A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.
The 5-beta-reduced isomer of ANDROSTERONE. Etiocholanolone is a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE in many mammalian species including humans. It is excreted in the URINE.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC
Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.
A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.
Mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus which is used as a disease model of kernicterus.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
Nitrophenols are organic compounds characterized by the presence of a nitro group (-NO2) attached to a phenol molecule, known for their potential use in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, but also recognized as environmental pollutants due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenicity.
The 17-alpha isomer of TESTOSTERONE, derived from PREGNENOLONE via the delta5-steroid pathway, and via 5-androstene-3-beta,17-alpha-diol. Epitestosterone acts as an antiandrogen in various target tissues. The ratio between testosterone/epitestosterone is used to monitor anabolic drug abuse.
The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
The unspecified form of the steroid, normally a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE with androgenic activity. It has been implicated as a regulator of gonadotropin secretion.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of 3-oxo-delta4 steroids into their corresponding 5alpha form. It plays an important role in the conversion of TESTOSTERONE into DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE and PROGESTERONE into DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.

Androgen secreting adrenocortical tumours. (1/160)

BACKGROUND: Androgen secreting adrenocortical tumours are rare in children and the determination of their malignant potential can be difficult. OBJECTIVES: To assess the presentation, histology, and clinical behaviour of these tumours. SETTING: Two tertiary referral centres. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of children diagnosed with an androgen secreting adrenocortical tumour between 1976 and 1996. PATIENTS: Twenty three girls and seven boys aged 0-14 years. RESULTS: Pubic hair was observed in all children, clitoromegaly or growth of the phallus in 23 children, acceleration of linear growth in 22 children, and advanced bone age (> 1.5 years) in 18 children. Hypersecretion of androgens was detected by assessment of serum androgen concentrations alone in four patients and by 24 hour urine steroid excretion profiles in 22 patients. All 16 tumours measuring < 5 cm in diameter were benign. Of the tumours measuring 5-9 cm, three were malignant and seven were benign, whereas all four tumours > 10 cm were malignant. Histological slides were available for reassessment in 25 children. Although mitoses and necrosis were more characteristic of tumours with malignant behaviour, no exclusive histological features of malignancy were seen. CONCLUSION: Histological criteria for malignancy are not reliable, whereas tumour size is important in assessing malignant potential.  (+info)

Identification by chimera formation and site-selected mutagenesis of a key amino acid residue involved in determining stereospecificity of guinea pig 3-hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase isoforms. (2/160)

The 3-hydroxysteroid sulfotransferases that have been isolated and cloned from humans and rodents appear to have broad substrate specificities. In the guinea pig, however, two 3-hydroxysteroid sulfotransferases have been isolated that function according to an innate stereospecificity: the alpha-isoform acts on steroids with a 3-hydroxyl group oriented in the alpha position, whereas the beta-isoform acts on steroids where the 3-hydroxyl group is in a beta orientation. To examine the structural basis for this remarkable stereoselectivity, chimeras of the two enzymes, which are 87% identical, were constructed. A chimera consisting of the NH(2)-terminal 91 amino acids of the alpha-isoform and the COOH-terminal 196 amino acids of the beta-isoform displayed activity similar to that of the alpha-isoform. Site-selected mutagenesis of this 3alpha/beta-hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase chimera involving the 12 amino acid differences that exist between the two isoforms within the 91 amino acid NH(2)-terminal region revealed that the amino acid residue at position 51 plays a fundamental role in determining the stereospecificity exhibited by the alpha- and beta-isoforms, i.e. if residue 51 is an asparagine, alpha activity predominates, whereas if an isoleucine is in that position, beta activity prevails.  (+info)

Dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of mouse thymocytes: prevention by native 7alpha-hydroxysteroids. (3/160)

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been shown to decrease the dexamethasone (DEX)-induced apoptosis of thymocytes and to be one of the native 3beta-hydroxysteroids extensively 7alpha-hydroxylated in thymus. This led us to question whether DHEA or 7alpha-hydroxy-DHEA is responsible for the decrease in DEX-induced apoptosis of thymocytes and whether this property is shared with other native 3beta-hydroxysteroids and their 7alpha-hydroxylated metabolites. Treatment of mice with DHEA or 7alpha-hydroxy-DHEA prior to DEX led to a smaller decrease in thymus weight than with DEX alone and to a disappearance of the DEX-induced changes in thymocyte phenotypes. Thymocyte apoptosis induced by DEX treatment was significantly lowered in DHEA- and 7alpha-hydroxy-DHEA-treated thymi, even after 18 h culture with additional 10-6 mol/L DEX. Extensive apoptosis of thymocytes cultured with 10-7 mol/L DEX was brought back to control levels when 10-5 mol/L 7alpha-hydroxy-DHEA or 10-5 mol/L 7alpha-hydroxy-epiandrosterone was added. After use of DHEA and epiandrosterone or pregnenolone, less significant and no significant changes were obtained, respectively. These findings imply that the 7alpha-hydroxylation of 3beta-hydroxysteroids may be a prerequisite for an exquisite regulation of the thymocyte-positive selection driven by the glucocorticoids produced in thymic epithelial cells.  (+info)

Hormone profiles in hormone-dependent cancers. (4/160)

Studies on the relationship of urinary excretion of androgen metabolites and estrogens to the natural history of breast cancer are reviewed. The importance of distinguishing between "within-population" studies (i.e., cancer patients versus normal controls) and "between populations" studies (i.e., low-risk versus high-risk populations) is emphasized, and it is pointed out that "qualitative" agreement (i.e. the same direction of differences) between the two types of studies must be present in order to implicate a hormonal parameter as a determinant of the natural history of breast cancer. For reasons detailed in this paper, it is concluded that the reported relationship of low urinary androgen metabolite excretion to increased risk of developing breast cancer and poor response to adrenalectomy or hypophysectomy and the validity of the "estriol hypothesis," namely, that a high urinary ratio of estriol to estrone-plus-estradiol in early life is protective against subsequent development of breast cancer, are both dubious. A new hypothesis concerning the relationship of estrogens to breast cancer risk is presented: "A period of of time, prior to age 30, during which the amount of biological availability of active estrogens' (i.e., estrone and estradiol) is diminished, protects against subsequent development of cancer." This hypothesis is shown to be compatible with the epidemiological and biochemical data. Reports concerning the influence of nutrition on endocrine parameters are reviewed. Inanition and obesity have been shown to alter steroid metabolism but it is not known whether nutritional "microdifferences" (i.e., differences between populations or individuals that are due to cultural, geographic, or socioeconomic factors, but that fall within the range of "normal" or adequate nutrition) can also alter steroid metabolism.  (+info)

Strain differences in rat liver (UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity towards androsterone. (5/160)

Male Donryu, Wistar King rats showed discontinuous variations in hepatic microsomal UDP-glucuronyltransferase activities towards androsterone, but not towards testosterone, bilirubin, phenolphthalein and 4-nitrophenol. Fresh microsomal fraction with a low transferase activity towards androsterone formed 0.049--0.080 nmole of glucuronide/min per mg of protein, whereas fresh microsomal fraction with a high transferase activity towards androsterone formed 0.335--0.557 nmol of glucuronide/min per mg of protein. The microsomal fraction with low enzyme activity towards androsterone was not stimulated by treatment with Triton X-100 or freezing and thawing. In contrast, male Long Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats did not exhibit such diversity.  (+info)

Lifestyle determinants of 5alpha-reductase metabolites in older African-American, white, and Asian-American men. (6/160)

Men with higher endogenous 5alpha-reductase activity may have higher prostate cancer risk. This hypothesis raises two questions: (a) Could racial differences in 5alpha-reductase activity explain the observed racial differences in prostate cancer risk? and (b) Could a man reduce his activity level by modifying his lifestyle? To address these questions, we measured two hormonal indices of 5alpha-reductase activity [serum levels of androstane-3alpha-17beta-diol glucuronide (3alpha-diol G) and androsterone glucuronide (AG)] in healthy, older African-American, white, and Asian-American men, who are at high, intermediate, and low prostate cancer risk, respectively. We also examined associations between these metabolite levels and such lifestyle characteristics as body size and physical activity as well as select aspects of medical history and family history of prostate cancer. Men included in this cross-sectional analysis (n = 1054) had served as control subjects in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer we conducted in California, Hawaii, and Vancouver, Canada and provided information on certain personal attributes and donated blood between March 1990 and March 1992. In this study, concentrations of 3alpha-diol G declined significantly with age and increased significantly with body mass index. Mean levels of 3alpha-diol G, adjusted for age and body mass index, were 6.1 ng/ml in African-Americans, 6.9 ng/ml in whites and 4.8 ng/ml in Asian-Americans. These differences were statistically significant (African-Americans versus whites: P < 0.01; whites versus Asian-Americans: P < 0.001). Concentrations of AG decreased significantly with age, but only in whites, and were unrelated to any of the reported personal attributes. Mean levels of AG, adjusted for age, were 44.1 ng/ml in African-Americans, 44.9 ng/ml in whites, and 37.5 ng/ml in Asian-Americans (Asian-Americans versus whites, P < 0.001). In conclusion, older African-American and white men have similar levels of these two indices of 5alpha-reductase activity, and these levels are higher than those of older Asian-American men. This difference may be related to the lower prostate cancer risk in Asian-Americans.  (+info)

16alpha-bromoepiandrosterone, a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, inhibits Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei growth. (7/160)

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its analogue, 16alpha-bromoepiandrosterone (alpha-epi-Br), may have activity against viral and parasitic infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Cryptosporidium parvum. Therefore, we evaluated its antimalarial effects on Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei. In vitro, chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive and resistant strains of P. falciparum parasitized red blood cells were incubated with escalating doses of alpha-epi-Br or CQ. In vivo, 62 rats were infected with P. berghei and treated with CQ or alpha-epi-Br. At the highest doses tested against a CQ-sensitive strain, parasitemias decreased from 25.4% in the saline control group to 4.3% and 4.8% in the alpha-epi-Br and CQ groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Against two CQ-resistant strains, parasitemias decreased from 22.3-28.8% and 24.8-30% in the CQ and saline groups, respectively, to 2.5-2.7% in the alpha-epi-Br groups (P = 0.003). In vivo, on Day 4, parasitemias decreased from 23% in the saline group to 9-12% and 12% in the in alpha-epi-Br and CQ groups, respectively (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that alpha-epi-Br shows activity against CQ-sensitive and resistant strains of P. falciparum in vitro. At the doses tested against P. berghei in vivo in rats, alpha-epi-Br is comparable to CQ.  (+info)

Familial resemblance for free androgens and androgen glucuronides in sedentary black and white individuals: the HERITAGE Family Study. Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training and Genetics. (8/160)

Familial correlation analyses were used to evaluate the familial aggregation of plasma androgens and androgen glucuronides (testosterone (TESTO), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol glucuronide (3 alpha-DIOL-G), and androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G)) in 505 members of 99 white families and 296 members of 111 black families participating in the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study. Each of these four measures was determined by RIA after separation of conjugated and unconjugated steroid using C18 column chromatography. All participants were sedentary prior to being including in this study. Significant spouse correlations, as well as parent-offspring and sibling correlations, were found for TESTO, DHT, 3 alpha-DIOL-G, and ADT-G in the white sample, suggesting that common familial environments and genes contribute to the familial resemblance. In the black sample, significant sibling and parent-offspring correlations were found for all four phenotypes, while the spouse correlation was marginally significant for 3 alpha-DIOL-G and not significant for TESTO, DHT, and ADT-G. The non-significance of spouse correlations in the black individuals may be due to the small number of spouse pairs. The maximal heritability estimates of TESTO, DHT, 3 alpha-DIOL-G, and ADT-G were 69%, 87%, 74%, and 56% for white individuals and 70%, 73%, 62%, and 48% for black individuals respectively. Sex differences in heritability estimates were found in the white individuals, but they were less dramatic in the black individuals. In conclusion, plasma levels of androgens and androgen glucuronides are highly heritable in both white individuals and black individuals. There are notable sex differences in the white individuals.  (+info)

Androsterone is a weak androgen and an endogenous steroid hormone. It's produced in the liver from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and is converted into androstenedione, another weak androgen. Androsterone is excreted in urine as a major metabolite of testosterone. It plays a role in male sexual development and function, although its effects are much weaker than those of testosterone. In clinical contexts, androsterone levels may be measured to help diagnose certain hormonal disorders or to monitor hormone therapy.

Etiocholanolone is an endogenous steroid hormone, a metabolic breakdown product of both testosterone and androstenedione. It is a 5β-reduced derivative of androstanedione and is produced in the liver as well as in the gonads and the adrenal glands.

Etiocholanolone can be measured in urine to help evaluate for certain medical conditions, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia or adrenal cancer. Increased levels of etiocholanolone may indicate increased production of androgens, which can occur in conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome, virilizing ovarian tumors, or congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

It is important to note that the measurement of etiocholanolone should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory findings, as there are many factors that can affect its levels.

Glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) is an enzyme belonging to the family of glycosyltransferases. It plays a crucial role in the process of biotransformation and detoxification of various endogenous and exogenous substances, including drugs, hormones, and environmental toxins, in the liver and other organs.

The enzyme functions by transferring a glucuronic acid moiety from a donor molecule, uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA), to an acceptor molecule, which can be a variety of hydrophobic compounds. This reaction results in the formation of a more water-soluble glucuronide conjugate, facilitating the excretion of the substrate through urine or bile.

There are multiple isoforms of glucuronosyltransferase, classified into two main families: UGT1 and UGT2. These isoforms exhibit different substrate specificities and tissue distributions, allowing for a wide range of compounds to be metabolized through the glucuronidation pathway.

In summary, Glucuronosyltransferase is an essential enzyme in the detoxification process, facilitating the elimination of various substances from the body by conjugating them with a glucuronic acid moiety.

17-Ketosteroids are a group of steroid compounds that contain a ketone group at the 17th carbon position in their molecular structure. They are produced as metabolic byproducts of certain hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, in the human body.

The term "17-KS" or "17-ketosteroids" is often used to refer to a class of urinary steroid metabolites that can be measured in the urine to assess adrenal and gonadal function. The measurement of 17-KS is particularly useful in monitoring patients with certain endocrine disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia or adrenal tumors.

The two major 17-KS that are routinely measured in urine are androsterone and etiocholanolone, which are derived from the metabolism of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), respectively. Other 17-KS include tetrahydrocortisone, tetrahydrocortisol, and 5-androstene-3β,17β-diol.

It's worth noting that the measurement of 17-KS has largely been replaced by more specific tests, such as the measurement of individual steroid hormones or their metabolites using mass spectrometry-based methods.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rats, Gunn" is not a recognized medical term or phrase. It appears to be a nonsensical expression without specific meaning in the context of medicine or healthcare. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Androgens are a class of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. Testosterone is the most well-known androgen, but other androgens include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Androgens are produced primarily by the testes in men and the ovaries in women, although small amounts are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. They play a critical role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.

In addition to their role in sexual development and function, androgens also have important effects on bone density, mood, and cognitive function. Abnormal levels of androgens can contribute to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, erectile dysfunction, acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and prostate cancer.

Phenolphthalein is not strictly a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that has been used in medical contexts. It's primarily known for its use as an acid-base indicator in chemistry and medical laboratory tests. Here's the general definition:

Phenolphthalein is a crystalline compound, commonly available as a colorless powder or clear liquid. It is used as a pH indicator, turning pink to purple in basic solutions (pH above 8.2) and colorless in acidic solutions (pH below 8.2). This property makes it useful in various applications, such as titrations and monitoring the pH of chemical reactions or solutions.

In a medical context, phenolphthalein has historically been used as an active ingredient in certain over-the-counter laxatives. However, due to concerns about potential carcinogenicity and other side effects, its use in pharmaceuticals has been largely discontinued or restricted in many countries, including the United States.

Nitrophenols are organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a phenyl ring (aromatic hydrocarbon) and one or more nitro groups (-NO2). They have the general structure R-C6H4-NO2, where R represents the hydroxyl group.

Nitrophenols are known for their distinctive yellow to brown color and can be found in various natural sources such as plants and microorganisms. Some common nitrophenols include:

* p-Nitrophenol (4-nitrophenol)
* o-Nitrophenol (2-nitrophenol)
* m-Nitrophenol (3-nitrophenol)

These compounds are used in various industrial applications, including dyes, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. However, they can also be harmful to human health and the environment, as some nitrophenols have been identified as potential environmental pollutants and may pose risks to human health upon exposure.

Epitestosterone is a steroid hormone that is structurally similar to testosterone. It is produced in the body, primarily in the testes and adrenal glands, and is a natural component of human urine. Epitestosterone is a weak androgen, meaning it has minimal male sex hormone effects.

The ratio of epitestosterone to testosterone (T/E ratio) in urine is often used as a marker for the detection of doping with anabolic steroids, which are synthetic versions of testosterone. In athletes who have not taken performance-enhancing drugs, the T/E ratio is typically less than 1. However, when anabolic steroids are used, the level of testosterone in the body increases, while the level of epitestosterone remains relatively unchanged, leading to a higher T/E ratio.

Medical professionals and anti-doping agencies use a specific cutoff value for the T/E ratio to determine if an individual has violated doping regulations. It's important to note that some individuals may have naturally higher T/E ratios due to genetic factors, which can complicate the interpretation of test results in anti-doping tests.

Androstanes are a class of steroidal compounds that have a basic structure consisting of a four-ring core derived from cholesterol. Specifically, androstanes contain a 19-carbon skeleton with a chemical formula of C19H28O or C19H28O2, depending on whether they are alcohols (androgens) or ketones (androstanes), respectively.

The term "androstane" is often used to refer to the parent compound, which has a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached at the C3 position of the steroid nucleus. When this hydroxyl group is replaced by a keto group (-C=O), the resulting compound is called androstane-3,17-dione or simply "androstane."

Androstanes are important precursors in the biosynthesis of various steroid hormones, including testosterone, estrogen, and cortisol. They are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of certain drugs and pharmaceuticals.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It serves as a precursor to other hormones, including androgens such as testosterone and estrogens such as estradiol. DHEA levels typically peak during early adulthood and then gradually decline with age.

DHEA has been studied for its potential effects on various health conditions, including aging, cognitive function, sexual dysfunction, and certain chronic diseases. However, the evidence supporting its use for these purposes is generally limited and inconclusive. As with any supplement or medication, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking DHEA to ensure safety and effectiveness.

*Comamonas testosteroni* is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in the environment, such as in soil and water. It is capable of degrading various organic compounds, including steroids like testosterone, which is how it gets its name. This bacterium is not typically associated with human disease, but there have been rare cases of infections reported in people with weakened immune systems.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

Glucuronates are not a medical term per se, but they refer to salts or esters of glucuronic acid, a organic compound that is a derivative of glucose. In the context of medical and biological sciences, glucuronidation is a common detoxification process in which glucuronic acid is conjugated to a wide variety of molecules, including drugs, hormones, and environmental toxins, to make them more water-soluble and facilitate their excretion from the body through urine or bile.

The process of glucuronidation is catalyzed by enzymes called UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), which are found in various tissues, including the liver, intestines, and kidneys. The resulting glucuronides can be excreted directly or further metabolized before excretion.

Therefore, "glucuronates" can refer to the chemical compounds that result from this process of conjugation with glucuronic acid, as well as the therapeutic potential of enhancing or inhibiting glucuronidation for various clinical applications.

Androstane-3,17-diol is a steroid hormone, specifically a 17-ketosteroid, that is synthesized from the metabolism of androgens such as testosterone. It exists in two forms: 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol, which differ based on the configuration of the A ring at the 5 position. These compounds are weak androgens themselves but serve as important intermediates in steroid hormone metabolism. They can be further metabolized to form other steroid hormones or their metabolites, such as androstanediol glucuronide, which is a major urinary metabolite of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.

Cholestenone 5 alpha-reductase is an enzyme that plays a role in the conversion of cholesterol and other steroid hormones in the body. Specifically, it catalyzes the reduction of 5,7-dihydroxycholest-4-en-3-one (also known as cholestenone) to 5α-androstan-3α,17β-diol, which is a precursor to the male sex hormone testosterone.

This enzyme is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the prostate gland, skin, and liver. In the prostate gland, 5 alpha-reductase helps regulate the growth and function of the gland by converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a more potent form of the hormone.

Inhibitors of 5 alpha-reductase are sometimes used as medications to treat conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and male pattern baldness, as reducing DHT levels can help alleviate symptoms associated with these conditions.

3-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of 3-beta-hydroxy steroids to 3-keto steroids, which is an essential step in the production of various steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estradiol.

There are several isoforms of 3-HSDs that are expressed in different tissues and have distinct substrate specificities. For instance, 3-HSD type I is primarily found in the ovary and adrenal gland, where it catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 17-hydroxycortisol. On the other hand, 3-HSD type II is mainly expressed in the testes, adrenal gland, and placenta, where it catalyzes the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione and androstenedione to testosterone.

Defects in 3-HSDs can lead to various genetic disorders that affect steroid hormone production and metabolism, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as adrenal insufficiency, ambiguous genitalia, and sexual development disorders.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Biogenic amines are organic compounds that are derived from the metabolic pathways of various biological organisms, including humans. They are formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Some examples of biogenic amines include histamine, serotonin, dopamine, and tyramine.

Histamine is a biogenic amine that plays an important role in the immune system's response to foreign invaders, such as allergens. It is also involved in regulating stomach acid production and sleep-wake cycles. Serotonin is another biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter, transmitting signals between nerve cells in the brain. It is involved in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.

Dopamine is a biogenic amine that functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in reward and pleasure pathways in the brain. Tyramine is a biogenic amine that is found in certain foods, such as aged cheeses and fermented soy products. It can cause an increase in blood pressure when consumed in large quantities.

Biogenic amines can have various effects on the body, depending on their type and concentration. In general, they play important roles in many physiological processes, but high levels of certain biogenic amines can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and hypertension.

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone metabolism. They catalyze the oxidation and reduction reactions of hydroxyl groups on the steroid molecule, which can lead to the activation or inactivation of steroid hormones. HSDs are involved in the conversion of various steroids, including sex steroids (e.g., androgens, estrogens) and corticosteroids (e.g., cortisol, cortisone). These enzymes can be found in different tissues throughout the body, and their activity is regulated by various factors, such as hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Dysregulation of HSDs has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Estriol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is produced in the placenta during pregnancy and is used as a marker for fetal growth and development. Estriol levels can be measured in the mother's urine or blood to assess fetal well-being during pregnancy. Additionally, synthetic forms of estriol are sometimes used in hormone replacement therapy to treat symptoms of menopause.

Theca cells are specialized cells that are part of the follicle where the egg matures in the ovary. They are located in the outer layer of the follicle and play an important role in producing hormones necessary for the growth and development of the follicle and the egg within it. Specifically, they produce androgens, such as testosterone, which are then converted into estrogens by another type of cells in the follicle called granulosa cells. These hormones help to thicken the lining of the uterus in preparation for a possible pregnancy. In some cases, theca cells can become overactive and produce too much testosterone, leading to conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Microsomes, liver refers to a subcellular fraction of liver cells (hepatocytes) that are obtained during tissue homogenization and subsequent centrifugation. These microsomal fractions are rich in membranous structures known as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), particularly the rough ER. They are involved in various important cellular processes, most notably the metabolism of xenobiotics (foreign substances) including drugs, toxins, and carcinogens.

The liver microsomes contain a variety of enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, that are crucial for phase I drug metabolism. These enzymes help in the oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis of xenobiotics, making them more water-soluble and facilitating their excretion from the body. Additionally, liver microsomes also host other enzymes involved in phase II conjugation reactions, where the metabolites from phase I are further modified by adding polar molecules like glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetyl groups.

In summary, liver microsomes are a subcellular fraction of liver cells that play a significant role in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics, contributing to the overall protection and maintenance of cellular homeostasis within the body.

... is sulfated into androsterone sulfate and glucuronidated into androsterone glucuronide and these conjugates are ... Androsterone has been found to affect human behavior when smelled. Androsterone and its 5β-isomer, etiocholanolone, are ... Androsterone is found in the human axilla and skin as well as in the urine. It may also be secreted by human sebaceous glands. ... The view of androsterone as generally being of low significance however, seems to need review in the light of 21st century ...
... (also known as 1-andro, 1-dehydroepiandrosterone, 1-DHEA, δ1-epiandrosterone, or 5α-androst-1-en-3β-ol-17-one) ... "1-Androsterone": identification as 3β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-17-one and its urinary elimination". Steroids. 76 (6): 540-7. doi ... 4-Dehydroepiandrosterone Androsterone Epiandrosterone Parr MK, Opfermann G, Geyer H, Westphal F, Sönnichsen FD, Zapp J, ...
... (ADT-G) is a major circulating and urinary metabolite of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). ... ADT-G is formed from androsterone by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, with the major enzymes being UGT2B15 and UGT2B17. It is a ... 837-. ISBN 978-1-4557-2758-2. Metabocard for Androsterone Glucuronide (HMDB02829) - Human Metabolome Database v t e v t e ( ... 3α-Androstanediol Androsterone sulfate Etiocholanolone glucuronide "Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for ...
"Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Androsterone sulfate (HMDB0002759)". Metabocard for Androsterone Sulfate ( ... Androsterone sulfate, also known as 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one 3α-sulfate, is an endogenous, naturally occurring steroid ... Androsterone glucuronide Steroid sulfate C19H30O5S Mueller JW, Gilligan LC, Idkowiak J, Arlt W, Foster PA (2015). "The ... It is a steroid sulfate which is formed from sulfation of androsterone by the steroid sulfotransferase SULT2A1 and can be ...
Androsterone (to androsterone sulfate); Pregnenolone (to pregnenolone sulfate) SULT2B1a: Pregnenolone (to pregnenolone sulfate ...
Adolf Butenandt discovers androsterone. John Haven Emerson and August Krogh introduce new forms of negative pressure ventilator ...
Androsterone Epiandrosterone Etiocholanolone Arun Nagrath; Narendra Malhotra; Seth Shikha (31 July 2012). Progress in ...
1931 - Adolf Butenandt discovered androsterone. 1932 - Hans Adolf Krebs discovered the urea cycle. 1933 - Tadeus Reichstein ...
... , also known as 5β-androsterone, as well as 3α-hydroxy-5β-androstan-17-one or etiocholan-3α-ol-17-one, is an ... Androsterone Epiandrosterone Epietiocholanolone Etiocholanolone glucuronide Reddy DS (2010). "Neurosteroids". Sex Differences ... Kaminski RM, Marini H, Kim WJ, Rogawski MA (June 2005). "Anticonvulsant activity of androsterone and etiocholanolone". ... "Anticonvulsant potencies of the enantiomers of the neurosteroids androsterone and etiocholanolone exceed those of the natural ...
Androstane Androsterone Estratetraenol Gower, D. B.; Ruparelia, B. A. (1993). "Olfaction in humans with special reference to ...
Kaminski RM, Marini H, Kim WJ, Rogawski MA (June 2005). "Anticonvulsant activity of androsterone and etiocholanolone". ... 3α-Androstanediol 3β-Androstanediol Androsterone Epiandrosterone Hormones, Brain and Behavior Online. Academic Press. 18 June ...
Kaminski RM, Marini H, Kim WJ, Rogawski MA (2005). "Anticonvulsant activity of androsterone and etiocholanolone". Epilepsia. 46 ... 5α-androst-16-en-3-one Androsterone: 5α-androstan-3α-ol-17-one Estratetraenol: estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol Fasedienol ( ... GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator Androsterone: 5α-androstan-3α-ol-17-one - GABAA receptor positive allosteric ...
Adolf Butenandt identifies the sex hormone androsterone. The first electroencephalography is performed by Hans Berger. Nobel ...
E.h.) Androsterone Conjugated estriol Epiandrosterone Pregnenolone Szöllösi-Janze, Margit (2001). Science in the Third Reich ( ... progesterone and androsterone 1942: War Merit Cross, Second Class (Germany) 1943: War Merit Cross, First Class (Germany) 1953: ...
It is excreted mainly as androsterone glucuronide and etiocholanolone glucuronide. It is also excreted to a small extent as ... The major urinary metabolites of testosterone are androsterone glucuronide and etiocholanolone glucuronide. The elimination ...
Androstanediol glucuronide Androsterone glucuronide Etiocholanolone glucuronide Testosterone glucuronide Wishart, David S.; Guo ...
Androstanediol glucuronide Androsterone glucuronide Etiocholanolone glucuronide Testosterone sulfate Wishart, David S.; Guo, An ...
Silva's team was unable to explain the presence of androsterone in the Jan. 9 test. The commission rejected the defense and ... Silva also had traces of androsterone, a form of endogenous testosterone and also another banned substance. Silva was also ... overturned after he failed a drug test for drostanolone and androsterone. Diaz also failed a drug test for marijuana. The ...
In 2013 Calja was suspended for two years for using androsterone. He competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics in 69kg division ...
Androgen backdoor pathway Androsterone van Rooyen D, Gent R, Barnard L, Swart AC (April 2018). "The in vitro metabolism of 11β- ... 11-Ketoandrosterone is a 11-keto form and a metabolite of androsterone. 11-Ketoandrosterone belongs to a group of 11- ...
The result did not stand, however, as Sun failed a drugs test for androsterone. Her test at the Beijing Marathon the previous ...
Silva's team was unable to explain the presence of androsterone in 9 January test. The commission rejected the defense and ...
Along with androsterone glucuronide, it is one of the major inactive metabolites of testosterone. 3α,5β-Androstanediol 5β- ...
3β-Androstanediol Androsterone glucuronide Etiocholanolone glucuronide Moghissi E, Ablan F, Horton R (September 1984). "Origin ...
Silva's team was unable to explain the presence of androsterone in the Jan 9 test. The commission rejected the defense and ...
Androsterone and etiocholanolone are then glucuronidated and to a lesser extent sulfated similarly to testosterone. The ... Subsequently, 3α-androstanediol and 3α-etiocholanediol are converted by 17β-HSD into androsterone and etiocholanolone, which is ... An additional 40% of testosterone is metabolized in equal proportions into the 17-ketosteroids androsterone and etiocholanolone ...
Iraqi weightlifter Mohammed al Aifuri tested for positive for etiocholanolone and androsterone. It was his second failed drug ...
OH-androsterone) on 7 May 2006, at the International 42nd Presidential Cycling Tour of Turkey. He received a 2-year suspension ...
Androsterone 19-Noretiocholanolone 5α-Dihydronandrolone 5α-Dihydronorethisterone "THE 2007 PROHIBITED LIST INTERNATIONAL ...
... and androsterone. Androstenol is the putative female pheromone. In a 1978 study by Kirk-Smith, people wearing surgical masks ...
Androsterone is sulfated into androsterone sulfate and glucuronidated into androsterone glucuronide and these conjugates are ... Androsterone has been found to affect human behavior when smelled. Androsterone and its 5β-isomer, etiocholanolone, are ... Androsterone is found in the human axilla and skin as well as in the urine. It may also be secreted by human sebaceous glands. ... The view of androsterone as generally being of low significance however, seems to need review in the light of 21st century ...
Androsterone acetate (C21H32O3). *Fluvoxamine, carboxylic acid, methylated, acetylated (C17H21F3N2O4). ...
androsterone pheromone on 2 noviembre, 2011 at 7:33 pm I really loved your post and would like to know if I provide a link back ...
1-Androsterone (3α-hydroxy-5α-androst-1- ene-17-one) ...
ROBERTS, K. D., VANDEWIELE, R. L., and Lieberman, S. The conversion in vivo of dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate to androsterone ...
Urine Tests: Normal Values - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional Version.
Most of the circulating testosterone is metabolized in the liver into androsterone and etiocholanolone, which are conjugated ...
Androsterone & Sleep Hello all, I recently cycled Androsterone (2 drops daily) out of my regimen. I actually ran out but did ...
Dehydro Androsterone. CAT No: o2h-A002044. CAS No: 2283-82-1. Mol.F. : C19H28O2 ...
Chang HJ, Shi R, Rehse P, Lin SX: Identifying androsterone (ADT) as a cognate substrate for human dehydroepiandrosterone ... comparison of serum androstanediol glucuronide with urinary androsterone and aetiocholanolone excretion. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf ...
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Protodioscin, an active principle from the herb Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris), is converted to DHEA (De-Hydro-Epi-Androsterone ...
Androsterone UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase - Narrower Concept UI. M0022217. Preferred term. Androsterone UDP- ... Androsterone UDP Glucuronosyltransferase UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase, Androsterone p-Nitrophenyl UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase - ... Androsterone UDP Glucuronosyltransferase. Androsterone UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase. Bilirubin UDP Glucuronyltransferase. ... UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase, Androsterone. UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase, Estrogen. UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase, p-Nitrophenyl. ...
1-Androsterone Usage, Dosage, Benefits, Side Effects and Other Relevant Details 6 months ago ...
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List of words that start with An. Here you can find complete list of 700+ important words starting with an.
... and androsterone, sarms vs prohormones. I would at advice to play it safe brother. Canada sells sarms at vitamin shoppe? The ... androsterone (A); androstenedione hydrochloride (AHC) and therogen activity as determined by the following testosterone tests: ...
Androsterone (AN)…………………………………...Androgen Metabolite. *Etiocholanolone (ET) ………………………………..Androgen Metabolite *Progesterone ...
We are one of the world leading companies in manufacturing pharmaceutical standards, including stable-isotope labeled internal standards, metabolites, degradation compounds / impurities, and inhibitor reference compounds. Read More ...
A Stereocontrolled Annulation of the Taccalonolide Epoxy Lactone onto the Molecular Framework of trans-Androsterone. Danielsson ...
1-Androsterone is an androgenic sex hormone and is a metabolite of testosterone or androstenedione.. It is a Non-Methylated ... 1-Androsterone is a non-methylated compound whose primary Metabolite is 1-Androstendione (1-AD) in the body.. The nomenclature ... 1-DHEA Results: 1-Androsterone does not convert to estrogen, and actually has anti-estrogenic effects, which means it is a good ... 1-Androsterone products are great stackers, and can be stacked with almost any compound. ...
... short for androsterone) are testosterone esters. They are used to make androgens, which are the masculine hormones, in men, and ...
... and androsterone sulfate (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.46-1.02; p-value: 0.06; FDR p-value: 0.10). There was no association between sex ...
Ingredients: Androstadienone, DHEAS, Androstanone, Alpha-Androstenol, Androsterone, Epi-Androsterone, Estratetraenol.. Contains ...
... androsterone, which can also be found in maless perspiration. It additionally happens to be a flip-on for women! So get ...
4 Types of AndrosteRONE, Both Alpha and Beta AndrosteNOL, AndrostENONE and two other sexual masculine pheromones, A tiny amount ...
Examples of 17-ketosteroids include androstenedione, androsterone, estrone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. Indications/ ...
  • Do Me Seduce Her Obsessed Edition features an enhanced extra-strength, enduring, long-lasting formula of four pure pheromones: Androstenol, Androsterone, Androstenone, and Androstadienone. (do-me-erotic.com)
  • Androsterone and its 5β-isomer, etiocholanolone, are produced in the body as metabolites of testosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase converts the reduced forms to 3α-androstanediol and 3β-androstanediol, which are subsequently converted by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to androsterone and etiocholanolone, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Androsterone and etiocholanolone can also be formed from androstenedione via the action of 5α-reductase and 5β-reductase forming 5α-androstanedione and 5β-androstanedione which are then converted to androsterone and etiocholanolone by 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the circulating testosterone is metabolized in the liver into androsterone and etiocholanolone, which are conjugated with glucuronic acid or sulfuric acid and execrated in the urine as 17-ketosteroids. (medscape.com)
  • Androsterone is a metabolite of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). (wikipedia.org)
  • Androsterone has generally been considered to be an inactive metabolite of testosterone, which when conjugated by glucuronidation and sulfation allows testosterone to be removed from the body, but it is a weak neurosteroid that can cross into the brain and could have effects on brain function. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-Androsterone is an androgenic sex hormone and is a metabolite of testosterone or androstenedione. (legit-steroid-powder.com)
  • Spectrometric studies identify androsterone as the main backdoor androgen in the human male fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Androsterone is found in the human axilla and skin as well as in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Androsterone is sulfated into androsterone sulfate and glucuronidated into androsterone glucuronide and these conjugates are excreted in urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4,500 U.S. gal) of male urine, from which they got 50 milligrams (0.77 gr) of crystalline androsterone, which was sufficient to find that the chemical formula was very similar to estrone. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-Androsterone is a non-methylated compound whose primary Metabolite is 1-Androstendione (1-AD) in the body. (legit-steroid-powder.com)
  • 1-Androsterone does not convert to estrogen, and actually has anti-estrogenic effects, which means it is a good compound to use if you are doing a cutting cycle as it will aid in fat loss. (legit-steroid-powder.com)
  • Well, it incorporates an odor free hormone referred to as, androsterone, which can also be found in males's perspiration. (riverbistro.net)
  • Androsterone, or 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one, is an endogenous steroid hormone, neurosteroid, and putative pheromone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Androsterone has been found to affect human behavior when smelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Androsterone is also known to be an inhibitory androstane neurosteroid, acting as a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor, and possesses anticonvulsant effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comprising Androsterone, Epiandrosterone, and Bioperine, this supplement is formulated to optimize various aspects of the human body's functioning, promoting muscle development and overall well-being. (nattysuperstore.com)
  • With ingredients like 1-Androsterone and Epiandrosterone, Anavar - Hi Tech can help you increase muscle mass and strength while reducing body fat. (etejahatlaw.com)
  • Androsterone glucuronide to dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate ratio is discriminatory for obese Caucasian women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (bvsalud.org)
  • Four novel complexes were synthetized by aldol condensation reaction and characterized by different spectroscopic techniques using ferrocenecarboxaldehyde as starting material, and using the hormones ( 3α-hydroxy androstan-17-one (cis-androsterone), 3β-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (trans-androsterone), 3β-hydroxy pregn-5-en-20-one (pregnenolone) and 3β-hydroxy dehydroandrostan-17-one (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA)) as pendants groups. (uprm.edu)
  • What 4-androsterone does is act as an anabolic agent. (adjap.org)
  • Clenbuterol is an anabolic steroid containing 15% to 32% androsterone and other anabolic steroids. (kalakaary.com)
  • 83 : 2837-2847 Efficacy of oral aldosterone, the anabolic steroid, androsterone in enhancing androgen receptor activity, androgen binding density in humans, anabolic steroids effect on the heart. (chefellascateringevents.com)
  • 104 : 2382-2395 Effect of androgens in the rat central nervous system at low doses: influence of androsterone, anabolic steroids effects on females. (chefellascateringevents.com)
  • Androsterone glucuronide (ADTG) concentrations have been suggested as a marker of the effects of androgens at the target tissue level. (bvsalud.org)
  • Catalyzes the beta-oxidation at position 17 of androgens and estrogens and has 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity with androsterone. (joplink.net)
  • Androsterone: a chemical by-product created during the breakdown of androgens, or derived from progesterone, that also exerts minor masculinising effects, but with one-seventh the intensity of testosterone. (t-vox.org)
  • These rare-to-be-found-in-nature plant based compounds include androgens, DHEA, androsterone and more can be used to naturally boost testosterone levels. (naturalprogressionwellness.com)
  • In addition, saliva contains androsterone - a substance stimulating sexual desire. (kiss2nite.com)
  • and androsterone dehydrogenase activity. (nih.gov)
  • Male pigs intended for meat, are castrated surgically or immunologically before they reach sexual maturity and so before they produce androsterone . (laestrelladeljamon.es)