Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.SkatoleMeat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Androstenediol: An intermediate in TESTOSTERONE biosynthesis, found in the TESTIS or the ADRENAL GLANDS. Androstenediol, derived from DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE by the reduction of the 17-keto group (17-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES), is converted to TESTOSTERONE by the oxidation of the 3-beta hydroxyl group to a 3-keto group (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES).Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic: A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.beta-Aminoethyl Isothiourea: A radiation-protective agent that can inhibit DNA damage by binding to the DNA. It also increases the susceptibility of blood cells to complement-mediated lysis.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Butylated Hydroxytoluene: A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.Butylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Receptors, Pheromone: Cell surface receptors that respond to PHEROMONES.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Pheromones, Human: Chemical substances excreted by humans that elicit behavior or physiological responses from other humans. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Instinct: Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.Colostrum: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.ArizonaBibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis: A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Sphingolipids: A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Serine C-Palmitoyltransferase: A key enzyme in SPHINGOLIPIDS biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent condensation of L-SERINE and PALMITOYL COENZYME A to 3-dehydro-D-sphinganine. The enzyme consists of two different subunits.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sphingolipid Activator Proteins: A family of glycoprotein cofactors that are required for the efficient catabolization of SPHINGOLIPIDS by specific acid hydrolases such as GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE; GALACTOCEREBROSIDASE; BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE; and CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Sphingosine: An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Relationship between metabolism of androstenone and skatole in intact male pigs. (1/214)

The relationship between the metabolism of androsterone and skatole, the major compounds responsible for boar taint, was investigated in F4 Swedish Yorkshire x European Wild Pig intact males. The metabolism of androstenone and skatole were studied in liver microsomes, and the testicular steroid production was measured in testes microsomes. Including androstenone in the assays of skatole metabolism reduced the formation of 6-hydroxyskatole (pro-MII), and three other skatole metabolites (P<.05). The formation of three additional metabolites was not affected. Liver microsomal incubations of androstenone produced two metabolites, I and II. The rate of the formation of metabolite I and the rate of androstenone metabolism were correlated with the rate of skatole metabolism. Liver metabolism of androstenone was not related to levels of androstenone in fat. Testicular synthesis of 16-androstene steroids was correlated with combined synthesis of estrogens and androgens, plasma levels of androstenone, levels of skatole in fat, and skatole metabolism in the liver (P<.05). Plasma levels of estrone sulfate were correlated with levels of skatole in fat and with androstenone levels in fat and plasma and were negatively correlated with synthesis of skatole metabolite F-1 and pro-MII sulfation. These results indicate that the liver metabolism of androstenone and skatole are related. However, it is likely that the relationship between levels of androstenone and skatole in fat is due more to a link between the testicular synthesis of androstenone rather than to the metabolism of androstenone and skatole in the liver. Sex steroids may affect this relationship because of their biosynthesis along with androstenone and possible inhibition of skatole metabolism in the liver.  (+info)

Progesterone analogues similarly modulate endometrial matrix metalloproteinase-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 and their inhibitor in a model for long-term contraceptive effects. (2/214)

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are involved in normal menstruation, while MMP-1 and MMP-3 production by human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) is repressed in vitro by progesterone. We postulated that the repression by synthetic progestins of MMP production from HESCs may not be fully maintained in the long term, and that this may account for the disturbed uterine bleeding patterns in women using long-acting progestins. In this study, a long-term HESC culture model was established to compare the effects of natural progesterone and a number of synthetic analogues (ORG2058, medroxyprogesterone acetate, norethindrone acetate, levonorgestrel and drospirenone) on the production by these cells of MMP-1 and MMP-3 and TIMP-1. Zymographic and enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis of culture medium after 2 weeks showed that both natural progesterone and all of the synthetic progestins tested maintained a significant inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-3 production. Production of mRNA for MMP-1 and MMP-3 was also suppressed by all progestins, while TIMP production was increased. Thus, menstrual bleeding disturbances which occur during the use of synthetic progestins is not likely to result directly from changes in the effect of long-term progestin exposure on MMP-1 or MMP-3 or TIMP-1 production by HESCs.  (+info)

Association of cytochrome b5 with 16-androstene steroid synthesis in the testis and accumulation in the fat of male pigs. (3/214)

The 16-androstene steroids, one of the principal causes of boar taint, are synthesized in the testis by the andien-beta synthase enzyme system. This system has been shown in vitro to involve both cytochrome P450c17 and cytochrome b5. The objective of this work was to investigate the relationship between the levels of cytochrome b5 in the testis, in vitro steroidogenesis, and the accumulation of 16-androstene steroids in the fat of pubertal boars. We found that the in vitro rate of 16-androstene steroidogenesis in testis microsomes was correlated with 16-androstene steroid concentrations in fat (r = .66, P < .01). Western blots were used to determine the amounts of cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P450c17 protein in testis, and two immunoreactive cytochrome b5 proteins of approximately 12 and 16 kDa were found. Levels of cytochrome P450c17 or the high molecular weight cytochrome b5 in testis were not significantly correlated to levels of 16-androstene steroids in fat. However, levels of total cytochrome b5 immunoreactive protein and levels of the low molecular weight immunoreactive cytochrome b5 were correlated to fat 16-androstene steroid concentrations (r = .59, P < .001; r = .72, P = .0001, respectively). Levels of the low molecular weight immunoreactive cytochrome b5 were also correlated to 16-androstene steroid synthesis rates in vitro (r = .62, P < .05). These results indicate that increased levels of a low molecular weight immunoreactive cytochrome b5 protein, and not of cytochrome P450c17, are related to increased testicular 16-androstene steroid production and accumulation in fat. These results support the hypothesis that selection for reduced levels of this low molecular weight immunoreactive cytochrome b5 protein in the testis may result in decreased levels of 16-androstene steroids in fat and reduced boar taint in uncastrated male pigs.  (+info)

Use of the steroid derivative RPR 106541 in combination with site-directed mutagenesis for enhanced cytochrome P-450 3A4 structure/function analysis. (4/214)

RPR 106541 (20R-16alpha,17alpha-[butylidenebis(oxy)]-6al pha, 9alpha-difluoro-11beta-hydroxy-17beta-(methylthio)androst a-4-en-3-one) is an airway-selective steroid developed for the treatment of asthma. Two metabolites produced by human liver microsomes were identified as R- and S-sulfoxide diastereomers based on liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and cochromatography with standards. Sulfoxide formation was determined to be cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4-dependent by correlation with CYP3A4-marker nifedipine oxidase activity, inhibition by cyclosporin A and troleandomycin, and inhibition of R- (70%) and S- (64%) sulfoxide formation by anti-3A antibody. Expressed CYP2C forms catalyzed RPR 106541 sulfoxidation; however, other phenotyping approaches failed to confirm the involvement of CYP2C forms in these reactions in human liver microsomes. Expressed CYP3A4 catalyzed the formation of the sulfoxide diastereomers in a 1:1 ratio, whereas CYP3A5 displayed stereoselectivity for formation of the S-diastereomer. The high rate of sulfoxidation by CYP3A4 and the blockage of oxidative metabolism at the electronically favored 6beta-position provided advantages for RPR 106541 over other substrates as an active site probe of CYP3A4. Therefore, oxidation of RPR 106541 by various CYP3A4 substrate recognition site (SRS) mutants was assessed. In SRS-4, A305V and F304A showed dramatically reduced rates of R-diastereomer formation (83 and 64% decreases, respectively), but S-diastereomer formation was affected to a lesser extent. A370V (SRS-5) showed decreased formation of the R-sulfoxide (52%) but increased formation of the S-diastereomer. In the SRS-2 region, the most dramatic change in sulfoxide ratios was observed for L210A. In conclusion, the structure of RPR 106541 imposes specific constraints on enzyme binding and activity and thus represents an improved CYP3A4 probe substrate.  (+info)

Combined treatment with the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor PNU 157706 and the antiandrogen flutamide on the Dunning R3327 prostatic carcinoma in rats. (5/214)

The steroid 5 alpha-reductase enzyme catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to the potent androgen 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). PNU 157706, a novel, potent and selective dual 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, was reported to be effective in inhibiting the growth of established tumors in the Dunning R3327 rat prostatic carcinoma model. We have studied the efficacy of combined treatment with PNU 157706 and the antiandrogen flutamide in this prostatic tumor in rats. Rats with tumor diameters of about 1 cm were treated orally 6 days a week for 9 weeks with PNU 157706 (10 mg/kg per day) alone or in combination with flutamide (1 and 5 mg/kg per day). Animals were killed 24 h after the last treatment and ventral prostates were removed for testosterone and DHT determination. PNU 157706 reduced the growth of established tumors by 36%; flutamide showed a slight effect at 1 mg/kg per day (24% inhibition), while at the dose of 5 mg/kg per day it reduced tumor growth by 48%. The combination of PNU 157706 with the lower dose of flutamide caused an additive tumor growth inhibition (60%) and the combination with the higher dose of flutamide resulted in a better inhibition of tumor growth (68%) than did either treatment alone. Castration resulted in marked tumor growth inhibition (76%). Ventral prostate weight was more markedly reduced by PNU 157706 treatment than by flutamide; combined treatment was as effective as castration. Prostatic DHT content was markedly reduced by PNU 157706 (93%), whereas prostatic testosterone increased (137%). Concomitant treatment with flutamide partially antagonized the testosterone increase induced by PNU 157706 and did not modify the already considerable suppression of DHT. These data show that the inhibitory effects of PNU 157706 and flutamide on Dunning prostatic tumor growth are additive, thus supporting the rationale of this combination therapy in advanced prostate cancer, in order to achieve adequate androgen blockade with minimal side-effects.  (+info)

Social effects and boar taint: significance for production of slaughter boars (Sus scrofa). (6/214)

A study was conducted to elucidate the effects of social factors on the concentrations of boar taint substances, androstenone and skatole, in boars. The factors included dominance (social rank) and the effects of strongly tainted animals on other members of the group. Four successive replicates of 100 pigs (50 boars + 50 gilts) with an average live weight of 24 kg were randomly allocated to 10 pens of 10. Data for this study were collected during the period of 67 to 114 kg of live weight and included the repetitive recording of agonistic behavior during competitive feeding; blood sampling for determination of plasma androstenone, skatole and testosterone in boars; feces sampling for determination of skatole content; and collection of bulbourethral glands in boars, and uteri plus ovaries in gilts at slaughter, for the assessment of sexual maturity. Results show an influence of social rank on plasma concentrations of androstenone (P = .0001) and testosterone (P = .0001), the weight of the bulbourethral glands (P = .0001), and plasma skatole (P = .02). Pens were classified according to the pig with the highest concentration of androstenone in the pen into high, medium, and low maximum pens. In pens with high maximum concentrations of androstenone, the second-highest androstenone concentration (P = .0001), and the average concentration (P = .0003) in the pen were higher than those in pens with medium or low maximum concentrations of androstenone. Mean aggression level was also higher (P = .02), but pens with high maximum aggression level did not have higher mean androstenone concentration. Rank effect on androstenone was more important than aggression effect. Neither maximum androstenone concentration nor maximum aggression level in a pen was related to the pen mean stage of sexual maturity in either sex. No influences of rank, aggression, or aggression received were found on the feces skatole level, and no pheromonal communicative function was demonstrated for skatole. High androstenone concentrations did not have a suppressive effect on androstenone concentrations in other males of the group; on the contrary, the levels were increased. This may be due to a stimulating effect of androstenone and, possibly, mating activity. Consequently, in the production of boars for slaughter, strongly tainted animals should be avoided or removed and mating activity minimized. This could be facilitated by, for instance, slaughtering before sexual maturity or separate rearing of the sexes.  (+info)

Cholesterol movement in Niemann-Pick type C cells and in cells treated with amphiphiles. (7/214)

Cholesterol accumulates to massive levels in cells from Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) patients and in cells treated with class 2 amphiphiles that mimic NP-C disease. This behavior has been attributed to the failure of cholesterol released from ingested low density lipoproteins to exit the lysosomes. However, we now show that the rate of movement of cholesterol from lysosomes to plasma membranes in NP-C cells is at least as great as normal, as was also found previously for amphiphile-treated cells. Furthermore, the lysosomes in these cells filled with plasma membrane cholesterol in the absence of lipoproteins. In addition, we showed that the size of the endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol pool and the set point of the homeostatic sensor of cell cholesterol were approximately normal in NP-C cells. The plasma membrane cholesterol pools in both NP-C and amphiphile-treated cells were also normal. Furthermore, the build up of cholesterol in NP-C lysosomes was not a physiological response to cholesterol overload. Rather, it appeared that the accumulation in NP-C lysosomes results from an imbalance in the brisk flow of cholesterol among membrane compartments. In related experiments, we found that NP-C cells did not respond to class 2 amphiphiles (e.g. trifluoperazine, imipramine, and U18666A); these agents may therefore act directly on the NPC1 protein or on its pathway. Finally, we showed that the lysosomal cholesterol pool in NP-C cells was substantially and preferentially reduced by incubating cells with the oxysterols, 25-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol; these findings suggest a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of NP-C disease.  (+info)

The tetraspanin CD63/lamp3 cycles between endocytic and secretory compartments in human endothelial cells. (8/214)

In the present study, we show that in human endothelial cells the tetraspanin CD63/lamp3 distributes predominantly to the internal membranes of multivesicular-multilamellar late endosomes, which contain the unique lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid. Some CD63/lamp3 is also present in Weibel-Palade bodies, the characteristic secretory organelle of these cells. We find that CD63/lamp3 molecules can be transported from late endosomes to Weibel-Palade bodies and thus that CD63/lamp3 cycles between endocytic and biosynthetic compartments; however, movement of CD63/lamp3 is much slower than that of P-selectin, which is known to cycle between plasma membrane and Weibel-Palade bodies. When cells are treated with U18666A, a drug that mimics the Niemann-Pick type C syndrome, both proteins accumulate in late endosomes and fail to reach Weibel-Palade bodies efficiently, suggesting that P-selectin, like CD63/lamp3, cycles via late endosomes. Our data suggest that CD63/lamp3 partitions preferentially within late endosome internal membranes, thus causing its accumulation, and that this mechanism contributes to CD63/lamp3 retention in late endosomes; however, our data also indicate that the protein can eventually escape from these internal membranes and recycle toward Weibel-Palade bodies to be reused. Our observations thus uncover the existence of a selective trafficking route from late endosomes to Weibel-Palade bodies.  (+info)

Drospirenone, found in products such as Yaz® or Yasmin®, was found in two studies to carry a 2-3 fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism relative to other alternative oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel.
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Drospirenone is a synthetic progestin that is an analog to spironolactone. It is found in a number of birth control formulations. Drospirenone differs from other synthetic progestins in that its pharmacological profile in preclinical studies shows it to be closer to the natural progesterone. As such it has anti-mineralocorticoid properties, counteracts the estrogen-stimulated activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and is not androgenic. It was shown in animal studies that drospirenone exhibits antiandrogenic activity judging from accessory sex gland growth in castrated, androgen-treated, juvenile rats.
Competinginterests Thismanuscriptrepresentstheopinionsoftheauthorsandnotthoseofthe FoodandDrugAdministration.JMBisaphysicianscientistwhoreceives peerreviewfinancialsupportfromleFondsdelaRechercheenSantdu Qubec.Theauthorshavenoothercompetinginterests. Received:3October2011Accepted:30December2011 Published:30December2011 References1.Yasmin[packageinsert],WayneNJ:BayerHealthcarePharmaceuticals,Inc.; 2010. 2.TheWorldHealthOrganization: Cardiovasculardiseaseandsteroid hormonecontraception. TechnicalReportSeries877 Geneva:The Organization;1998. 3.MuhnP,FuhrmannU,FritzemeierKH,KrattenmacherR,SchillingerE: Drospirenone:anovelprogestogenwithantimineralocorticoidand antiandrogenicactivity. AnnNYAcadSci 1995, 761 :311-335. 4.HeinemannLA,DingerJ: Safetyofaneworalcontraceptivecontaining drospirenone. DrugSaf 2004, 27(13) :1001-1018. 5. Disordersoftheadrenalcortex. In Harrison sprinciplesofinternal medicine.. 18edition.Editedby:LongoDL,KasperDL,JamesonJL,FauciAS, HauserSL,LoscalzoJ.NewYork:McGraw-Hill;2011:. ...
Pharmacodynamics Drospirenone differs from added constructed progestins in that its pharmacological contour in preclinical studies shows it to be afterpiece to the accustomed progesterone. As such it has almighty antimineralocorticoid properties, counteracts the estrogen-stimulated action of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and has aswell been apparent to acquire balmy antiandrogen activity. The antimineralocorticoid backdrop apparent by drospirenone…
Drospirenone is a female hormone that helps regulate ovulation and menstruation. Estradiol is a female hormone involved in development and maintenance of the female reproductive system. Drospirenone and estradiol is a combination medicine used to treat symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, and vaginal dryness...
Drospirenone is a female hormone that helps regulate ovulation and menstruation. Estradiol is a female hormone involved in development and maintenance of the female reproductive system. Drospirenone and estradiol is a combination medicine used to treat symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, and vaginal dryness...
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Objectives: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease androgen levels, including testosterone (T), which may be associated with sexual dysfunction and mood complaints in some women. We have shown that co-administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to a drospirenone (DRSP) containing COC restored total T levels to baseline and free T levels by 47%. Here we describe the effects on sexual function, mood and quality of life of such an intervention. Study design: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 99 healthy COC starters. A COC containing 30 μg ethinylestradiol (EE) and 3 mg DRSP was used for 3 cycles, followed by 6 cycles of the same COC combined with 50 mg/day DHEA or placebo. Subjects completed the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire (MFSQ) and the short form of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q). Safety and tolerability, including effects on skin were evaluated. Results: The ...
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This medicine is not right for everyone. Do not use it if you had an allergic reaction to drospirenone or estradiol. Do not use it if you may be pregnant, or if you have adrenal gland disease, kidney disease, liver disease, or unusual vaginal bleeding that has not been checked by a doctor. Do not use this medicine if you have a history of breast or uterine cancer, heart attack, stroke, or blood clots ...
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Retention constants, RM0 and C0 for new androstene derivatives were determined at RP- and NP-TLC.•QSRR proved RM0 and C0 to account for lipophilicity of the ...
Could Yaz cause Asthma? We studied 29106 Yaz users who have side effects from FDA and social media. Among them, 28 have asthma. See what we found.. Drospirenone/Ethinyl Estradiol. ingrédient actif. Yasmin est un contraceptif oral. Les ingrédients actifs sont la. Desogestrel/Ethinyl estradiol. ingrédient actif.Ocella, the drospirenone containing drug,. Bayer Health - Care ran a promotional campaign to improve misrepresentations regarding Yaz.gianvi birth control coupons / Printable Coupon. YAZ or Gianvi? A:. Gianvi (drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol) is a member of the contraceptives drug.1 The legally binding text is the original French version TRANSPARENCY COMMITTEE OPINION 10 February 2010 LEELOO 0.1 mg/0.02 mg, coated tablet.DROSPIRENONE/ETHINYLESTRADIOL MYLAN 3 mg/0,03 mg cp pellic: Fiche abrégée, Médicament(s) proche(s).drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. yasmin; yasminelle; yaz; MeSH synonym: drospirenone, ethinyl estradiol drug. drospirenone and ethinylestradiol.. In combined hormonal ...
Drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol 3 mg/20 µg (24/4 day regimen): hormonal contraceptive choices – use of a fourth-generation progestin Gloria Bachmann, Sharon KopaczWomen’s Health Institute, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, USAAbstract: The combined oral contraceptive pill (COC) consisting of drospirenone 3 mg/ethinyl estradiol 20 µg (3 mg DRSP/20 µg EE-24/4) supplies 24 days of pills with hormones followed by 4 days of hormone-free pills. This regimen is called the 24/4 regimen. The progesterone component of this oral contraceptive pill (OCP), drospirenone (DRSP), is a fourth-generation progestin that has potent progestogenic, antimineralocorticoid, and antiandrogenic activity, which are unique characteristics compared with the other progestogens contained in most of the other OCPs currently marketed. This formulation, in addition to being an effective long-term OCP, has the additional medical benefit of providing a good parallel treatment for premenstrual
Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol drug usage statistics for the United States (2007 - 2017). Statistics include drug synonyms and therapeutic classes, including: Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol, Drospirenone And Ethinyl Estradiol, Kemeya, Kyra, LO-zumandimine, Loryna, Melamisa, Nikki, Syeda, Yaela, Yasmin, Yaz, Zumandimine.
Secretaría de Hacienda: Acuerdo por el que se otorga un Subsidio Fiscal a aquellos Contribuyentes Concesionarios, Permisionarios y Autorizados por la Autoridad.Need Yasmin Purchase Pharmaceutical. i want yasmin visa moneygram usa duo buy drospirenone-ethinyl-estradiol yasmin 3mg want to buy yasmin no script.Aleve levonorgestrel precio etinil estradiol - yasmin pedidos por correo etinilestradiol drospirenona. ^venta Drospirenone - Ethinyl Estradiol 3mg + 0.03mg^.. Bayer Schering Pharma, una unidad de Bayer AG de Alemania, ha obtenido la aprobación para Yaz (3mg drospirenone/ 20mcg ethinyl estradiol), una variante de baja dosis.Medication Name: Radiance Comparable patent medicine: Radiance Active ingredient: Drospirenone / Ethinylestradiol Presentation: Tablets Concentration: 3mg/30mcg ...
The prescription birth control pills Yaz (Drospirenone 3 mg and ethinyl estradiol 0.02 mg)and Yasmin (Drospirenone 3 mg and ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg) have been prescribed to hundreds of thousands of women to prevent pregnancy. These drugs have been linked to several serious medical conditions, including, but not limited to heart attack, stroke, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, blood clots, abnormal heart rhythm, gallbladder injury, and pancreatitis. In April of 2012, the United States Food and Drug Administration issued the following warning regarding these medications: "Based on presently available information on Yasmin, DRSP-containing COCs may be associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) than COCs containing the progestin levonorgestrel or some other progestins." On April 10, 2012, the United States Food and Drug Administration issued the following Safety Communication regarding these medications: "The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has completed ...
This page displays a blog entry. COMPRA YASMIN 3Mg EN LíNEA ⇒ CLIC AQUí ⇐ Comprar Yasmin Ethinyl Estradiol And Drospirenone Sin Receta Buen Precio Republica Dominicana ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone La posición en la relación inadecuad...
Drospirenone is a synthetic progestin that is an analog to spironolactone. It is found in a number of birth control formulations. Drospirenone differs from other synthetic progestins in that its pharmacological profile in preclinical studies shows it to be closer to the natural progesterone. As such it has anti-mineralocorticoid properties, counteracts the estrogen-stimulated activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and is not androgenic ...
Get Yasmin is used as contraception to prevent pregnancy.. Yasmin (Drospirenone - Ethinyl Estradiol 3mg + 0.03mg) £1.92 pill - Womens Health, Birth Control @ Trusted Tablets Pharmacy : No Prescription. How to Buy Prescription Drugs (Trusted Tablets) without a Prescription Legally From Europe, Canada, or Mexico.
Beyaz can be a dangerous drug. Beyaz combines drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. Beyaz can cause heart attack, stroke, blood clots
Gianvi is used to prevent pregnancy as a birth control pill. It contains two types of hormones, Ethinyl Estradiol and Drospirenone. This drugs when taken, will be able to prevent...
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Yasmin is a combination of two compounds namely, Drospirenone and ethinylestradiol, that prevents release of an egg from ovary, a process known as ovulation.
Buy Crisanta Ls Online at low price in UK, Australia, China to prevent pregnancy. This tablet contains Ethinylestradiol and Drospirenone as active ingredient.
COCs containing EE may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds. COCs have been shown to significantly decrease plasma concentrations of lamotrigine, likely due to induction of lamotrigine glucuronidation. This may reduce seizure control; therefore, dosage adjustments of lamotrigine may be necessary. Consult the labeling of the concurrently-used drug to obtain further information about interactions with COCs or the potential for enzyme alterations. In vitro, EE is a reversible inhibitor of CYP2C19, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 as well as a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP3A4/5, CYP2C8, and CYP2J2. Metabolism of DRSP and potential effects of DRSP on hepatic CYP enzymes have been investigated in in vitro and in vivo studies. In in vitro studies DRSP did not affect turnover of model substrates of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6, but had an inhibitory influence on the turnover of model substrates of CYP1A1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4, with CYP2C19 being the most sensitive enzyme. The potential effect of DRSP on CYP2C19 ...
COCs containing EE may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds. COCs have been shown to significantly decrease plasma concentrations of lamotrigine, likely due to induction of lamotrigine glucuronidation. This may reduce seizure control; therefore, dosage adjustments of lamotrigine may be necessary. Consult the labeling of the concurrently-used drug to obtain further information about interactions with COCs or the potential for enzyme alterations. In vitro, EE is a reversible inhibitor of CYP2C19, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 as well as a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP3A4/5, CYP2C8, and CYP2J2. Metabolism of DRSP and potential effects of DRSP on hepatic CYP enzymes have been investigated in in vitro and in vivo studies. In in vitro studies DRSP did not affect turnover of model substrates of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6, but had an inhibitory influence on the turnover of model substrates of CYP1A1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4, with CYP2C19 being the most sensitive enzyme. The potential effect of DRSP on CYP2C19 ...
1. Xue JL, Dial GD, Pettigrew J. Performance, carcass, and meat quality advantages of boars over barrows: A literature review. Swine Hlth Prod 1997;5:21-28.. 2. Bratzler LJ, Soule RP, Reineke EP, Paul P. The effects of testosterone and castration on the growth and carcass characteristics of swine. J Anim Sci. 1954;13:171-176.. 3. Self HL. The problem of pork odor. Proc 9th Am Meat Inst Found Res Conference, University of Chicago, 1957;9:53.. 4.Beery KE, Sink JD, Patton S, Ziegler JH. Characterization of the swine sex odor (SSO) components in boar fat volatiles. J Food Sci. 1971;36:1086-1090.. 5. Griffiths NM, Patterson RLS. Human olfactory responses to 5[alpha]-androst-16-en-3-one -principal component of boar taint. J Sci Food Agric. 1970;21:4-6.. 6. Vold E. Fleischproduktionseigenschaften bei Ebern und Kastraten. IV. Organoleptische und gaschromatografische Untersuchungen Wasserdampfflüchtiger Stooffe des Rückenspeckes von Ebern. Meld Nordlandrukshoegsk. 1970;49:1-25.. 7. Williams LD, Pearson ...
Total dysmenorrheal score was defined as sum of 2 sub-scores: severity of dysmenorrhea (none: 0, mild: 1, moderate: 2, severe: 3) and use of analgesics (none: 0, mild: 1, moderate: 2, severe: 3). Total possible best is 0, and total possible worst is 6. Note: used with permission of Nobelpharma Co., Ltd. from the phase 3 clinical study protocol (Prog Med 2005:25 (3):739-758) of IKH-01 in dysmenorrhea (associated with endometriosis) (Nobelpharma Co., Ltd ...
Baes, C; Mattei, S; Luther, H; Ampuero, S; Sidler, X; Bee, G; Spring, P; Hofer, A (2013). A performance test for boar taint compounds in live boars. Animal, 7(05):714-720.. Enz, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bettschart, R; Fuschini, E; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X (2013). Erfahrungen zur Schmerzausschaltung bei der Ferkelkastration in der Schweiz. Teil 1: Inhalationsanästhesie. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 155(12):651-659.. Enz, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bettschart, R; Fuschini, E; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X (2013). Erfahrungen zur Schmerzausschaltung bei der Ferkelkastration in der Schweiz. Teil 2: Injektionsanästhesie. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 155(12):661-668.. Künzli, F. Nachweis von PCV2-spezifischen antikörpern in der Hodengewebsflüssigkeit kastrierter Ferkel zur Überprüfung der Mutterschutzimpfung. 2013, University of Zurich, Vetsuisse Faculty.. Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R; Stauffer, S; Hässig, M; Flaherty, D C; Ringger, S (2013). Racemic ketamine in comparison to S-ketamine in ...
US - A US Department of Animal Sciences study has shown that repeated exposure to boar taint makes people more susceptible and aware of the smell.
Department of Chemistry, UBC Faculty of Science. Vancouver Campus. 2036 Main Mall. Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z1. Tel: 604.822.3266. Fax: 604.822.2847. ...
Dr. Olson responded: Another opinion. The measure that really matters is the free testosterone. Often this is not the reference value. It is altered by the amount of |a href="/topics/sex" track_data="{
Yaz Plus: This combination medication contains 3 medications: drospirenone, ethinyl estradiol and levomefolate. Drospirenone is a progestin and ethinyl estradiol is an estrogen. Both are female hormones that, when combined, they are used as a birth control pill to prevent pregnancy.
Drospirenone / Ethinyl Estradiol is a combination of two active ingredients used to prevent pregnancy and to regularize periods. Know Drospirenone / Ethinyl Estradiol!
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
This medicine is not right for everyone. Do not use it if you had an allergic reaction to drospirenone, ethinyl estradiol, or levomefolate, or if you are pregnant. Do not use this medicine if you have certain heart problems, adrenal gland problems, kidney disease, liver disease, migraines, unusual vaginal bleeding that has not been checked by a doctor, or kidney, eye, nerve, or blood vessel damage caused by diabetes. Do not use this medicine if you have a history of breast cancer, blood clots, heart attack, or stroke ...
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As plaintiff lawyers we see a lot of sad things, but nothing compares with the sadness of a young persons death as the result of corporate greed.. Take for example the story of YAZ, a blockbuster drug for big pharma but a source of heartache for too many young women who were irreversibly injured or killed as a result of ingesting YAZs main ingredient drospirenone (DRSP). A fourth-generation artificial progestin, DRSP can raise potassium to life-threatening levels, causing dehydration that may lead to blood clotting and numerous other related health crises. YAZ was approved by the FDA in 2001 for birth control use only. But if you happened to catch Bayers 30 second TV spot, "Not Gonna Take It," youd think that the drug did much more than prevent pregnancies - and that it was safe. In fact the ads specifically touted the drug not only for birth control, but also for treatment of just about whatever was making young women feel less than their best.. Catch this opening line of one TV spot run ...
Ten pregnant Angora goat does were used to investigate the effect of intrafoetal administration of androstenedione on maternal oestrogen levels and pregnancy. In the experimental group 66,7% aborted while no abortions occurred in the control group.
Comprehensive alcohol & food interactions for Ocella (drospirenone / ethinyl estradiol). Includes High Blood Pressure (Hypertension), High Cholesterol (Hyperlipoproteinemia, Hypertriglyceridemia, Sitosterolemia)
Pill with imprint E6 is White, Round and has been identified as Drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol inert. It is supplied by Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA.
In a 21 to 5 vote on Thursday, U.S. Food and Drug Administration advisers said that the labels on certain oral contraceptives do not adequately reflect the risk-benefit profile of these drugs. The pills in question contain the hormone drospirenone.
Generic Angeliq (drospirenone and estradiol) is a revolutionary tablet that is made to bring relief for the most common symptoms associated with menopause. While menopause may be a womanly rite of ...
Generic Angeliq (drospirenone and estradiol) is a revolutionary tablet that is made to bring relief for the most common symptoms associated with menopause. While menopause may be a womanly rite of ...
... 19.04.2009, Associated Press U.S. manufacturers, including major drugmakers, have legally released at least 271 million pounds of pharmaceutical...
I am also grateful for the wealth of information of alternative methods of raising pigs. When I wanted to breed Peanut, I was told she would need AId. I was warned repeatedly that letting her pig in her 75″ square pen in the woods would be disastrous-she would crush or eat her piglets. I sold or tithed 5 piglets as feeders and the rest I turn out nearly every day to forage over our 10 acres. Despite the lack of "appropriate" woven wire boundary fencing-we have barbed wire-only once did the little porkers wander off to the neighbors pasture…mostly they stay with the horses & my blind cow. Now, once again, I am fighting "traditional" methods. I am operating on faith concerning the boar taint. Even after discussing with 2 people the reasoning behind not cutting the boars (& these boars would be isolated-miles from the nearest hogs), the vet convinced them they HAD to be cut…& then charged $180 to cut them! Altough I am not sure, I believe Peanut to be a Large Black/Duroc cross and the boar ...
I am also grateful for the wealth of information of alternative methods of raising pigs. When I wanted to breed Peanut, I was told she would need AId. I was warned repeatedly that letting her pig in her 75″ square pen in the woods would be disastrous-she would crush or eat her piglets. I sold or tithed 5 piglets as feeders and the rest I turn out nearly every day to forage over our 10 acres. Despite the lack of "appropriate" woven wire boundary fencing-we have barbed wire-only once did the little porkers wander off to the neighbors pasture…mostly they stay with the horses & my blind cow. Now, once again, I am fighting "traditional" methods. I am operating on faith concerning the boar taint. Even after discussing with 2 people the reasoning behind not cutting the boars (& these boars would be isolated-miles from the nearest hogs), the vet convinced them they HAD to be cut…& then charged $180 to cut them! Altough I am not sure, I believe Peanut to be a Large Black/Duroc cross and the boar ...
Posted by Philip Dru on 4/19/09 U.S. manufacturers, including major drugmakers, have legally released at least 271 million pounds of pharmaceuticals into
The British prime minister's family finances are receiving unflattering scrutiny after a trove of internal Mossack Fonseca documents detailed his father's offshore banking activity.
Product Name: Drospirenone & Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets. Common Name: Birth Control Pills. Strength: 3 mg & 0.03 mg. Description:. Drospirenone is an ingredient in some birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy. In combination with ethinyl estradiol it is used as contraception, and it is also used to treat moderate acne and premenstrual dysphoric disorder all of which are combination products of drospirenone with an estrogen such as ethinylestradiol or estradiol. This medication is a combination of 2 hormones: an estrogen (ethinyl estradiol) and a progestin (drospirenone).. Indications and Usage:. Drospirenone and Ethinyl Estradiol tablets are indicated for use by women to prevent pregnancy.. Drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol is also indicated for the treatment of symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in women who choose to use an oral contraceptive as their method of contraception. The effectiveness of drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol for PMDD when used for more than three ...
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Assessment of dysmenorrhea and bleeding symptoms in 83 patients in 0-3 scale. Evaluated Before After symptom treatment treatment Compounds Pathology Dysmenorrhea 3 0 Drospirenone Myoma Ethinyl Estradiol Resveratrol Dysmenorrhea 3 0 Drospirenone Endometriosis Ethinyl Estradiol Resveratrol Dysmenorrhea 3 1 Drospirenone Endometriosis Ethinyl Estradiol Resveratrol Dysmenorrhea 3 0 Drospirenone Endometriosis Ethinyl Estradiol Resveratrol Dysmenorrhea 3 1 Drospirenone Myoma Ethinyl Estradiol Resveratrol Dysmenorrhea 3 0 Drospirenone Endometriosis Ethinyl Estradiol Resveratrol Dysmenorrhea 3 0 Drospirenone Myoma Ethinyl Estradiol Resveratrol Dysmenorrhea 3 1 Drospirenone Myoma Ethinyl Estradiol Resveratrol Dysmenorrhea 3 0 Drospirenone Endometriosis Ethinyl Estradiol Resveratrol Dysmenorrhea 3 0 Drospirenone Myoma Ethinyl Estradiol Resveratrol Dysmenorrhea 3 0 Drospirenone Adenomyosis Ethinyl Estradiol Resveratrol Dysmenorrhea 3 0 Drospirenone Adenomyosis Ethinyl Estradiol ...
Weston, Florida, Apotex Corp. is voluntarily recalling four lots of Drospirenone and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets, USP to the patient /user level. The four recalled lots of Drospirenone and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets, USP may possibly contain defective blisters with incorrect tablet arrangements and/or...
Drospirenone vs levonorgestrel - What are the levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol levels in the birth control zarah (ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone)? Look up PI Online. Look up the pi (prescribing information), the fda summary of components and human clinical trial data. See: http://pi. Actavis. Com/data_stream. Asp? Product_group=1691&p=pi&language=e and https://en. Wikipedia. Org/wiki/oral_contraceptive_formulations.
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The technical field. The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol, the method of obtaining the solution of drospirenone, methods of inhibiting ovulation by injection of drospirenone, as well as to the use of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol for inhibition of ovulation.. Background of the invention. Oral contraceptives contain a combination of components such as the gestagen and estrogen used with the 1960s, The earliest contraceptives included 21 tablet containing a combination of active agents, and 7 pills containing no active agent, and the amount of each active agent in each tablet was the same (so-called "single-phase drugs"). Were subsequently developed drugs, including pills containing various amounts and ratios of active agents in the cycle of administration (the so-called "multiphase drugs").. The reliability of the contraceptive mainly provides such a component as a gestagen. Daily intake should be at least the minimum dose ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 1 257 280, based on European patent application No. 01900579.2, which was filed as an international application published as WO 01/52857, was granted with fifty-five claims.. Claim 1 as granted reads as follows:. 1. A pharmaceutical composition in the form of an oral dosage form comprising. i) an estrogen with exception of ethinyl estradiol;. ii) drospirenone in an amount corresponding to a daily dose ranging from 0.25 to 10 mg; and. iii) a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient or carrier,. wherein said drospirenone is in a form having a surface area of more than 10.000 cm**(2)/g.. Independent claim 2 as granted reads as follows:. 2. A pharmaceutical composition in the form of an oral dosage form comprising. i) an estrogen with the exception of ethinyl estradiol;. ii) drospirenone in an amount corresponding to a daily dose ranging from 0.25 to 10 mg; and. iii) a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient or carrier;. wherein drospirenone is ...
Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) disease is an autosomal, recessive, neurovisceral disorder associated with defects in cholesterol and glycolipid trafficking and metabolism, leading to the accumulation of cholesterol in the late endosomes and lysosomes. This leads to organ enlargement, progressive neurodegeneration, and premature death. There is little known about the link between the alterations in cholesterol in NPC disease and neuronal dysfunction, and currently there is no effective therapy for this disorder. To gain insight to the effects of NPC disease on neurons of the central nervous system, I have examined aspects of neuronal function altered by cholesterol, and potentially NPC disease, including neurotrophin sensitivity and the development of synaptic interactions in neurons of the central nervous system. In addition, I have assessed the in vivo effect of injecting an adenovirus expressing an NPC1-GFP fusion gene into the cerebellum, a major target of NPC disease, in an attempt to explore the ...
Yasmin and Yaz are oral contraceptives (birth control pills) manufactured for the prevention of pregnancy. Yasmin was approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in 2001, Yaz was approved by the FDA in 2006. Yaz and Yasmin prevent pregnancy by combining estrogen and a synthetic progestin known as "drospirenone".. Drospirenone is a dangerous drug. According to the FDA birth control pills containing drospirenone may be associated with a significantly higher risk of blood clots or DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis) than birth control pills that do not contain drospirenone. Since blood clots move through the body, there may be a threefold increased risk for heart attack, stroke, pulmonary embolism and even death due to DVT.. Women who are otherwise completely healthy, have experienced injuries and side effects after taking Yaz, Yasmin or Ocella. In fact, Yasmin and Yaz have been linked to fifty deaths and hundreds of injuries.. Yaz and Yasmin lawsuit settlements have reached $402 million, Bayer AG ...
Beyaz contains 3-mg of drospirenone. Drospirenone is a new type of synthetic progestin, a type of female reproductive hormone. Most oral birth control pills contain a combination of synthetic estrogen and progestin. There are many different kinds of synthetic progestin, and they all increase a womans risk of developing DVT or a blood clot. The risk with drospirenone, however, is likely around three times higher than for other progestins. In fact, the FDA has recently decided to update the warning information on Beyaz to inform women of this risk.. Blood clots usually form in a condition called Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). These clots form in veins deep inside the lower legs, thighs, pelvis, upper arms, or other parts of the body. They are most common in the lower legs. Once a Beyaz DVT blood clot begins to grow, there is a high risk that part of it will become an embolism. An embolism can travel to the lungs and cause a pulmonary embolism, in which lung tissue begins to die. If untreated, a ...
The purpose of this paper is to reduce boar taint, degrade one of the substances that caused boar taint-skatole by processing, so skatole blend of organic solution was selected as test material in vit
THE NETHERLANDS - With regulations ahead restricting castration of male pigs in a number of countries, Hypor is working on the selection of boars with a reduced incidence of boar taint.
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NP-C) is characterized by a number of highly variable clinical symptoms that can be categorized as visceral (systemic), neurological or psychiatric.
As Niemann-Pick type C disease (NP-C) is a progressive disease, early diagnosis is critical to ensure that patients can start disease-specific therapy.
ABSTRACT: Although the risk of venous thromboembolism is increased among oral contraceptive users compared with nonusers who are not pregnant and not taking hormones, and some data have suggested that use of drospirenone-containing pills has a higher risk of venous thromboembolism, this risk is still very low and is much lower than the risk of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and the immediate postpartum period. When prescribing any oral contraceptive, clinicians should consider a womans risk factors for venous thromboembolism and refer to the U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Con... ...
Follow the patient instructions provided with your medicine. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you do not understand these instructions. Missing a pill increases your risk of becoming pregnant.. If you miss 1 active pill, take 2 pills on the day that you remember. Then take 1 pill per day for the rest of the pack.. If you miss 2 active pills in a row in Week 1 or 2, take 2 pills per day for 2 days in a row. Then take 1 pill per day for the rest of the pack. Use back-up birth control for at least 7 days following the missed pills.. If you miss 2 active pills in a row in Week 3, throw out the rest of the pack and start a new pack the same day if you are a Day 1 starter. If you are a Sunday starter, keep taking a pill every day until Sunday. On Sunday, throw out the rest of the pack and start a new pack that day.. If you miss 3 active pills in a row in Week 1, 2, or 3, throw out the rest of the pack and start a new pack on the same day if you are a Day 1 starter. If you are a Sunday starter, keep ...
Visit your doctor or health care professional for regular checks on your progress. You will need a regular breast and pelvic exam and Pap smear while on this medicine.. Use an additional method of contraception during the first cycle that you take these tablets.. If you have any reason to think you are pregnant, stop taking this medicine right away and contact your doctor or health care professional.. If you are taking this medicine for hormone related problems, it may take several cycles of use to see improvement in your condition.. Smoking increases the risk of getting a blood clot or having a stroke while you are taking birth control pills, especially if you are more than 35 years old. You are strongly advised not to smoke.. This medicine can make your body retain fluid, making your fingers, hands, or ankles swell. Your blood pressure can go up. Contact your doctor or health care professional if you feel you are retaining fluid.. This medicine can make you more sensitive to the sun. Keep out ...
Visit your doctor or health care professional for regular checks on your progress. You will need a regular breast and pelvic exam and Pap smear while on this medicine.. Use an additional method of contraception during the first cycle that you take these tablets.. If you have any reason to think you are pregnant, stop taking this medicine right away and contact your doctor or health care professional.. If you are taking this medicine for hormone related problems, it may take several cycles of use to see improvement in your condition.. Smoking increases the risk of getting a blood clot or having a stroke while you are taking birth control pills, especially if you are more than 35 years old. You are strongly advised not to smoke.. This medicine can make your body retain fluid, making your fingers, hands, or ankles swell. Your blood pressure can go up. Contact your doctor or health care professional if you feel you are retaining fluid.. This medicine can make you more sensitive to the sun. Keep out ...
It is no secret that Endometriosis is an extremely painful disease. Unfortunately, science has yet to determine a treatment that can effectively treat the disease…
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides some advice for people who have suffered a stroke. According to the CDC, post-stroke care may involve emergency care, treatment to prevent another stroke, or some combination of the three.. A stroke may occur when a blood vessel bursts in the brain, which is called a "hemorrhagic stroke." But about 85 percent of all strokes are "ischemic," meaning that blood flow to the brain is blocked by an obstruction such as a blood clot.. Risk factors include diabetes, long periods of physical inactivity, high blood pressure and a family history of stroke. Use of birth control pills can increase the risk of the blood clots that trigger ischemic strokes.. While all birth control pills can increase the risk of blood clots, a number of studies show that pills with the synthetic hormone drospirenone can increase that risk up to three times compared to other contraceptives on the market. Pills with drospirenone include Yasmin, Yaz, Beyaz and ...
It is unlikely that a postmenopausal woman may become pregnant. But, you should know that using this medicine while you are pregnant could harm your unborn baby. If you think you have become pregnant while using the medicine, tell your doctor right away. Using this medicine may increase your risk for having blood clots, strokes, or heart attacks. This risk may continue even after you stop using the medicine. Your risk for these serious problems is even greater if you have high blood pressure, high cholesterol in your blood, diabetes or are overweight or smoke cigarettes. Contact your doctor immediately if you experience confusion, difficulty speaking, double vision, headaches, an inability to move arms, legs or facial muscle, or an inability to speak. Using this medicine may increase your risk of breast cancer or other types of cancer. Talk with your doctor about this risk. Check with your doctor immediately if your experience abnormal vaginal bleeding. Using this medicine may increase your risk ...
Dementia is on the rise globally due to an ever increasing aging population. In particular, Alzheimers disease is 43% higher amongst woman. It has been proposed that the reduction in ovarian estrogen production after menopause may contribute to this difference. Memory and mood complaints, including lack of clarity of thought and memory or difficulty finding words, are frequent in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The frequency of objectively measured hot flashes in postmenopausal women has been found to be a predictor of delayed verbal memory, with verbal fluency being significantly correlated with the number of daytime hot flashes ...
Soon after birth, a babys blood is sampled and tested for a number of rare inherited conditions, but no such test has existed for Niemann-Pick type C (NPC).
Pfizer Animal Health announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Improvest (gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid conjugate). Farmers have the option to use this safe and effective veterinary prescription product for temporary immunological castration and reduction of boar taint in intact male pigs intended for pork.
It is interesting to note that both the Progesterone and DHEA pathways can lead to the production of Testosterone and the various estrogens. Androstene and/or DHEA and Androstene together will be effective. The rash of products, ads articles and hype are, nevertheless, quite premature for the predicate that they increase active Testosterone levels or anabolic effect through that pathway. By the way, it is beyond the scope of this article but we are quite aware of the assertion that Tribulus Terrestris, a source of Furostanol Saponins, (an herbal complex) raises 17-Beta hydroxysteroid hydrogenase levels. The latest research on DHEA in obesity reveals that weight loss leads to Insulin reduction and 125 percent increase in DHEA in men. This seems to suggest that the body likes to lose weight through the DHEA pathway, but that may be wishful thinking.. Cautions for Synthetic DHEA. - There are no reported significant complications from DHEA supplementation However with synthetic DHEA some side ...
... Chemical Names: 17beta-hydroxyandrost-1-en-3-one, 5alpha-androst-1-en-3-one, 17beta-ol *1-Test is 5-7 times more active (anabolic ) than...
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Burden of Menstrual Pain Measured by Heatmap Visualization of Daily Patient-Reported Data in Japanese Patients Treated with Ethinylestradiol/Drospirenone: A Randomized Controlled Study
Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?. Before you begin taking a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should take this medication.. Blood clots: All hormonal contraceptives can increase the risk of developing blood clots. Some studies show that birth control pills containing drospirenone have a higher risk of blood clots compared to other birth control pills. Tell your doctor if you have a history of blood clots or are at risk of developing blood clots. Inform your doctor if you are planning an upcoming surgery or if you will be immobilized or inactive for a prolonged period of time (i.e., through accident or illness), as there is an increased risk of blood clot formation when using combination hormone contraceptives. If you experience crushing chest pain ...
3-(2-(Diethylamino)ethyl)-5-methylisoxazole citrate | C16H26N2O8 | CID 13779 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
109475-73-2 - UECZYPYRMGJCSA-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Butyramide, 2-(diethylamino)-N-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-, hydrochloride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
How do the senses of wine enthusiasts detect cork taint (the presence of the chemical TCA)? Is it a certain smell, like the musty pages of an old hymnal, or is it indicated by a general dampening of aroma and flavor? Find out how much of the phenomenon is subjective-and when to open another bottle.
DEAE diethylamine column screening method development housing exchange biomolecules chemistry virus VLP proteins pDNA
DEAE diethylamine column screening method development housing exchange biomolecules chemistry virus VLP proteins pDNA
Watchdog groups say scientists advising the Bush administration are at it again: this time under Pentagon pressure to argue that the thyroid-affecting chemical perchlorate is safer in drinking water than the EPA has found.
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Robert Biggum Henderson, a convicted drug dealer and admitted junkie, says he has lived most of his life by the law of the streets. Dont snitch. I dont talk about...
Instead, the master nestled back onto his makeshift chair, crafted from panels ripped off the floor, as well as the bones of numerous henchemen who had displeased him over the years. It was a justified action, since any form of ineptitude could have been caused by the slightest form of Scourge taint. Yes, he would think to himself. It was necessary to kill them, otherwise he had risked that his Crusade was tainted by the Scourge, the unrelenting force of undead that threatened the livelihood of the Human race, or, in light of recent events, his Human race ...
Buy Jasmine (drospirenone Ethinyl) 3.03mg online without prescription in USA, Canada, Australia, UK and Europe. Fast order delivery. Worldwide shipping. FDA approved RX online pharmacy.
16-Androstenes, or androst-16-enes, are a class of endogenous androstane steroids that includes androstadienol, androstadienone ... Some of the 16-androstenes, such as androstenone and androstenol, are odorous, and have been confirmed to contribute to human ... "Olfaction in humans with special reference to odorous 16-androstenes: their occurrence, perception and possible social, ...
... androstenes MeSH D04.808.054.079.129 --- androstadienes MeSH D04.808.054.079.129.453 --- methandrostenolone MeSH D04.808. ...
Androstenes. Accession Number. DBCAT000980. Description. Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least ...
Androstenes. *Chemical Actions and Uses. *Gonadal Hormones. *Gonadal Steroid Hormones. *Hormones. *Hormones, Hormone ...
16-androstenes and 5[alpha]-androstenone. Physiology of 16-androstenes. The 16-androstenes are synthesized primarily in Leydig ... Measurement of 16-androstenes (5[alpha]-androst-16-en-3- one/5[alpha]-androst-16-en-3[alpha]-ol) in saliva of mature boars of ... Factors influencing 16-androstenes. Genetics. Distinct breed differences in taint compounds and taint were reported. Piétrain ... The 16-androstenes in the circulatory system also are transported to the salivary glands, where they function as pheromones and ...
16-substituted androstanes and 16-substituted androstenes. US5006517 *. Jul 24, 1989. Apr 9, 1991. Progenics, Inc.. Treatment ... Derivatives of DHEA, such as 16-substituted androstanes and 16-substituted androstenes, are described in U.S. Pat. No. ... 16-substituted androstenes, 17 hydroxy-steroids, α-HET, β-HET, and Δ4-androstenedione. ...
UP-regulation of immune system with Δ 5-Androstenes. US5641768 *. Oct 23, 1995. Jun 24, 1997. Loria; Roger M.. 5-androstene 3β ... Treatment of immune system with Δ5-androstenes. US5641766 *. Sep 13, 1995. Jun 24, 1997. Humanetics Corporation. ... Δ5-androstenes useful for promoting weight maintenance or weight loss and treatment process. ... Treatment of alzheimers disease and modulation of immune system with Δ5-androstenes. ...
Treatment of immune system with Δ5-androstenes. US5607915 *. Apr 25, 1994. Mar 4, 1997. Inhale Therapeutic Systems. Pulmonary ... Treatment of alzheimers disease and modulation of immune system with δ5-androstenes. ...
Androstenes / chemistry*, pharmacology*. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects*. Cattle. Cells, Cultured. Lens, Crystalline / drug ... 0/Androstenes; 0/Sterols; 3039-71-2/3-beta-(2-(diethylamino)ethoxy)androst-5-en-17-one ...
0 (Androgens); 0 (Androstenes); 0 (Hydroxytestosterones); 04Y4D91RG0 (pregnenolone sulfate); 1816-85-9 (11-hydroxytestosterone ...
Studies of 16-androstenes in an infant with virilizing adrenal carcinoma.. Gregory T, Gardner LI, Gower DB, Bicknell DC, Barlow ...
Androstenes [D04.808.054.079]. *Androstenols [D04.808.054.079.429]. *Androstenediols [D04.808.054.079.429.154]. * ...
Categories: Androstenes Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 1 ...
Bensasson, C.M.; Hanson, J.R.; Hunter, A.C. The hydroxylation of Δ5-androstenes by Cephalosporium aphidicola. Phytochemistry ...
... but also androstenes. Androstenes and short-chain carboxylic acids are responsible for the perceptible unpleasant odor. The ...
When women are exposed to androstenes, they feel better and find that people look better to them. When androstenes were applied ... Both men and women give off pheromones called androstenes, but men emit more of them. Women secrete lipids known as copulins in ... We are sampling each others genes when we take in copulins and androstenes, particularly the genes of the so-called major ...
GC-MS studies of 16-androstenes and other C19 steroids in human semen. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol (1992) 43:549-56. doi:10.1016 ... Simultaneous quantification of five odorous steroids (16-androstenes) in the axillary hair of men. J Steroid Biochem (1988) 29: ... As a result, sex-related changes in olfactory sensitivity to androstenes have been reported during adolescence (20-23) with ... Olfaction in humans with special reference to odorous 16-androstenes: their occurrence, perception and possible social, ...
Female oral combined contraceptive containing 30 mcg (0.030 mg) Ethinyl Estradiol and 3 mg drospirenone (Androstenes) ...
Female oral combined contraceptive containing 30 mcg (0.030 mg) Ethinyl Estradiol and 3 mg drospirenone (Androstenes). ...
Analysis of several disulfated androstenes demonstrated similar retention times and fragmentation spectra. Among the tested ...
16-Androstenes, or androst-16-enes, are a class of endogenous androstane steroids that includes androstadienol, androstadienone ... Some of the 16-androstenes, such as androstenone and androstenol, are odorous, and have been confirmed to contribute to human ... "Olfaction in humans with special reference to odorous 16-androstenes: their occurrence, perception and possible social, ...
Androstenol is a steroidal compound belonging to the group of odorous 16-androstenes, first isolated from boar testes and also ...
Dehnhard M, Rohrmann H, Kauffold J (2013) Measurement of 16-androstenes (5α-androst-16-en-3-one, 5α-androst-16-en-3α-ol, 5α- ...
Androstenes / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Cortodoxone / metabolism. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Androstenes; 0 / Hydroxytestosterones; 04Y4D91RG0 / pregnenolone sulfate; 1816-85- ...
... halomethyl-5alpha-androstanes and delta-androstenes, 3-oxo-4-aza-5 alpha-androstane derivatives, finasteride, spironolactone, ...
... androstenes MeSH D04.808.054.079.129 --- androstadienes MeSH D04.808.054.079.129.453 --- methandrostenolone MeSH D04.808. ...
For example, androstenone, androstenol and androsterone are all androstenes, and generally signify factors involved with sex. ...
  • After sexual maturity, these Axillary organs start to secrete steroid secretions containing sixteen Androstenes . (wordpress.com)
  • Testosterone-based compounds are also known as androstenes because of their one double bond carbon structure. (priceplow.com)
  • Since then there seems to have been a lot of development in this field, and there are a lot of -androstenes (a chain of testosterone) which seem to have effects in social behavior in humans. (biology-online.org)
  • Treatment of animals or cells with the amphipathic tertiary amine U18666A {3beta-[2-(diethylamino) ethoxy]androst-5-en-17-one} provides models for several human diseases (e.g., cataracts, Niemann-Pick disease, and epilepsy). (biomedsearch.com)
  • To emphasize male attributes, you should spray on androstenes, while estrogen should be used to enhance femininity. (imed.guru)
  • Studies have shown that men who produce higher levels of androstenes were reported to respond better when interacting with women. (puremones.com)
  • The researchers found that an overwhelming number of women responded better to the men with higher levels of androstenes than their less-fortunate counterparts. (puremones.com)