Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune
Anemia, Sickle Cell
Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine
Equine Infectious Anemia
Chicken anemia virus
Anemia, Dyserythropoietic, Congenital
Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins
Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic
Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts
Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C Protein
Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein
Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group A Protein
Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital Nonspherocytic
Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group G Protein
Vitamin B 12 Deficiency
Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group F Protein
Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group E Protein
Blood Cell Count
Folic Acid Deficiency
Vitamin B 12
Kidney Failure, Chronic
Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides
Erythroid Precursor Cells
Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic
Parvovirus B19, Human
Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine
Severity of Illness Index
Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Drug Administration Schedule
Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: a five year review. (1/42)OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, complications, management, and outcome in infants with twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) over a period of five years. METHODS: TTTS was diagnosed in monochorionic twins if one was pale and the other plethoric with a haemoglobin difference > or =5 g/100 ml and/or birthweight differences > or =15%. RESULTS: Eighteen (6.2%) of the 292 twin pairs had TTTS. Eight pairs (44%) had the acute type and the rest (56%) had the chronic type of TTTS. The mean (SEM) intrapair haemoglobin difference in the acute type was 4.8 (2.1) g/100 ml which gave a discordance of 7.1 (4.6)%, whereas that in the chronic type was 6.9 (2.9) g/100 ml and 24.4 (6.1)% respectively. Infants with the acute type had a significantly higher incidence of vaginal delivery (p<0.03), hypotension (p<0.025), and respiratory distress (p<0.01) compared with those with the chronic type. There was no significant difference in the incidence of anaemia, polycythaemia, asphyxia, hypoglycaemia, and hyperbilirubinaemia. Two recipients died in utero as the result of chronic TTTS, while their survivors developed spastic cerebral palsy. There were no neonatal deaths. CONCLUSIONS: TTTS, although uncommon, may have an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome especially if one twin dies in utero. Prompt recognition and management of the haemodynamic and haematological problems of infants with the acute types of TTTS will result in optimal neurodevelopmental outcome. (+info)
Massive transplacental hemorrhage: clinical manifestations in the newborn. (2/42)Thirteen newborn infants had transplacental hemorrhage in excess of 30 ml. Fetal blood in the maternal circulation was demonstrated in all cases by the acid elution technique. Anemia was noted in five babies either at birth or within the first 24 hours of life. One baby was stillborn, the death possibly being related to fetal hemorrhage. The other seven babies were clinically normal in spite of massive transplacental hemorrhage. The hemoglobin values and reticulocyte counts were normal at birth and the first 5 days of life. The data on this group of babies suggest that the clinical manifestations of transplacental hemorrhage are related not only to the size of the hemorrhage but also to the time at which the hemorrhage occurs. (+info)
The role of high-dose oral iron supplementation during erythropoietin therapy for anemia of prematurity. (3/42)OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a high intake of oral iron would increase the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on hemoglobin synthesis. METHODS: We studied 30 preterm infants (gestational age 29+/-1.8 weeks, birth weight 1161+/-200 g, at age of 28+/-10 days) who were randomly assigned to receive either 8 mg/kg per day (n=15) or 16 mg/kg per day of oral iron during a course of rHuEPO therapy (900 microg/kg per week) for a duration of 4 weeks. Both groups were comparable in regard to clinical and laboratory data at the time of enrollment. RESULTS: rHuEPO caused a significant increase in reticulocyte count in the low- and high-dose iron groups, 17.1+/-5.3 to 34.7+/-9.2 and 16.3+/-3.3 to 42.5+/-5.6 (10(9)/l), respectively (p<0.05). However, in both groups, hematocrit values remained stable at the end of the study as compared to baseline (0.35+/-0.03% vs. 0.30+/-0.03%, 0.35+/-0.05% vs. 0.30+/-0.03%, NS) and in both groups there was a comparable and significant decrease in ferritin level (259+/-109 to 101+/-40 and 168+/-54 to 69+/-38 microg/l, respectively; p<0.01). The rates of bloody stools without any evidence of necrotizing enterocolitis were not significantly different between the two treatment groups (1/15 vs. 4/15, NS). CONCLUSION: We conclude that a higher dose (16 mg/kg per day) of oral iron is not more beneficial when compared to a lower dose (8 mg/kg per day) during rHuEPO therapy for anemia of prematurity. Further studies will define the optimal dosage and route of administration of iron supplementation during rHuEPO therapy. (+info)
Effects of vitamin E supplementation during erythropoietin treatment of the anaemia of prematurity. (4/42)AIMS: To evaluate the effects of vitamin E supplementation on haemoglobin concentration and the requirement for transfusion in premature infants treated with erythropoietin and iron. METHODS: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Thirty infants +info)
Serum erythropoietin concentrations in symptomatic infants during the anaemia of prematurity. (5/42)A comparison was carried out between a series of neonates who weighed less than 1500 g at birth and received red cell transfusions for symptomatic anaemia of prematurity (group 1, n = 14) and controls of similar gestational age and weight, who remained well and were not transfused during their nursery stay (group 2, n = 10). Mean (SD) haemoglobin concentrations at birth were 163 (12) g/l and 183 (17) g/l (p = 0.004), respectively. Transfusion resulted in significantly better weight gain in six infants who had been growing poorly:mean (SE) 8.8 (2.8) g/day improved to 23.3 (2.1) g/day (p less than 0.002). Geometric mean (SD) serum immunoreactive erythropoietin (SiEp) concentrations (17.7 (1.3) U/l) for the whole group of infants were similar to those of normal adults (17.4 (4.7) U/l) despite considerably reduced haemoglobin values. There was a significant inverse correlation between haemoglobin and log SiEp concentrations in the infants requiring transfusion (r = -0.43; p less than 0.01), but this was not apparent in the untransfused babies. Moreover, at haemoglobin concentrations below 120 g/l the mean (SE) SiEp concentration of 20 (1.08) U/l in group 1 was significantly higher than in group 2 (14 (1.06) U/l; p = 0.002). These data suggest that an increased concentration of SiEp early in the course of the anaemia of prematurity helps to identify those infants who would benefit from red cell transfusions, but that clinical criteria, although ill defined, do so equally well. (+info)
The effects of anaemia as a programming agent in the fetal heart. (6/42)The intrauterine environment plays a powerful role in determining the life-long risk of cardiovascular disease. A number of stressors are well known to affect the development of the cardiovascular system in utero including over/under maternal nutrition, excess glucocorticoid and chronic hypoxia. Chronic fetal anaemia in sheep is a complex stressor that alters cardiac loading conditions, causes hypoxic stress and stimulates large changes in flow to specific tissues, including large increases in resting coronary blood flow and conductance. Decreased viscosity can account for approximately half of the increased flow. It appears that immature hearts are 'plastic' in that increases in coronary conductance with fetal anaemia persist into adulthood even if the anaemia is corrected before birth. These large changes in conductance are possible only through extensive remodelling of the coronary tree. Adult hearts that were once anaemic in utero are more resistant to hypoxic stress as adults but it is not known whether such an adaptation would be deleterious in later life. These studies indicate the need for investigation into the basic mechanisms of coronary tree remodelling in the immature myocardium. New information on these mechanisms is likely to lead to better prevention of and therapies for adult-onset coronary disease. (+info)
Reduction in red blood cell transfusions among preterm infants: results of a randomized trial with an in-line blood gas and chemistry monitor. (7/42)BACKGROUND: Critically ill, extremely premature infants develop anemia because of intensive laboratory blood testing and undergo multiple red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in the early weeks of life. To date, researchers have had only limited success in finding ways to reduce transfusions significantly in this patient population. OBJECTIVE: To reduce RBC transfusions for these infants by using a point-of-care bedside monitor that returns analyzed blood to the patient. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: This was a prospective, 2-center, randomized, open, controlled, clinical trial with a 1:1 assignment of extremely low birth weight infants (weighing 500-1000 g at birth) to control or monitor groups and analysis with the intention-to-treat approach. Predefined RBC transfusion criteria were applied uniformly in the 2 groups. INTERVENTIONS: Clinical treatment of study subjects with an in-line, ex vivo, bedside monitor that withdraws blood through an umbilical artery catheter, analyzes blood gases and sodium, potassium, and hematocrit levels, and returns the sample to the patient. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The total volume and number of RBC transfusions during the first 2 weeks of life and the total volume of blood removed for laboratory testing. RESULTS: The trial was terminated prematurely when one center's NICU changed its standard method of laboratory testing. In the first 2 weeks of life, there was a nonsignificant 17% lower cumulative RBC transfusion volume in the monitor group (n = 46), compared with the control group (n = 47). However, data from the first week only (the period of greater catheter use) demonstrated a significant 33% lower cumulative RBC transfusion volume in the monitor group. Cumulative phlebotomy loss was approximately 25% less in the monitor group throughout the 2-week study period. There was no difference between groups in neonatal mortality, morbidity, and neurodevelopmental outcome rates at 18 to 24 months. This is the first randomized trial documenting that RBC transfusions administered to neonates can by reduced by decreasing laboratory phlebotomy loss. CONCLUSIONS: As long as an umbilical artery catheter is available for blood sampling with an in-line blood gas and chemistry monitor, significant reductions in neonatal RBC transfusions can be achieved. The patients most likely to benefit from monitor use are the smallest, most critically ill newborns. (+info)
A randomized, controlled trial of the effects of adding vitamin B12 and folate to erythropoietin for the treatment of anemia of prematurity. (8/42)BACKGROUND: Premature infants, especially those with birth weights of <1500 g, often suffer from anemia of prematurity and associated problems. Erythropoietin therapy is a safe effective way to prevent and to treat anemia of prematurity. We hypothesized that combined administration of vitamin B12 and folate with erythropoietin and iron would enhance erythropoietin-induced erythropoiesis. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled trial, 64 premature infants (birth weight: 801-1300 g) receiving erythropoietin and iron supplementation were assigned randomly to receive either vitamin B12 (3 microg/kg per day) and folate (100 microg/kg per day) (treatment group) or a lower dose of folate (60 microg/kg per day) (control group). RESULTS: During the 4-week observation period, vitamin B12 and folate enhanced erythropoietin-induced erythropoiesis significantly, as indicated by a 10% increase in red blood cell counts, compared with folate alone. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels remained stable in the treatment group, whereas they decreased in the control group. Vitamin B12 levels in the treatment group increased over baseline and control values, whereas red blood cell folate levels were comparable between the groups. Subsequent analysis showed slight nonsignificant differences in baseline red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit level, and mean corpuscular volume values, which must be addressed as a limitation. CONCLUSIONS: With the limitation of a slight imbalance in baseline data between the study groups, combined therapy with vitamin B12, folate, erythropoietin, and orally and intravenously administered iron seemed more effective in stimulating erythropoiesis among premature infants, compared with erythropoietin, iron, and low-dose folate alone. Additional trials are necessary to confirm these data. (+info)
There are many different types of anemia, each with its own set of causes and symptoms. Some common types of anemia include:
1. Iron-deficiency anemia: This is the most common type of anemia and is caused by a lack of iron in the diet or a problem with the body's ability to absorb iron. Iron is essential for making hemoglobin.
2. Vitamin deficiency anemia: This type of anemia is caused by a lack of vitamins, such as vitamin B12 or folate, that are necessary for red blood cell production.
3. Anemia of chronic disease: This type of anemia is seen in people with chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.
4. Sickle cell anemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the structure of hemoglobin and causes red blood cells to be shaped like crescents or sickles.
5. Thalassemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin and can cause anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.
The symptoms of anemia can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and dizziness or lightheadedness. Anemia can be diagnosed with a blood test that measures the number and size of red blood cells, as well as the levels of hemoglobin and other nutrients.
Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, dietary changes or supplements may be sufficient to treat anemia. For example, people with iron-deficiency anemia may need to increase their intake of iron-rich foods or take iron supplements. In other cases, medical treatment may be necessary to address underlying conditions such as kidney disease or cancer.
Preventing anemia is important for maintaining good health and preventing complications. To prevent anemia, it is important to eat a balanced diet that includes plenty of iron-rich foods, vitamin C-rich foods, and other essential nutrients. It is also important to avoid certain substances that can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, such as alcohol and caffeine. Additionally, it is important to manage any underlying medical conditions and seek medical attention if symptoms of anemia persist or worsen over time.
In conclusion, anemia is a common blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the different types of anemia, their causes, and symptoms in order to seek medical attention if necessary. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of anemia can be successfully managed and prevented.
Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and increased risk of bleeding or infection. Treatment options for aplastic anemia typically involve blood transfusions and immunosuppressive drugs to stimulate the bone marrow to produce new blood cells. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.
Overall, aplastic anemia is a rare and serious condition that requires careful management by a healthcare provider to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
Symptoms of hemolytic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness, headaches, and pale or yellowish skin. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include blood transfusions, medication to suppress the immune system, antibiotics for infections, and removal of the spleen (splenectomy) in severe cases.
Prevention strategies for hemolytic anemia include avoiding triggers such as certain medications or infections, maintaining good hygiene practices, and seeking early medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
It is important to note that while hemolytic anemia can be managed with proper treatment, it may not be curable in all cases, and ongoing monitoring and care are necessary to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
There are currently no cures for Fanconi anemia, but bone marrow transplantation and other supportive therapies can help manage some of the symptoms and improve quality of life. Research into the genetics and molecular biology of Fanconi anemia is ongoing to better understand the disorder and develop new treatments.
Some of the common symptoms of Fanconi anemia include short stature, limb deformities, hearing loss, vision problems, and an increased risk of infections and cancer. Children with Fanconi anemia may also experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and social and emotional challenges.
The diagnosis of Fanconi anemia is typically made based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment options for Fanconi anemia depend on the severity of the disorder and may include bone marrow transplantation, blood transfusions, antibiotics, and other supportive therapies.
Fanconi anemia is a rare disorder that affects approximately 1 in 160,000 births worldwide. It is more common in certain populations, such as Ashkenazi Jews and individuals of Spanish descent. Fanconi anemia can be inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that a child must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop the disorder.
Overall, Fanconi anemia is a complex and rare genetic disorder that requires specialized medical care and ongoing research to better understand its causes and develop effective treatments. With appropriate management and supportive therapies, individuals with Fanconi anemia can lead fulfilling lives despite the challenges associated with the disorder.
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a specific type of hemolytic anemia that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys red blood cells. This can happen due to various underlying causes such as infections, certain medications, and some types of cancer.
In autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the immune system produces antibodies that coat the surface of red blood cells and mark them for destruction by other immune cells called complement proteins. This leads to the premature destruction of red blood cells in the spleen, liver, and other organs.
Symptoms of autoimmune hemolytic anemia can include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and a pale or yellowish complexion. Treatment options for AIHA depend on the underlying cause of the disorder, but may include medications to suppress the immune system, plasmapheresis to remove antibodies from the blood, and in severe cases, splenectomy (removal of the spleen) or bone marrow transplantation.
In summary, autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a type of hemolytic anemia that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys red blood cells, leading to premature destruction of red blood cells and various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and jaundice. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the disorder and may include medications, plasmapheresis, and in severe cases, splenectomy or bone marrow transplantation.
In hypochromic anemia, the RBCs are smaller than normal and have a lower concentration of hemoglobin. This can lead to a decrease in the amount of oxygen being carried to the body's tissues, which can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
There are several possible causes of hypochromic anemia, including:
1. Iron deficiency: Iron is essential for the production of hemoglobin, so a lack of iron can lead to a decrease in hemoglobin levels and the development of hypochromic anemia.
2. Vitamin deficiency: Vitamins such as vitamin B12 and folate are important for the production of red blood cells, so a deficiency in these vitamins can lead to hypochromic anemia.
3. Chronic disease: Certain chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer, can lead to hypochromic anemia.
4. Inherited disorders: Certain inherited disorders, such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, can cause hypochromic anemia.
5. Autoimmune disorders: Autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, can cause hypochromic anemia by destroying red blood cells.
Hypochromic anemia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood counts (CBCs) and serum iron studies. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the anemia and may include dietary changes, supplements, medication, or blood transfusions.
Symptoms of macrocytic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath. Diagnosis is typically made through a complete blood count (CBC) test that shows an elevated mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and reticulocyte count. Treatment depends on the underlying cause, but may include vitamin supplements, changes in medication, or addressing any underlying medical conditions.
In summary, macrocytic anemia is a type of anemia characterized by large red blood cells that are prone to breakdown and can be caused by various factors. It can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath, and diagnosis is made through a CBC test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause.
Note: The information provided above is a general definition of the medical condition 'Anemia, Pernicious'. It is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment. If you have any concerns about this condition, you should consult a qualified healthcare professional for proper evaluation and care.
Sickle cell anemia is caused by mutations in the HBB gene that codes for hemoglobin. The most common mutation is a point mutation at position 6, which replaces the glutamic acid amino acid with a valine (Glu6Val). This substitution causes the hemoglobin molecule to be unstable and prone to forming sickle-shaped cells.
The hallmark symptom of sickle cell anemia is anemia, which is a low number of healthy red blood cells. People with the condition may also experience fatigue, weakness, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), infections, and episodes of severe pain. Sickle cell anemia can also increase the risk of stroke, heart disease, and other complications.
Sickle cell anemia is diagnosed through blood tests that measure hemoglobin levels and the presence of sickle cells. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and preventing complications with medications, blood transfusions, and antibiotics. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended.
Prevention of sickle cell anemia primarily involves avoiding the genetic mutations that cause the condition. This can be done through genetic counseling and testing for individuals who have a family history of the condition or are at risk of inheriting it. Prenatal testing is also available for pregnant women who may be carriers of the condition.
Overall, sickle cell anemia is a serious genetic disorder that can significantly impact quality of life and life expectancy if left untreated. However, with proper management and care, individuals with the condition can lead fulfilling lives and manage their symptoms effectively.
The symptoms of sideroblastic anemia can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and a rapid heart rate. Treatment options for sideroblastic anemia typically involve addressing the underlying genetic cause of the condition, such as through gene therapy or enzyme replacement therapy, and managing symptoms with medication and lifestyle modifications.
In summary, sideroblastic anemia is a rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormalities in iron metabolism that can lead to impaired red blood cell production and various other symptoms. It is important for individuals with this condition to receive timely and appropriate medical attention to manage their symptoms and prevent complications.
Symptoms of megaloblastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and weight loss. The condition is typically diagnosed through a physical examination, blood tests (including a complete blood count and blood chemistry tests), and possibly a bone marrow biopsy.
Treatment for megaloblastic anemia usually involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as vitamin B12 or folate supplements. In some cases, medications to stimulate the production of red blood cells may be prescribed. If left untreated, megaloblastic anemia can lead to complications such as heart problems and increased risk of infections.
There are several subtypes of refractory anemia, including:
1. Refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB): This type of anemia is characterized by a high number of immature red blood cells in the bone marrow.
2. Refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS): This type of anemia is characterized by the presence of abnormal red blood cells that have a "ring-like" appearance under a microscope.
3. Refractory anemia with multilineage dysplasia (RARMD): This type of anemia is characterized by abnormal cell development in the bone marrow, including immature red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
Refractory anemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to certain chemicals or toxins, and certain medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease or rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment for refractory anemia typically involves blood transfusions and supportive care, such as folic acid supplements and antibiotics to prevent infection. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended.
Prevalence: Anemia, hemolytic, congenital is a rare disorder, affecting approximately 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 200,000 births.
Causes: The condition is caused by mutations in genes that code for proteins involved in hemoglobin synthesis or red blood cell membrane structure. These mutations can lead to abnormal hemoglobin formation, red blood cell membrane instability, and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, which can result in hemolytic anemia.
Symptoms: Symptoms of anemia, hemolytic, congenital may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the condition can lead to life-threatening complications such as anemia, infections, and kidney failure.
Diagnosis: Anemia, hemolytic, congenital is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including blood smear examination, hemoglobin electrophoresis, and mutation analysis.
Treatment: Treatment for anemia, hemolytic, congenital depends on the specific underlying genetic cause and may include blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, antibiotics, and/or surgery to remove the spleen. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary.
Prognosis: The prognosis for anemia, hemolytic, congenital varies depending on the specific underlying genetic cause and the severity of the condition. With appropriate treatment, many individuals with this condition can lead relatively normal lives, but in severe cases, the condition can be life-threatening.
The symptoms of EIA can vary in severity and may include fever, loss of appetite, weight loss, depression, and anemia. In severe cases, the disease can lead to death. There is no cure for EIA, but it can be managed with antiretroviral medications and supportive care.
EIA is a significant concern in the equine industry, as infected animals can transmit the disease to other horses and can be a risk to human health. Testing for EIA is done through a blood test, and infected animals are typically euthanized to prevent the spread of the disease.
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Source: Genetic Home Reference: NIH
1. Iron deficiency anemia: This is the most common hematologic complication of pregnancy, caused by the increased demand for iron and the potential for poor dietary intake or gastrointestinal blood loss.
2. Thrombocytopenia: A decrease in platelet count, which can be mild and resolve spontaneously or severe and require treatment.
3. Leukemia: Rare but potentially serious, leukemia can occur during pregnancy and may require prompt intervention to ensure the health of both the mother and the fetus.
4. Thrombosis: The formation of a blood clot in a blood vessel, which can be life-threatening for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
5. Hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding during pregnancy, which can be caused by various factors such as placenta previa or abruption.
6. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the kidneys and liver, which can increase the risk of hemorrhage and other complications.
7. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside of the uterus, often in the fallopian tube, which can cause severe bleeding and be life-threatening if left untreated.
A condition where newborn babies have a lower than normal number of red blood cells or low levels of hemoglobin in their blood. The condition can be caused by various factors such as premature birth, low birth weight, infections, and genetic disorders. Symptoms may include jaundice, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. Treatment options may vary depending on the underlying cause but may include blood transfusions and iron supplements.
Example usage: "Neonatal anemia is a common condition in newborn babies that can be caused by various factors such as premature birth or low birth weight."
The term "refractory" refers to the fact that this type of anemia does not respond well to standard treatments, such as blood transfusions or medications. The term "excess blasts" refers to the presence of a large number of immature cells in the bone marrow.
RAEB is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can develop into acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. AML is characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells, which can crowd out normal cells in the bone marrow and lead to a variety of symptoms, including fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.
RAEB is usually diagnosed in adults over the age of 60, although it can occur at any age. The condition is often associated with other health problems, such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a group of disorders that affect the bone marrow and blood cells.
Treatment for RAEB typically involves chemotherapy and/or bone marrow transplantation. The goal of treatment is to slow the progression of the disease, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life. In some cases, RAEB may be managed with supportive care, such as blood transfusions and antibiotics, to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Overall, refractory anemia with excess blasts is a serious and complex condition that requires careful management by a healthcare team of hematologists, oncologists, and other specialists. With appropriate treatment, many people with RAEB are able to achieve long-term remission and improve their quality of life.
Pallor is often used as an indicator of underlying disease, particularly in conditions where there is a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood, such as anemia or blood loss. It can also be a sign of other diseases such as liver cirrhosis, kidney failure, and some types of cancer.
There are different types of pallor, including:
1. Anemic pallor: This is the most common type of pallor and is caused by a decrease in the number of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood. It can be seen in conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, vitamin deficiency anemia, and sickle cell anemia.
2. Post-inflammatory pallor: This type of pallor is caused by inflammation that leads to a decrease in blood flow to the skin. It can be seen in conditions such as erythema migrans (Lyme disease), and other inflammatory conditions.
3. Cirrhotic pallor: This type of pallor is caused by liver cirrhosis and is characterized by a pale, washed-out appearance of the skin.
4. Renal pallor: This type of pallor is caused by kidney failure and is characterized by a pale, washed-out appearance of the skin.
5. Cancer pallor: This type of pallor is caused by certain types of cancer, such as carcinomas and lymphomas, and is characterized by a pale, washed-out appearance of the skin.
In summary, pallor is a term used to describe an abnormal paleness or whiteness of the skin that can be caused by a variety of underlying medical conditions. It is often used as an indicator of illness and can be seen in a wide range of conditions, including anemia, inflammation, liver cirrhosis, kidney failure, and certain types of cancer.
* Dietary deficiency due to a lack of animal products in the diet
* Malabsorption due to gastrointestinal disorders such as Crohn's disease or celiac disease
* Pernicious anemia, an autoimmune condition that affects the absorption of vitamin B12 in the gut.
* Surgical removal of part of the small intestine
* Certain medications such as metformin and proton pump inhibitors
* Fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath
* Pale skin and mouth sores
* Difficulty walking or balance problems
* Numbness or tingling sensations in the hands and feet
* Memory loss and depression
* Poor appetite and weight loss
* Blood tests to measure vitamin B12 levels and other related markers such as homocysteine
* Physical examination and medical history to identify risk factors or signs of deficiency
* Dietary changes to include more animal products such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products.
* Vitamin B12 supplements in the form of tablets, lozenges, or injections.
* Addressing underlying conditions that may be contributing to the deficiency such as gastrointestinal disorders.
* Consuming animal products as part of a balanced diet
* Avoiding medications that can interfere with vitamin B12 absorption.
There are two main types of beta-thalassemia:
1. Beta-thalassemia major (also known as Cooley's anemia): This is the most severe form of the condition, and it can cause serious health problems and a shortened lifespan if left untreated. Children with this condition are typically diagnosed at birth or in early childhood, and they may require regular blood transfusions and other medical interventions to manage their symptoms and prevent complications.
2. Beta-thalassemia minor (also known as thalassemia trait): This is a milder form of the condition, and it may not cause any noticeable symptoms. People with beta-thalassemia minor have one mutated copy of the HBB gene and one healthy copy, which allows them to produce some normal hemoglobin. However, they may still be at risk for complications such as anemia, fatigue, and a higher risk of infections.
The symptoms of beta-thalassemia can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the age of onset. Common symptoms include:
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Frequent infections
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Enlarged spleen
Beta-thalassemia is most commonly found in people of Mediterranean, African, and Southeast Asian ancestry. It is caused by mutations in the HBB gene, which is inherited from one's parents. There is no cure for beta-thalassemia, but it can be managed with blood transfusions, chelation therapy, and other medical interventions. Bone marrow transplantation may also be a viable option for some patients.
In conclusion, beta-thalassemia is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia, fatigue, and other complications. While there is no cure for the condition, it can be managed with medical interventions and bone marrow transplantation may be a viable option for some patients. Early diagnosis and management are crucial in preventing or minimizing the complications of beta-thalassemia.
Symptoms of pancytopenia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and increased risk of bleeding or infection. Treatment depends on the underlying cause, but may include blood transfusions, antibiotics, or immunosuppressive medications. In severe cases, pancytopenia can lead to anemia, infections, or bleeding complications that can be life-threatening.
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There are two main types of thalassemia: alpha-thalassemia and beta-thalassemia. Alpha-thalassemia is caused by abnormalities in the production of the alpha-globin chain, which is one of the two chains that make up hemoglobin. Beta-thalassemia is caused by abnormalities in the production of the beta-globin chain.
Thalassemia can cause a range of symptoms, including anemia, fatigue, pale skin, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as heart failure, liver failure, and bone deformities. Thalassemia is usually diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of hemoglobin and other proteins in the blood.
There is no cure for thalassemia, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may include blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, and medications to reduce the severity of anemia. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended.
Preventive measures for thalassemia include genetic counseling and testing for individuals who are at risk of inheriting the disorder. Prenatal testing is also available for pregnant women who are carriers of the disorder. In addition, individuals with thalassemia should avoid marriage within their own family or community to reduce the risk of passing on the disorder to their children.
Overall, thalassemia is a serious and inherited blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. However, with proper treatment and management, individuals with thalassemia can lead fulfilling lives and minimize the risk of complications.
There are several different types of malaria, including:
1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.
The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:
4. Muscle and joint pain
6. Nausea and vomiting
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)
If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)
Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.
Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:
1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.
Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.
1. Anemia: Folic acid plays a critical role in the production of red blood cells, so a deficiency can lead to anemia, which can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
2. Birth defects: Folic acid is crucial for fetal development during pregnancy, and a deficiency can increase the risk of birth defects such as spina bifida and cleft palate.
3. Heart disease: Folic acid helps to regulate homocysteine levels in the blood, which are associated with an increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
4. Neurological problems: Folic acid is important for the health of the nervous system, and a deficiency can lead to neurological problems such as cognitive impairment, mood disturbances, and seizures.
5. Poor wound healing: Folic acid is necessary for the production of collagen, which is important for wound healing. A deficiency can lead to slow or poor wound healing.
6. Increased risk of cancer: Some studies suggest that a folic acid deficiency may increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as colon cancer.
7. Hair loss: Folic acid is important for hair growth, and a deficiency can lead to hair loss.
8. Skin problems: Folic acid is important for skin health, and a deficiency can lead to skin problems such as dry, flaky skin and mouth sores.
9. Mood changes: Folic acid plays a role in the production of neurotransmitters, which are chemicals that regulate mood. A deficiency can lead to mood changes such as depression and anxiety.
10. Fatigue: Folic acid is important for energy metabolism, and a deficiency can lead to fatigue and weakness.
Folic acid deficiency can be caused by a number of factors, including:
1. Poor diet: A diet that is low in folate-rich foods can lead to a deficiency.
2. Malabsorption: Certain medical conditions such as celiac disease and Crohn's disease can lead to malabsorption of folic acid.
3. Pregnancy and lactation: Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding have a higher need for folic acid, and may be at risk for deficiency if they do not consume enough.
4. Alcoholism: Heavy alcohol consumption can interfere with the absorption of folic acid.
5. Certain medications: Some medications, such as antacids and proton pump inhibitors, can interfere with the absorption of folic acid.
To diagnose a folic acid deficiency, a healthcare provider may perform a physical exam, take a medical history, and order blood tests to measure folic acid levels. Treatment for a folic acid deficiency typically involves dietary changes and supplements. Dietary changes may include consuming more folate-rich foods, such as leafy green vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. Supplements may include folic acid tablets or liquid supplements. In severe cases of deficiency, injections of folic acid may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect a folic acid deficiency, as untreated deficiencies can lead to serious health problems.
The term splenomegaly is used to describe any condition that results in an increase in the size of the spleen, regardless of the underlying cause. This can be caused by a variety of factors, such as infection, inflammation, cancer, or genetic disorders.
Splenomegaly can be diagnosed through a physical examination, where the doctor may feel the enlarged spleen during an abdominal palpation. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and evaluate the extent of the splenomegaly.
Treatment for splenomegaly depends on the underlying cause. For example, infections such as malaria or mononucleosis are treated with antibiotics, while cancerous conditions may require surgical intervention or chemotherapy. In some cases, the spleen may need to be removed, a procedure known as splenectomy.
In conclusion, splenomegaly is an abnormal enlargement of the spleen that can be caused by various factors and requires prompt medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.
1. Dictionary of Medical Microbiology, Second Edition. Edited by A. S. Chakrabarti and S. K. Das. Springer, 2012.
2. Medical Microbiology, Fourth Edition. Edited by P. R. Murray, K. S. N air, and M. J. Laurence. Mosby, 2014.
Symptoms of iron overload can include fatigue, weakness, joint pain, and abdominal discomfort. Treatment for iron overload usually involves reducing iron intake and undergoing regular phlebotomy (blood removal) to remove excess iron from the body. In severe cases, iron chelation therapy may be recommended to help remove excess iron from tissues and organs.
In addition to these medical definitions and treatments, there are also some key points to keep in mind when it comes to iron overload:
1. Iron is essential for human health, but too much of it can be harmful. The body needs a certain amount of iron to produce hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. However, excessive iron levels can damage organs and tissues.
2. Hereditary hemochromatosis is the most common cause of iron overload. This genetic disorder causes the body to absorb too much iron from food, leading to its accumulation in organs and tissues.
3. Iron overload can increase the risk of certain diseases, such as liver cirrhosis, diabetes, and heart disease. It can also lead to a condition called hemosiderosis, which is characterized by the deposition of iron in tissues and organs.
4. Phlebotomy is a safe and effective treatment for iron overload. Regular blood removal can help reduce excess iron levels and prevent complications such as liver damage, heart failure, and anemia.
5. Iron chelation therapy may be recommended in severe cases of iron overload. This involves using drugs to remove excess iron from tissues and organs, but it is not always necessary and can have potential side effects.
A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time, leading to the accumulation of waste products in the body. Also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Chronic kidney failure affects approximately 20 million people worldwide and is a major public health concern. In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 5 adults has CKD, with African Americans being disproportionately affected.
The causes of chronic kidney failure are numerous and include:
1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys over time.
2. Hypertension: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.
3. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood.
4. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the tissue between the kidney tubules.
5. Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys, usually caused by bacteria or viruses.
6. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic disorder that causes cysts to grow on the kidneys.
7. Obesity: Excess weight can increase blood pressure and strain on the kidneys.
8. Family history: A family history of kidney disease increases the risk of developing chronic kidney failure.
Early stages of chronic kidney failure may not cause any symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms can include:
1. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak.
2. Swelling: In the legs, ankles, and feet.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Due to the buildup of waste products in the body.
4. Poor appetite: Loss of interest in food.
5. Difficulty concentrating: Cognitive impairment due to the buildup of waste products in the brain.
6. Shortness of breath: Due to fluid buildup in the lungs.
7. Pain: In the back, flank, or abdomen.
8. Urination changes: Decreased urine production, dark-colored urine, or blood in the urine.
9. Heart problems: Chronic kidney failure can increase the risk of heart disease and heart attack.
Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:
1. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine: Waste products in the blood that increase with decreased kidney function.
2. Electrolyte levels: Imbalances in electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and phosphorus can indicate kidney dysfunction.
3. Kidney function tests: Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to determine the level of kidney function.
4. Urinalysis: Examination of urine for protein, blood, or white blood cells.
Imaging studies may include:
1. Ultrasound: To assess the size and shape of the kidneys, detect any blockages, and identify any other abnormalities.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: To provide detailed images of the kidneys and detect any obstructions or abscesses.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To evaluate the kidneys and detect any damage or scarring.
Treatment for chronic kidney failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. The goals of treatment are to slow progression of the disease, manage symptoms, and improve quality of life. Treatment may include:
1. Medications: To control high blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, reduce proteinuria, and manage anemia.
2. Diet: A healthy diet that limits protein intake, controls salt and water intake, and emphasizes low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.
3. Fluid management: Monitoring and control of fluid intake to prevent fluid buildup in the body.
4. Dialysis: A machine that filters waste products from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Transplantation: A kidney transplant may be considered for some patients with advanced chronic kidney failure.
Chronic kidney failure can lead to several complications, including:
1. Heart disease: High blood pressure and anemia can increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Anemia: A decrease in red blood cells can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Bone disease: A disorder that can lead to bone pain, weakness, and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Electrolyte imbalance: Imbalances of electrolytes such as potassium, phosphorus, and sodium can cause muscle weakness, heart arrhythmias, and other complications.
5. Infections: A decrease in immune function can increase the risk of infections.
6. Nutritional deficiencies: Poor appetite, nausea, and vomiting can lead to malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Cardiovascular disease: High blood pressure, anemia, and other complications can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pain: Chronic kidney failure can cause pain, particularly in the back, flank, and abdomen.
9. Sleep disorders: Insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome are common complications.
10. Depression and anxiety: The emotional burden of chronic kidney failure can lead to depression and anxiety.
1. Types of Hookworms: There are two main types of hookworms that can infect humans: Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. A. duodenale is more common in temperate climates, while N. americanus is found in tropical and subtropical regions.
2. Transmission: Hookworms are typically spread through contact with contaminated feces or soil. This can happen when someone ingests food or water that has been contaminated with hookworm eggs or larvae. In rare cases, hookworms can also be transmitted through blood transfusions or organ transplants.
3. Symptoms: The symptoms of hookworm infections can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the number of worms present. Common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and anemia. In severe cases, hookworms can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to complications such as bowel obstruction or perforation.
4. Diagnosis: Hookworm infections are typically diagnosed through a stool sample or blood test. A doctor may also perform a physical examination and take a medical history to help determine the presence of hookworms.
5. Treatment: Hookworm infections can be treated with antiparasitic medications, such as albendazole or mebendazole. These medications work by killing the worms in the intestines, which helps to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, treatment may also involve addressing any underlying conditions that have been exacerbated by the hookworm infection, such as anemia or malnutrition.
6. Prevention: The best way to prevent hookworm infections is to practice good hygiene and avoid contact with contaminated feces or soil. This includes washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. Additionally, wearing shoes when outdoors can help reduce the risk of contracting a hookworm infection through contact with contaminated soil.
The most common types of hemoglobinopathies include:
1. Sickle cell disease: This is caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene that codes for the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin. It results in the production of sickle-shaped red blood cells, which can cause anemia, infections, and other complications.
2. Thalassemia: This is a group of genetic disorders that affect the production of hemoglobin and can result in anemia, fatigue, and other complications.
3. Hemophilia A: This is caused by a defect in the F8 gene that codes for coagulation factor VIII, which is essential for blood clotting. It can cause bleeding episodes, especially in males.
4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency: This is caused by a point mutation in the G6PD gene that codes for an enzyme involved in red blood cell production. It can cause hemolytic anemia, especially in individuals who consume certain foods or medications.
5. Hereditary spherocytosis: This is caused by point mutations in the ANK1 or SPTA1 genes that code for proteins involved in red blood cell membrane structure. It can cause hemolytic anemia and other complications.
Hemoglobinopathies can be diagnosed through genetic testing, such as DNA sequencing or molecular genetic analysis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder but may include blood transfusions, medications, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation.
There are several possible causes of thrombocytopenia, including:
1. Immune-mediated disorders such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
2. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia or leukemia.
3. Viral infections such as HIV or hepatitis C.
4. Medications such as chemotherapy or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
5. Vitamin deficiencies, especially vitamin B12 and folate.
6. Genetic disorders such as Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
7. Sepsis or other severe infections.
8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a condition where blood clots form throughout the body.
9. Postpartum thrombocytopenia, which can occur in some women after childbirth.
Symptoms of thrombocytopenia may include easy bruising, petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin), and prolonged bleeding from injuries or surgical sites. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include platelet transfusions, steroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and in severe cases, surgery.
In summary, thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by low platelet counts that can increase the risk of bleeding and bruising. It can be caused by various factors, and treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause.
Falciparum malaria can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, the disease can lead to anemia, organ failure, and death.
Diagnosis of falciparum malaria typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of parasites in the blood or other bodily fluids. Treatment usually involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) or quinine, which can effectively cure the disease if administered promptly.
Prevention of falciparum malaria is critical to reducing the risk of infection, and this includes the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying (IRS), and preventive medications for travelers to high-risk areas. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the number of mosquitoes and the spread of the disease.
In summary, falciparum malaria is a severe and life-threatening form of malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, which is responsible for the majority of malaria-related deaths worldwide. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and death from this disease. Prevention measures include the use of bed nets, indoor spraying, and preventive medications, as well as reducing standing water around homes and communities.
There are two main forms of alpha-Thalassemia:
1. Alpha-thalassemia major (also known as Hemoglobin Bart's hydrops fetalis): This is a severe form of the disorder that can cause severe anemia, enlarged spleen, and death in infancy. It is caused by a complete absence of one or both of the HBA1 or HBA2 genes.
2. Alpha-thalassemia minor (also known as Hemoglobin carrier state): This form of the disorder is milder and may not cause any symptoms at all. It is caused by a partial deletion of one or both of the HBA1 or HBA2 genes.
People with alpha-thalassemia minor may have slightly lower levels of hemoglobin and may be more susceptible to anemia, but they do not typically experience any severe symptoms. Those with alpha-thalassemia major, on the other hand, are at risk for serious complications such as anemia, infections, and organ failure.
There is no cure for alpha-thalassemia, but treatment options include blood transfusions, iron chelation therapy, and management of associated complications. Screening for alpha-thalassemia is recommended for individuals who are carriers of the disorder, as well as for those who have a family history of the condition.
Also known as: Hereditary spherocytosis (HSS)
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Isoimmunization is a condition that occurs when an individual has antibodies against their own red blood cell antigens, specifically the Rh antigen. This can happen due to various reasons such as:
1. Incompatibility between the mother's and father's Rh antigens, leading to the development of antibodies in the mother during pregnancy or childbirth.
2. Blood transfusions from an incompatible donor.
3. Certain medical conditions like autoimmune hemolytic anemia or bone marrow transplantation.
Rh isoimmunization can lead to a range of complications, including:
1. Hemolytic disease of the newborn: This is a condition where the baby's red blood cells are destroyed by the mother's antibodies, leading to anemia, jaundice, and other serious complications.
2. Rh hemolytic crisis: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening complication that can occur during pregnancy or childbirth.
3. Chronic hemolytic anemia: This is a condition where the red blood cells are continuously destroyed, leading to anemia and other complications.
Rh isoimmunization can be diagnosed through blood tests such as the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) or the indirect Coombs test (ICT). Treatment typically involves managing any underlying conditions and monitoring for complications. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary. Prevention is key, and women who are Rh-negative should receive an injection of Rh immune globulin during pregnancy to prevent the development of antibodies against the Rh antigen.
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.
What is a Chronic Disease?
A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:
2. Heart disease
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Impact of Chronic Diseases
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.
Addressing Chronic Diseases
Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:
1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.
Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.
There are two main types of hemolysis:
1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.
Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.
Some common causes of hemolysis include:
1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.
Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.
Examples of pregnancy complications, parasitic include:
1. Toxoplasmosis: This is a condition caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, which can infect the mother and/or the fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms include fever, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, toxoplasmosis can cause birth defects, such as intellectual disability, blindness, and deafness.
2. Malaria: This is a condition caused by the Plasmodium spp. parasite, which can be transmitted to the mother and/or the fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms include fever, chills, and flu-like symptoms. In severe cases, malaria can cause anemia, organ failure, and death.
3. Schistosomiasis: This is a condition caused by the Schistosoma spp. parasite, which can infect the mother and/or the fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fatigue. In severe cases, schistosomiasis can cause organ damage and infertility.
Pregnancy complications, parasitic can be diagnosed through blood tests, imaging studies, and other medical procedures. Treatment depends on the type of parasite and the severity of the infection. In some cases, treatment may involve antibiotics, antimalarial drugs, or anti-parasitic medications.
Preventive measures for pregnancy complications, parasitic include:
1. Avoiding contact with cat feces, as Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted through contaminated soil and food.
2. Avoiding travel to areas where malaria and other parasitic infections are common.
3. Taking antimalarial medications before and during pregnancy if living in an area where malaria is common.
4. Using insecticide-treated bed nets and wearing protective clothing to prevent mosquito bites.
5. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after handling food or coming into contact with cats.
6. Avoiding drinking unpasteurized dairy products and undercooked meat, as these can increase the risk of infection.
7. Ensuring that any water used for cooking or drinking is safe and free from parasites.
Preventive measures for pregnancy complications, parasitic are important for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, as well as for their partners and healthcare providers. By taking these preventive measures, the risk of infection and complications can be significantly reduced.
In conclusion, pregnancy complications, parasitic are a serious issue that can have severe consequences for both the mother and the fetus. However, by understanding the causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures, women can take steps to protect themselves and their unborn babies from these infections. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of these issues and provide appropriate education and care to pregnant women to reduce the risk of complications.
1. What are some common parasitic infections that can occur during pregnancy?
Ans: Some common parasitic infections that can occur during pregnancy include malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV).
2. How do parasitic infections during pregnancy affect the baby?
Ans: Parasitic infections during pregnancy can have serious consequences for the developing fetus, including birth defects, growth restriction, and stillbirth.
3. Can parasitic infections during pregnancy be treated?
Ans: Yes, parasitic infections during pregnancy can be treated with antibiotics and other medications. Early detection and treatment are important to prevent complications.
4. How can I prevent parasitic infections during pregnancy?
Ans: Preventive measures include avoiding areas where parasites are common, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and practicing good hygiene. Pregnant women should also avoid undercooked meat and unpasteurized dairy products.
5. Do all pregnant women need to be tested for parasitic infections?
Ans: No, not all pregnant women need to be tested for parasitic infections. However, certain groups of women, such as those who live in areas where parasites are common or have a history of previous parasitic infections, may need to be tested and monitored more closely.
6. Can I prevent my baby from getting a parasitic infection during pregnancy?
Ans: Yes, there are several steps you can take to reduce the risk of your baby getting a parasitic infection during pregnancy, such as avoiding certain foods and taking antibiotics if necessary. Your healthcare provider can provide guidance on how to prevent and treat parasitic infections during pregnancy.
7. How are parasitic infections diagnosed during pregnancy?
Ans: Parasitic infections can be diagnosed through blood tests, stool samples, or imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Your healthcare provider may also perform a physical exam and take a medical history to determine the likelihood of a parasitic infection.
8. Can parasitic infections cause long-term health problems for my baby?
Ans: Yes, some parasitic infections can cause long-term health problems for your baby, such as developmental delays or learning disabilities. In rare cases, parasitic infections can also lead to more serious complications, such as organ damage or death.
9. How are parasitic infections treated during pregnancy?
Ans: Treatment for parasitic infections during pregnancy may involve antibiotics, antiparasitic medications, or other supportive care. Your healthcare provider will determine the best course of treatment based on the severity and type of infection, as well as your individual circumstances.
10. Can I take steps to prevent parasitic infections during pregnancy?
Ans: Yes, there are several steps you can take to prevent parasitic infections during pregnancy, such as avoiding undercooked meat and fish, washing fruits and vegetables thoroughly, and practicing good hygiene. Additionally, if you have a higher risk of parasitic infections due to travel or other factors, your healthcare provider may recommend preventative medications or screening tests.
11. I'm pregnant and have been exposed to a parasitic infection. What should I do?
Ans: If you suspect that you have been exposed to a parasitic infection during pregnancy, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider can perform tests to determine if you have an infection and provide appropriate treatment to prevent any potential complications for your baby.
12. Can I breastfeed while taking medication for a parasitic infection?
Ans: It may be safe to breastfeed while taking medication for a parasitic infection, but it is important to consult with your healthcare provider before doing so. Some medications may not be safe for your baby and could potentially be passed through your milk. Your healthcare provider can provide guidance on the safest treatment options for you and your baby.
13. What are some common complications of parasitic infections during pregnancy?
Ans: Complications of parasitic infections during pregnancy can include miscarriage, preterm labor, low birth weight, and congenital anomalies. In rare cases, parasitic infections can also be transmitted to the baby during pregnancy or childbirth, which can lead to serious health problems for the baby.
14. Can I get a parasitic infection from my pet?
Ans: Yes, it is possible to get a parasitic infection from your pet if you come into contact with their feces or other bodily fluids. For example, toxoplasmosis can be transmitted through contact with cat feces, while hookworm infections can be spread through contact with contaminated soil or feces. It is important to practice good hygiene and take precautions when handling pets or coming into contact with potentially contaminated areas.
15. How can I prevent parasitic infections?
Ans: Preventing parasitic infections involves taking steps to avoid exposure to parasites and their vectors, as well as practicing good hygiene and taking precautions when traveling or engaging in activities that may put you at risk. Some ways to prevent parasitic infections include:
* Avoiding undercooked meat, especially pork and wild game
* Avoiding raw or unpasteurized dairy products
* Avoiding contaminated water and food
* Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food
* Avoiding contact with cat feces, as toxoplasmosis can be transmitted through contact with cat feces
* Using protective clothing and insect repellent when outdoors in areas where parasites are common
* Keeping your home clean and free of clutter to reduce the risk of parasite infestations
* Avoiding touching or eating wild animals or plants that may be contaminated with parasites
16. What are some common misconceptions about parasitic infections?
Ans: There are several common misconceptions about parasitic infections, including:
* All parasites are the same and have similar symptoms
* Parasitic infections are only a problem for people who live in developing countries or have poor hygiene
* Only certain groups of people, such as children or pregnant women, are at risk for parasitic infections
* Parasitic infections are rare in developed countries
* All parasites can be treated with antibiotics
* Parasitic infections are not serious and do not require medical attention
17. How can I diagnose a parasitic infection?
Ans: Diagnosing a parasitic infection typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Some common methods for diagnosing parasitic infections include:
* Physical examination to look for signs such as skin lesions or abdominal pain
* Blood tests to check for the presence of parasites or their waste products
* Stool tests to detect the presence of parasite eggs or larvae
* Imaging tests, such as X-rays or CT scans, to look for signs of parasite infection in internal organs
* Endoscopy, which involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the body to visualize the inside of the digestive tract and other organs.
18. How are parasitic infections treated?
Ans: Treatment for parasitic infections depends on the type of parasite and the severity of the infection. Some common methods for treating parasitic infections include:
* Antiparasitic drugs, such as antibiotics or antimalarials, to kill the parasites
* Supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes, to manage symptoms and prevent complications
* Surgery to remove parasites or repair damaged tissues
* Antibiotics to treat secondary bacterial infections that may have developed as a result of the parasitic infection.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have a parasitic infection, as untreated infections can lead to serious complications and can be difficult to diagnose.
19. How can I prevent parasitic infections?
Ans: Preventing parasitic infections involves taking steps to avoid contact with parasites and their vectors, as well as maintaining good hygiene practices. Some ways to prevent parasitic infections include:
* Avoiding undercooked meat and unpasteurized dairy products, which can contain harmful parasites such as Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii
* Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before eating
* Avoiding contact with contaminated water or soil, which can harbor parasites such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium
* Using insecticides and repellents to prevent mosquito bites, which can transmit diseases such as malaria and dengue fever
* Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors in areas where ticks and other vectors are common
* Avoiding contact with animals that may carry parasites, such as dogs and cats that can transmit Toxoplasma gondii
* Using clean water and proper sanitation to prevent the spread of parasitic infections in communities and developing countries.
It is also important to be aware of the risks of parasitic infections when traveling to areas where they are common, and to take appropriate precautions such as avoiding undercooked meat and unpasteurized dairy products, and using insecticides and repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
20. What is the prognosis for parasitic infections?
Ans: The prognosis for parasitic infections varies depending on the specific type of infection and the severity of symptoms. Some parasitic infections can be easily treated with antiparasitic medications, while others may require more extensive treatment and management.
In general, the prognosis for parasitic infections is good if the infection is detected early and properly treated. However, some parasitic infections can cause long-term health problems or death if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
It is also important to note that some parasitic infections can be prevented through public health measures such as using clean water and proper sanitation, and controlling the spread of insect vectors. Prevention is key to avoiding the negative outcomes associated with these types of infections.
21. What are some common complications of parasitic infections?
Ans: Some common complications of parasitic infections include:
* Anemia and other blood disorders, such as thrombocytopenia and leukopenia
* Allergic reactions to parasite antigens
* Inflammation and damage to organs and tissues, such as the liver, kidneys, and brain
* Increased risk of infections with other microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses
* Malnutrition and deficiencies in essential nutrients
* Organ failure and death.
22. Can parasitic infections be prevented? If so, how?
Ans: Yes, some parasitic infections can be prevented through public health measures such as:
* Using clean water and proper sanitation to reduce the risk of ingesting infected parasites.
* Avoiding contact with insect vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, by using repellents, wearing protective clothing, and staying indoors during peak biting hours.
* Properly cooking and storing food to kill parasites that may be present.
* Avoiding consuming undercooked or raw meat, especially pork and wild game.
* Practicing safe sex to prevent the transmission of parasitic infections through sexual contact.
* Keeping children away from areas where they may come into contact with contaminated soil or water.
* Using antiparasitic drugs and other treatments as recommended by healthcare providers.
* Implementing control measures for insect vectors, such as spraying insecticides and removing breeding sites.
30. Can parasitic infections be treated with antibiotics? If so, which ones and why?
Ans: No, antibiotics are not effective against parasitic infections caused by protozoa, such as giardiasis and amoebiasis, because these organisms are not bacteria. However, antibiotics may be used to treat secondary bacterial infections that can develop as a complication of parasitic infections.
32. What is the difference between a parasite and a pathogen?
Ans: A parasite is an organism that lives on or in another organism, called the host, and feeds on the host's tissues or fluids without providing any benefits. A pathogen, on the other hand, is an organism that causes disease. While all parasites are pathogens, not all pathogens are parasites. For example, bacteria and viruses can cause diseases but are not considered parasites because they do not live within the host's body.
People with pica may eat these items in secret and experience a sense of relief or satisfaction after consuming them. The condition is more common in children and adolescents, but it can also affect adults. Pica can lead to nutritional deficiencies, gastrointestinal problems, and other health issues if the eaten items are not digestible or contain harmful substances.
Treatment for pica usually involves addressing any underlying mental health issues and providing education on nutrition and healthy eating habits. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of pica, as early intervention can help prevent complications and improve overall health.
The most common parvoviridae infection in animals is feline panleukopenia (FPV) or canine parvovirus (CPV), which affects dogs and cats. These infections are highly contagious and can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, they can lead to life-threatening complications such as anemia, bone marrow failure, and death.
There is no specific treatment for parvoviridae infections, but supportive care such as fluid therapy, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory medication can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent parvoviridae infections, and vaccines are available for dogs, cats, and other animals.
In humans, parvoviridae infections are rare but can occur through contact with infected animals or contaminated feces. The most common human parvoviridae infection is erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease), which causes a rash, fever, and mild symptoms. Pregnant women who contract parvoviridae infections may experience complications such as miscarriage or preterm labor. There is no specific treatment for human parvoviridae infections, but supportive care can help manage symptoms.
The disorder is caused by mutations in the HBB gene that codes for the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin. These mutations result in the production of abnormal hemoglobins that are unstable and prone to breakdown, leading to the release of free hemoglobin into the urine.
HP is classified into two types based on the severity of symptoms:
1. Type 1 HP: This is the most common form of the disorder and is characterized by mild to moderate anemia, occasional hemoglobinuria, and a normal life expectancy.
2. Type 2 HP: This is a more severe form of the disorder and is characterized by severe anemia, recurrent hemoglobinuria, and a shorter life expectancy.
There is no cure for HP, but treatment options are available to manage symptoms and prevent complications. These may include blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, and medications to reduce the frequency and severity of hemoglobinuria episodes.
1. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM): This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of protein and energy in the diet. It is common in developing countries and can lead to weight loss, weakness, and stunted growth in children.
2. Iron deficiency anemia: This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of iron in the diet, which is necessary for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies: Malnutrition can also be caused by a lack of essential vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, and iodine. Symptoms vary depending on the specific deficiency but can include skin problems, impaired immune function, and poor wound healing.
4. Obesity: This type of malnutrition is caused by consuming too many calories and not enough nutrients. It can lead to a range of health problems including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
Signs and symptoms of malnutrition can include:
* Weight loss or weight gain
* Fatigue or weakness
* Poor wound healing
* Hair loss
* Skin problems
* Increased infections
* Poor appetite or overeating
* Digestive problems such as diarrhea or constipation
* Impaired immune function
Treatment for malnutrition depends on the underlying cause and may include:
* Dietary changes: Eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods can help to correct nutrient deficiencies.
* Nutritional supplements: In some cases, nutritional supplements such as vitamins or minerals may be recommended to help address specific deficiencies.
* Medical treatment: Certain medical conditions that contribute to malnutrition, such as digestive disorders or infections, may require treatment with medication or other interventions.
Prevention is key, and there are several steps you can take to help prevent malnutrition:
* Eat a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods.
* Avoid restrictive diets or fad diets that limit specific food groups.
* Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption, which can interfere with nutrient absorption and lead to malnutrition.
* Maintain a healthy weight through a combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise.
It is important to note that malnutrition can be subtle and may not always be easily recognizable. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing malnutrition, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
The condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern, meaning that the gene for G6PD deficiency is located on the X chromosome and affects males more frequently than females. Females may also be affected but typically have milder symptoms or may be carriers of the condition without experiencing any symptoms themselves.
G6PD deficiency can be caused by mutations in the G6PD gene, which can lead to a reduction in the amount of functional enzyme produced. The severity of the condition depends on the specific nature of the mutation and the degree to which it reduces the activity of the enzyme.
Symptoms of G6PD deficiency may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the condition can lead to hemolytic anemia, which is characterized by the premature destruction of red blood cells. This can be triggered by certain drugs, infections, or foods that contain high levels of oxalic acid or other oxidizing agents.
Diagnosis of G6PD deficiency typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment is focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications through dietary modifications, medications, and avoidance of triggers such as certain drugs or infections.
Overall, G6PD deficiency is a relatively common genetic disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for this condition is important for ensuring appropriate care and management for individuals affected by it.
Examples of hematologic diseases include:
1. Anemia - a condition where there are not enough red blood cells or hemoglobin in the body.
2. Leukemia - a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood, causing an overproduction of immature white blood cells.
3. Lymphoma - a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, including the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes.
4. Thalassemia - a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia and other complications.
5. Sickle cell disease - a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, causing red blood cells to become sickle-shaped and prone to breaking down.
6. Polycythemia vera - a rare disorder where there is an overproduction of red blood cells.
7. Myelodysplastic syndrome - a condition where the bone marrow produces abnormal blood cells that do not mature properly.
8. Myeloproliferative neoplasms - a group of conditions where the bone marrow produces excessive amounts of blood cells, including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis.
9. Deep vein thrombosis - a condition where a blood clot forms in a deep vein, often in the leg or arm.
10. Pulmonary embolism - a condition where a blood clot travels to the lungs and blocks a blood vessel, causing shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms.
These are just a few examples of hematologic diseases, but there are many others that can affect the blood and bone marrow. Treatment options for these diseases can range from watchful waiting and medication to surgery, chemotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of hematologic disease, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.
The term "reticulocytosis" is derived from the Latin words "reticulum," meaning net-like, and "cytosis," meaning the condition of cells. This refers to the characteristic net-like appearance of reticulocytes under a microscope.
There are several possible causes of reticulocytosis, including:
1. Inherited disorders such as hereditary elliptocytosis, hereditary spherocytosis, and pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency.
2. Acquired disorders such as hemolytic anemia, thalassemia, and sickle cell disease.
3. Infections such as malaria, dengue fever, and babesiosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, chemotherapy drugs, and anti-inflammatory medications.
5. Other conditions such as chronic kidney disease, liver disease, and autoimmune disorders.
Reticulocytosis can be diagnosed through a blood test called a complete blood count (CBC) or a reticulocyte count. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in other cases, medication or blood transfusions may be required.
1. Leukemia: A type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells.
2. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the immune system, often involving the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues.
3. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells.
4. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): A group of disorders characterized by the impaired development of blood cells in the bone marrow.
5. Osteopetrosis: A rare genetic disorder that causes an overgrowth of bone, leading to a thickened bone marrow.
6. Bone marrow failure: A condition where the bone marrow is unable to produce enough blood cells, leading to anemia, infection, and other complications.
7. Myelofibrosis: A condition characterized by the scarring of the bone marrow, which can lead to an overproduction of blood cells and an increased risk of bleeding and infection.
8. Polycythemia vera: A rare blood disorder that causes an overproduction of red blood cells, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and other complications.
9. Essential thrombocythemia: A rare blood disorder that causes an overproduction of platelets, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and other complications.
10. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs): A group of rare blood disorders that are characterized by the overproduction of blood cells and an increased risk of bleeding and infection.
These are just a few examples of bone marrow diseases. There are many other conditions that can affect the bone marrow, and each one can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have a bone marrow disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can perform tests and provide a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.
Sickle cell trait is relatively common in certain populations, such as people of African, Mediterranean, or Middle Eastern descent. It is estimated that about 1 in 12 African Americans carry the sickle cell gene, and 1 in 500 are homozygous for the trait (meaning they have two copies of the sickle cell gene).
Although people with sickle cell trait do not develop sickle cell anemia, they can experience certain complications related to the trait. For example, they may experience episodes of hemolytic crisis, which is a condition in which red blood cells are destroyed faster than they can be replaced. This can occur under certain conditions, such as dehydration or infection.
There are several ways that sickle cell trait can affect an individual's life. For example, some people with the trait may experience discrimination or stigma based on their genetic status. Additionally, individuals with sickle cell trait may be more likely to experience certain health problems, such as kidney disease or eye damage, although these risks are generally low.
There is no cure for sickle cell trait, but it can be managed through proper medical care and self-care. Individuals with the trait should work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their health and address any complications that arise.
Overall, sickle cell trait is a relatively common genetic condition that can have significant implications for an individual's life. It is important for individuals with the trait to understand their risk factors and take steps to manage their health and well-being.
In healthy individuals, the normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. In thrombocytosis, the platelet count is significantly higher than this range, often above 600,000 platelets/μL.
Thrombocytosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Bone marrow disorders: Disorders such as essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis can lead to an overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow.
2. Infection: Sepsis and other infections can cause a temporary increase in platelet production.
3. Inflammation: Certain inflammatory conditions, such as appendicitis and pancreatitis, can also lead to thrombocytosis.
4. Cancer: Some types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, can cause an overproduction of platelets.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as estrogens and corticosteroids, can increase platelet production.
Thrombocytosis can lead to a range of complications, including:
1. Blood clots: The excessive number of platelets in the blood can increase the risk of blood clots forming in the veins and arteries.
2. Pulmonary embolism: If a blood clot forms in the lungs, it can cause a pulmonary embolism, which can be life-threatening.
3. Stroke: Thrombocytosis can increase the risk of stroke, especially if there are existing risk factors such as high blood pressure or a history of cardiovascular disease.
4. Heart attack and heart failure: Excessive platelet activity can increase the risk of heart attack and heart failure.
5. Gastrointestinal bleeding: The increased number of platelets in the blood can make it more difficult to control bleeding, especially in the gastrointestinal tract.
Thrombocytosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as:
1. Complete blood count (CBC): This test measures the number of platelets in the blood, as well as other components such as red and white blood cells.
2. Blood smear: A sample of blood is examined under a microscope to assess the shape and size of the platelets.
3. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: These tests involve removing a small sample of bone marrow tissue to examine the number and type of cells present.
4. Imaging studies: Imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to look for evidence of blood clots or other complications.
Treatment for thrombocytosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:
1. Medications: Drugs such as aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners may be used to reduce the risk of blood clots and other complications.
2. Plateletpheresis: This is a procedure in which the patient's blood is removed and the platelets are separated from the rest of the blood components. The remaining blood is then returned to the body.
3. Splenectomy: In some cases, surgical removal of the spleen may be necessary to treat thrombocytosis.
4. Chemotherapy: This is a treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells, which can cause thrombocytosis in some cases.
Overall, it is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of thrombocytosis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
The symptoms of RCPA can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include:
* Severe anemia
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Increased risk of bleeding
Diagnosis of RCPA typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including blood counts, genetic analysis, and bone marrow aspiration. Treatment for RCPA may involve blood transfusions, iron chelation therapy, and in some cases, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
The prognosis for RCPA is generally poor, with a high risk of bleeding and death in early childhood if left untreated. However, with timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment, patients with RCPA can have a good quality of life and a normal lifespan.
The condition is caused by sensitization of the mother's immune system to the Rh factor, which can occur when the mother's blood comes into contact with the fetus's blood during pregnancy or childbirth. The antibodies produced by the mother's immune system can attack the red blood cells of the fetus, leading to hemolytic anemia and potentially causing stillbirth or death in the newborn.
Erythroblastosis fetalis is diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of antibodies against the Rh factor. Treatment typically involves the administration of Rh immune globulin, which can help to prevent the mother's immune system from producing more antibodies against the Rh factor and reduce the risk of complications for the fetus. In severe cases, a blood transfusion may be necessary to increase the newborn's red blood cell count.
Erythroblastosis fetalis is a serious condition that requires close monitoring and proper medical management to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.
Types of Kidney Diseases:
1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): A sudden and reversible loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, infection, or medication.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function that can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): A severe and irreversible form of CKD that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
4. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products.
5. Interstitial Nephritis: An inflammation of the tissue between the tubules and blood vessels in the kidneys.
6. Kidney Stone Disease: A condition where small, hard mineral deposits form in the kidneys and can cause pain, bleeding, and other complications.
7. Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that can cause inflammation, damage to the tissues, and scarring.
8. Renal Cell Carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney.
9. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A condition where the immune system attacks the platelets and red blood cells, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and damage to the kidneys.
Symptoms of Kidney Diseases:
1. Blood in urine or hematuria
2. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
3. Reduced kidney function or renal insufficiency
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema)
5. Fatigue and weakness
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Frequent urination or polyuria
9. Increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
10. Weight loss
Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases:
1. Physical examination
2. Medical history
3. Urinalysis (test of urine)
4. Blood tests (e.g., creatinine, urea, electrolytes)
5. Imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound)
6. Kidney biopsy
7. Other specialized tests (e.g., 24-hour urinary protein collection, kidney function tests)
Treatment of Kidney Diseases:
1. Medications (e.g., diuretics, blood pressure medication, antibiotics)
2. Diet and lifestyle changes (e.g., low salt intake, increased water intake, physical activity)
3. Dialysis (filtering waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly)
4. Kidney transplantation ( replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one)
5. Other specialized treatments (e.g., plasmapheresis, hemodialysis)
Prevention of Kidney Diseases:
1. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar levels
3. Avoiding harmful substances (e.g., tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption)
4. Managing underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure)
5. Getting regular check-ups and screenings
Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases can help prevent or slow the progression of the disease, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of kidney diseases and seek medical attention if they are present.
Neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease
Neonatal red cell transfusion
Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-Kell)
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-RhE)
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-Rhc)
Anemia in pregnancy
Nutrition and pregnancy
Diffuse neonatal hemangiomatosis
Health in Bangladesh
Women in Ghana
Thyroid disease in pregnancy
List of dog diseases
Diseases of poverty
List of diseases (C)
Sexual and reproductive health
National Health Mission
Health in India
LAC+USC Medical Center
History and culture of breastfeeding
Mercury regulation in the United States
List of OMIM disorder codes
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- Progressive hemolytic anemia. (ivis.org)
- [ 1 , 2 ] It is also one of the most common causes of hemolytic anemia due to membrane defect. (medscape.com)
- Clinically, HS shows marked heterogeneity, ranging from an asymptomatic condition to fulminant hemolytic anemia. (medscape.com)
- Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a comprehensive and cost-effective approach to molecular diagnosis of hereditary hemolytic anemia, especially in cases where biochemical testing is unreliable due to multiple transfusions. (karger.com)
- This can cause hemolytic anemia in certain conditions. (mountsinai.org)
- Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP, congenital or acquired) is a rare form of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) characterized by thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) associated with a range of clinical findings related to end-organ damage. (pathologyoutlines.com)
- As described in this case of the week, patients with congenital TTP (Upshaw-Schulman syndrome) typically present shortly after birth or early in the neonatal period with a range of clinical findings, which may include hemolytic anemia with fragmentation of erythrocytes, thrombocytopenia, diffuse and non-focal neurologic findings, decreased renal function and fever. (pathologyoutlines.com)
- Neonatal jaundice and liver disease. (nih.gov)
- Treatments for neonatal morbidities , such as retinopathy or prematurity and jaundice. (nih.gov)
- Her mother has had jaundice, anemia, and splenomegaly for 17 years. (karger.com)
- There was no significant family medical history, specifically no known history of jaundice, anemia or hematological disorders. (pathologyoutlines.com)
- A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Pilot Neonatal Screening Program for Sickle Cell Anemia in the Republic of Angola. (bvsalud.org)
- To assess the cost - effectiveness of a pilot newborn screening (NBS) and treatment program for sickle cell anemia (SCA) in Luanda, Angola . (bvsalud.org)
- In the city of Kisangani, in the Tshopo province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, identifying difficulties in access to care will help guide interventions to fight sickle cell anemia. (who.int)
- The cost of care associated with sickle cell anemia is unaffordable for 93.6% of participants. (who.int)
- Iron overload can occur in patients with underlying disease states especially those that require blood transfusions including β-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia and other congenital anemias and often with cancer treatment. (pediatriceducation.org)
- It is important to note that neonatal screening and intrauterine diagnosis cannot detect all possible hereditary diseases and not all diseases can be treated successfully if detected. (lakhasly.com)
- Maternal anaemia has become one of the world's major health concerns and it is linked to negative maternal and foetal outcomes such as Maternal and perinatal mortality rates, premature birth, low birth weight, and certain anomalies have all increased. (ejmcm.com)
- The prevention and control of anaemia is one of the key strategies of the Health, Nutrition and Population Sector Programme for reducing maternal, neonatal and childhood mortality and improving maternal and childhood nutrition. (who.int)
- This precipitates mortality and morbidity not only during neonatal period but also in infancy and childhood (1). (pediatriconcall.com)
- ABSTRACT Maternal anaemia is a common problem in pregnancy, particularly in developing countries. (who.int)
- We investigated the relationship between maternal anaemia and perinatal outcome in a cohort of 629 pregnant women from October 2001 to 2002. (who.int)
- However, the extent · singleton pregnancy to which maternal anaemia affects maternal · had complete medical records of the and neonatal health is still uncertain. (who.int)
- Neonatal prevalence is approximately 1 case per 1,000. (medscape.com)
- 3 According to the Nutrition Impact Model Study's 2011 estimates, the worldwide prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women was 38% (95% confidence interval 33% to 43%), translating into 32 (28 to 36) million pregnant women globally. (bmj.com)
- Formed in 1986 through NICHD's Pregnancy and Perinatology Branch , the NRN is a collaborative network of neonatal intensive care units across the United States. (nih.gov)
- CONCLUSION: According to WHO data from 2018, anaemia in pregnancy affects 65-75% of pregnant women in India. (ejmcm.com)
- In future, With the help of national health programme we should aim in reduction of incidence of anemia in pregnancy and their detrimental effect on new born. (ejmcm.com)
- The effects of anaemia tal care, height and weight were recorded on pregnancy outcome in Pakistan have not at each antenatal visit and haemoglobin lev- been evaluated systematically in random- el was measured at the first antenatal visit, ized, prospective intervention trials that in- at 28 to 32 weeks, at 33 to 37 weeks and in clude a sufficient number of iron-deficient labour. (who.int)
- 1 2 It is the most common cause of anaemia during pregnancy. (bmj.com)
- Clinical presentation is variable, ranging from asymptomatic to severe form of anemia, and can be exacerbated by pregnancy, sudden blood loss, or superimposed infection, i.e., parvovirus that targets the erythroid precursors. (karger.com)
- To study the effect of multimicronutrient supplementation to malnourished pregnant women on the birth weight and early neonatal outcome. (pediatriconcall.com)
- Prenatal marijuana use and neonatal outcome. (nature.com)
- So, the current study was carried out with the objectives of comparing the birth weight and early neonatal outcome (during the first week of life) in neonates born to malnourished women administered micronutrient supplementation vs. placebo. (pediatriconcall.com)
- In malaria-endemic areas, severe malarial anemia is the major form of acute disease in young children. (nih.gov)
- A 2011 Cochrane Collaboration review and the World Health Organization both recommend treating patients for iron deficiency anemia with iron supplementation in malaria-endemic areas. (pediatriceducation.org)
- Excessive blood draws can result in anemia and require corrective transfusions in critically ill pediatric/neonatal patients. (nih.gov)
- This technology has been used successfully to determine the molecular basis of HS in complex scenarios, i.e., autosomal recessive with lack of family history or in neonatal period with severe anemia leading to multiple transfusions [ 5 ]. (karger.com)
- Anaemia, prenatal iron. (bmj.com)
- Neonatal isoerythrolysis (N.I.) is an immune-mediated hemolytic disorder of newborn foals due to absorption of colostral immunoglobulins which contain antibodies against red cell antigens inherited from the stallion. (ivis.org)
- Anaemia affects the lives of millions of children, adolescents and women in Bangladesh today. (who.int)
- Focused on newborns, particularly extremely preterm and low birth rate (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, the NRN facilitates the advancement of neonatal care by establishing a network of academic centers that, by rigorous patient evaluation using common protocols, can study the required numbers of patients and can provide answers more rapidly than individual centers acting alone. (nih.gov)
- The prevention of anemia in premature infants: the role of recombinant human erythropoietin in a level III neonatology department]. (nih.gov)
- These infants are at high risk for anemia because of their early stage of development, reduced ability to produce red blood cells, and need for blood sampling as part of their intensive medical care. (nih.gov)
- We consider many possibilities beyond primary ITP e.g., hypogammaglobulinemia, chronic infection, and anemia, and how to approach their diagnosis and management. (haematologica.org)
- Moreover, the diagnosis can be challenging in the neonatal period due to unreliability of biochemical tests like osmotic fragility and eosin-5′ maleimide if age-appropriate controls are not used. (karger.com)
- The new intern wasn't sure how to manage the diagnosis of anemia and asked about how much iron to prescribe. (pediatriceducation.org)
- The hemoglobin for 100 anemic mother and hemoglobin of 100 non anemic mother was considered and it was correlated with neonatal outcomes such as gestational age at birth and birth weight. (ejmcm.com)
- Anemia is a common problem in pediatrics with an estimated 25% of school age children worldwide being anemic. (pediatriceducation.org)
- Women with a past history of preterm livery and adverse outcomes [ 5 ] while delivery, obstetric complications or medical others have not found a significant associa- illnesses, except anaemia, were excluded. (who.int)
- In July 1998, a 76-year-old patient with multiple myeloma, chronic renal insuffi- ciency, anemia, and thrombocytopenia was hospitalized in Pennsylvania for hip re- placement. (cdc.gov)
- Complete blood counts show mild anemia (hemoglobin 10.2 g/dL) and thrombocytopenia with a platelet count of 5x10 9 /L The internist sends her urgently to the emergency room concerned that she might possibly have leukemia. (haematologica.org)
- Some patients, who later on develop only mild or moderate anemia, can present with severe transfusion-dependent anemia in the neonatal period due to ineffective erythropoiesis as well as increased splenic function immediately after birth [ 1 ]. (karger.com)
- Congenital and Perinatal Rare Disease Clinical Research Consortium relates protocols on acute flaccid myelitis, neonatal enterovirus, cytomegalovirus infections or their treatments. (usf.edu)
- Hemolytic anemias: red blood cell membrane and metabolic defects. (mountsinai.org)
- The most common type of anemia in childhood is iron deficiency commonly caused by inadequate stores (e.g. premature infant), inadequate intake (e.g. poor nutrition) or blood loss (e.g. menses). (pediatriceducation.org)
- This FOA encourages applications to develop microfluidic devices to analyze blood for factors related to the thrombotic, transfusion, and/or hemostatic status of pediatric/neonatal patients. (nih.gov)
- Use of these devices could significantly reduce levels of phlebotomy-induced blood loss in pediatric/neonatal patients. (nih.gov)
- The objective of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to support the development of microfluidic devices to evaluate blood of pediatric/neonatal patients. (nih.gov)
- As a result, these critical blood evaluations may not be performed, or are performed infrequently in pediatric/neonatal patients due to the risk of depleting their limited blood volumes. (nih.gov)
- Obstetricians were most frequently involved with neonatal patients. (thedoctors.com)
- The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation. (nih.gov)
- BACKGROUND: Anemia is the world's most common nutritional deficiency disorder. (ejmcm.com)
- Analysis of cohort studies showed a significantly higher risk of low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio 1.29, 1.09 to 1.53) and preterm birth (1.21, 1.13 to 1.30) with anaemia in the first or second trimester. (bmj.com)
- MPBS has observed that malaria infection increases the risk of stillbirth and preterm delivery in primigravidae, and early neonatal death in multigravidae. (nih.gov)
- The capability of microfluidic devices to analyze small volumes of whole blood or sera makes this technology ideally suited to a variety of clinical applications, particularly those involving pediatric/neonatal subjects for whom sample size and sampling frequency must necessarily be limited. (nih.gov)
- Anaemia is a pervasive problem among children and women in Bangladesh. (who.int)
- Anaemia is a widespread public health problem in Bangladesh, affecting the lives of 27 million children, adolescents and women. (who.int)
- Anaemia is a serious public health problem amongst children and women in Bangladesh, and calls for urgent action among for all concerned. (who.int)
- I am confident that if the comprehensive actions identified in National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Anaemia are fully implemented, children and women in Bangladesh will be better protected from this public health problem. (who.int)
- Guided by this document, the government will co-ordinate actions by all stakeholders for the prevention and control of anaemia in Bangladesh. (who.int)
- In this cohort study, the association of mul- a major public health problem especially tiple effects of anaemia on perinatal out- among poorer segments of the population come were studied among the pregnant in developing countries such as India, Paki- women attending the Obstetrics Depart- stan and Bangladesh [ 1 ]. (who.int)
- Based on the result of above study it can be said that multi-micronutrient supplementation to malnourished women reduces the risk of Low birth weight (LBW) and early neonatal morbidity. (pediatriconcall.com)
- I am pleased that the 'National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Anaemia' has been developed to identify the strategies and comprehensive actions needed to eliminate this serious obstacle to survival, health and development. (who.int)
- The prevention and control of anaemia requires a coordinated response among multiple stakeholders and partners, and I request that they all come forward to support interventions in line with the National Strategy. (who.int)
- Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Anaemia provides a guide for all stakeholders and partners on how policy makers, health professionals, employers, community members and families can take action to prevent and control anaemia. (who.int)
- The National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Anaemia lays out the strategies, actions and roles of all stakeholders and partners in addressing this important public health problem. (who.int)
- The findings come from the Transfusion of Prematures (TOP) trial, which was conducted at 41 neonatal intensive care units across the United States. (nih.gov)
- It now appears that several nutrient factors including both the macronutrients and micronutrients may be deficient in mothers and children of developing countries which can have adverse effects on the mothers also like anemia, hypertension, complications of labor (more oxidative stress) and even death. (pediatriconcall.com)
- Iron use increased maternal mean haemoglobin concentration by 4.59 (95% confidence interval 3.72 to 5.46) g/L compared with controls and significantly reduced the risk of anaemia (relative risk 0.50, 0.42 to 0.59), iron deficiency (0.59, 0.46 to 0.79), iron deficiency anaemia (0.40, 0.26 to 0.60), and low birth weight (0.81, 0.71 to 0.93). (bmj.com)
- Neonatal screening is a type of medical screening that is performed on newborns. (lakhasly.com)
- OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the effect of maternal anemia with new born's birth weight, and gestational age at delivery. (ejmcm.com)
- After discussion with her attending physician, they decided that this presumably was iron deficiency anemia, and they would treat with supplemental iron for 1 month and then followup with repeat labs including a reticulocyte count. (pediatriceducation.org)
- Anemia screening is recommended at age 9-12 months, and in adolescent males and females during routine health examinations. (pediatriceducation.org)
- Prior re- delivery and the data from the interview search in Pakistan has documented iron and medical records were recorded on a deficiency as the leading cause of anaemia pre-designed questionnaire. (who.int)
- 6 ] reported a novel ankyrin mutation using NGS and have reviewed the relevant literature focusing on the pediatric/neonatal population. (karger.com)
- At the time of delivery, birth weights, neonatal anthropometry, were recorded and the babies were followed up for 7 days for complication. (pediatriconcall.com)