Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Theca Cells: The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.17-Ketosteroids: Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Androstanes: The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Testolactone: An antineoplastic agent that is a derivative of progesterone and used to treat advanced breast cancer.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Hirsutism: A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Hyperandrogenism: A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.Epitestosterone: The 17-alpha isomer of TESTOSTERONE, derived from PREGNENOLONE via the delta5-steroid pathway, and via 5-androstene-3-beta,17-alpha-diol. Epitestosterone acts as an antiandrogen in various target tissues. The ratio between testosterone/epitestosterone is used to monitor anabolic drug abuse.Androstenediol: An intermediate in TESTOSTERONE biosynthesis, found in the TESTIS or the ADRENAL GLANDS. Androstenediol, derived from DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE by the reduction of the 17-keto group (17-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES), is converted to TESTOSTERONE by the oxidation of the 3-beta hydroxyl group to a 3-keto group (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES).Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Androsterone: A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Androstenediols: Unsaturated androstane derivatives which are substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position in the ring system.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Clitoris: An erectile structure homologous with the penis, situated beneath the anterior labial commissure, partially hidden between the anterior ends of the labia minora.Aminoglutethimide: An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.Freemartinism: A condition occurring in the female offspring of dizygotic twins (TWIN, DIZYGOTIC) in a mixed-sex pregnancy, usually in CATTLE. Freemartinism can occur in other mammals. When placental fusion between the male and the female FETUSES permits the exchange of fetal cells and fetal hormones, TESTICULAR HORMONES from the male fetus can androgenize the female fetus producing a sterile XX/XY chimeric "female"(CHIMERISM).Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Feminization: Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Genitalia: The external and internal organs related to reproduction.Gynecomastia: Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.Androstenols: Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase: A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Ketosteroids: Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.Etiocholanolone: The 5-beta-reduced isomer of ANDROSTERONE. Etiocholanolone is a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE in many mammalian species including humans. It is excreted in the URINE.Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Follicular Atresia: The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelySteroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Virilism: Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Androstane-3,17-diol: The unspecified form of the steroid, normally a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE with androgenic activity. It has been implicated as a regulator of gonadotropin secretion.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Follicular Cyst: Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Oligomenorrhea: Abnormally infrequent menstruation.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cholestenone 5 alpha-Reductase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of 3-oxo-delta4 steroids into their corresponding 5alpha form. It plays an important role in the conversion of TESTOSTERONE into DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE and PROGESTERONE into DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.Fadrozole: A selective aromatase inhibitor effective in the treatment of estrogen-dependent disease including breast cancer.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Hydroxytestosterones: 17 beta-Hydroxy-4-androsten-3-ones. Testosterone derivatives formed by the substitution of one or more hydroxyl groups in any position.TritiumOvariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B1: A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by PHENOBARBITAL in both the LIVER and SMALL INTESTINE. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, TESTOSTERONE, and ANDROSTENEDIONE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP2B1 gene, also mediates the activation of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE and IFOSFAMIDE to MUTAGENS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Stanozolol: A synthetic steroid that has anabolic and androgenic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1194)Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.

The treatment of insulin resistance does not improve adrenal cytochrome P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation in polycystic ovary syndrome. (1/906)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin. when given to non-diabetic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), results in a reduction of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia while body weight is maintained. Also we aimed to see whether the reduction in insulin levels attenuates the activity of adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme in patients with PCOS. DESIGN: We investigated the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione responses to ACTH, insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glucose disposal rate in an insulin tolerance test before and after metformin therapy (500 mg, orally, twice daily, for 12 weeks). METHODS: The presence of hyperinsulinemia in 15 women with PCOS was demonstrated by an OGTT and results were compared with those of 10 healthy women. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the rate of endogenous glucose disposal after i.v. bolus injection of insulin. 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were measured in all the women with PCOS and the normal women. RESULTS: Women with PCOS were hyperinsulinemic (102.0+/-13.0 (S.E.M.) VS 46.2+/-4.4 pmol/l) and hyperandrogenemic (free testosterone 15.3+/-1.7 vs 7.9+/-0.6 nmol/l; androstenedione 11.8+/-0.8 vs 8.2+/-0.6 nmol/l) and more hirsute (modified Ferriman-Gallwey score, 17.7+/-1.6 vs 3.0+/-0.3) than healthy women. In addition, women with PCOS had higher 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH when compared with healthy women. Metformin therapy resulted in some improvement in insulin sensitivity and reduced the basal and post-glucose load insulin levels. But 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were unaltered in response to metformin. CONCLUSIONS: PCOS is characterized by hyperactivity of the adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme and insulin resistance. It seems that there is no direct relationship between insulin resistance and adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation.  (+info)

The aromatase inactivator 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OH-A) inhibits tamoxifen metabolism by rat hepatic cytochrome P-450 3A: potential for drug-drug interaction of tamoxifen and 4-OH-A in combined anti-breast cancer therapy. (2/906)

Tamoxifen (tam), an anti-breast cancer agent, is metabolized into tam-N-oxide by the hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase and into N-desmethyl- and 4-hydroxy-tam by cytochrome P-450s (CYPs). Additionally, tam is metabolically activated by hepatic CYP3A, forming a reactive intermediate that binds covalently to proteins. Tam and 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OH-A) are currently used to treat breast cancer, and it has been contemplated that 4-OH-A be given concurrently with tam to contravene potential tumor resistance to tam. Because alterations in tam metabolism may influence its therapeutic efficacy, the effect of 4-OH-A on tam metabolism was examined. Incubation of tam with liver microsomes from phenobarbital-treated rats, in the presence of 4-OH-A (10-100 microM), resulted in marked inhibition of tam-N-demethylation and tam covalent binding and in decreased tam-N-oxide accumulation; however, there was no inhibition of the formation of 4-hydroxy-tam and of 3,4-dihydroxytamoxifen. These findings indicate that 4-OH-A inhibits CYP3A, but not P-450(s) that catalyze tam 4-hydroxylation. The diminished tam-N-oxide accumulation could be due to decreased N-oxide formation and/or due to increased N-oxide reduction. Incubation of tam-N-oxide with liver microsomes containing heat-inactivated flavin-containing monooxygenase demonstrated that 4-OH-A increases the accumulation of tam, possibly by diminishing its P-450-mediated metabolism. Kinetic studies indicate that 4-OH-A is a competitive inhibitor of CYP3A, but not a time-dependent inactivator. Consequently, the concurrent treatment of tam and 4-OH-A may result in increased tam half-life and thus could potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of tam and diminish the potential side effects of tam by inhibiting its covalent binding to proteins and possibly to DNA.  (+info)

Dihydrotestosterone, stanozolol, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate inhibit leptin secretion in female but not in male samples of omental adipose tissue in vitro: lack of effect of testosterone. (3/906)

Leptin, the product of the Ob gene, is a polypeptide hormone expressed in adipocytes which acts as a signalling factor from the adipose tissue to the central nervous system, regulating food intake and energy expenditure. It has been reported that circulating leptin levels are higher in women than in men, even after correction for body fat. This gender-based difference may be conditioned by differences in the levels of androgenic hormones. To explore this possibility, a systematic in vitro study with organ cultures from human omental adipose tissue, either stimulated or not with androgens (1 microM), was undertaken in samples obtained from surgery on 44 non-obese donors (21 women and 23 men). The assay was standardized in periods of 24 h, ending at 96 h, with no apparent tissue damage. Leptin results are expressed as the mean+/-s.e.m. of the integrated secretion into the medium, expressed as ng leptin/g tissue per 48 h. Spontaneous leptin secretion in samples from female donors (4149+/-301) was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that from male donors (2456+/-428). Testosterone did not exert any significant effect on in vitro leptin secretion in either gender (4856+/-366 in women, 3322+/-505 in men). Coincubation of adipose tissue with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced a significant (P<0.05) leptin decrease in samples taken from women (3119+/-322) but not in those taken from men (2042+/-430). Stanozolol, a non-aromatizable androgen, decreased (P<0.05) leptin secretion in female samples (2809+/-383) but not in male (1553+/-671). Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) induced a significant (P<0.01) leptin decrease in female samples (2996+/-473), with no modifications in samples derived from males (1596+/-528). Exposure to androstenedione also resulted in a significant reduction (P<0.01) of leptin secretion in samples taken from women (2231+/-264), with no effect on male adipose tissue (1605+/-544). In conclusion, DHT, stanozolol, DHEA-S and androstenedione induced a significant inhibition of in vitro leptin secretion in samples from female donors, without affecting the secretion in samples from men. Testosterone was devoid of activity in either gender.  (+info)

Ovarian hormone secretory response to gonadotropins and nitric oxide following chronic nitric oxide deficiency in the rat. (4/906)

Ovarian hormone secretion is regulated by gonadotropins, and it has been demonstrated that this response is modulated by nitric oxide (NO). The focus of this study was to determine the effect of chronic NO deficiency on the secretion of ovarian steroids. Female rats were given N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA; 0.6 g/L) in their drinking water, and vaginal smears were obtained daily. By 4 wk of treatment, all the rats were in constant estrus or proestrus. At 6-8 wk the animals were killed; the ovaries were removed and incubated in the presence of eCG (1 IU/ml) and hCG (1 IU/ml) and/or S-nitroso-L-acetyl penicillamine (an NO donor, S-NAP; 0.1 mM) for 4 h. Medium was collected at 30-min intervals, and estradiol, progesterone, and androstenedione were measured. Ovaries from proestrous rats served as controls. Ovaries from L-NNA-treated animals had a greater basal and gonadotropin-stimulated release of estradiol but not of androstenedione or progesterone in comparison to ovaries from untreated controls. S-NAP decreased the gonadotropin-stimulated estradiol, progesterone, and androstenedione in ovaries from NO-deficient rats. Steroid secretion in controls was not responsive to S-NAP. We conclude that chronic NO inhibition produces constant estrus due to increased estradiol production and that NO acts to inhibit estradiol and androstenedione production.  (+info)

YM116, 2-(1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-9H-carbazole, decreases adrenal androgen synthesis by inhibiting C17-20 lyase activity in NCI-H295 human adrenocortical carcinoma cells. (5/906)

The concentrations of androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone, products of C17-20 lyase, in the medium after a 6-hr incubation of NCI-H295 cells were decreased by YM116 (2-(1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-9H-carbazole) (IC50: 3.6 and 2.1 nM) and ketoconazole (IC50: 54.9 and 54.2 nM). 17Alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, a product of 17alpha-hydroxylase, was increased by YM116 (1-30 nM) and by ketoconazole (10-300 nM) and then was decreased at higher concentrations of both agents (IC50: 180 nM for YM116, 906 nM for ketoconazole), indicating that YM116 and ketoconazole were 50- and 16.5-fold more specific inhibitors of C17-20 lyase, respectively, than 17alpha-hydroxylase. Compatible with these findings, progesterone, a substrate of 17alpha-hydroxylase, was increased by these agents. Cortisol production was inhibited by YM116 and ketoconazole (IC50: 50.4 and 80.9 nM, respectively). YM116 was a 14-fold more potent inhibitor of androstenedione production than cortisol production, whereas ketoconazole was a nonselective inhibitor of the production of both steroids. YM116 and ketoconazole inhibited the C17-20 lyase activity in human testicular microsomes (IC50: 4.2 and 17 nM, respectively). These results demonstrate that YM116 reduces the synthesis of adrenal androgens by preferentially inhibiting C17-20 lyase activity.  (+info)

The effect of chronic treatment with GH on gonadal function in men with isolated GH deficiency. (6/906)

Eleven adult males, previously submitted to neurosurgery because of a pituitary lesion (three with craniopharyngioma, three with clinically non-functioning adenoma and five with macroprolactinoma) were treated with recombinant GH for 12 months after the diagnosis of GH deficiency was made. Circulating FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone, 17 beta-estradiol (E2), dehyroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S), androstenedione. 17-OH-progesterone (17OHP), IFG-I, and steroid hormone-binding protein (SHBG) levels were assayed before and after CG test at study entry and 6 and 12 months after GH treatment. A significant increase in plasma IGF-I levels was obtained after 6 and 12 months of GH treatment. In addition, CG-stimulated, but not baseline, testosterone levels showed a significant increase after 6 and 12 months of GH treatment when compared with study entry (9.6 +/- 0.5 and 9.9 +/- 0.5 vs 7.9 +/- 0.5 ng/ml; P < 0.05). Baseline, but not CG-stimulated, serum 17OHP levels were significantly increased only after 12 months of GH treatment (1.7 +/- 0.1 vs 1.4 +/- 0.1 ng/ml; P < 0.05). No significant difference was found as far as both basal and CG-stimulated E2, androstenedione, DHEA-S and SHBG were concerned. With regards to the semen analysis, only seminal plasma volume was significantly increased after 12 months of GH treatment (2.9 +/- 0.3 vs 1.7 +/- 0.3 ml; P < 0.05). No significant change in sperm count, motility and abnormal forms was observed. These data show that GH treatment displays a clear-cut effect upon Leydig cell function and increases the production of seminal plasma volume in fertile adult males with isolated GH deficiency.  (+info)

Dynamics of periovulatory steroidogenesis in the rhesus monkey follicle after ovarian stimulation. (7/906)

The temporal relationships and regulation of events in the primate follicle during the periovulatory interval are poorly understood. This study was designed to elucidate the dynamics of steroid synthesis in the macaque follicle during ovarian stimulation cycles in which serum/follicular fluid aspirates were collected at precise intervals before (0 h) and after (up to 36 h) administration of the ovulatory human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) bolus. Serum concentrations of progesterone increased (P < 0.05) within 30 min, and follicular fluid progesterone concentrations were elevated 180-fold within 12 h, of HCG injection, and remained elevated until the time of ovulation. In contrast, 17beta-oestradiol concentrations increased initially, but then declined (P < 0.05) by 36 h post-HCG. Acute incubation of granulosa cells with and without steroidogenic substrates demonstrated that: (i) 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and aromatase activities were present in equivalent amounts before and after HCG; whereas (ii) P450 side-chain cleavage activity increased (P < 0.05) within 12 h of HCG; and (iii) exogenous low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol were not utilized for steroidogenesis. This model should be useful for further studies on ovulation and luteinization in primates, and enable elucidation of the local actions of progesterone and other steroids at specific time points during the periovulatory interval.  (+info)

Concentration of steroids in bovine peripheral plasma during the oestrous cycle and the effect of betamethasone treatment. (8/906)

Testosterone, oestradiol and progesterone were measured in peripheral plasma during the oestrous cycle of 6 heifers. Oestradiol and progesterone results confirmed earlier reports. Concentration of testosterone on the day of oestrus was 40+/-3 pg/ml (mean+/-S.E.M.), and two peaks were detected during the cycle, one 7 days before oestrus (1809+/-603 pg/ml) and the other (78+/- 7 pg/ml) on the day before the onset of oestrus. The concentration of progesterone declined in most cases 1 day after the maximum concentration of testosterone. Betamethasone treatment in 5 heifers extended luteal function by an average of 10 days: plasma androstenedione and oestradiol concentrations were unaltered; cortisol values were depressed for at least 16 days after treatment; testosterone concentrations were lowered by 13+/-2-4% during treatment, and except in one heifer the peak on Day -7 was abolished.  (+info)

*Androstenedione

... , or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous ... Androstenedione is produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads. The production of adrenal androstenedione is governed by ... Androstenedione is the common precursor of the androgen and estrogen sex hormones. Androstenedione can be biosynthesized in one ... Androstenedione is released into the blood by theca cells. Conversion of androstenedione to estrone requires the enzyme ...

*5-Androstenedione

... is structurally similar to 4-androstenedione, with the exception of the position of a carbon-carbon double ... 4-Androstenedione is naturally produced in the body by the adrenal glands and gonads. In addition to testosterone, it is also a ... 5-Androstenedione is a prohormone of testosterone. The World Anti-Doping Agency prohibits its use in athletes. In the United ...

*1-Androstenedione

... , or 5α-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione, also known as 4,5α-dihydro-δ1-4-androstenedione, is a synthetic androgen and ... It is a 5α-reduced isomer of the endogenous steroid 4-androstenedione and acts as an androgen prohormone of 1-testosterone (4,5 ... α-dihydro-δ1-testosterone), a derivative of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). 1-Androstenedione is on the World Anti-Doping Agency's ...

*Androstenedione (disambiguation)

Androstenedione may refer to: 4-Androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione) - an endogenous weak androgen and estrogen and ... a prohormone of testosterone and hence an anabolic-androgenic steroid 1-Androstenedione (5α-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione) - a ... intermediate to/prohormone of testosterone 5-Androstenedione (androst-5-ene-3,17-dione) - ...

*19-Nor-5-androstenedione

5-Androstenedione Bolandiol (19-nor-4-androstenediol) Bolandione (19-nor-4-androstenedione) Bolenol (17α-ethyl-19-nor-5- ... 19-Nor-5-androstenedione, also known as estr-5-ene-3,17-dione, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) ... 19-Nor-5-androstenedione, 19-nor-5-androstenediol, and other 19-norandrostane prohormones were considered to be nutritional ...

*17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III deficiency

... this leads to clinically important higher ratio of androstenedione to testosterone Androstenedione is produced in the testis, ... "androstenedione , C19H26O2 - PubChem". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-17. Pleskacova, J.; Hersmus, R.; Oosterhuis ... Androstenedione is created from dehydroepiandrosterone (or 17-hydroxyprogesterone). In terms of the diagnosis of 17β- ... levels of testosterone and increased levels of androstenedione as a result of the defect in conversion of androstenedione into ...

*11β-Hydroxyandrostenedione

4-Androstenedione Pretorius, Elzette; Arlt, Wiebke; Storbeck, Karl-Heinz (2016). "A new dawn for androgens: Novel lessons from ...

*List of androgens/anabolic steroids (alternate)

Androstenedione (A4; 4-androstenedione) Androsterone Bolandione (19-nor-4-androstenedione)* Dehydroandrosterone (DHA; 5- ...

*1-Androstenediol

1-Androstenedione Eberhard Nieschlag; Hermann M. Behre; Susan Nieschlag (26 July 2012). Testosterone: Action, Deficiency, ...

*Hirsutism

Other blood value that may be evaluated in the workup of hirsutism include: androgens; androstenedione, testosterone thyroid ...

*Dehydroepiandrosterone (disambiguation)

Androstenediol Androstenedione Androstenolone. ...

*Jeff Bagwell

At the time, androstenedione was a substance of widespread consumption around the major leagues, as the FDA did not prohibit ... In 2004, MLB announced they had listed androstenedione as a banned substance in accordance with their drug policy. In April ... Activities of focus included concentrated weight lifting, change of diet, and the use of creatine and androstenedione. By the ... c The topic of the use of androstenedione drew substantially increased attention in 1998 during McGwire's and Sammy Sosa's ...

*Ketosteroid monooxygenase

Oxygenative lactonization of androstenedione to testololactone". J. Biochem. 99: 825-832. PMID 3486864. Ketosteroid ... androstenedione + acetate + NADP+ + H2O Ketosteroid monooxygenase is a single FAD-containing enzyme that catalyses three types ... androstenedione, NADPH2:oxygen oxidoreductase (17-hydroxylating, lactonizing)) is an enzyme with systematic name ketosteroid, ... androstenedione + NADPH + H+ + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } testololactone + NADP+ + H2O (3) 17alpha- ...

*Pregnenolone

Progesterone is the entry into the Δ4 pathway, resulting in production of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione, ... DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione. Pregnenolone can be converted to androstadienol by 16-ene synthase (CYP17A1). ...

*SRD5A1

The dominant route of DHT synthesis in human CRPC bypasses testosterone, and instead requires 5α-reduction of androstenedione ... Milewich L, Kaimal V, Toews GB (May 1983). "Androstenedione metabolism in human alveolar macrophages". The Journal of Clinical ...

*Formestane

... is an analogue of androstenedione. Formestane is often used to suppress the production of estrogens from anabolic ...

*Steroidal aromatase inhibitor

Andre Meyer later hypothesized that the aromatization of androstenedione was enzymatic and this was proven in the 1980s with ... With various methods there a various starting point of synthesis, f.e testosterone, androstenedione and other variations of ... After gaining electrons from NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, the aromatase converts androstenedione and testosterone to ... the latter resemble the structure of androstenedione. Steroidal aromatase inhibitors irreversibly inhibit the enzyme by binding ...

*The Great Pheromone Myth

Androstenedione is produced by pigs in abundance. Doty quips: "Are women, in fact, attracted to the odors of male pigs or more ... For example, androstenedione is a steroid hormone that is found in human sweat and is the main ingredient in commercially sold ... mixture of genes a man had that was the important factor in which sweaty T-shirt a woman preferred and not the androstenedione ...

*Androstenediol

It is closely related structurally to androstenedione (A4; androst-4-ene-3,17-dione), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; androst-5- ... It is closely related to androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione). Androstenediol is a direct metabolite of the most abundant ... of the androgenicity of androstenedione, and 0.21% of the androgenicity of testosterone. Androstenediol possesses potent ...

*Androstanedione

Androstenedione Androstanediol Androstenediol Androstanolone Androstenolone "Metabocard for Androstanedione". Human Metabolome ...

*11-Deoxycortisol

Auzéby A, Bogdan A, Touitou Y (January 1991). "Evidence for a new biologic pathway of androstenedione synthesis from 11- ... This could explain, at least in part, the marked increase in androstenedione levels in 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. 11- ... 11-Deoxycortisol can also be converted to androstenedione. ...

*Prasterone

It is closely related structurally to androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol), androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione), ... In 2004, a new Steroid Control Act that placed androstenedione under Schedule III of controlled substances effective January ... Wallace, M. B.; Lim, J.; Cutler, A.; Bucci, L. (1999). "Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone vs androstenedione supplementation in ... androstenedione (A4), and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) all by 20-fold, and estrone and estradiol both by 2-fold. Prasterone, under ...

*Orteronel

... and androstenedione, respectively, by its 17,20-lyase activity. DHEA and androstenedione are androgens and precursors of ...

*4-Hydroxytestosterone

17-trione Androstenedione Enestebol Formestane. ...

*Progesterone

... of cortisol and androstenedione. Androstenedione can be converted to testosterone, estrone, and estradiol. Pregnenolone and ...
Seasonal variation in testiaJlar and fat-body weight and plasma testosterone and androstenedione concentration of the lizard Cordylus polyzonus is described. T estiaJlar recrudescence commenced in autumn (April). reaching a peak in early spring (September) and regression followed during mid-spring to early autumn (October-March). The onset of testicular recrudescence coincided with decreasing ambient temperature and photoperiod and increasing rainfall. Fat-body weight was sma" during most of the testicular recrudescence phase. with an increase commencing in spring (September). A peak in fat-body weight was reached during late spring - midsummer (October-December) and followed by a progressive decline to baseline values in winter. Plasma testosterone and androstenedione concentrations followed a bimodal annual pattern, a first peak ocx:urring in late summer/early autumn (FebruarylMarch) and the second in spring (SeptemberlOctober). The first peak coincided with the onset of testicular ...
Abstract: A radioimmunoassay (RIA) of androstenedione in biological fluids was developed. The sensitivity of the method was 30 pg/ml. The efficiency of the standard detection in blood and saliva was 98.2%. The intra- and interassay variations were 5.6% and 12,7%, respectively. Specificity pf the antiserum was determined in cross reactions using 17 steroids. The specificity depended upon the method used, the duration of immunization and the quantity of the antigen. Mathematic methods were used for definition of optimal values of the main parameters and conditions for RIA. 60 different regimes were investigated. The influence of regular physical exercises on androstenedione content in blood and saliva was investigated in 100 athletes. Physical exercises increased androstenedione concentration in men and women blood and saliva. Concentration of androstenedione was increased 1.3- and 2.2-fold in men blood and saliva, respectively, the concentration of androstenedione was increased 1.6-fold in women ...
use.. Androstenedione offers a fast-acting, over-the-counter alternative to prescription-only testosterone patches, creams and lotions. It is sold in capsules or pills for oral use, and it has recently become available in a liquid spray for sublingual use. The sublingual spray raises testosterone levels in less than 30 minutes.. The problem with androstenedione is that it is quickly metabolized into estrogens. Estrogens have strong anti-testosterone-like metabolic effects that last for a long time (days as opposed to hours). Androstenedione produces estrogens through two separate pathways. First, it can be directly metabolized into estrone (see Figure 1). Second, it can be metabolized to testosterone and then to estradiol. Both estradiol and estrone are strong estrogens which suppress the anabolic, metabolism-enhancing, fat-loss and tissue-healing properties of testosterone. I believe that many people will suffer estrogen-related side effects from androstenedione that will have far more negative ...
China Steroid Raw Powder 4-Androstenedione CAS: 63-05-8, Find details about China 4-Androstenedione, CAS: 63-05-8 from Steroid Raw Powder 4-Androstenedione CAS: 63-05-8 - Zhuzhou Yuancheng Hezhong Tec. Dev. Co., Ltd.
Lymphocytes were isolated from 43 surgical samples of breast cancer after tumor enzyme digestion and Ficoll/Verographine procedure. In all, 23 specimens from lymphocytic-tissue infiltrates were analyzed (in some cases, material from 2 or 3 patients was combined). The ability of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) to convert androstenedione was demonstrated, as evaluated by hard-water release from the androgenic precursor 3H-1beta-androstenedione. In material obtained from menopausal women this ability was higher than in the women of reproductive age. A positive correlation was revealed between the level of androstenedione conversion in TIL and aromatase activity in tumor tissue, while no correlation was shown between androstenedione conversion in TIL and percentage of tumor cells in lymphocytic suspension. The data obtained suggest that factors secreted by a neoplasm are able to induce aromatase gene expression in TIL ...
Early secondary follicles developed to the preovulatory stage. Androstenedione treatments increased the follicle diameters, reduced survival rates of follicles, and promoted the formation of follicles with abnormal morphology, including misshapen oocyte. The secretion of E2 and P was significantly higher in androstenedione-exposed follicles. Androstenedione prevented the alteration in chromatin configuration and reduced oocyte GDF9 expression. When follicles cultured with androstenedione were treated with hCG and EGF, the first polar body exclusion, chromosome alignment on metaphase plate, and spindle assembly were inhibited in the oocytes.. Conclusion(s): ...
Androstenedione hormone. Molecular model of the structure of the human hormone Androstenedione. Atoms are represented as rods and are colour- coded: carbon (blue), hydrogen (gold), and oxygen (red). Androstenedione is a steroid that is produced in the adrenal glands of both sexes and is a precursor of all the sex hormones. It is sold as a supplement under the brand name Andro but is banned from many sporting events due to athletes abusing it in order to enhance their performances. - Stock Image A619/0144
Describes how the androstenedione test is used, when an androstenedione test is ordered, and what the results of an androstenedione test might mean
Shenzhen OK Biotech Technology Co., Ltd.Ltd yog ib tug kws 4-Androstenedione 63-05-8 chaw tsim tshuaj thiab tus muag khoom nrog lub Hoobkas, txais tos mus yuav 4-Androstenedione 63-05-8 khoom los ntawm peb.
250 µCi quantities of Androst-4-ene-3, [1,2,6,7-3H(N)]-, 17-Dione are available for your research. Application of [3H] Androstenedione can be found in: effects of HCG and PMS on bioconversion in steroid biochemistry, breast cancer cell research, inhibition study of human placental aromatase in steroid biochemistry, in vitro metabolism studies in steroid chemistry; etc. ...
The irony of the federal governments stance against the use of anabolic steroids is that in passing the original Anabolic Steroid Act and prohibited these substances they created the impetus for the development of pro-hormones-substances that were not as effective but less dangerous than steroids . Not only pro-hormones have decreased efficiency coupled with undesirable side effects but the medical community has next to no established body of research on the long term effects of these newly developed compounds (unlike steroids which has existed since the 1930s). It is difficult to predict whether the next series of legal sports supplements will produce near numerous hazards caused by pro-hormone craze but it is a certainty that with the declaration of pro-hormones like androstenedione as banned substances we will soon find out. ...
Androstenedione is referred to as ProHormon because it is an intermediate product formed during testosterone and estrio-biosynthesis. The exact ...
מאמרים (כתבות) עם התגית androstenedione: 57(1) Full article PDF, 59(1) Full article PDF, Contents of 57(1), 2005, Contents of 59(1), 2007, ועוד...
Insulin-dependent diabetic women have been shown to have subnormal hormone levels in the first trimester of pregnancy. To determine whether these abnormalities were the result of poor diabetes control, testosterone, androstenedione, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), and prolactin were studied longitudinally in diabetic women made normoglycemic before conception (N = 11) and normal (N = 6) control subjects beginning at the fifth week of gestation. HCG levels rose normally in all 11 diabetic and six control subjects and then declined as expected, with peak levels between 8 and 12 wk of gestation. Prolactin levels similarly rose significantly (P , 0.00001) during the period studied. Plasma androstenedione did not increase during the course of this study, but testosterone levels increased significantly (P = 0.0001). Androgen levels were consistently higher in diabetic subjects despite the normoglycemic state, although the differences reached statistical significance at only one point. This study ...
Androstenedione, produced in the adrenal glands and gonads, is a precursor to the androgen testosterone and the oestrogens oestrone and oestradiol. Androstenedione may accumulate in CAH due to 21-hydroxylase or 11β- hydroxylase deficiency or in PCOS through increased testosterone turnover. Its secretion may also be elevated by ovarian and adrenal tumours.. ...
It can certainly be an indication, but its no good to worry about it. It could be lots of other things. Most cancers are easily treatable these days, though, so even if that IS what it turns out to be, its not the death sentence that it used to be. Most people with ovarian cancer go into remission and go on to live full, healthy lives ...
At Pro-hormones.co.uk we know how tempting it can be to want to stack more than one product together, they all look great, sound great so more of them could be good right? Wrong. Stacking the wrong products together could seriously hinder your gains and
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Basic InfoName:Poly(ethylene glycol)Apearance:White PowderCAS:25322-68-3MF:N/AMW:N/AShipment:Air/Sea/EMS,DHL,TNT,UPS,FedxPackage:200kg/Iron BarrelP ...
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Shenzhen OK Biotech Technology Co, .Ltd yog ib tug professional 6-Bromoandrostenedione 38632-00-7 chaw tsim tshuaj paus thiab lub lag luam nrog lub Hoobkas, txais tos kom yuav 6-Bromoandrostenedione 38632-00-7 cov khoom los ntawm peb.
I have 5g of Formestane in NP Penetrate from about 1 1/2 years ago. I shake the bottle every week or two. The bottle has been kept in a cool dark
so i got the formestane, but am waiting on the penetrate. Just looking for an eta on it anybody has the time. Thanks in advance, and as always, NP i
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and of estrone. It is closely related to androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol). Androstenedione is a precursor of testosterone and other androgens, as well as of estrogens like estrone, in the body. In addition to functioning as an endogenous prohormone, androstenedione also has weak androgenic activity in its own right. Androstenedione has been found to possess some estrogenic activity, similarly to other DHEA metabolites. However, in contrast to androstenediol, its affinity for the estrogen receptors is very low, with less than 0.01% of the affinity of estradiol for both the ERα and ERβ. In children aged 6 to 8 years old, there is a rise in androstenedione secretion along with DHEA during adrenarche. This rise in androstenedione and DHEA is ...
This study documented hyperandrogenism in 18 hirsute women and determined if the condition was gonadotropin dependent. Plasma androstenedione, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. All had 24-hour urinary 17-ketosteroids, 17-ketogenic steroids, and pregnanetriol measured, and those with Cushings syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia we e excluded from the study. Six underwent bilateral longitudinal ovarian wedge resection and had polycystic ovarian disease. The mean plasma androstenedione of 18 patients was 332 ng/100 ml (SE ± 24.6 ng/100 ml). The normal mean androstenedione is 180 ng/100 ml. Mean plasma testosterone was 77 ng/100 ml (±12.2). The normal range for ...
Androstenedione and its close cousins androstenediol, norandrostenedione, and others, are natural steroid hormones found in the body and available over the counter. There are several other steroid hormones available without a prescription, including DHEA and pregnenolone. Basically, pregnenolone is the grandmother of all the steroid hormones. Pregnenolone is able to convert into DHEA, which in turn converts into Andro (short for androstenedione).
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Thirty mature and peripubertal male rabbits were examined for endocrine function and tissue methotrexate (MTX) concentration after single (57.5 mg/kgBW, group 1) and repeated (6 mg/kgBW, once a week for 14 weeks, group 2) MTX doses. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and androstenedione plasma levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). We found elevated plasma FSH levels in both groups. Elevated plasma androstenedione level and reduced plasma testosterone level in group 2 suggest an enzymatic defect in the gonadal steroid synthesis. Unchanged LH plasma level, when compared to controls, is thought to be the result of a combined effect of MTX on the gonadal steroids and gonadotropin synthesis.
Nominated Substances: Androstenedione. Nomination Date: 09/30/1998 Nominator: NCI Rationale: Potential human exposure by athletes and bodybuilders as a steroidal precursor to testosterone; need for scientific data on chronic toxicity. NTP Principles: 2, 3. Status: Selected ...
Learn more about Androstenedione at Portsmouth Regional Hospital Uses Principal Proposed Uses Sports Performance Enhancement ...
Accepted name: testosterone 17β-dehydrogenase (NADP+). Reaction: testosterone + NADP+ = androstenedione + NADPH + H+. Glossary: androstenedione = androst-4-ene-3,17-dione. Other name(s): 17-ketoreductase; NADP-dependent testosterone-17β-oxidoreductase; testosterone 17β-dehydrogenase (NADP). Systematic name: 17β-hydroxysteroid:NADP+ 17-oxidoreductase. Comments: Also oxidizes 3-hydroxyhexobarbital to 3-oxohexobarbital.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9028-63-1. References:. 1. Endahl, G.L., Kochakia, C.D. and Hamm, D. Separation of a triphosphopyridine nucleotide-specific from a diphosphopyridine-specific 17β-hydroxy (testosterone) dehydrogenase of guinea pig liver. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 2792-2796.. 2. Sweat, M.L., Samuels, L.T. and Lumry, R. Preparation and characterisation of the enzyme which converts testosterone to androstendione. J. Biol. Chem. 185 (1950) 75-84.. 3. Villee, C.A. and Spencer, J.M. Some properties of the pyridine ...
Anti-estrogen Steroids Powder Formestane Lentaron CAS 566-48-3 Quick Detail: Name: Formestane Other name: Lentaron; CAS: 566-48-3 MF: C19H26O3 MW: 302.41 Assay: 99% Appearance:White powder. Formestane Description: Formestane is currently one of the...
1. Quick Detail: Aromatase Inhibitor Formestan Cancer Treatment Steroids CAS 566-48-3 Formestane Anti Estrogen Steroids 2. Description: English name: 4-androsten-4-ol-3,17-dione English Name: Formestane; B, Aromatase inhibitor;...
Above the previous couple of several years the serious human body builders have been making use of the alternative authorized steroids and obtaining remarkable final results. Authorized steroids like Androstenedione ( andro), 1-AD,1-test and 4-Androstenedione would be the closest issue to actual steroids and they are available lawfully. These different steroids when utilized accurately are both a safe and successful strategy to increase and increase strength, energy and muscle restoration ...
This report is the first to study sites within P-450 2B6 that are involved in substrate specificity. Workers in our laboratory have used multiple amino acid sequence alignments in the past to develop homology models of several P-450s (Szklarz et al., 1995; Szklarz and Halpert, 1997), and a similar alignment was used here to choose 12 sites within the predicted 2B6 SRSs for study. The panel of marker substrates, androstenedione, 7-EFC, and RP 73401 was useful for separating mutations that caused nonspecific functional alterations from those that produced a change in an enzyme-specific function. We were most interested in mutants that would display only decreased 2B6-specific RP 73401 hydroxylase activity or demonstrate a significant increase in 2B1-specific androstenedione hydroxylase activity.. Each of the mutants was tested for the three marker activities, and the results were compared with 2B6 (Fig. 2). Only T292L exhibited an almost complete lack of any of the three activities tested. T292A ...
Aromatisation is a complex hormonal process that affects both men and women at certain times of life, particularly after the age of 50. ¤ This enzymatic process is responsible for converting androstenedione and testosterone in
Buy Testosterone (Testomax) in a minimal price, you can inside our online store. Briefly about our retail outlet or where to buy Testosterone (at the best price) The dosage of testosterone: The first cycle is Testosterone (Testomax), you can start with 250 mg.in Week. Subsequent better previously risen to 500 mg. weekly for better results. In general, the dosage of Testosterone (Testomax), according to the level of ambition and athlete ranges from 250 mg.per week to 1000 mg.each day, but this is not the limit.. Of course, within their case it is merely a plus, but it will be every second pupil would establish himself on 1000 mg. each day, but on the other hand in a unfortunate nischite we live, also for such a relatively cheap and simple factors in the parts of Australia athletes spend half their salary. ...
Brutal 4ce is a 4-DHEA product that has been destined by force. It is a 2-step precursor which first converts to androstenediol, then to androstenedione, and then to testosterone. Brutal 4ce is a pro anabolic precursor that is not liver toxic and will
What does Androstenedione mean? A steroid stated in the adrenal gland thats a precursor to testosterone also male bodily hormones (androgens). Known popularly as andro, it is often made use of as a supplement…
102848-54-4 - JIKFCHILHFFTSH-NRIFOQJISA-N - 4-Hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione glucuronide - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
A new ban takes effect Friday ending the over-the-counter use of steroid-like dietary supplements. The best known of these is androstenedione, or andro.
Learn more about Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at Kendall Regional Medical Center Supplement Forms/Alternate Names DHEA Sulfate Uses Principal Proposed Uses ...
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BioAssay record AID 704989 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human placental aromatase using [3H]-1beta-androstenedione as substrate after 16 hrs by [3H]-water method.
The synthesis of a series of N-alkylated 4-(4()aminobenzyl)-2-oxazolidinones is described using a synthetically useful scheme which avoids the use of phosgene-since the derivatization is undertaken with the oxazolidin-2-one ring intact. The compounds were tested for human placental aromatase (AR) inhibition in vitro, using [1beta,2beta-3H]androstenedione as substrate for the AR enzyme. The compounds were found, in general, to be more potent than the standard compound, aminoglutethimide (AG), and as such proved to be good lead compounds in the search for more specific AR inhibitors.. ...
Looking for Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate? Find out information about Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. C19H28O2 Dimorphous crystals with a melting point of 140-141°C, or leaflet crystals with a melting point of 152-153°C; soluble in alcohol, benzene, and... Explanation of Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
Mechanism of Action Exemestane is an irreversible, steroidal aromatase inhibitor. No detectable effect on synthesis of adrenal corticosteroids or aldosterone. It inhibits the activity of aromatase, the principal enzyme responsible for the conversion of androstenedione to estrone, and testosterone to estradiol. Structurally related to androstenedione, one of the usual aromatase substrates, exemestane inactivates the enzyme by irreversibly binding to the active site on aromatase. ...
Abstract: The toxic effect of various environmental contaminants such as heavy metals or industrial chemicals such as alkylphenolson male reproductive systemwasfound. 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), one of the environmental contaminants used in the manufacture of plastics and other products, is released largely into the environment. The majority of studies on NP have focused on their endocrine disrupting and potential adverse effects on reproductive system. The target of our in vitro study was to determine the potential impact of 4-nonylphenol as an endocrine disruptor on the hormonal secretion and viability of mice Leydig cells. Cells were cultured with addition of 0.04; 0.2; 1.0; 2.5; and 5.0 µg/mL of 4-nonylphenol for 44h and compared with the control. Cells destined for the determination of androstenedione production were cultured in the presence of cyclic AMP solution. Quantification of cAMP stimulated androstenedion production directly from aliquots of the medium was performed by enzyme linked ...
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder with a pathogenesis in which hormonal and metabolic disturbances have been considered. There is evidence of a familial aggregation of hormonal and metabolic abnormalities in siblings of PCOS women. Some of the female relatives fulfill the diagnostic criteria of PCOS. Premature balding in the age of ,30 has been proposed as the male phenotype in PCOS families.. The aim of the study was to determine whether siblings of women with PCOS had evidence of hormonal and metabolic abnormalities typical for PCOS.. Material and methods: Eighty-six siblings of women with PCOS (44 sisters, 42 brothers) were recruited. Two control groups consisted of 70 healthy women and 30 healthy men. Assessment of antropometric parameters, hormonal parameters (testosterone, androstendione, DHEA-S, LH, FSH) and metabolic parameters (glucose and insulin: fasting and during OGTT, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance indexes, lipidogram) were carried out in all ...
Delta-isomerase 2 (HSD3B2) which catalyzes the conversion of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione, a critical step in producing DHT from adrenal androgens, is also overexpressed at high levels [201]. Taken together, these data suggest a mechanism for how MCRPCa cells can continue to upregulate genes that require AR transactivation. The most obvious argument against this model is that t
... ,Testosterone is the most important androgen secreted into the blood. In males, testosterone is secreted,,,primarily by the Leydig cells of the testes; in females ca. 50% of circulating testosterone is derived from,,,peripheral conversion of androstenedione, ca. 25% from the ovary and ca. 25% from t,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
The book tended to cycle through four main ways of explaining reasons behind why girls act the way they do; scientific experiments with lots of complicated sounding terms and processes, stories of the authors experiences as well as those of her patients, and studies/experiments. I tend to not even be able to focus on terms that sound too scientific while doing any sort of reading, so Im not going to lie and say that my eyes didnt glaze over when I read giant paragraphs with just scientific words like vasopressin and androstenedione and allopregnanolone. However, I think that the scientific explanations were essential, otherwise the author would have lost a lot of credibility. So Ill forgive her. Also, the patient stories often were conveniently sandwiched between the scienc-y stuff, so it was like reading a novel (thus, bearable). ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 23139 4-ANDROSTENE-3,17-DIONE (2,2,4,6,6-D5, 98%). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Learn more about Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at Blake Medical Center Supplement Forms/Alternate Names DHEA Sulfate Uses Principal Proposed Uses ...
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Human aromatase is responsible for the last step of estrogen biosynthesis, for the aromatization of ring A of androstenedione or testosterone. In this work, the mechanism of aromatization was studied using gas phase and hybrid QM/MM calculations. It is shown that human aromatase can efficiently catalyze the aromatization process via a compound I (or compound II)-mediated pathway. The nature of the oxidant is very sensitive to the polarizing environment of the enzyme, as the oxidant has a compound I nature in the gas phase calculations, which is modulated by the enzyme environment to become a mixed compound I and compound II character. The electronic structure of the obtained QM-only and QM/MM stationary points is thoroughly discussed. ...
Digital Morphology account of the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta, featuring CT-generated animations of the skull and commentary by Dr. Pamela Owen
This study demonstrated three important new aspects of hormone conversion in primary synovial cells and synovial tissue of long-standing RA and OA patients in the advanced phase of the disease:. 1. Conversion of DHEA yielded high amounts of estrogens and 16α-hydroxylated products in relation to testosterone (similar in RA and OA);. 2. Conversion of ASD and testosterone particularly yielded androgens with elevated levels of 5α-hydroxylated androgens in RA as compared with OA (general blockade of aromatization and support of 5α-hydroxylation, particularly in RA);. 3. Similarly in RA and OA, spontaneously released estrogens were markedly elevated in relation to free testosterone and aromatase expression was similar in the two disease groups. All effects were independent of gender and therapeutic administration of NSAIDs, leflunomide, or prednisolone.. Delta 4 androgens such as testosterone and ASD inhibit secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF, and other proinflammatory mediators [1-7]. The more potent, ...
A method for the analysis of testosterone, androstenedione, 5β-dihydrotestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 5β-pregnane-3α,17α,20α-triol, 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol, 5β-androstane-3β,17β-diol, 5β-pregnane-3α,17α,20β-triol, 5β-androstane-3α,11β-diol-17-one, 5β-pregnane-3α,17α-diol-20-one, 17α,20β,21-trihydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one and 11-deoxycortisol in water was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring.. Fish sex steroids were extracted from holding water using C18 SPE cartridges, and eluted using methanol. Free and glucuronide conjugate levels of steroids were determined, glucuronide conjugates by hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase prior to. derivatisation and free steroids by direct derivatisation. The method thus developed was applied to twelve goldfish holding water samples.. Androstenedione was found to be excreted in considerably higher quantities ...
In this study, we observed that in PCOS, the cumulative A4 response to low-dose rhFSH is a more valid measure of the number of selected follicles than the cumulative Estradiol (E2) response [13].. The early and midfollicular A4 variations are more critical determinants than the late follicular variations (following follicle selection), because drops or plateauing observed in A4 in the late stages did not influence cycle outcome. The A4 respond to rhFSH was earlier than that of E2 in cycles with progressive follicular growth and conception.. In six cycles cancelled due to lack of response to rhFSH, there was no A4 response. In contrast, in four of the eight cycles cancelled due to excessive response, a dosage step-up had been made due to lack of E2response, while there had already been an initial A4response. If this corrective information could have been taken into account, an unnecessary step-up could have been avoided.. PCOS is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, and is reported ...
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IMPORTANT: Listing of a study on this site does not reflect endorsement by the National Institutes of Health. Talk with a trusted healthcare professional before volunteering for a study. Read more... ...
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The couple of very good scientific experiments readily available on these "dietary" health crazy bulk bulking stack suggest which they both are ineffective or, at greatest, develop only slight improvements in functionality. Much more disturbing, they can incorporate highly effective and probably unsafe substances, this kind of as:. Androstenedione, which may upset the bodys hormonal harmony when it metabolizes into testosterone and estrogen, and may lead to untimely puberty and stunted advancement in adolescents.. Creatinine, a substance developed because of the system that may assist produce transient surges of muscle mass vitality all through selected forms of athletic efficiency. Several other people who use creatine monohydrate, a complement applied to be a derivative, can gain up to fifteen kilos and achieve muscle mass mass. Even so, it is largely water retention. After you prevent using the nutritional supplement, you are going to drop the weight and sense less solid. Yet again, almost ...
November 1988Distribution and possession of anabolic steroids becomes a crime in the United States. June 1991Commissioner Fay Vincent issues a memo adding steroids to baseball's list of banned substances. August 1998Reporters spy a jar of androstenedione in Mark McGwire's locker during his chase...
Remembering back to the "naturals" and "greats" in professional baseball (the likes of Babe Ruth and Hank Aaron), what must one think of the Mark McGuire baseball home run hitter acknowledging his using androstenedione during his 70-homer season in 1998? And presently, the newly announced confessions and accusations linking Bonds, Giambi and Marion Jones to steroid use. One can be sure that the Babe and Hank Aaron did not set their distinguished records building their bodies through chemistry.. ...
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This test measures the level of DHEA and DHEA-S in your blood. It may also be used to check how well your adrenal glands are working.
Question - Having high DHEA-S levels and prescribed with dehydroepiandrosterone capsules. Is this ok ?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone capsules, Ask an Infertility Specialist
Prasterone is a naturally occurring steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex and is an androgen precursor. Jenapharm (Schering AG) has conducted clinical
BioAssay record AID 244329 submitted by ChEMBL: Relative potency for inhibition of aromatase binding compared to aminoglutethimide.
Ang pagdaragdag ng 0.01% tretinoin sa 4-OHA ay ipinapakita sa ilang mga pag-aaral na nagpapahusay ng nagpapaputing epekto ng 4-OHA. Ang kumbinasyong ito ay malakas na pampaputi sa balat at ginagamit sa paggamot ng mga liver spot (senile lentigo). Ang liver spot ay karaniwang hindi tinatablan ng pampaputi at napakahirap gamutin. Malamang, ang pormula na […]. Tags: 4-Hydroxyanisole-Tretinoin na Pormulasyon ...
Reader: 12/21/1999, please help me! I am a twenty year old man suffering from both premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction after my first orgasm has occurred. I used to last about ten minutes before my first orgasm and then instantly become hard again and remain erect for an hour or more. Now I ejaculate in about one minute and am unable to become hard again for at least an hour and when I do get hard I ejaculate quickly again. I recently began taking androstenedione and tribulus terrestrus as well as ephedrine and caffeine to help improve my weight lifting. What is causing my problem and what can I do to get back to the way I was? I want to satisfy my woman again. thank you ...
So what is this strange animal? Why does it seem to be "patched together from the leftovers of creation" and what is it actually like? Dogs, bears, raccoons, weasels, and badgers are all members of sub-order Caniformia. The physical appearance and greeting behaviors of the Hyaenidae family - four species: spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena), brown hyena (Hyaena brunnea), and aardwolf (Proteles cristata) - lead many to assume that they belong to Caniformia as well. In fact, hyenas are more closely related to the house cat sleeping on the ground next to me; they are members of sub-order Feliformia. Of the four living hyena species, the aardwolf and spotted hyena represent the more ancient lineages, the spotted hyena being the sole survivor of a "diverse, very successful and advanced carnivore/scavenger that ranged from Europe to Indonesia."(1) The other members of the Crocuta genus were much larger animals, some of them bear-size, and the smaller build of the spotted ...
OBJECTIVES : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol use on the risk of endometrial cancer. The impact of smoking on serum estrone, estradiol, and androstenedione levels also was examined. STUDY DESIGN : This hospital-based case-control study included 168 women with endometrial carcinoma and 334...
SHBG is the blood transport protein for testosterone and oestradiol. It is a large glycoprotein with a molecular weight of about 95 kD, and exists as a homodimer composed of two identical subunits. SHBG has a high affinity to dihydrotestosterone, medium affinity to testosterone and oestradiol, and only a low affinity to estrone, DHEA, androstendione, and oestradiol. Albumin, which exists in higher concentrations than SHBG, also binds sexual steroids although, has a lower affinity.. SHBG has a half life of around 7 days and is produced mainly by the liver. Its synthesis and secretion are regulated by oestrogen.. Decreased SHBG are associated with conditions where elevated androgen levels are present or where the effect of androgen on its target organ is excessive. This explains the gender-related differences seen between men and women, especially during puberty.. SHBG is a useful supplementary parameter in the determination of androgen where a relatively high concentration of free androgen (e.g ...
This study suggests that a modest association exists between pretreatment levels of androstenedione, an adrenal androgen, and response to ketoconazole, as well as overall survival in patients with AIPC who are treated with ketoconazole. These data, from a multicenter randomized trial, contrast with prior data from a smaller trial of 28 patients, which showed no correlation between baseline levels of any adrenal androgens and response to ketoconazole (13).. In the present analysis, baseline levels of these adrenal androgens in patients treated with ketoconazole initiated at the time of AAWD (arm 2) were studied and correlated to clinical outcomes. The primary focus was the ketoconazole arm of the study because this drug exerts its effect through suppression of adrenal androgens and because, in a prior analysis of the same data set, no change in adrenal androgen levels was observed over time in the AAWD alone arm (6). All demographic and baseline clinical data from the patients randomized to arm 2 ...
USADA announced on Monday that UFC athlete Lyman Good, of New York, N.Y., accepted a six-month sanction after testing positive for a prohibited substance from a contaminated supplement.. Good, 32, tested positive for 1-androstenedione and its metabolite 1-(5α)-androsten-3α-ol-17-one following an out-of-competition test conducted on October 14, 2016. 1-androstenedione is a non-Specified Substance in the class of Anabolic Agents and prohibited at all times under the UFC Anti-Doping Policy, which has adopted the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List. It is a steroid hormone, according to WebMD.. Following notification of his positive test, Good provided USADA with information about a dietary supplement product he was using at the time of the relevant sample collection. Although no prohibited substances were listed on the supplement label, testing conducted on an independently sourced, unopened container of the product by the WADA-accredited laboratory in Salt Lake City, Utah, ...
Background: An increased risk of breast cancer is associated with alcohol consumption; however, it is controversial whether red wine increases this risk. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) prevent the conversion of androgens to estrogen and occur naturally in grapes, grape juice, and red, but not white wine. We tested whether red wine is a nutritional AI in premenopausal women.. Methods: In a cross-over design, 36 women (mean age [SD], 36 [8] years) were assigned to 8 ounces (237 mL) of red wine daily then white wine for 1 month each, or the reverse. Blood was collected twice during the menstrual cycle for measurement of estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), androstenedione (A), total and free testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).. Results: Red wine demonstrated higher free T vs. white wine (mean difference 0.64 pg/mL [0.2 SE], p=0.009) and lower SHBG (mean difference −5.0 nmol/L [1.9 SE], p=0.007). E2 levels were lower in red ...
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Clinical endocrinology has always had a close relationship with laboratory medicine. In fact, the quantification of hormones is of great importance for diagnosis, treatment, recurrence and patients prognosis of endocrine disorders. This review dealt with the role of the laboratory in diagnosing endocrine pathologies related to adrenal gland, pituitary, gonads and thyroid. The measurements of the main hormones (17- hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone, estradiol, cortisol, aldosterone, metanephrines, thyroglobulin and insulin-like-growth factor-1) were described considering analytical characteristics but also some aspects of pre-analytical and post- analytical steps. Traditionally, hormonal quantification is performed with immunoassays (IMAs), which have several advantages (i.e. limited training of technicians, high throughput, widely spread worldwide), but also some limitations on the accuracy of the results due mainly to cross-reactivity of IMA ...
This study explored associations between serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), free and total testosterone levels, and HIV illness markers, including viral load, and the behavioral problems of fatigue and depressed mood. Subjects were 169 HIV
Background: First in human studies of Z-endoxifen hydrochloride (E), the active metabolite of tamoxifen (T), are underway in metastatic breast cancer (BC). Previous data have demonstrated the superiority of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) over T in estrogen receptor (ER) + BC. Using an in vivo aromatase expressing model (MCF7/AC1), we compared the antitumor activity of E with T and Letrozole (L), as well as the antitumor activity and global gene expression changes of E with T in an L-resistant model.. Methods: MCF7/AC1 tumors were stimulated with androstenedione. Once tumor size reached 300 mm3, mice (30/group) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups: control (daily, po), T (500 μg/day, sc), endoxifen 25 mg/kg/day p.o.(LDE) endoxifen 75 mg/kg/day p.o. (HDE) or letrozole, 10 μg/day s.c for 4 weeks. Tumors were harvested from control, T, and E groups while the L group continued treatment until the development of resistance defined as an increase in tumor volume of at least 300% from ...
Thankyou Mary Kate ~ http://pcosfaq.com/ ~ :::: Biochemical Features in PCOS :::: ~ Increased Fasting Insulin Increased Insulin Resistance Increased Testosterone Increased Androstenedione Increased LH Increased LH/FSH ratio Increased LH pulse frequency Increased TNF-alpha Increased DHEAS Increased C-Reactive Protein Increased Homocysteine Increased Prolactin Increased blood sugar Increased Triglycerides Increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 Increased Granulosa Cell…
If its too good to be true, it probably is.. Theres no short-cut to excellent performance; it takes hard work.. Let the buyer beware: If someone can profit from your decisions, check it out thoroughly before you choose. If you win naturally, youll know it was you who won.. No drug is harmless and free of consequences.. Even natural substances in unnatural amounts may have short-term or long-term negative health risks.. We advocate against the use of creatine and androstenedione because we believe they are too risky to be used by young athletes.. Im your coach (or athletic trainer, or athletic director) and I dont think the use of these substances is a good choice for you, or for the team.. ...
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Aromatase, 0.1 mg. Aromatase is a key enzyme in steroidogenesis and plays an important role in sexual differentiation, oestrogen biosynthesis, fertility and carcinogenesis.
7 Keto DHEA has been thrown in the limelight recently a safe, healthy means to lose weight. 7 Keto DHEA is a natural derivative of dehydroepiandrosterone, or DHEA. ...
Progesterone + [Reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + Oxygen ,=> 17alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone + [Oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + ...
Aromatase兔单克隆抗体[EPR4534(2)](ab124776)可与大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, Flow Cyt实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
hydroxyprogesterone - MedHelps hydroxyprogesterone Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for hydroxyprogesterone. Find hydroxyprogesterone information, treatments for hydroxyprogesterone and hydroxyprogesterone symptoms.
The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the laughing hyena, is a species of hyena, currently classed as the sole member of the genus Crocuta, native to Sub-Saharan Africa. It is listed as being of least concern by the IUCN on account of its widespread range and large numbers estimated between 27,000 and 47,000 individuals. The species is, however, experiencing declines outside of protected areas due to habitat loss and poaching. The species may have originated in Asia, and once ranged throughout Europe for at least one million years until the end of the Late Pleistocene. The spotted hyena is the largest known member of the Hyaenidae, and is further physically distinguished from other species by its vaguely bear-like build, its rounded ears, its less prominent mane, its spotted pelt, its more dual purposed dentition, its fewer nipples and the presence of a pseudo-penis in the female. It is the only mammalian species to lack an external vaginal opening. The spotted hyena is the most ...
The test for dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is ordered to evaluate adrenal gland function to help diagnose tumors, adrenal cancers, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and adult-onset adrenal hyperplasia
Read More Coming Out from Steroids Addiction, every year, a growing number of individuals use steroids to enhance their physique for a better personal bodily image and/or to increase their competitiveness in sports requiring physical endurance, agility and performance. Provides information, articles, books, and videos about anabolic steroids and bodybuilding. Further, with its supreme ability in red blood cell promotion as well as nitrogen enhancing abilities this is an excellent steroid for preserving lean tissue under stress. Although androstendione is not a steroid, and is simply a prohormone, the word steroid was again found circulating in the news on a nightly basis. Although androstendione is not a steroid, and is simply a prohormone, the word /spanym-buyer, as did demand and unfortunately, the prevalence of fake or counterfeit steroids. Deca Durabolin is considered to be a 19-nor anabolic steroid centered on Nandrolone. The IOC was, as usual, one step behind the athletes. This legislation ...
ANST : Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism (in conjunction with measurements of other sex-steroids). An initial workup in adults might also include total and bioavailable testosterone (TTBS / Testosterone, Total and Bioavailable, Serum) measurements. Depending on results, this may be supplemented with measurements of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG / Sex Hormone Binding Globulin [SHBG], Serum) and other androgenic steroids (eg, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S]). Diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in conjunction with measurement of other androgenic precursors, particularly, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (OHPG) (OHPG / 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Serum), 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, DHEA-S (DHES / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate [DHEA-S], Serum), and cortisol (CORT / Cortisol, Serum). Monitoring CAH treatment, in conjunction with testosterone (TTST / Testosterone, Total, Serum), OHPG (OHPG / 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Serum), DHEA-S (DHES /
3-beta-HSD is a bifunctional enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of Delta(5)-ene-3-beta-hydroxy steroid, and the oxidative conversion of ketosteroids. The 3-beta-HSD enzymatic system plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of all classes of hormonal steroids. Efficiently catalyzes the transformation of pregnenolone to progesterone, 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone to 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA to 4-androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone to 5-alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione and 5-alpha-androstan-3 beta,17 beta-diol to 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone ...

Embryonic modulation of maternal steroids in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London...Embryonic modulation of maternal steroids in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London...

These ratios permit the separation of several androgens and E2 (androstenedione = 2%, dihydrotestosterone = 10%, T = 20% and E2 ... 1) Etiocholanedione, (2) androstenedione, (3) etiocholanolone and (4) etiocholanediol were used as standards. More ... and presumably androstenedione, to etiocholanolone may function to stimulate the production of erythrocytes early in ... their TLC results suggest that testosterone is converted to androstenedione and other metabolites. Unfortunately, the ...
more infohttp://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2010/07/22/rspb.2010.0813

Androstenedione - WikipediaAndrostenedione - Wikipedia

Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous ... Androstenedione is produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads. The production of adrenal androstenedione is governed by ... Androstenedione is the common precursor of the androgen and estrogen sex hormones. Androstenedione can be biosynthesized in one ... Androstenedione is released into the blood by theca cells. Conversion of androstenedione to estrone requires the enzyme ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Androstenedione

AndrostenedioneAndrostenedione

... when an androstenedione test is ordered, and what the results of an androstenedione test might mean ... Androstenedione levels are not usually used to monitor this process.. Adrenal androstenedione is the major source of androgens ... This test measures the amount of androstenedione in the blood.. Androstenedione is produced by the ovaries in women, the ... Yes, the level of androstenedione (or "andro") can be done as part of testing for sports doping. Androstenedione is sometimes ...
more infohttps://labtestsonline.org/tests/androstenedione

AndrostenedioneAndrostenedione

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C19H26O2/c1-18-9-7-13

1. Androstenedione1. Androstenedione

Since, scientists regarded androstenedione as a "probable intermediate product in the biological formation of the male and ... Androstenedione has been on the market for less then ten years. In 2004 George Bush signed a new version of the Anabolic ... Androstenedione was not a new compound. Researchers discovered it in the thirties of the 20th century in urine, when they were ... When Osmo introduced androstenedione in October 1996, as capsules and not as a spray, the company used details from the Eastern ...
more infohttp://www.ergogenics.org/anabolenboek/profiel1en.html

Androstenedione: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and WarningAndrostenedione: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning

Learn more about Androstenedione uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products ... Estrogens interacts with ANDROSTENEDIONE. Androstenedione seems to increase estrogen levels in the body. Taking androstenedione ... Androstenedione is a steroid hormone. It is used to make medicine.. Androstenedione is used to increase the production of the ... This is because women with PCOS have naturally high levels of androstenedione. But it is not known if taking androstenedione ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-780/androstenedione

Androstenedione | Portsmouth Regional HospitalAndrostenedione | Portsmouth Regional Hospital

Learn more about Androstenedione at Portsmouth Regional Hospital Uses Principal Proposed Uses Sports Performance Enhancement ... Androstenedione is also transformed into estrogen. Androstenedione is widely used by athletes who believe that it can build ... then turns DHEA into androstenedione, and finally transforms androstenedione into testosterone, the principal male sex hormone ... Androstenedione is not an essential nutrient-your body manufactures it from scratch. It is found in meat and in some plants, ...
more infohttps://portsmouthhospital.com/hl/?/21491/Androstenedione&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1

ANST - Overview: Androstenedione, SerumANST - Overview: Androstenedione, Serum

Androstenedione, S. Aliases Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching. 4-Androstene-3,17-dione. 4- ...
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CERI Q&A: Risks from androstenedione?CERI Q&A: Risks from androstenedione?

Question: Androstenedione is being touted as a safe and effective steroid for increasing testosterone levels in men (and women ... Answer: Androstenedione (an-dro-steen-dye-own) is an intermediate in the steroid pathway from DHEA to testosterone (see Figure ... The problem with androstenedione is that it is quickly metabolized into estrogens. Estrogens have strong anti-testosterone-like ... Androstenedione is more closely linked to the estrogen branches of the steroid tree than DHEA, which also has potential ...
more infohttp://ceri.com/q_v6n8q1.htm

Canary Database: Browse by Outcome: AndrostenedioneCanary Database: Browse by Outcome: Androstenedione

Browse by Outcome: Androstenedione (1 article). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
more infohttp://canarydatabase.org/browse/outcome/2860

Androstenedione hormone, molecular model - Stock Image A619/0144 - Science Photo LibraryAndrostenedione hormone, molecular model - Stock Image A619/0144 - Science Photo Library

Molecular model of the structure of the human hormone Androstenedione. Atoms are represented as rods and are colour- coded: ... carbon (blue), hydrogen (gold), and oxygen (red). Androstenedione is a steroid that is produced in the adrenal glands of both ... Caption: Androstenedione hormone. Molecular model of the structure of the human hormone Androstenedione. Atoms are represented ... Keywords: 1, adrenal, andro, androgen, androstenedione, athletics, banned, biochemical, biochemistry, chemical, chemistry, ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/7846/view

5-Androstenedione - Wikipedia5-Androstenedione - Wikipedia

5-Androstenedione is structurally similar to 4-androstenedione, with the exception of the position of a carbon-carbon double ... 4-Androstenedione is naturally produced in the body by the adrenal glands and gonads. In addition to testosterone, it is also a ... 5-Androstenedione is a prohormone of testosterone. The World Anti-Doping Agency prohibits its use in athletes. In the United ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5-Androstenedione

Androstenedione ELISA Kit - EA101045 | acris-antibodies.comAndrostenedione ELISA Kit - EA101045 | acris-antibodies.com

The steroid hormone Androstenedione is one of the main androgens, besides Testosterone and Dehydroepiandrosterone. ... High androstenedione levels are measured during pregnancy. In women, high levels of androstenedione (47-100% above normal) are ... Androstenedione and Testosterone show high diurnal variability. The highest levels are measured in the morning. At the age of ... High circulating androstenedione levels are found in women with polycystic ovaries and 21-hydroxylase effect. Significant lower ...
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Importer androstenedione for sale wholesalers & androstenedione for sale manufacturers from China manufacturers. ... androstenedione for sale. All androstenedione for sale wholesalers & androstenedione for sale manufacturers come from members. ... Anabolic Steroid Prohormone Androstenedione Powder For Strength Gain Androstenedione Basic Info Name: Androstenedione Other ... Androstenedione Application Basically pregnenolone, the grandmother of all steroid hormones, is converted into DHEA, which in ...
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Global and Chinese Androstenedione Industry, 2017 Market Research Report : ReportsnReportsGlobal and Chinese Androstenedione Industry, 2017 Market Research Report : ReportsnReports

The Global and Chinese Androstenedione Industry, 2012-2022 Market Research... ... 142 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and Chinese Androstenedione Industry, 2017 Market Research Report report by Prof ... 8.3 Effects to Androstenedione Industry. Chapter Nine Market Dynamics of Androstenedione Industry. 9.1 Androstenedione Industry ... 1.1 Brief Introduction of Androstenedione. 1.2 Development of Androstenedione Industry. 1.3 Status of Androstenedione Industry ...
more infohttp://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/1192937-global-and-chinese-androstenedione-industry-2017-market-research-report.html

Androstenedione EIA | Oxford Biomedical ResearchAndrostenedione EIA | Oxford Biomedical Research

We provide biomedical researchers with the best tools available for the analysis of Oxidative Stress and Chronic Inflammation - two of the most important risk factors that play key roles in the development of a wide range of human illness, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and neurodegeneration.. ...
more infohttp://oxfordbiomed.com/products/signal-transduction/steroid-hormone-assays/androstenedione-eia

Androstenedione ELISA kit | CE-GMP | 818-591-3030, USA.Androstenedione ELISA kit | CE-GMP | 818-591-3030, USA.

quality Androstenedione ELISA kit from ELISA kits manufacturer and elisa kits supplier: Androstenedione assay. Our kits are FDA ... Material Provided with Androstenedione ELISA Kit:. 1. Androstenedione Standards 6x: STD0- STD 5 2. Control 3. Androstenedione ... Androstenedione, also known as 4-androstenedione is common precursor of male and female sex hormones. Some androstenedione is ... This Androstenedione ELISA Test is an ELISA for the quantitative analysis of Androstenedione levels in biological fluid. This ...
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Suppression of Plasma Androstenedione and Testosterone in Hirsute Women. | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...Suppression of Plasma Androstenedione and Testosterone in Hirsute Women. | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...

The mean plasma androstenedione of 18 patients was 332 ng/100 ml (SE ± 24.6 ng/100 ml). The normal mean androstenedione is 180 ... Suppression of Plasma Androstenedione and Testosterone in Hirsute Women. J. R. Givens, M.D.; W. L. Wiser, M.D.; R. N. Anderson ... Suppression of Plasma Androstenedione and Testosterone in Hirsute Women.. Ann Intern Med. 1972;76:858. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819- ... Plasma androstenedione, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. All had 24-hour urinary ...
more infohttp://annals.org/aim/article/686519/suppression-plasma-androstenedione-testosterone-hirsute-women

The effect of androstenedione immunisation on superovulated ewesThe effect of androstenedione immunisation on superovulated ewes

... Fitzgerald, R. G. Abstract. Twelve ewes were immunised ... against androstenedione (with Fecundin) from a total number of twenty four. The other twelve were used as controls. No ...
more infohttps://researcharchive.lincoln.ac.nz/handle/10182/3820

AID 657618 - Inhibition of human recombinant 17-beta-HSD3 expressed in human HeLa cells using androstenedione as substrate...AID 657618 - Inhibition of human recombinant 17-beta-HSD3 expressed in human HeLa cells using androstenedione as substrate...

Inhibition of human recombinant 17-beta-HSD3 expressed in human HeLa cells using androstenedione as substrate preincubated for ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/657618

Androstenedione producing tumours - Cancer - Condition | Our HealthAndrostenedione producing tumours - Cancer - Condition | Our Health

Can anyone tell me about this ( Androstenedione producing tumours), My blood tests revealled my Androstenedione level to be ...
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Most recent papers with the keyword Androstenedione | Read by QxMDMost recent papers with the keyword Androstenedione | Read by QxMD

Androstenedione is an androgen and intermediate in the biosynthesis of most adrenocortical, anabolic, sex and synthetic ... The results indicated that LH increased androstenedione secretion and relative abundance of CYP17A1 and BCL2 mRNA in the TCs, ... Refining androstenedione and bisnorcholenaldehyde from mother liquor of phytosterol fermentation using macroporous resin column ... However, a preliminary study suggested that COS-7 cells metabolize [3H]testosterone to [3H]androstenedione. These results ...
more infohttps://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/16940

A simple non-chromatographic radioimmunoassay for plasma androstenedione. - Semantic ScholarA simple non-chromatographic radioimmunoassay for plasma androstenedione. - Semantic Scholar

A simple non-chromatographic radioimmunoassay for plasma androstenedione. by A. B. Goodall et al. ... A simple non-chromatographic radioimmunoassay for plasma androstenedione.. @article{Goodall1979ASN, title={A simple non- ... Progesterone Aldosterone Cortisol Androstenedione Testosterone Estradiol DHEA Dihydrotestosterone Pregnenolone = mother hormone ... chromatographic radioimmunoassay for plasma androstenedione.}, author={A. B. Goodall and A E Rippon and Vivian H T James}, ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/A-simple-non-chromatographic-radioimmunoassay-for-Goodall-Rippon/5f9ecb814515078068515f268f7225fe04e99c82

Get PDF - Release of tritium labeled water from tritium labeled 1 beta 2 beta androstenedione by equine granulosa cellsGet PDF - Release of tritium labeled water from tritium labeled 1 beta 2 beta androstenedione by equine granulosa cells

Release of tritium labeled water from tritium labeled 1 beta 2 beta androstenedione by equine granulosa cells ... Effect of in vivo administration of estradiol benzoate on release of tritium labeled water from 1 beta 2 beta androstenedione ... Release of tritium labeled water from tritium labeled 1 beta 2 beta androstenedione by equine granulosa cells. Younglai E.V.; ... Release of tritium labeled water from tritium labeled 1 beta 2 beta androstenedione by equine granulosa cells. ...
more infohttps://eurekamag.com/research/006/306/006306563.php
  • High circulating androstenedione levels are found in women with polycystic ovaries and 21-hydroxylase effect. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Can anyone tell me about this ( Androstenedione producing tumours), My blood tests revealled my Androstenedione level to be 23nmol/L and according to MDS Labs the normal range is 1.6-8.8nmol/L. The Doctor has already ruled out any Adrenal Gland Tumour and is now focusing on the Ovaries. (ourhealth.com)
  • However, there are two critical parts of the brain (the hypothalamus and pituitary gland), which are known to be crucial for the control of androstenedione secretion from the testes, ovaries as well as the adrenal cortex. (swolhq.com)
  • The acute effects of androstenedione supplementation in healthy young males. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • In fact, some doctors are concerned that androstenedione may cause obesity in males, emotional problems , prostate problems , and heart problems . (legalexaminer.com)
  • Although the testes produce large amounts of androstenedione in males, they secrete only a little amount of this into the blood and, instead, it rapidly converts it into testosterone inside the testes. (swolhq.com)
  • This reclassified androstenedione from a dietary supplement to an anabolic steroid, which is a schedule III controlled substance. (webmd.com)
  • Androstenedione is a dietary supplement made famous by baseball player Mark McGwire. (legalexaminer.com)
  • In January 2005, the United States passed legislation which was known as the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004 and androstenedione was reclassified from a dietary supplement and was put under the category of an anabolic steroid, which is a schedule III controlled substance. (swolhq.com)
  • It was discovered that androstenedione is biosynthesized in the testes and in the adrenal gland. (ergogenics.org)
  • The latter caused a fast increase, but also a fast decrease of the concentration of androstenedione in the body, which minimized its discovery in doping tests. (ergogenics.org)
  • The Diagnostic Automation Androstenedione EIA test kit is a Competitive immunoenzymatic colorimetric method for quantitative determination of Androstenedione concentration in human serum and plasma. (rapidtest.com)
  • Androstenedione concentration in the sample is calculated based on a series by a set of standard. (rapidtest.com)
  • The colour intensity is inversely proportional to the Androstenedione concentration in the sample. (rapidtest.com)
  • For men and women who may want a brief testosterone surge for 1) enhancing anabolic gains from strength exercises, or 2) enhancing libido for prosexual purposes, androstenedione can be an effective option. (ceri.com)
  • Results The concentrations of androstenedione (A4), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), aldosterone (ALD), cortisone (COR), corticosterone (CORT), cortisol (F), progesterone (P), and testosterone were significantly different between men and women (Student's t-test). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • At dosages of 50 mg or 100 mg per day, androstenedione had no effect on muscle strength or size, or on body fat levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to one case report, use of androstenedione was associated with loss of libido and decreased sperm count in a 29 year old bodybuilder. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • Androstenedione (antigen) in the sample competes with horseradish peroxidase Androstenedione (enzyme-labeled antigen), for binding onto the limited number of anti-Androstenedione coated on the microplates. (rapidtest.com)
  • An androstenedione test is often performed after results of other tests, such as testosterone or 1 7-hydroxyprogesterone , are found to be abnormal. (labtestsonline.org)
  • CERI Q&A: Risks from androstenedione? (ceri.com)
  • It highly depends on the cause of the excess androstenedione. (swolhq.com)
  • In support of this last consideration, there is some evidence that androstenedione can adversely affect cholesterol levels. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • However Ruzicka showed that this was not the case, when he found that the effect of androstenedione on the growth of the prostate was limited. (ergogenics.org)
  • There is some concern that androstenedione might increase the chances of developing prostate cancer. (webmd.com)
  • Androstenedione is considered a banned substance by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). (webmd.com)
  • More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of androstenedione for these uses. (webmd.com)
  • Taking androstenedione by mouth in doses of 100-300 mg per day does not significantly increase muscle strength, muscle size, or lean body mass when used for 2-3 months in connection with weight training . (webmd.com)
  • In other words, androstenedione reacts in a complicated way with the body. (swolhq.com)
  • Androstenedione is widely used by athletes who believe that it can build muscle and increase strength. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • Scientific evidence shows that when androstenedione is taken over time and in sufficient quantities, it may increase the risk of serious and life-threatening diseases. (legalexaminer.com)
  • See your doctor if you have experienced serious side effects associated with androstenedione. (legalexaminer.com)
  • The US FDA White Paper on the health effects of Androstenedione in 2005 cited the ill effects they feared would happen to children and adolescents who took andro long term. (verywellfit.com)
  • FDA White Paper Health Effects of Androstenedione. (verywellfit.com)
  • Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of Androstenedione industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese import/export. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Twelve ewes were immunised against androstenedione (with Fecundin) from a total number of twenty four. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • There is some concern that the strength and purity of androstenedione products may not match the product labeling. (webmd.com)
  • We doesn't provide androstenedione for sale products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. (chinacsw.com)