Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Anemia, Hemolytic: A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).Fanconi Anemia: Congenital disorder affecting all bone marrow elements, resulting in ANEMIA; LEUKOPENIA; and THROMBOPENIA, and associated with cardiac, renal, and limb malformations as well as dermal pigmentary changes. Spontaneous CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE is a feature of this disease along with predisposition to LEUKEMIA. There are at least 7 complementation groups in Fanconi anemia: FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, and FANCL. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=227650, August 20, 2004)Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Anemia, Pernicious: A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Anemia, Sideroblastic: Anemia characterized by the presence of erythroblasts containing excessive deposits of iron in the marrow.Anemia, Megaloblastic: A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Anemia, Refractory: A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy.Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital: Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.Equine Infectious Anemia: Viral disease of horses caused by the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV; INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS, EQUINE). It is characterized by intermittent fever, weakness, and anemia. Chronic infection consists of acute episodes with remissions.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Chicken anemia virus: The type species of GYROVIRUS, a small, non-enveloped DNA virus originally isolated from contaminated vaccines in Japan. It causes chicken infectious anemia and may possibly play a key role in hemorrhagic anemia syndrome, anemia dermatitis, and blue wing disease.Anemia, Dyserythropoietic, Congenital: A familial disorder characterized by ANEMIA with multinuclear ERYTHROBLASTS, karyorrhexis, asynchrony of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, and various nuclear abnormalities of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors (ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS). Type II is the most common of the 3 types; it is often referred to as HEMPAS, based on the Hereditary Erythroblast Multinuclearity with Positive Acidified Serum test.Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan: A rare congenital hypoplastic anemia that usually presents early in infancy. The disease is characterized by a moderate to severe macrocytic anemia, occasional neutropenia or thrombocytosis, a normocellular bone marrow with erythroid hypoplasia, and an increased risk of developing leukemia. (Curr Opin Hematol 2000 Mar;7(2):85-94)Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins: A diverse group of proteins whose genetic MUTATIONS have been associated with the chromosomal instability syndrome FANCONI ANEMIA. Many of these proteins play important roles in protecting CELLS against OXIDATIVE STRESS.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Anemia, Neonatal: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts: Chronic refractory anemia with granulocytopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Myeloblasts and progranulocytes constitute 5 to 40 percent of the nucleated marrow cells.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that regulates the activities of CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE and GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE. It is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM, but moves to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to FANCE PROTEIN.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that undergoes mono-ubiquitination by FANCL PROTEIN in response to DNA DAMAGE. Also, in response to IONIZING RADIATION it can undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein. Modified FANCD2 interacts with BRCA2 PROTEIN in a stable complex with CHROMATIN, and it is involved in DNA REPAIR by homologous RECOMBINATION.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group A Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that is the most commonly mutated protein in FANCONI ANEMIA. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by PROTEIN KINASE B and forms a complex with FANCC PROTEIN in the CELL NUCLEUS.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital Nonspherocytic: Any one of a group of congenital hemolytic anemias in which there is no abnormal hemoglobin or spherocytosis and in which there is a defect of glycolysis in the erythrocyte. Common causes include deficiencies in GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE; PYRUVATE KINASE; and GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE.Pallor: A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group G Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE during MITOSIS. It forms a complex with other FANCONI ANEMIA PROTEINS and helps protect CELLS from DNA DAMAGE by genotoxic agents.Coombs Test: A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Erythrocytes, Abnormal: Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Isavirus: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE containing one species: Infectious salmon anemia virus.Pancytopenia: Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group F Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein. It is an essential component of a nuclear core complex that protects the GENOME against CHROMOSOMAL INSTABILITY. It interacts directly with FANCG PROTEIN and helps stabilize a complex with FANCA PROTEIN and FANCC PROTEIN.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group E Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that interacts with FANCC PROTEIN and FANCD2 PROTEIN. It promotes the accumulation of FANCC protein in the CELL NUCLEUS.Fetal Hemoglobin: The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.Erythroblasts: Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.Osmotic Fragility: RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Heinz Bodies: Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Hemoglobinopathies: A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Intrinsic Factor: A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.alpha-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.Spherocytosis, Hereditary: A group of familial congenital hemolytic anemias characterized by numerous abnormally shaped erythrocytes which are generally spheroidal. The erythrocytes have increased osmotic fragility and are abnormally permeable to sodium ions.Rh Isoimmunization: The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Antisickling Agents: Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.Parvovirus B19, Human: The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Hemoglobins, Abnormal: Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal: A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Hematologic Diseases: Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Reticulocytosis: An increase in circulating RETICULOCYTES, which is among the simplest and most reliable signs of accelerated ERYTHROCYTE production. Reticulocytosis occurs during active BLOOD regeneration (stimulation of red bone marrow) and in certain types of ANEMIA, particularly CONGENITAL HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Bone Marrow DiseasesHematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine: In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.5-Aminolevulinate Synthetase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC 2.3.1.37.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Thrombocytosis: Increased numbers of platelets in the peripheral blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Oxymetholone: A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties. It is used mainly in the treatment of anemias. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002), this compound may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hemoglobin E: An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. It is most frequently observed in southeast Asian populations.Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure: Suppression of erythropoiesis with little or no abnormality of leukocyte or platelet production.Glucaric Acid: A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Erythroblastosis, Fetal: A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.

Diagnosing anaemia in pregnancy in rural clinics: assessing the potential of the Haemoglobin Colour Scale. (1/4177)

Anaemia in pregnancy is a common and severe problem in many developing countries. Because of lack of resources and staff motivation, screening for anaemia is often solely by clinical examination of the conjunctiva or is not carried out at all. A new colour scale for the estimation of haemoglobin concentration has been developed by WHO. The present study compares the results obtained using the new colour scale on 729 women visiting rural antenatal clinics in Malawi with those obtained by HemoCue haemoglobinometer and electronic Coulter Counter and with the assessment of anaemia by clinical examination of the conjunctiva. Sensitivity using the colour scale was consistently better than for conjunctival inspection alone and interobserver agreement and agreement with Coulter Counter measurements was good. The Haemoglobin Colour Scale is simple to use, well accepted, cheap and gives immediate results. It shows considerable potential for use in screening for anaemia in antenatal clinics in settings where resources are limited.  (+info)

'Common' uncommon anemias. (2/4177)

Of the uncommon anemias, "common" types include the anemia of renal disease, thalassemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and the anemia of chronic disease. These conditions may be suggested by the clinical presentation, laboratory test values and peripheral blood smear, or by failure of the anemia to respond to iron supplements or nutrient replacement. The principal cause of the anemia of renal disease is a decreased production of red blood cells related to a relative deficiency of erythropoietin. When treatment is required, erythropoietin is administered, often with iron supplementation. In the anemia of chronic disease, impaired iron transport decreases red blood cell production. Treatment is predominantly directed at the underlying condition. Since iron stores are usually normal, iron administration is not beneficial. Thalassemia minor results from a congenital abnormality of hemoglobin synthesis. The disorder may masquerade as mild iron deficiency anemia, but iron therapy and transfusions are often not indicated. In the myelodysplastic syndrome, blood cell components fail to mature, and the condition may progress to acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. The rate of progression depends on the subtype of myelodysplasia, but the leukemia is usually resistant to therapy.  (+info)

Anaemia in the patient with renal insufficiency: documenting the impact and reviewing treatment strategies. (3/4177)

This paper attempts to present a context in which nephrologists can re-evaluate definitions of acceptable haemoglobin levels in renal populations, and re-examine previous notions about the impact of relative and absolute anaemia on patients with progressive renal insufficiency. Also, the nephrology community needs to examine rigorously treatment strategies aimed at reversing anaemia specifically in this population. Data are presented to support the notion that anaemia is disadvantageous to the patients with progressive renal insufficiency, and does need to be treated. The ongoing poor prognosis of patients receiving renal replacement therapy may well be due to our previous inattention to this correctable cause of morbidity early in the course of progressive renal disease. Long-term studies addressing these important clinical issues need to be supported, and evaluated within both immediate and future economic implications.  (+info)

Kleine-Levin and Munchausen syndromes in a patient with recurrent acromegaly. (4/4177)

Hypothalamic disease often affects the patients' personality and this also applies to pituitary tumors with suprasellar extension. We report on a patient with a 12-year history of recurrent acromegaly, treated with three transphenoidal operations, single field radiation therapy and bromocriptine/octreotide administration. During the course of follow-up she presented with self-inflicted anemia and Kleine-Levin syndrome (hypersomnia, hyperphagia and hypersexuality). Furthermore, she developed post-radiation necrosis within the right temporal lobe. Whether her neurological and personality disorders result - at least partially - from the acromegaly or the temporal lobe necrosis remains unclear.  (+info)

Decreased lactic acidosis and anemia after transfusion of o-raffinose cross-linked and polymerized hemoglobin in severe murine malaria. (5/4177)

Severe anemia is a major cause of death in falciparum malaria. Blood transfusion increases survival in humans and in animal models of this disease. Because of logistic constraints and viral contamination of the blood supply, transfusions are frequently not practical in endemic regions. Modified hemoglobin is an effective O2 carrier in hemorrhagic shock. It is free of infectious contamination, may not require refrigeration, and because of its nitric oxide scavenging and small size, may have pharmacologic benefits in malaria. The effects of transfusions of modified hemoglobin in rats with high-grade parasitemia were evaluated. Modified hemoglobin decreased lactic acidosis and corrected anemia as well as transfusions with red blood cells; these findings may correlate with improved survival and suggest a possible proerythropoietic effect. Further study of this novel therapy is warranted.  (+info)

Regional left ventricular dysfunction in a patient with severe prolonged anemia. (6/4177)

A 47-year-old woman with severe prolonged anemia developed heart failure. After treatment of the heart failure and anemia, she showed regional dysfunction of the left ventricular wall and myocardial fatty acid metabolism was disturbed in these sites. Coronary arteriography showed normal images. It took about 4 months to recover both left ventricular wall motion and fatty acid metabolism. Prolonged decrease of oxygen supply to the myocardium, which is caused by severe prolonged anemia, seemed to affect the myocardial function in this case, which could be another model of anemia-related myocardial dysfunction.  (+info)

Treatment of multiple myeloma. (7/4177)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Multiple myeloma (MM) accounts for about 10% of all hematologic malignancies. The standard treatment with intermittent courses of melphalan and prednisone (MP) was introduced more than 30 years ago and, since then there has been little improvement in event-free and overall survival (EFS & OS). The aim of this article is to review: 1) the role of initial chemotherapy (ChT), maintenance treatment with alpha-interferon and salvage ChT, 2) the results of high-dose therapy (HDT) followed by allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT and auto-SCT), and 3) the most important supportive measures. EVIDENCE AND INFORMATION SOURCES: The authors of this review have been actively working and contributing with original investigations on the treatment of MM during the last 15 years. In addition, the most relevant articles and recent abstracts published in journals covered by the Science Citation Index and Medline are also reviewed. STATE OF THE ART AND PERSPECTIVES: The importance of avoiding ChT in asymptomatic patients (smoldering MM) is emphasized. The criteria and patterns of response are reviewed. MP is still the standard initial ChT with a response rate of 50-60% and an OS of 2-3 years. Combination ChT usually increases the response rate but does not significantly influence survival when compared with MP. Exposure to melphalan should be avoided in patients in whom HDT followed by auto-SCT is planned, in order to not preclude the stem cell collection. The median response duration to initial ChT is 18 months. Interferon maintenance usually prolongs response duration but in most studies does not significantly influence survival (a large meta-analysis by the Myeloma Trialists' Collaborative Group in Oxford is being finished). In alkylating-resistant patients, the best rescue regimens are VBAD or VAD. In patients already resistant to VBAD or VAD and in those in whom these treatments are not feasible we recommend a conservative approach with alternate day prednisone and pulse cyclophosphamide. While HDT followed by autotransplantation is not recommended for patients with resistant relapse, patients with primary refractory disease seem to benefit from early myeloablative therapy. Although results from large randomized trials are still pending in order to establish whether early HDT intensification followed by auto-SCT is superior to continuing standard ChT in responding patients, the favorable experience with autotransplantation of the French Myeloma Intergroup supports this approach. However, although the complete response rate is higher with intensive therapy, the median duration of response is relatively short (median, 16 to 36 months), with no survival plateau. There are several ongoing trials comparing conventional ChT with HDT/autoSCT in order to identify the patients who are likely to benefit from one or another approach. With allo-SCT there is a transplant-related mortality ranging from 30 to 50% and also a high relapse rate in patients achieving CR. However, 10 to 20% of patients undergoing allo-SCT are long-term survivors (> 5 years) with no evidence of disease and, consequently, probably cured. The use of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) in order to speed the engraftment and also the use of partially T-cell depleted PBSC which can decrease the incidence of graft-versus-host disease are promising approaches. In the setting of allo-SCT, donor lymphocyte infusion is an encouraging strategy in order to treat or prevent relapses. Finally, important supportive measures such as the treatment of anemia with erythropoietin, the management of renal failure and the use of bisphosphonates are reviewed.  (+info)

Isolation of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) from Atlantic salmon in New Brunswick, Canada. (8/4177)

Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) was isolated at a marine grow-out site in New Brunswick, Canada, from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar which experienced mortalities due to hemorrhagic kidney syndrome (HKS). Of 20 fish sampled in this study, 14 showed histologically various degrees of interstitial hemorrhaging, tubular epithelial degeneration and necrosis, and tubular casts in the posterior kidney, typical of HKS. Posterior kidney and spleen homogenates produced a cytopathic effect on chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cells 10 to 14 d after inoculation. Pleomorphic virus particles in the size range 80 to 120 nm were seen by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed as ISAV using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This is a systematic diagnostic study of the isolation of ISAV on the North American continent and the first description of the growth of ISAV on the CHSE-214 cell line.  (+info)

Normocytic Anemias are a categorization of anemias defined as those anemias which display normal-sized erythrocytes (i.e. Normal Mean Corpuscular Volume or MCV) and low reticulocyte counts. In general, normocytic anemias are caused by failure of the bone marrow to conduct proper hematopoiesis; consequently, normocytic anemias typically occur in the context of an overall pancytopenia. Failure of the bone marrow may be due to inherent defects of the marrow itself as in aplastic anemia and the myelodysplastic syndromes, or may be due to exogenous infiltration of the bone marrow by malignant cells or infectious organisms (myelophthisic anemia ...
February 18, 2010: A $16 million grant from the National Institute on Aging will enable a team of national experts to study why unexplained anemia is so common in older adults and find better treatments. The Partnership for Anemia: Clinical and Translational Trials in the Elderly brings together specialists from seven leading centers to study older adults with unexplained anemia and to use the knowledge gained to develop improved therapies.
Cancer-related anaemia has a number of causes, not least the underlying malignancy itself which plays a role in suppressing erythropoiesis. Anaemia is often exacerbated by cancer treatments, in particular routinely used cytotoxic chemotherapy. Chronic anaemia of cancer is often characterized by inappropriately low levels of endogenous erythropoietin for the degree of anaemia, and manifests clinically with generalized hypoxia and resultant severe fatigue. Epoetin alfa is one recombinant form of erythropoietin, the primary human growth factor responsible for promoting proliferation and survival of erythroid progenitor cells. Epoetin alfa has been widely studied for the treatment of anaemia associated with renal failure and is now recognized as having significant potential in the management of cancer-related anaemia. Studies suggest that epoetin alfa is an effective treatment in a proportion of cancer patients with symptomatic anaemia. It also appears useful for the prevention of ...
chronic anemia - MedHelps chronic anemia Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for chronic anemia. Find chronic anemia information, treatments for chronic anemia and chronic anemia symptoms.
Looking for normochromic erythrocyte? Find out information about normochromic erythrocyte. : see blood blood, fluid pumped by the heart that circulates throughout the body via the arteries, veins, and capillaries . An adult male of average size... Explanation of normochromic erythrocyte
Doctors help you with trusted information about Fibroids in Anemia: Dr. Knecht on can a fibroid tumor cause anemia: Yes, fibroid tumors very commonly cause heavy bleeding and anemia, which can be offset by taking iron and folic acid.
This guest post was written by Elisha of My Health Maven. She is deeply passionate about educating people and empowering them to lead healthier lives. I encourage you to check out her blog.. According to the National Institutes of Healths, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, there are more than 400 types of anemia. Anemia is generally diagnosed by your doctor through family history, physical exam and lab tests.. Anemia is a common blood condition that develops when your blood has a lower than normal number of healthy red blood cells. Anemia can also occur if your red blood cells dont contain enough hemoglobin. Many cases are mild and easily treated with supplements and nutritional changes, while other forms can be severe and life threatening.. It is important to treat anemia, as severe forms of anemia can damage your brain, heart and other organs in your body. Some forms of anemia can be long term and life threatening if not diagnosed and treated.. ...
This review analyzes which people have Hemolytic anemia with Plaquenil. Brand name: Plaquenil. The effects may be increased because of the slower removal of chloroquine from the body. Less common side effects include rash, changes in skin pigment (such as darkening or dark spots), hair changes, and muscle weakness. I have a hysterectomy 5 years ago due to an ovarian mass, so heavy periods are not the culprit View answer Anemia , Anemia due to Malaria Anemia due to Malaria Malaria remains an enormous problem in public health around the world. Find patient medical information for Chloroquine Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings There is no Hemolytic anemia reported by people who take Plaquenil yet. It is created by eHealthMe based on reports from Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and is updated regularly Aralen (chloroquine) is an antimalarial drug used for the treatment of malaria and extraintestinal amebiasis. There are ...
Severe malarial anemia (SMA) is a leading cause of mortality among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the novel cytokine, interleukin (IL)-23, promotes anemia in chronic inflammatory diseases, the role of IL-23 in SMA remains undefined. Since IL-23 and IL-12 share the IL-12p40 subunit and IL-12Rbeta1 receptor, and are down-regulated by IL-10, relationships among these cytokines were explored in Kenyan children with varying severities of malarial anemia. Children with malarial anemia had increased circulating IL-23 and IL-10 and decreased IL-12 relative to healthy controls. Enhanced anemia severity and elevated parasitemia were associated with increased IL-10 relative to IL-23 and IL-12. Further exploration of the relationships among the cytokines using an in vitro model in which peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with synthetic hemozoin (sHz, malarial pigment) revealed that IL-12p35 and IL-23p19 transcripts had a sustained induction over 72 h, while IL-12p40 and IL-10 message ...
By: Louis Faye and Leyla Merlo Anemia OVERVIEW Anemia commonly occurs due to nutritional problems. Anemia is not Sex-Linked, it is Autosomal recessive. Autosomes are any chromosome other than a sex chromosome(X and Y). CAUSES DEMOGRAPHICS Women,teens,the elderly, and people with other types of chronic diseases are at higher risk of becoming anemic.(having anemia) Anemia -a condition due to a lack of hemoglobin/healthy red blood cells in the blood. Anemia can be caused by blood loss, decreased or faulty red blood cell production, and destruction of red blood cells.There are many forms of anemia, each with its own cause. Anemia can be temporary or long term, and ranges from mild to severe. Symptoms range from some fatigue and loss of energy,to unusually rapid heart beat, (particularly with exercise), shortness of breath and headache,(also w/exercise), difficulty concentrating, dizziness, leg cramps,pale skin, and insomnia. SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS You could receive blood tests(CBC count), genetic tests ...
Anemia - Animation Do you feel tired and listless? Do you find your mind drifting during the day? Do you get dizzy or short of breath whenever you climb the stairs? There are a few possible reasons for the way you feel, but you could have anemia. You could even have anemia without noticing any symptoms at all. Anemia is a problem with hemoglobin, a substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body. Without enough hemoglobin, your heart and other organs cant get the oxygen they need to work. When your organs slow down, you slow down and you start feeling tired and listless. Many different health conditions can cause anemia, from heavy blood loss during a womans period, to pregnancy, to an underactive thyroid gland. Healthy red blood cells are made in your bone marrow, the soft tissue in the middle of your bones. Any disease that damages blood marrow, such as lymphoma or leukemia, can also affect your red blood cell production. Anemia can also be caused by an immune system ...
There are various types of disorders that your body can be affected if you have deficiency in proteins, calcium, minerals, iron etc.. Anemia is a disease that is caused due to the lack of red blood cells (RBC) in your body. The liquid made with various cell types is known as blood.. Deficiency of iron, hemoglobin percentage or RBC in the blood leads to anemia.. Red blood cells are the main cells that deliver oxygen to the whole body. If you are suffering with anemia you will have the low blood count and you will be named as anemic.. Anemia can occur due to the loss of red blood cells as production of RBC is slower than it is required and your body can be destroying RBC.. Iron deficiency anemia is the most important anemia that will be seen in the teens. This will occur due to the lack of iron in your blood. This anemia will be mostly seen in teens. Iron deficiency will be caused when the percentage of iron in your body is reduced.. This is the first step that leads to anemia. The continuous iron ...
... is a decrease in the amount of oxygen-carrying substance (hemoglobin) found in red blood cells. Anemia causes weakness, pale skin, and general tiredness (fatigue).. Anemia can be caused by blood loss or bleeding, an increase in the destruction of red blood cells, or a decrease in the production of red blood cells. Types of anemia include iron deficiency anemia, folate deficiency anemia, and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, among others. Each type of anemia is treated differently.. ...
Many types of anemia are diagnosed early by routine blood tests during regular physical exams. If not, anemia may be diagnosed when you describe your symptoms to a doctor. The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history and perform a physical exam. If your symptoms suggest anemia or other blood conditions, you will have a blood test called a complete blood count (CBC). A CBC determines the number of red blood cells and the amount of hemoglobin in your blood. If you have too few red blood cells or too little hemoglobin, you are considered to have anemia. The next task for your doctor is to determining what type of anemia you have and what is causing it. Based on your medical history and your CBC, your doctor may be able to determine the cause. A careful assessment of your dietary intake, medical and surgical history, and bowel function may be helpful. Common causes of nutritional anemia include: ...
Different medical conditions, including anemia, can affect mental health. Anemia is characterized as a health condition involving a deficiency in hemoglobin, which helps red blood cells carry oxygen, according to an article on www.familydoctor.org.. Many women know how it can feel to lose too much blood during their menstrual cycles. Iron deficiency can be caused by heavier periods, and this can lead to anemia in some cases, according to an article on www.familydoctor.org. This type of anemia is referred to as iron deficiency anemia. General mental health symptoms of anemia include fatigue, dizziness, headaches, difficulty thinking and concentrating, according to an article on the National Center for Biotechnology Information website.. Nzinga Harrison, a board-certified physician who specializes in general psychiatry and addiction, said in an email that anemia can have comparable symptoms to some mental health disorders.. "Anemia is one of the most prevalent illnesses in America that has mental ...
Anemia is a common and serious complication in both Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and pregnant women. Anemia has shown to have serious implications for both the mother and her fetus. However, the prevalence of anemia in HIV-infected pregnant women in Cameroon has not been well characterized in the era of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). This study seeks to investigate the correlation between CD4+ count and hemoglobin (Hb) values in pregnant women with HIV infection.. At enrolment, the prevalence of any grade of anemia (Hb , 11 g/dl) was 128(42.2%). The prevalence of anemia was significantly high (p =0.042) in women who were not on treatment 61(49.2%). Moderate grades of anemia 63(20.8%) were common in HIV-infected patients while 3 of the 4 cases of severe grades of anemia were common in patients who were on HAART. The low prevalence of anemia among treated HIV-infected, pregnant women indicate that the treatment of all HIV positive pregnant women at the first ...
Anemia can be caused by a number of things, including:. * Loss like blood. This is one of those no-brainers: if a person loses blood, he loses red blood cells, so if he loses too much blood, hes going to have anemia. Fortunately, this kind about anemia is temporary (unless a guy just keeps on losing blood, in which case there might exist a significant problem that needs to be treated.). * Genetics. Some people are born with inherited conditions, such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, that can affect the bodys ability to universe firm color blood cells. In these instances, the anemia can be long term and lasting, unless lawful treatment is received.. * Autoimmune problems. Sometimes, the body gets its signals mixed up and starts destroying perfectly healthy red blood cells faster than it can create new ones, creating an autoimmune issue.. * Iron deficiency. This is a fairly common cause of anemia. Fagot plays a part in creating hemoglobin, which is the substance in red blood cells that ...
Vitamin deficiency anemia (or megaloblastic [MEG-uh-loh-BLASS-tik] anemia). Low levels of vitamin B12 or folate are the most common causes of this type of anemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia (or pernicious [pur-NISH-us] anemia). This type of anemia happens due to a lack of vitamin B12 in the body. Your body needs vitamin B12 to make red blood cells and to keep your nervous system working normally. This type of anemia occurs most often in people whose bodies are not able to absorb vitamin B12 from food because of an autoimmune disorder. It also can happen because of intestinal problems.. You also can get this type of anemia if the foods you eat dont have enough vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is found in foods that come from animals. Fortified breakfast cereals also have vitamin B12. Folic acid supplements (pills) can treat this type of anemia. But, folic acid cannot treat nerve damage caused by a lack of vitamin B12.. With this type of anemia, your doctor may not realize that youre not getting ...
LONG BEACH, California-Treating anemia can reverse the declines it causes in physical function and quality of life for cancer patients and may have an impact on outcomes of cancer therapy, reported Simon Tchekmedyian, MD. Statistics suggest that anemia and its effects are under-recognized and undertreated, he noted, but barriers to treatment may fall as new therapeutic agents prove to be more effective and can be administered more easily and less frequently. 1
Background: Severe malarial anemia is a major cause of mortality from malaria. Although of enormous relevance, its pathogenesis is largely unknown. Interestingly, the extent of anemia greatly exceeds the loss of erythrocytes due to direct destruction by the pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. Immune response against the parasite is partially mediated through the Fc receptor for immunoglobulin (Ig) G IIa (FcγRIIa, CD32). The presence of an arginine instead of a histdine residue at amino acid position 131 (H131R) in the extracellular domain of FcγRIIa reduces the affinity of the receptor for IgG2 and IgG3 isotypes but increases the binding activity for C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods: In Ghana, West Africa, 2504 children with severe malaria and 2027 matched healthy controls were studied for the FcγRIIaH131R polymorphism in order to ascertain its influence on major manifestations of the disease. The study group included patients with partly overlapping symptoms of severe malaria, among them 1591 ...
There are many different things that can cause anemia. You can rule out different forms of anemia through most blood testing. Given the conditions you have and the medications listed, any of those can be contributing to anemia. Naproxen (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory: NSAID) can cause increased bleeding time and bleeding which can lead to anemia. NSAIDs are often associated with GI bleeding if taken for long periods of time. Methotrexate is an immunosuppressant and has a labeled side effect of aplastic anemia, which is caused from suppression of the bone marrow leading to a decrease in the production of red blood cells. Plaquenil is also associated with aplastic anemia through bone marrow suppression.. In regards to autoimmune diseases - anemia of chronic disease is really common in those with rheumatoid arthritis. Inflammation in chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and many other autoimmune diseases can affect blood production in a number of different ways. Many ...
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: You or someone you care about may have been diagnosed with anemia as a result of chronic kidney disease or CKD. This video will help you understand some of the available treatment options for CKD anemia. Anemia means your blood does not have enough healthy red blood cells to deliver oxygen to the body. Anemia can result from chronic kidney disease. Normally, the kidneys make a hormone called erythropoietin. This hormone helps bone marrow make new red blood cells. When the kidneys are damaged, they dont make enough of this hormone. As a result, bone marrow doesnt make enough red blood cells causing CKD anemia. This means that organs and tissues may not work as well as they should. Treatment options for CKD anemia may include one or more of the following: an erythropoietin stimulating agent, iron, and a blood transfusion. An erythropoietin stimulating agent or ESA helps your bone marrow make new red blood cells. Another treatment option is iron. Your doctor may prescribe
Anaemia commonly occurs in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, often necessitating blood transfusion. This multicentre study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of epoetin alpha in preventing the decline in haemoglobin (Hb) level, and to determine whether the transfusion requirement could be reduced, in patients receiving 4-6 cycles of primarily platinum-based combination cyclic chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A total of 130 non-anaemic SCLC patients were randomized to receive no additional treatment (n = 44), epoetin alpha 150 IU kg(-1) subcutaneously (s.c.) three times a week (n = 42) or 300 IU kg(-1) s.c. three times a week (n = 44). Reductions in epoetin alpha dosage were made during the study if Hb level increased to ,15 g dl(-1). The mean weekly dosage was 335 and 612 IU kg(-1), respectively, in the two active treatment groups. Significantly fewer (P , 0.05) epoetin alpha-treated patients experienced anaemia (Hb , 10 g dl(-1)) during the course of ...
While many conditions may cause anemia, it is often caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD). The main function of red blood cells, how CKD causes anemia, and a common blood test to diagnose CKD anemia are explained.
There is a high prevalence of nutritional anemia in breastfeeding mothers (Shashiraj 2006), which rises to 47% in mothers of low socioeconomic status (Bodnar 2001). During gestation and breastfeeding there is iron transfer from mother to child that tends to avoid both iron-mediated infection and oxidative stress as well as the potential risk of maternal and infant iron deficiency (Miller 2016). Maternal anemia must be prevented and treated, but neither the disease nor its treatment contraindicate breastfeeding. Loss of blood during labor is an important factor in postpartum anemia (Chan 2001). Pregnancy during breastfeeding increases the risk of anemia (Shaaban 2015). In contrast, prolonged breastfeeding is a protective factor for anemia in breastfeeding mothers (Lakew 2015). Iron deficiency anemia increases the risk of postpartum depression (Sheikh 2015) and is a risk factor for early cessation of breastfeeding (Rioux 2006), possibly because of (actual or not) insufficient milk (Henly 1995).
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My sisters dog was recently diagnosed with Anemia. He was extremely sluggish and always sleeping. Unfortunately, dogs, like people, can easily develop anemia. Caused by a reduction or loss of red blood cells and/or hemoglobin, anemia can become a serious problem in a very short time. This article explores the signs and symptoms to watch for, along with recommendations on diet and supplements that can help combat anemia in your canine.. What is anemia? It is a serious condition caused by red blood cell loss. Lack of iron in the diet is usually the culprit. However with animals, anemia is usually caused by parasitic worms or fleas that feed on blood and tissues. On occasion, it can also be caused by a toxicity from exposure to certain drugs.. Find The Cause First. Is it possible that your dog has anemia? Symptoms to watch for are pale or white gums, signs of weakness and a fast pulse.. The first step in reversing this condition is to remove the cause. If your dog has fleas or intestinal ...
As individuals become older, the frequency of anemia increases. While the cause of anemia in many cases can be determined and corrected, in a number of individuals there is no correctable cause found and the patient must live with their anemia. This is known as idiopathic anemia, and can have serious consequences for the individual. Numerous studies have demonstrated that anemia is associated with loss of energy and stamina, causing individuals to decrease their activities, which adversely affects both their sense of well-being as well as their physical strength. Losses in these areas are associated with the clinical manifestations of frailty.. The current pilot study will examine whether or not administration of Epoetin Alfa, a hormone stimulating production of red blood cells, can reverse this type of anemia. We will examine the consequences of reversing the anemia in terms of physical strength and function, cardiovascular function and sense of well-being and mental function.. In this study, ...
What Do You Know About Anemia? Anemia is a condition that affects the number of red blood cells in your body. A number of diseases and conditions can cause anemia. Find out more by taking the following quiz. 1. Anemia is a common condition. What happens when a person has anemia? You didnt answer this question. You answered The correct answer is These cells carry oxygen and iron to nourish all the cells in the body. Anemia isnt a single disease but a condition that has many different causes. A. The bod...
1. INTRODUCTION. Anemia is one of the major nutritional deficiency health disorders, affecting significant proportion of population. Although it effects all age groups but it is most prevalent in pregnant women. Anemia is pathological deficiency in oxygen carrying capacity of blood measured in hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells numbers. Blood is mainly composed of two parts 1) Plasma, constituting 55% of blood and 2) White blood cells, red blood cells & platelets.. Common causes of anemia are dietary deficiencies, inherited genetic defects, side effects of medicine, chronic diseases, blood loss from injuries and internal bleeding, destruction of red blood cells or insufficient red blood cells production. Causes of anemia depend upon its severity the more severe the anemia is the more likely the chances of multiple reasons of anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is more common in pregnant because of increased need of iron for growing fetus. Women who start their pregnancy with low stored iron ...
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Anemia occurs when there are not enough healthy red blood cells (RBCs) in the body. Mild anemia can cause your child to feel very tired or have less energy than normal. Severe anemia can cause many health problems.
Anemia occurs when there are not enough healthy red blood cells (RBCs) in the body. Mild anemia can cause your child to feel very tired or have less energy than normal. Severe anemia can cause many health problems.
Anemia is a common cause of qualitative or quantitative deficiency of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an iron rich protein that caries the oxygen from lungs to the other parts of body tissue. The hemoglobin deficiency is generally associated with the decrease in the number of red blood cells and hematocrit. Anemia causes low transfer of oxygen to the rest of the body. Anemia is easily preventable and treated however, there are mild or vague symptoms for detection of anemia due to which anemia mostly goes undetectable. Commonly, the symptoms such as weakness or fatigue due to exercise, malaise and sometimes poor concentration are observed in patients with anemia. In addition, as the anemia progresses patients suffer from shortness of breath due to exertion, increase in cardiac output leading to palpitations, sweeting and heart failure. Anemia is commonly found in patients with nutrition deficiency (poor iron or vitamin diet), chronic diseases (such as cancer, kidney diseases, diabetes, etc.), chronic ...
Anemia in dogs occurs when your dogs red blood cells are functioning improperly or simply arent able to oxygenate his cells. Anemia in dogs can have a number of different causes involving blood loss, red blood cell destruction, and inadequate red blood cell production. Injury, cancer, autoimmune disease, infectious disease, iron deficiency, and genetic defects can all be at the root of anemia in dogs. Thankfully, some causes of anemia in dogs can be cured with treatment. The most common symptom of anemia in dogs is pale gums. Anemic dogs may become weak and even collapse from time to time. Anemic dogs experience yellowing of the skin, weight loss, and vomiting. Blood may appear in the urine or feces. Anemic dogs may suffer from a loss of appetite and a distended abdomen. Hemolytic anemia in dogs is an autoimmune disease-related type of anemia. Hemolytic anemia in dogs can be a primary condition or can occur as a result of another condition. Female dogs are at higher risk for developing ...
The high rate of anemia prevalence in the male harvesters of fresh oil palm fruits at the X Company has been a serious problem that needs to be managed. For this purpose, a study employing the situation analysis method the followed with an experimental study to analyze the application of anemia management in work health program by a company with integrated institution agencies and the intervention model development of anemia prevalence reduction have been done at the X Company. Qualitative data were obtained through the in-depth interviews using open questionnaires from 10 informants; 4 from the X Company, 2 from the Department of Residential (population) affairs, and 4 from the Department of Health. The data were analyzed by using the content analysis method. The findings reveal that the X Company, together with the intersectional agencies such as the Department of Health and Department of Residential (population) Affairs, has not yet been seen to have applied the anemia management in its work ...
Approximately two-thirds of patients were screened for anaemia during the median 2 year follow-up period (68.1% CD, 65.3% UC). However, only 18.1% of the cohort underwent annual screening as recommended by ECCO and other guidelines. Of the 29.8% of patients with IBD with anaemia, iron deficiency was common (81.9%) among those with sufficient information to make the calculation.. No other study has examined the adherence to screening guidelines, so it is unknown if the results in this insured American population are generalisable to other settings. At least one-third of the screened cohort had anaemia, which is similar to published European studies on anaemia (24-33%) in IBD.4 ,20 ,21 ,23 Our findings were also similar to predictors of anaemia in the USA. A recently published study on anaemia in a US IBD cohort showed a statistically significant higher prevalence of anaemia in CD compared with UC (p value 0.001).33 This mirrors our findings and also findings from other European studies.13 ,20 ,21 ...
Chronic Inflammation. There are several causes of anemia in rheumatoid arthritis. The most common is anemia of chronic disease. The cause is not completely understood. However, chronic inflammation can affect the bodys ability to use iron and its ability to produce red blood cells which leads to low blood counts ...
To study factors associated with anemia and its effect on survival in HIV-infected persons treated with modern combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), we characterized the prevalence of anemia in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) and used a candidate gene approach to identify proinflammatory gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with anemia in HIV disease. The study comprised 1597 HIV+ and 865 HIV- VACS subjects with DNA, blood, and annotated clinical data available for analysis. Anemia was defined according to World Health Organization criteria (hemoglobin , 13 g/dL and , 12 g/dL in men and women, respectively). The prevalence of anemia in HIV+ and HIV- subjects was 23.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Independent of HIV status, anemia was present in 23.4% and 8% in blacks and whites, respectively. Analysis of our candidate genes revealed that the leptin -2548 G/A SNP was associated with anemia in HIV+, but not HIV-, patients, with the AA and AG genotypes significantly ...
Adapun jenis-jenis anemia pada kehamilan dapat diketahui oleh para ibu seperti anemia defisiensi besi, anemia jenis ini dialami selama masa kehamilan dan masa nifas. Kondisi demikian terjadi defisiensi besi dan kehilangan darah akut. Adapula anemia akibat perdarahan akut, anemia jenis ini terjadi ketika masa nifas, solusio plasenta dan plasenta previa dapat menjadi sumber perdarahan serius dan anemia sebelum atau setelah melahirkan. Ada lagi anemia pada penyakit kronik, gejala yang ditimbulkan biasanya tubuh akan terasa lemah, penurunan pada berat badan, wajah pucat. Selain itu ada pula anemia megaloblastik atau defisiensi vitamin B12, hal ini disebabkan oleh kekurangan vitamin B12 selama masa kehamilan, adanya kegagalan dalam proses penyerapan vitamin B12 karena tidak ada faktor pendukung dari dalam ...
Synonyms for anemia of inflammatory disease in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for anemia of inflammatory disease. 3 synonyms for anemia: anaemia, anaemia, genus Anemia. What are synonyms for anemia of inflammatory disease?
|b||i|Background:|/i||/b| Therapeutic options for the treatment of anemia secondary to chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain limited. Vadadustat (AKB-6548) is an oral hypoxia-ind
Anemia (antzinako grezieraz: ἀναιμία, anaimia, "odol gabezia"; ἀν- an-, "gabe" eta αἷμα haima, "odol" hitzetatik) odolaren egoera berezia da, hematien edota hemoglobinaren urritasuna ezaugarri duena. Bera bakarrik azal daiteke, edo beste prozesu zabalago baten agerpena izan. Anemia dagoenean odolak oxigenoa garraiatzeko duen gaitasuna murrizturik dago eta, ondorioz, gorputzeko ehunek eta organoek ohi baino oxigeno gutxiago jasotzen dute. Izan ere, hematietan dagoen hemoglobina molekula da oxigeno garraiatzaile nagusia. Anemiaren ondorioetako bat ehunen hipoxia da. Mota desberdin asko daude, eta horietako bakoitza kausa desberdinak eragina da. Hainbat ikuspegitatik sailka daitezke, dela kausa sortzailearen arabera, edota ondorioz ateratzen den odolaren morfologiaren arabera, baina ez mota batekoak (anemia aplasikoa, anemia hemolitikoa, anemia ferropenikoa, etab.) eta ez bestekoak (anemia makrozitikoa, anemia mikrozitikoa, anemia normozitikoa, etab.) berez ez dira gaixotasuna, ...
Anemia is one of the risks of heavy drinking, but this condition has multiple causes among people who struggle with chronic alcohol abuse. Learn more about anemia, how heavy drinking can cause, and how to pr
In the present analysis including 967 community-dwelling elderly men and women no significant association between hemoglobin levels or anemia and falls could be found. Thus, the suggestion that anemia is an independent risk factor of falls in elderly people from the general population could not be supported by these results. However, we found an additive effect of anemia and disability on the occurrence of falls.. On the contrary to our study prior studies were mostly conducted in selected groups [15-17] in women only [32] or they used self-reported data regarding anemia status or information from chart reviews [33]. Furthermore, most of the former analyses were based on smaller study samples [15, 17, 18].. The group of Duh et al. employed a retrospective open-cohort design and analyzed data of 47,350 individuals regarding anemia and risk of injurious falls in community-dwelling elderly people. Results showed that anemia increased the risk of injurious falls by 1.47 times in multivariate ...
Microcytic Anemias are a categorization of anemias defined as those anemias which yield smaller-than-normal erythrocytes (i.e. Low Mean Corpuscular Volume or MCV). In general, a relatively limited set of pathophysiological processes yield microcytic anemias and thus measurement of the MCV can significantly narrow the possible differential diagnosis for a patients anemia ...
This activity is designed to provide the latest information on anemia associated with renal insufficiency, its pathophysiology, and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Also included are the impact of renal anemia and the comorbid conditions hypertension, diabetes, and the dyslipidemias; how they work together in the progression of renal disease; and appropriate interventions. A key part of the program is the approach to the management of early renal anemia, including diagnosis and the initiations of erythropoietin therapy and other agents as necessary. The need for early referral to a specialist is emphasized, as are the consequences of late referral ...
In recent years, the occurrence of anemia in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) has received increasing attention. The prevalence of anemia reported in cohorts of patients or controlled randomized trials varies considerably (1,2). This variation is due not only to different recruitment profiles but also to the fact that there is no consensus on the definition of anemia in cardiology and, consequently, that different threshold hemoglobin or hematocrit levels have been used. However, general agreement exists that anemia is a frequent comorbidity and that it is associated with increased mortality or rates of hospital admissions and decreased quality of life or exercise tolerance, particularly when severe (3,4). There is also evidence suggesting that anemia is an evolving process and that new-onset anemia is common in CHF (5,6). The mechanism of anemia in CHF is a matter of debate and appears multifactorial. Impaired erythropoietin (EPO) production or resistance, iron and other hematinic ...
Microcytic anemia is present when there is both an inadequate quantity of circulating hemoglobin, and the mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes is below a threshold value (approximately 80 m3). It is possible to have a microcytosis without anemia, if there are enough small erythrocytes, containing enough hemoglobin, to circulate the necessary quantity. There are also anemias where the erythrocytes are of normal or large size. Iron deficiency anemia, which can have a variety of causes, is the most frequent reason for seeing microcytic anemia, although further studies will be required for a definitive diagnosis. ...
Anemia is mostly a manifestation of an underlying disease process rather than being a primary disease and it is one of the most frequent and difficult to be solved nosological problems in every day veterinary clinical practice. It is characterized by decreased packed cell volume (hematocrit) and/or decreased hemoglobin concentration. Clinical picture of anemia results from reduced oxygen delivery to tissues, which is insufficient to cover metabolic requirements.. Infectious agents are among the most frequent causes of anemia in cats including: 1. Hemoparasites, Haemobartonella, Cytauxzoon and Babesia spp and less often Ehrlichia and Leishmania species.. 2. Viruses and mainly FeLV and FIV and 3. A variety of inflammatory diseases. Hemoparasites cause regenerative anemia and consequently reversible, either of acute or chronic type. To the contrary both anemia due to viruses and to inflammatory state (Anemia of Inflammatory Disease-AID) are chronic and of the hypoplastic or aplastic form.. ANEMIA ...
Sickle cell anemia is a classic example of the mixed benefit given by the staying power of pleiotropic genes, as the mutation ... Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes deformed red blood cells with a rigid, crescent shape instead of the normal ... Sickle cell anemia occurs when the HBB gene mutation causes both beta-globin subunits of hemoglobin to change into hemoglobin S ... Sickle cell anemia is a pleiotropic disease because the expression of a single mutated HBB gene produces numerous consequences ...
Anemia[edit]. Main article: Anemia. Hemoglobin plays a substantial role in carrying oxygen throughout the body,[19] and when it ... Anemia is typically a chronic process that is compensated over time by increased levels of red blood cells via upregulated ... Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia. As iron is used in the synthesis of hemoglobin, less hemoglobin will be ... A chronic hypoxic state can result from a poorly compensated anaemia.[20]:997-999 ...
Anemia[edit]. Anemia in cancer patients can be a combined outcome caused by myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and possible cancer- ... nutritional deficiencies or anemia of chronic disease. Treatments to mitigate anemia include hormones to boost blood production ... Henry DH (Jul 2006). "The role of intravenous iron in cancer-related anemia". Oncology. 20 (8 Suppl 6): 21-4. PMID 16925107.. ... Anemia and thrombocytopenia, when they occur, are improved with blood transfusion. Neutropenia (a decrease of the neutrophil ...
Anemia[edit]. Anemia that develops gradually usually presents with exertional dyspnea, fatigue, weakness, and tachycardia.[16] ... "Anemia Affects Body...And Maybe The Mind". Johns Hopkins medicine. 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2020.. ... Headaches are also a symptom of dyspnea in patients suffering from anaemia. Some patients report a numb sensation in their head ... Menstruation, particularly if excessive, can contribute to anaemia and to consequential dyspnea in women. ...
Anaemia[edit]. Anaemia is a major global health problem for women.[133] Women are affected more than men, in which up to 30% of ... The main cause of anaemia is iron deficiency. In United States women iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) affects 37% of pregnant ... Anaemia is linked to a number of adverse health outcomes including a poor pregnancy outcome and impaired cognitive function ( ... Other important health issues for women include cardiovascular disease, depression, dementia, osteoporosis and anemia. A major ...
According to the United Nations (UN) estimates, approximately half of pregnant individuals suffer from anemia worldwide. Anemia ... HELLP syndrome - Hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes and a low platelet count. Incidence is reported as 0.5-0.9% of all ... Anemia[edit]. Levels of hemoglobin are lower in the third trimesters. ... Treatment varies due to the severity of the anaemia, and can be used by increasing iron containing foods, oral iron tablets or ...
Iron deficiency anemia[edit]. An extensive literature has examined the clinical value of FOBT in iron deficiency anemia. ... Sickle cell anemia. In the event of a positive fecal occult blood test, the next step in the workup is a form of visualization ... If colon cancer is suspected in an individual (such as in someone with an unexplained anemia) fecal occult blood tests may not ... St John DJ, Young GP (April 1978). "Evaluation of radiochromium blood loss studies in unexplained iron-deficiency anaemia". ...
The compound 13-cis retinoic acid was first studied in the 1960s at Roche Laboratories in Switzerland by Werner Bollag as a treatment for skin cancer. Experiments completed in 1971 showed that the compound was likely to be ineffective for cancer and, surprisingly, that it could be useful to treat acne. However, they also showed that the compound was likely to cause birth defects, so in light of the events around thalidomide, Roche abandoned the product. In 1975, Gary Peck and Frank Yoder independently rediscovered the drug's use as a treatment of cystic acne while studying it as a treatment for lamellar ichthyosis, and published that work. Roche resumed work on the drug. In clinical trials, subjects were carefully screened to avoid including women who were or might become pregnant. Roche's New Drug Application for isotretinoin for the treatment of acne included data showing that the drug caused birth defects in rabbits. The FDA approved the application in 1982. Scientists involved in the ...
Anemia: unclear cause.. *Fever: unclear cause.. *White coat hypertension, that is, elevated blood pressure in a clinical ...
... may be signs of hyperthyroidism or anemia (see below).[3] ...
Anemia. *Placental hemorrhage. *Severe hemolytic disease. *Sepsis[7]. Pathophysiology[edit]. The exact pathologic mechanism for ...
... and mild to severe anemia. Anemia is a condition in which there is an insufficient number of red blood cells to carry adequate ... "Anemia". Mayo Clinic. 2014-08-19. Retrieved 2015-07-30. "What Is Thrombocytopenia? - NHLBI, NIH". Nhlbi.nih.gov. 2012-09-25. ... Aside from observing the symptoms characteristic of X-linked thrombocytopenia in infancy (easy bruising, mild anemia, mucosal ...
Anemia. *Bone density loss[1]. *Endometrial cancer. *Infertility. Diagnosis[edit]. A physician needs to investigate the cause ...
Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia. *Cold agglutinin disease. *Donath-Landsteiner hemolytic anemia *Paroxysmal cold ...
"Anemia. 2010: 857657. doi:10.1155/2010/857657. PMC 3065807. PMID 21490910.. *^ Katz, A. M. (1 May 2008). "The "Modern" View of ... These often include a full blood count investigating for anaemia, and basic metabolic panel that may reveal any disturbances in ...
Anemia in critically ill patients[edit]. Erythropoietin is used to treat people with anemia resulting from critical illness. ... Anemia caused by cancer[edit]. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2007) ... Anemia caused by chronic kidney disease[edit]. For patients who require dialysis or have chronic kidney disease, iron should be ... It is used in treating anemia resulting from chronic kidney disease and myelodysplasia, from the treatment of cancer ( ...
Many studies excluded women with severe medical problems such as heart and liver disease or severe anemia.[16] Caution is ... or causes anemia, or if there is evidence of endometritis. ... severe anemia. Adverse effects[edit]. Symptoms that require ...
Anemia (5.6%). Rare side effects include:[16]. *Pulmonary embolism. *Deep vein thrombosis ...
Anemia 7. Drug & Alcohol Addiction 8. Gynecology related problems including Menstrual Disorders. Also Hormonal Imbalance ...
Anemia[edit]. Megaloblastic anemia (MA) is associated with GSE and is believed to be the result of B12 and folate deficiency.[ ... Iron-deficiency anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) may be the only symptom for CD,[26] detected in subclinical CD[27] and is ... Pernicious anemia (PA). Pernicious anemia is associated with GSE and is believed to result primarily from malabsorption ... Some infertile women have GSE and iron deficiency anemia[59] others have zinc deficiency[60] and birth defects may be ...
Aplastic anemia. *Transfusion associated. *Pseudothrombocytopenia. *idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. *Gilbert's Syndrome[47 ...
anemia anaemia anemia opona tyre tire środek centre center teatr theatre theater ...
... anemia,[4][5] atherosclerosis,[6] autonomic dysfunction,[4][7] hormonal abnormalities,[8] obesity,[9] hypovitaminosis D in men, ... Chaves, PH; Semba, RD; Leng, SX; Woodman, RC; Ferrucci, L; Guralnik, JM; Fried, LP (Jun 2005). "Impact of anemia and ... anemia,[4][5] relative deficiencies in anabolic hormones (androgens and growth hormone)[8] and excess exposure to catabolic ... "Anemia in frailty". Clin Geriatr Med. 27 (1): 67-78. doi:10.1016/j.cger.2010.08.005. PMC 2998908. PMID 21093723 ...
Sickle cell anemia. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago. *^ David Wool. 2006. The Driving Forces of Evolution: Genetic ... Sickle cell anemia is caused by the inheritance of an allele (HgbS) of the hemoglobin gene from both parents. In such ... A well-studied case is that of sickle cell anemia in humans, a hereditary disease that damages red blood cells. ...
It has long been known that a kind of anemia, termed thalassemia, has a high frequency in some Mediterranean populations, ... In Gambians, it was estimated that AS heterozygotes have 90% protection against P. falciparum-associated severe anemia and ... In 1956 Alving and colleagues showed that in some African Americans the antimalarial drug primaquine induces hemolytic anemia, ... Those homozygous for α-thalassemia also suffer from anemia and there is some degree of selection against the gene. ...
... funds for the charitable and scientific purpose of furthering the knowledge of the disorder known as Diamond Blackfan Anemia ( ... There are over 6,000 reported rare disorders and Diamond Blackfan Anemia is one of the rarest of the rare. Our hope for a cure ... THANK YOU for your interest in Diamond Blackfan Anemia and for being a member of the DBA Foundations Facebook Cause. For the ... THANK YOU for your interest in Diamond Blackfan Anemia and for being a member of the DBA Foundations Facebook Cause. For the ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type III (CDA-III) is a group of very rare disorders ... The clinical picture is characterized by hemolytic anemia and dramatic bone marrow changes dominated by active erythropoiesis ...
Acquired (Autoimmune) Hemolytic Anemia - Pipeline Review, Half Year is built using data and information sourced from Global ... This report provides information on the therapeutic development for Acquired (Autoimmune) Hemolytic Anemia, complete with ... It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Acquired (Autoimmune) Hemolytic Anemia. ... Hemolytic Anemia - Pipeline Review, H2 2012, provides an overview of the indications therapeutic pipeline. ...
Anemia: Central venous hemoglobin , 13 g/dL or capillary hemoglobin , 14.5 g/dL in infant , 34 weeks and 0-28 days old Average ... Neonatal Anemia. Kirsten E. Crowley, MD June 2005. Definitions. ... Sickle Cell Anemia -. sickle cell anemia. an inherited form of ... Fanconi Anemia Erica Antell -. what is fanconi anemia?. fanconi anemia is one of the inherited anemias that causes bone marrow ... Fanconi Anemia Erica Antell -. what is fanconi anemia?. fanconi anemia is one of the inherited anemias that causes bone marrow ...
Enhancement of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Virulence by Identification and Removal of Suboptimal Nucleotides. ... Enhancement of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Virulence by Identification and Removal of Suboptimal Nucleotides. Virology, Vol ...
... prevent and treat neonatal anemia. This award is the second renewal of the Program Project Grant for Neonatal Anemia: ... The reasons for neonatal anemia and the best ways to prevent or treat it are not yet well understood. For at least three out of ... Neonatal anemia is a complex problem, requiring a multidisciplinary approach, Widness said. Our research team combines a wide ... UI Team Receives Funding For Neonatal Anemia Research Every year in the United States, 12 percent of babies are born ...
Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a lineage-selective inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized primarily by anemia ... Untangling the Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Diamond Blackfan Anemia. Farrar, Jason E. Dahl, Niklas Uppsala University, ...
Haemolytic anaemia is a form of anaemia caused by haemolysis. It may be either hereditary or acquired. Haemolytic anaemia that ... Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is an example of an acquired form of haemolytic anaemia. It occurs when the antibodies act ... Warm (antibody) autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is more common than cold (antibody) autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. 2 ... cold autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Reference(s): 1 Sawitsky, A. & Ozaeta, P. B. (1970). "Disease-associated autoimmune ...
A novel mutant mouse called X-linked pre- and neonatal anemia (gene symbol, Xpna) results in a transient, neonatal anemia which ... SPLICING ERROR IN GATA1 AFFECTS ERYTHROPOIESIS IN THE XPNA MOUSE (X-LINKED PRE- AND NEONATAL ANEMIA) WITH SUGGESTION OF A NOVEL ...
Diamond Blackfan anemia is mediated by hyperactive Nemo-like kinase. Forskningsoutput: Tidskriftsbidrag › Artikel i ... Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a congenital bone marrow failure syndrome associated with ribosomal gene mutations that lead ... DBA is characterized by anemia, congenital anomalies, and cancer predisposition. Treatment for DBA is associated with ...
Biobest provides serological testing for antibodies to Equine Infectious Anaemia Virus (EIA). Biobest is the only GLP compliant ... Equine Infectious Anaemia (EIA). EIA commonly known as swamp fever is a viral disease of horses caused by the lentivirus equine ... infectious anaemia virus (EIAV). Due to the persistence of EIAV in infected horses, detection of serum antibody to EIAV ...
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mixed-type autoimmune hemolytic anemia that did not respond to ... We report a case of severe mixed autoimmune hemolytic anemia that did not respond to steroids and responded to four weekly ... Rituximab was continued for a total of four weeks and led to the complete resolution of his hemolytic anemia and associated ... His blood work revealed severe anemia (hemoglobin, 4.9 g/dL) with biochemical evidence of hemolysis. Exposure to cold led to ...
Studies of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV; genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae) haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) gene ... Cunningham C. O., Gregory A., Black J., Simpson I., Raynard R. S. 2002; A novel variant of the infectious salmon anaemia virus ... Devold M., Krossøy B., Aspehaug V., Nylund A. 2000; Use of RT-PCR for diagnosis of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in ... Nylund A., Devold M., Plarre H., Isdal E., Aarseth M. 2003; Emergence and maintenance of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV ...
... 05.03.2010EssayComments: 0. E most common type is known as sickle cell anaemia (SCA). ... Definition Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder on the beta chain of the hemoglobin resulting to abnormally shaped red ... Definition Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder on the beta chain of the hemoglobin resulting to abnormally shaped red ... Definition Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder on the beta chain of the hemoglobin resulting to abnormally shaped red ...
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... also had hemolytic anemia caused by rupturing red blood cells ... Red blood cells & hemolytic anemia. In hemolytic anemia, red ... Hemolytic anemia and antibodies. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), also known as "immunohemolytic anemia," occurs when ... It can even cause hemolytic anemia which impacts red blood cells.. There are various types of anemias, but the symptoms are ... coombs test hemolytic anemia Comments (0) Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required fields ...
Number of visits to physician offices with anemia as the primary diagnosis: 2.8 million ... Number of visits to emergency departments with anemia as the primary diagnosis: 778,000 ...
Mild to of anemia often arent as clear and may be moderate anemia may cause mild overlooked. symptoms or none at all.Anemia ( ... Anemia and Older Adults: The most common symptom of Chronic diseases, lack of iron, and/or anemia is fatigue (feeling tired or ... If you have anemia, your or iron or folic acid supplements.body doesnt get enough oxygen-rich Treatment for anemia depends on ... Email: [email protected] www.healthlibrary.com Overview of Anemia * 2. condition. Often, you can treat and control anemia. ...
... happens when there arent enough healthy red blood cells in the body. It can be caused by many things, including dietary ... How Is Anemia Treated?. Treatment for anemia depends on its cause. For iron deficiency anemia, the doctor may prescribe ... What Is Anemia?. Anemia is when the level of healthy red blood cells (RBCs) in the body becomes too low. This can lead to ... How Is Anemia Diagnosed?. Often, doctors diagnose anemia as the result of blood tests done as part of a routine physical ...
Learn about anemia, how to lower your risk of getting it, and how its treated. ... Anemia is common in teens because they undergo rapid growth spurts, when the body needs more nutrients like iron. ... sideroblastic anemia, thalassemia, African siderosis, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia of chronic disease. ... This group serves as a resource directory for patient assistance and emotional support while specializing in aplastic anemia ...
Megaloblastic anemia (or megaloblastic anaemia) is an anemia (of macrocytic classification) that results from inhibition of DNA ... Megaloblastic anemia is a blood disorder in which there is anemia with larger-than-normal red blood cells. Anemia is a ... Megaloblastic anemia has a rather slow onset, especially when compared to that of other anemias. The defect in red cell DNA ... "Megaloblastic (Pernicious) Anemia - Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital". Retrieved 2008-03-12.. *^ Bain, Barbara J.; Bates, ...
Anemia occurs when your blood doesnt carry enough oxygen to the rest of your body. Read about conditions that lead to it and ... Anemia in People with Cancer (American Cancer Society) Also in Spanish * Craving and Chewing Ice: A Sign of Anemia? (Mayo ... Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding (Merck & Co., Inc.) Also in Spanish * Anemia of Inflammation or Chronic Disease (National ... Anemia - B12 deficiency (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Anemia caused by low iron -- infants and toddlers (Medical ...
We rely on advertising to help fund our award-winning journalism.. We urge you to turn off your ad blocker for The Telegraph website so that you can continue to access our quality content in the future.. Thank you for your support.. ...
Aplastic anemia is a rare but serious blood disorder. If you have it, your bone marrow doesnt make enough new blood cells. ... Article: Novel therapeutic choices in immune aplastic anemia. * Article: Very long-term follow-up of aplastic anemia treated ... Special Issues for People with Aplastic Anemia (Aplastic Anemia & MDS International Foundation) ... Aplastic anemia is a rare but serious blood disorder. If you have it, your bone marrow doesnt make enough new blood cells. ...
Learn about the types, causes, treatments, and prevention methods of anemia. ... Anemia is a common blood disorder that affects your red blood cells. ... Tags: anemia, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, normocytic anemia, pernicious anemia, sickle cell anemia, Sickle Cell Disease ... Normocytic anemia. Normocytic anemia can be congenital (from birth) or acquired (from a disease or infection). The most common ...
  • Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a congenital bone marrow failure syndrome associated with ribosomal gene mutations that lead to ribosomal insufficiency. (lu.se)
  • DBA is characterized by anemia, congenital anomalies, and cancer predisposition. (lu.se)
  • tests to confirm it and underlying pernicious anaemia, are problematic. (hammersmithbooks.co.uk)
  • Martyn Hooper, the founder of the Pernicious Anaemia Society, now brings together vital information about the condition and real-life stories - including his own and those of many members of the Society - that will help sufferers and their friends and families recognize the condition and understand how best to tackle it. (hammersmithbooks.co.uk)
  • Martyn Hooper founded the Pernicious Anaemia Society after being forced to give up full time work as a lecturer in Further Education owing to the long term effects of undiagnosed pernicious anaemia and vitamin B12 deficiency. (hammersmithbooks.co.uk)
  • To generate funds for the charitable and scientific purpose of furthering the knowledge of the disorder known as Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA). (causes.com)
  • Megaloblastic anemia is a blood disorder marked by the appearance of very large red blood cells that crowd out healthy cells, causing anemia. (fat-freechef.com)
  • Megaloblastic anemia is a type of anemia, a blood disorder in which the number of red blood cells is lower than normal. (fat-freechef.com)
  • THANK YOU for your interest in Diamond Blackfan Anemia and for being a member of the DBA Foundation's Facebook Cause. (causes.com)
  • There are over 6,000 reported rare disorders and Diamond Blackfan Anemia is one of the rarest of the rare. (causes.com)
  • Start Forskningsoutput Diamond Blackfan anemia is mediated by hyperactive Nemo-like. (lu.se)
  • A novel mutant mouse called X-linked pre- and neonatal anemia (gene symbol, Xpna) results in a transient, neonatal anemia which is resolved by 3 weeks of age in Xpna females. (ku.edu)
  • A study published in Clinical Rheumatology in July 2017 explored the link between positive Coombs' tests, lupus, and anemia. (lupuscorner.com)
  • A direct antiglobulin test (DAT), which is also known as a Coombs' test, can be ordered by a clinician to determine if these antibodies are the true reason for the anemia. (lupuscorner.com)
  • Treatment plans for megaloblastic anemia may include dietary changes, oral vitamin supplements, and in some cases, vitamin B-12 injections. (fat-freechef.com)
  • There are many types of anemia with different causes and characteristics. (fat-freechef.com)
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