Anemarrhena: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain anemarans (POLYSACCHARIDES), hinokiresinol, mangiferin (a xanthone), and timosaponin (a steroidal saponin).Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Pharmacognosy: The science of drugs prepared from natural-sources including preparations from PLANTS, animals, and other organisms as well as MINERALS and other substances included in MATERIA MEDICA. The therapeutic usage of plants is PHYTOTHERAPY.Spirostans: Cholestane derivatives containing a fused lactone ring at the 16,17-position and a spiroglycosidic linkage at C-22. Members include sarsaponin, DIOSGENIN and yamogenin.Atractylodes: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain hinesol and atractylon. Atractylodes rhizome is Byaku-jutsu. A. lancea rhizome is So-jutsu.Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Aconitum: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain a number of diterpenoid alkaloids including: aconitans, hypaconitine, ACONITINE, jesaconitine, ignavine, napelline, and mesaconitine. The common name of Wolfbane is similar to the common name for ARNICA.Ephedra: A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.Aphrodisiacs: Chemical agents or odors that stimulate sexual desires. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycyrrhiza: A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivative, CARBENOXOLONE.Agave: A genus known for fibers obtained from their leaves: sisal from A. sisalana, henequen from A. fourcroyoides and A. cantala, or Manila-Maguey fiber from A. cantala. Some species provide a sap that is fermented to an intoxicating drink, called pulque in Mexico. Some contain agavesides.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Dracaena: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. The common name of "dragon's blood" is also used for CROTON and Daemonorops (ARECACEAE).Agavaceae: A plant family of the order Liliales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida. Members of the family have narrow, lance-shaped, sometimes fleshy or toothed leaves that are clustered at the base of each plant. Most species have large flower clusters containing many flowers. The fruit is a capsule or berry.Yucca: A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Medicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Withania: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain withanolides. Withania somnifera is the source of ashwagandha and aswal.Withanolides: Ergostane derivatives of 28 carbons with oxygens at C1, C22, and C26 positions and the side chain cyclized. They are found in WITHANIA plant genus and have cytotoxic and other effects.ThiadiazolesThioamides: Organic compounds containing the radical -CSNH2.Ralstonia pickettii: The type species in the genus RALSTONIA. It is often found in the hospital ward as a contaminant of antiseptic and disinfectant solutions.SemicarbazidesPhosphorus Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.EthylaminesPrurigo: A name applied to several itchy skin eruptions of unknown cause. The characteristic course is the formation of a dome-shaped papule with a small transient vesicle on top, followed by crusting over or lichenification. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating: A class of non-sedating drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM), thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. These antihistamines represent a heterogenous group of compounds with differing chemical structures, adverse effects, distribution, and metabolism. Compared to the early (first generation) antihistamines, these non-sedating antihistamines have greater receptor specificity, lower penetration of BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER, and are less likely to cause drowsiness or psychomotor impairment.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Astemizole: Antihistamine drug now withdrawn from the market in many countries because of rare but potentially fatal side effects.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Cetirizine: A potent second-generation histamine H1 antagonist that is effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, and pollen-induced asthma. Unlike many traditional antihistamines, it does not cause drowsiness or anticholinergic side effects.Loratadine: A second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Unlike most classical antihistamines (HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS) it lacks central nervous system depressing effects such as drowsiness.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.

cis-hinokiresinol, a norlignan from Anemarrhena asphodeloides, inhibits angiogenic response in vitro and in vivo. (1/13)

cis-Hinokiresinol (CHR) is a norlignan constituent from Anemarrhena asphodeloides BUNGE (Liliaceae), which shows hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. In the present studies, we have demonstrated that CHR selectively inhibited endothelial cell proliferation compared with cancer cells, and especially basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, endothelial cell migration and tube formation, two important steps in the angiogenic process, were also inhibited by CHR. Moreover, CHR reduced the vessel growth induced by VEGF in the mouse corneal neovascularization model. These results suggest that CHR may prove useful for the development of a novel angiogenesis inhibitor.  (+info)

Effects of timosaponins on learning and memory abilities of rats with dementia induced by lateral cerebral ventricular injection of amyloid beta- peptide. (2/13)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of timosaponins, one group of the two major components of Anemarrhean asphodeloides Bge, on the learning and memory capacities of rats with dementia induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25-35) [Abeta (25-35)]. METHODS: Sixty SD rats were randomized into 6 groups (n=10) and except for those in the control group, all other rats were subjected to lateral cerebral ventriclar injection of aggregated Abeta (25-35) to prepare rat models of dementia. Twenty- four hours after the injection, the rats received intragastric administration of timosaponins at 3 different doses (treatment group) or Ginkgo biloba extract EGB761 on a daily basis for 14 consecutive days. From postoperative days 8 to 14 after Abeta (25-35) injection, Morris water maze test was performed to evaluate the effects of Abeta (25-35) and the therapeutic agents timosaponins on the learning and memory capacity of the rats. On day 14, the level of malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total antioxidation capacity in the brain tissue of the rats were measured. RESULTS: Abeta (25-35) induced significant learning and memory impairment in the rats, which had lowered SOD activity and total antioxidation capacity (P<0.01) with elevated MDA level (P<0.05). Compared with the rats in dementia model group, those receiving timosaponin treatment at different doses all manifested alleviation of learning and memory impairment (P<0.05), with enhanced SOD activity (P<0.05) and total antioxidation capacity (P<0.01) and reduced MDA level (P<0.05) in the brain tissue. CONCLUSION: Timosaponins can remarkably enhance the learning and memory capacities in rats with Abeta (25-35)-induced dementia, presumably in relation to their actions to promote the scavenging of the free radicals.  (+info)

7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)chroman and broussonin b: neurotrophic compounds, isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides BUNGE, function as proteasome inhibitors. (3/13)

The extract of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides BUNGE) showed neurotrophic activity toward rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. Bioassay-guided purification afforded four compounds, 2,6,4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (1), 7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)chroman (2), broussonin B (3), and cis-hinokiresinol (4). Compounds 1-3 induced neurite outgrowth in PC-12 cells at concentration of 50 microg/ml, while 4 was less active. In addition, compounds 2-4 showed moderate inhibitory activities against a chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome.  (+info)

Protective effect of steroidal saponins from rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. (4/13)

AIM: To investigate the protective effect of steroidal saponins from Anemarrhena asphodeloides (ATS) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham and OVX groups. The OVX rats were treated with vehicle, nylestriol or steroidal saponins extract for 12 weeks. Serum calcium, phosphorus, estradiol (E(2)), osteocalcin concentration and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were measured. Bone density was assayed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The undecalcified longitudinal proximal tibial metaphysical (PTM) sections were cut and stained for histomorphometric analysis of the bone. RESULTS: In OVX rats, alkaline phosphatase activities in serum were markedly increased and concentrations of osteocalcin were decreased by ATS treatment, which had no influence on the body weight. Meanwhile, atrophy of the uterus and descent of bone mineral density (BMD) was suppressed by treatment with ATS. In addition, ATS completely corrected the decreased the concentration of calcium and E(2) in serum observed in OVX rats. Histological results showed ATS prevented decreases in trabecular thickness and increases in trabecular separation of proximal tibia metaphysis (PTM) in OVX rats. However, it did not alter osteoclast number in OVX rats. Moreover, ATS (300 mg/kg) had a remarkable effect on promoting bone formation action in OVX rats. Nylestriol treatment decreased the bone formation rate and mineral apposition rate. CONCLUSION: An adequate supply of steroidal saponins of Anemarrhena asphodeloides prevented OVX-induced bone loss in rats through the promotion of bone formation but not the inhibition of bone resorption.  (+info)

Study on the therapeutic material basis of traditional chinese medicinal preparation Suanzaoren decoction. (5/13)

Methodology for elucidating the therapeutic material basis and quality control indices of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Preparation Suanzaoren decoction was developed. Combination of Suanzaoren decoction was designed and sixteen groups were obtained. Effects on frequency of spontaneous motion, sleeping number and sleeping duration in mice were studied with sixteen combinations of Suanzaoren decoction to get the pharmacological data. RP-HPLC method was developed to analyze the chromatographic profiles of natural components in all combinations. Areas (corrected by weighting amounts) of chromatographic peaks were collected as chemical data. The pharmacological and chemical data were correlated by chemical statistical methods, and then the therapeutic material basis (thirteen chemical constituents with sedative and hypnotic effects among forty-eight chromatographic peaks) of Suanzaoren decoction were elucidated. Spinosin from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, ferulic acid from Rhizoma Chuanxiong, mangiferin from Rhizoma Anemarrhenae and glycyrrhizic acid from Radix Glycyrrhizae were selected as quality control indices. This paper provided a new methodology for elucidating the therapeutic material basis and quality control indices for T.C.M. It is instructive for modernization of Chinese herbs and its compound preparations.  (+info)

Antidepressant-like effects of sarsasapogenin from Anemarrhena asphodeloides BUNGE (Liliaceae). (6/13)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sarsasapogenin from Anemarrhena asphodeloides BUNGE (Liliaceae) on the forced swimming test, and the central noradrenergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic activities in mice. Our results showed that sarsasapogenin treatment at 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg (p.o.) for 14 d significantly reduced the duration of immobility in the forced swimming test. These doses that affected the immobile response did not affect locomotor activity. In addition, the neurochemical assays showed that sarsasapogenin produced a marked increase of noradrenaline and serotonin levels at 50 mg/kg in both the hypothalamus and the hippocampus. Moreover, sarsasapogenin showed a monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity in the mouse brain. These findings suggest that the antidepressant activity of sarsasapogenin may involve the central monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems.  (+info)

Effects of Anemarrhena asphodeloides on focal ischemic brain injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. (7/13)

The preventive effect of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge (Liliaceae), a traditional Chinese medicine, on ischemia-reperfusion-induced brain injury was evaluated in the rat brain. Ischemia was induced by intraluminal occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 2 h and reperfusion was continued for 22 h. Water extract of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (WEAA) was orally administered promptly prior to and 2 h after reperfusion. Total infarct volume and edema in the ipsilateral hemispheres of ischemia-reperfusion rats were significantly reduced by treatment with WEAA in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). The therapeutic time window of WEAA was 3 h in this ischemia-reperfusion rat model. WEAA also significantly inhibited increased neutrophil infiltration of ischemic brain tissue as estimated by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and immunohistochemical analysis. MPO-positive cells were markedly reduced by WEAA administration in striatal and cortical areas. These findings suggest that WEAA plays a crucial protective role in ischemia-induced brain injury, and suggest that WEAA could serve as a lead medicinal herb for the development of neuroprotective agents following transient focal ischemic brain injury.  (+info)

Timosaponin A-III induces autophagy preceding mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in HeLa cancer cells. (8/13)


  • This herb is potentiated by other herbs in iSleep, notably Anemarrhena, poria and ligusticum which are believed to increase the nor-epinephrine and dopamine levels in the brain and increase secretion of two cytokines which have been shown to improve non-rapid eye movement sleep. (
  • Anemarrhena Tablets by Seven Forests are primarily based on the formulas of the fire purging school, as well as the formula for heat in the blood level. (
  • Anemarrhena asphodeloides is commonly used in the treatment of metabolic disorders in traditional Chinese medicine due to its therapeutic activities, such as antipyretic, alleviating inflammation, platelet aggregation inhibition, and antidiabetic effect [ 9 - 11 ]. (
  • The antidiabetic activity of the rhizoma of Anemarrhena asphodeloides was investigated in KK-Ay mice, an animal model of genetic type 2 diabetes. (
  • In this study, the effect of timosaponin BII extracted from Anemarrhena asphodeloides on hair growth of C57BL/6 mice was investigated by measuring the hair follicle morphology, hair growth length and area in C57BL/6 male mice, and the immunohistochemical analysis of β -catenin, Wnt3a, and Wnt10b in the dorsal skins of mice after topical application with minoxidil and timosaponin BII for 15 days. (
  • Those formulas have a tonic action as their dominant effect, while Anemarrhena Tablets has a focus on heat clearing effects. (
  • Anemarrhena Tablets are designed for syndrome that is characterized by excess fire or one with yin deficiency that contributes to secondary excess. (
  • Anemarrhena has been effectively used to treat bronchitis as well as worsening symptoms of chronic bronchitis such as chronic coughing. (