you assume that the ...
Make research projects and school reports about Pernicious Anemia easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Pernicious Anemia at Encyclopedia.com. ... pernicious anaemia See anaemia, pernicious. Cite this article ... Pernicious Anemia. Definition. Pernicious anemia is a disease in which the red blood cells are abnormally formed, due to an ... Pernicious anemia occurs in equal numbers in both men and women. Most patients with pernicious anemia are older, usually over ...
Pernicious anemia is a medical problem that causes a person to have too few red blood cells (anemia) because their intestines ... "Pernicious anemia". Pub Med Health. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style: ... There are several causes of pernicious anemia. These include a weakened stomach lining or a problem with the bodys immune ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pernicious_anemia&oldid=5776126" ...
... pernicious anemia and gastric carcinoids]. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Pernicious anaemia complicated by a gastric carcinoid tumour.. *Pernicious anemia and gastric carcinoid tumor: case report and ... AdultAgedAnemia, PerniciousAnimalsCarcinoid TumorFemaleFinlandGastritis, AtrophicHumansMaleMiddle AgedRatsStomach Neoplasms ... Atrophic Gastritis, Pernicious Anemia and Gastric Carcinoids]." Duodecim; Laaketieteellinen Aikakauskirja, vol. 106, no. 13, ...
EXPERIMENTAL ANTI-PERNICIOUS ANEMIA FACTOR DEFICIENCY IN DOGS Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
The discovery that liver could cure pernicious anemia, which at the time killed thousands annually, led to a 1934 Nobel Prize ... The discovery that liver could cure pernicious anemia, which at the time killed thousands annually, led to a 1934 Nobel Prize ... George R. Minot helped cure pernicious anemia. Minot s research helped conquer a fatal disease that afflicted thousands ... Minot began trying to improve the eating habits of his private patients with pernicious anemia with Murphy s help. He ordered a ...
... pernicious anemia is a separate diagnosis code of 281.0 and includes Addisons anemia, Biermers anemia, congenital pernicious ... Re: Pernicious Anaemia I dont think its anything to do with diet, pernicious anaemia, is it? I thought it was an absorption ... Re: Pernicious Anaemia I agree with everyone else, as I dont think veganism itself would cause it. Ive been reading a lot on ... Re: Pernicious Anaemia Its funny how I always read in vegan forums that vegans feel put on the spot or even attacked by ...
... Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi Yeruva, Raj Pal ... we identified an autoimmune hemolytic anemia and a concomitant pernicious anemia. The concurrence of both these hematological ... Pernicious anemia is a common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency. Here, we discuss a case of a young woman who presented with ... severe anemia along with a history of iron deficiency anemia. After a review of her clinical presentation and laboratory data, ...
pernicious anemia. UPDATED:. August 17, 2016 Dangerous vitamin deficiency can lead to misdiagnosis. August 20, 2016. By Dr. ...
Pernicious Anemia. No, I did not have this. I assume they did a blood test to find this out. Pernicious Anemia has similar ...
Should patients with pernicious anemia develop upper-abdominal pain or other symptoms referable to biliary tract disease, a ... pernicious anemia itself increases the frequency of gallbladder stones. ... pernicious anemia itself increases the frequency of gallbladder stones. Should patients with pernicious anemia develop upper- ... The frequency of gallbladder stones in patients with pernicious anemia J Surg Res. 2001 Dec;101(2):120-3. doi: 10.1006/jsre. ...
  • Apart from other risk factors, pernicious anemia itself increases the frequency of gallbladder stones. (nih.gov)
  • The market driving factors are growth of geriatric population, increasing awareness, increasing focus of social healthcare on women health and particularly anemia, rise in accidents and cancer, rise in other risk factors such as diabetes, modern lifestyle induced stress, poor nutritional habits, rise in lactating and pregnant women in developing regions, intestinal infections etc. (medgadget.com)
  • In addition, the nurse needs to be aware of the causes, risk factors, and management of pernicious anemia. (registerednursern.com)
  • There are also links to memory loss and concentration problems when it comes to anemia, due to a lack of oxygen to the brain. (womenhealthzone.com)
  • In you, with anemia, the heart has to work more hard to pump blood in order to get sufficient oxygen to your body's organs and tissues. (womenhealthzone.com)
  • Anemia also describes a problem with the way hemoglobin picks up oxygen, even when there are normal levels of it present. (health911.com)