Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Androgen Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and inhibit the activation of ANDROGEN RECEPTORS.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Testosterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to TESTOSTERONE, the major mammalian male sex hormone. Testosterone congeners include important testosterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with androgenic activities.Metribolone: A synthetic non-aromatizable androgen and anabolic steroid. It binds strongly to the androgen receptor and has therefore also been used as an affinity label for this receptor in the prostate and in prostatic tumors.Flutamide: An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome: A disorder of sexual development transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. These patients have a karyotype of 46,XY with end-organ resistance to androgen due to mutations in the androgen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANDROGEN) gene. Severity of the defect in receptor quantity or quality correlates with their phenotypes. In these genetic males, the phenotypic spectrum ranges from those with normal female external genitalia, through those with genital ambiguity as in Reifenstein Syndrome, to that of a normal male with INFERTILITY.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Nandrolone: C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.Androstane-3,17-diol: The unspecified form of the steroid, normally a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE with androgenic activity. It has been implicated as a regulator of gonadotropin secretion.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Cyproterone Acetate: An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cholestenone 5 alpha-Reductase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of 3-oxo-delta4 steroids into their corresponding 5alpha form. It plays an important role in the conversion of TESTOSTERONE into DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE and PROGESTERONE into DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Feminization: Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Hyperandrogenism: A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Androgen-Binding Protein: Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Testosterone Propionate: An ester of TESTOSTERONE with a propionate substitution at the 17-beta position.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Cyproterone: An anti-androgen that, in the form of its acetate (CYPROTERONE ACETATE), also has progestational properties. It is used in the treatment of hypersexuality in males, as a palliative in prostatic carcinoma, and, in combination with estrogen, for the therapy of severe acne and hirsutism in females.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Hirsutism: A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Androstenols: Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.Methyltestosterone: A synthetic hormone used for androgen replacement therapy and as an hormonal antineoplastic agent (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, HORMONAL).Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE. They are commonly used to reduce the production of DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Phenylthiohydantoin: Thiohydantoin benzene derivative.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Genitalia: The external and internal organs related to reproduction.Estrenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.Androstenediol: An intermediate in TESTOSTERONE biosynthesis, found in the TESTIS or the ADRENAL GLANDS. Androstenediol, derived from DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE by the reduction of the 17-keto group (17-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES), is converted to TESTOSTERONE by the oxidation of the 3-beta hydroxyl group to a 3-keto group (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES).Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Finasteride: An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.Nuclear Receptor Coactivators: Proteins that enhance gene expression when associated with ligand bound activated NUCLEAR RECEPTORS. The coactivators may act through an enzymatic process that affects the rate of transcription or the structure of chromatin. Alternatively nuclear receptor coactivators can function as adaptor proteins that bring nuclear receptors into close proximity with transcriptional complexes.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Prostatic Hyperplasia: Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.Leuprolide: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE which can grow in the presence of low or residual amount of androgen hormones such as TESTOSTERONE.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Hypospadias: A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2: A transcription factor that partners with ligand bound GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS and ESTROGEN RECEPTORS to stimulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. It plays an important role in FERTILITY as well as in METABOLISM of LIPIDS.Goserelin: A synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. Goserelin is used in treatments of malignant NEOPLASMS of the prostate, uterine fibromas, and metastatic breast cancer.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Azasteroids: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Alopecia: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.Theca Cells: The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Bulbo-Spinal Atrophy, X-Linked: An X-linked recessive form of spinal muscular atrophy. It is due to a mutation of the gene encoding the ANDROGEN RECEPTOR.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Fluoxymesterone: An anabolic steroid that has been used in the treatment of male HYPOGONADISM, delayed puberty in males, and in the treatment of breast neoplasms in women.Muscular Disorders, Atrophic: Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Andropause: An endocrine state in men, characterized by a significant decline in the production of TESTOSTERONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and other hormones such as HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE. Andropause symptoms are related to the lack of androgens including DEPRESSION, sexual dysfunction, and OSTEOPOROSIS. Andropause may also result from hormonal ablation therapy for malignant diseases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Adrenarche: A stage of development at which the ADRENAL GLANDS undergo maturation leading to the capability of producing increasing amounts of adrenal androgens, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenarche usually begins at about 7 or 8 years of age before the signs of PUBERTY and continues throughout puberty.Pregnadienes: Pregnane derivatives containing two double bonds anywhere within the ring structures.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.

Plasma concentration changes in LH and FSH following electrochemical stimulation of the medial preoptic are or dorsal anterior hypothalamic area of estrogen- or androgen-sterilized rats.(1/3406)

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The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (2/3406)

We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent.  (+info)

Kinetics of neuroendocrine differentiation in an androgen-dependent human prostate xenograft model. (3/3406)

It was previously shown in the PC-295 xenograft that the number of chromogranin A (CgA)-positive neuroendocrine (NE) cells increased after androgen withdrawal. NE cells did not proliferate and differentiated from G0-phase-arrested cells. Here we further characterized NE differentiation, androgen receptor status, and apoptosis-associated Bcl-2 expression in the PC-295 model after androgen withdrawal to assess the origin of NE cells. PC-295 tumor volumes decreased by 50% in 4 days. Intraperitoneal bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and MIB-1 labeling decreased to 0%, and the apoptosis was maximal at day 4. Androgen receptor expression and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels decreased rapidly within 2 days. The number of NE cells increased 6-fold at day 4 and 30-fold at day 7. Five and ten percent of the CgA-positive cells were BrdU positive after continuous BrdU labeling for 2 and 4 days, respectively. However, no MIB-1 expression was observed in CgA-positive cells. NE cells expressed the regulated secretory pathway marker secretogranin III but were negative for androgen receptor and Bcl-2. Bcl-2 expression did increase in the non-NE tumor cells. In conclusion, androgen withdrawal leads to a rapid PC-295 tumor regression and a proliferation-independent induction of NE differentiation. The strictly androgen-independent NE cells that were still present after 21 days differentiated mainly from G0-phase-arrested cells.  (+info)

Sodefrin: a novel sex pheromone in a newt. (4/3406)

The abdominal gland in the male red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, is the source of a female-attracting pheromone. An attempt was made to isolate and characterize the female-attracting pheromone in the abdominal glands of male newts. The active substance, named sodefrin (from the Japanese 'sodefuri' which means 'soliciting') has been isolated and shown to be a novel decapeptide with the sequence, Ser-Ile-Pro-Ser-Lys-Asp-Ala-Leu-Leu-Lys. Its minimum effective concentration in water is 0.1-1.0 pmol 1-1. Synthetic sodefrin shows a female-attracting activity similar to that of the native peptide, and acts through the olfactory organ of female newts. Electrophysiological studies reveal that sodefrin evokes a marked electroolfactogram response in the vomeronasal epithelium in sexually mature females and in ovariectomized females treated with prolactin and oestrogen. The pheromonal activity of sodefrin appears to be species-specific since it does not attract females of a congeneric species, the sword-tailed newt C. ensicauda. However, C. ensicauda has a variant of sodefrin differing from that in C. pyrrhogaster by substitutions of Leu for Pro at position 3 and Gln for Leu at position 8. The C. ensicauda variant sodefrin does not attract C. pyrrhogaster females. Genes encoding the sodefrin precursor protein have been cloned in both C. pyrrhogaster and C. ensicauda. Immunostaining of the abdominal gland using the antiserum against sodefrin shows that sodefrin occurs in the epithelial cells, predominantly within the secretory granules. Sodefrin content, detected by immunoassay, in C. pyrrhogaster males decreases after castration and hypophysectomy and increases markedly in the castrated and hypophysectomized newts after treatment with androgen and prolactin. This combination of hormones also enhances sodefrin mRNA content in the abdominal gland as assessed by northern blot analysis using sodefrin cDNA.  (+info)

Relationship between metabolism of androstenone and skatole in intact male pigs. (5/3406)

The relationship between the metabolism of androsterone and skatole, the major compounds responsible for boar taint, was investigated in F4 Swedish Yorkshire x European Wild Pig intact males. The metabolism of androstenone and skatole were studied in liver microsomes, and the testicular steroid production was measured in testes microsomes. Including androstenone in the assays of skatole metabolism reduced the formation of 6-hydroxyskatole (pro-MII), and three other skatole metabolites (P<.05). The formation of three additional metabolites was not affected. Liver microsomal incubations of androstenone produced two metabolites, I and II. The rate of the formation of metabolite I and the rate of androstenone metabolism were correlated with the rate of skatole metabolism. Liver metabolism of androstenone was not related to levels of androstenone in fat. Testicular synthesis of 16-androstene steroids was correlated with combined synthesis of estrogens and androgens, plasma levels of androstenone, levels of skatole in fat, and skatole metabolism in the liver (P<.05). Plasma levels of estrone sulfate were correlated with levels of skatole in fat and with androstenone levels in fat and plasma and were negatively correlated with synthesis of skatole metabolite F-1 and pro-MII sulfation. These results indicate that the liver metabolism of androstenone and skatole are related. However, it is likely that the relationship between levels of androstenone and skatole in fat is due more to a link between the testicular synthesis of androstenone rather than to the metabolism of androstenone and skatole in the liver. Sex steroids may affect this relationship because of their biosynthesis along with androstenone and possible inhibition of skatole metabolism in the liver.  (+info)

The relationship between a polymorphism in CYP17 with plasma hormone levels and breast cancer. (6/3406)

The A2 allele of CYP17 has been associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome, elevated levels of certain steroid hormones in premenopausal women, and increased breast cancer risk. We prospectively assessed the association between the A2 allele of CYP17 and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study cohort. We also evaluated associations between this CYP17 genotype and plasma steroid hormone levels among postmenopausal controls not using hormone replacement to assess the biological significance of this genetic variant. Women with the A2 allele were not at an increased risk of incident breast cancer [OR (odds ratio), 0.85; 95% CI (confidence interval), 0.65-1.12] or advanced breast cancer (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.54-1.32). We did observe evidence that the inverse association of late age at menarche with breast cancer may be modified by the CYP17 A2 allele. The protective effect of later age at menarche was only observed among women without the A2 allele (A1/A1 genotype: for age at menarche > or =13 versus <13; OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.90; A1/A2 and A2/A2 genotypes: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.76-1.45; P for interaction = 0.07). Among controls, we found women with the A2/A2 genotype to have elevated levels of estrone (+14.3%, P = 0.01), estradiol (+13.8%, P = 0.08), testosterone (+8.6%, P = 0.34), androstenedione (+17.1%, P = 0.06), dehydroepiandrosterone (+14.4%, P = 0.02), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (+7.2%, P = 0.26) compared with women with the A1/A1 genotype. These data suggest that the A2 allele of CYP17 modifies endogenous hormone levels, but is not a strong independent risk factor for breast cancer.  (+info)

Prognostic significance of extent of disease in bone in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer. (7/3406)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic significance of a bone scan index (BSI) based on the weighted proportion of tumor involvement in individual bones, in relation to other factors and to survival in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Baseline radionuclide bone scans were reviewed in 191 assessable patients with androgen-independent disease who were enrolled onto an open, randomized trial of liarozole versus prednisone. The extent of skeletal involvement was assessed by scoring each scan using the BSI and independently according to the number of metastatic lesions. The relationship of the scored bone involvement to other known prognostic factors was explored in single- and multiple-variable analyses. RESULTS: In single-variable analyses, the pretreatment factors found to be associated with survival were age (P = .0446), performance status (P = .0005), baseline prostate-specific antigen (P = .0001), hemoglobin (P = .0001), alkaline phosphatase (P = .0002), AST (P = .0021), lactate dehydrogenase (P = .0001), and treatment (P = .0098). The extent of osseous disease was significant using both the BSI (P = .0001) and the number of lesions present (P = .0001). In multiple-variable proportional hazards analyses, only BSI, age, hemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, and treatment arm were associated with survival. When the patient population was divided into three equal groups, with BSI values of < 1.4%, 1.4% to 5.1%, and > 5.1%, median survivals of 18.3, 15.5, and 8.1 months, respectively, were observed (P = .0079). CONCLUSION: The BSI quantifies the extent of skeletal involvement by tumor. It allows the identification of patients with distinct prognoses for stratification in clinical trials. Further study is needed to assess the utility of serial BSI determinations in monitoring treatment effects. The BSI may be particularly useful in the evaluation of agents for which prostate-specific antigen changes do not reflect clinical outcomes accurately.  (+info)

Phase I trial of docetaxel with estramustine in androgen-independent prostate cancer. (8/3406)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the toxicity, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of docetaxel when combined with oral estramustine and dexamethasone in a phase I study in patients with progressive metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four men were stratified into minimally pretreated (MPT) and extensively pretreated (EPT) groups. Estramustine 280 mg PO tid was administered 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals on days 1 through 5, with escalated doses of docetaxel from 40 to 80 mg/m2 on day 2. Treatment was repeated every 21 days. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were assessable for toxicity and 33 for response. In the MPT patients, dose-limiting myelosuppression was reached at 80 mg/m2, with six patients experiencing grade 3/4 granulocytopenia. In EPT patients, escalation above 70 mg/m2 was not attempted. Fourteen MPT (70%) and six EPT (50%) patients had a > or = 50% decline in serum PSA on two consecutive measurements taken at least 2 weeks apart. The overall 50% PSA response rate was 63% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28% to 81%). Of the 18 patients with bidimensionally measurable disease, five (28%; 95% CI, 11% to 54%) achieved a partial response. At the time of entry onto the study, 15 patients required narcotic analgesics for bone pain; after treatment, eight (53%) discontinued their pain medications. The area under the curve for docetaxel increased linearly from 40 to 70 mg/m2. At 80 mg/m2, the measured area under the curve was 8.37 (standard deviation, 0.724), which was significantly higher than the previously reported values. CONCLUSION: The recommended phase II dose of docetaxel combined with estramustine is 70 mg/m2 in MPT patients and 60 mg/m2 in EPT patients. This combination is active in men with androgen-independent prostate cancer.  (+info)

*Quigley scale

... including complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, partial androgen insensitivity syndrome and mild androgen insensitivity ... It is similar in function to the Prader scale and is used to describe genitalia in cases of androgen insensitivity syndrome, ... Grades 6 and 7 are indicated when the external genitalia is fully feminized, corresponding to complete androgen insensitivity ... Galani A, Kitsiou-Tzeli S, Sofokleous C, Kanavakis E, Kalpini-Mavrou A (2008). "Androgen insensitivity syndrome: clinical ...

*Mild androgen insensitivity syndrome

"Discordant measures of androgen-binding kinetics in two mutant androgen receptors causing mild or partial androgen ... MAIS is the mildest and least known form of androgen insensitivity syndrome. The existence of a variant of androgen ... Grino PB, Griffin JE, Cushard WG, Wilson JD (April 1988). "A mutation of the androgen receptor associated with partial androgen ... Tsukada T, Inoue M, Tachibana S, Nakai Y, Takebe H (October 1994). "An androgen receptor mutation causing androgen resistance ...

*Dihydrotestosterone

Chang C (31 October 2002). Androgens and Androgen Receptor: Mechanisms, Functions, and Clinical Applications. Springer Science ... Unlike other androgens such as testosterone, DHT cannot be converted by the enzyme aromatase into an estrogen like estradiol. ... It is produced from the less potent testosterone by the enzyme 5α-reductase in select tissues, and is the primary androgen in ... Relative to testosterone, DHT is considerably more potent as an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR). In addition to its role ...

*Cyproterone acetate

In addition, although CPA reduces androgen production in the gonads, it can increase the production of adrenal androgens, in ... CPA is a potent androgen receptor (AR) competitive antagonist. It directly blocks endogenous androgens such as testosterone and ... CPA has been found to stimulate androgen-sensitive carcinoma growth in the absence of other androgens, an effect which could be ... However, androgens strongly antagonize the action of estrogen in the breasts, so CPA can produce a sole indirect estrogenic ...

*Prenatal testosterone transfer

... (also known as prenatal androgen transfer or prenatal hormone transfer) refers to the phenomenon ...

*Nandrolone decanoate

As such, it is an androgen and anabolic steroid, or an agonist of the AR, the biological target of androgens like testosterone ... The drug is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and hence is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR), the biological ... It is one of only three androgens approved for androgen replacement in postmenopausal women, the others being testosterone (and ... nandrolone esters have not generally been used as a form of androgen replacement therapy for treatment of androgen deficiency ...

*Challenge hypothesis

Goymann, W.; Landys, M. M.; Wingfield, J. C. (2007). "Distinguishing seasonal androgen responses from male-male androgen ... Wingfield, J. C. (1984). "Androgens and mating systems: Testosterone-induced polygyny in normally monogamous birds". Auk. 101: ...

*Cyproterone

Thus we are left with CPA as the only anti-androgen that is already on the market in several countries. A. Hughes; S. H. Hasan ... Contrary to benorterone, free cyproterone, and flutamide, CPA is not a pure anti- androgen. In fact, it is one of the most ... However, it has approximately three-fold lower potency as an antagonist of the androgen receptor (AR) relative to CPA. Like CPA ... 1974). In [...] Giorgi EP, Shirley IM, Grant JK, Stewart JC (1973). "Androgen dynamics in vitro in the human prostate gland. ...

*Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome

"Discordant measures of androgen-binding kinetics in two mutant androgen receptors causing mild or partial androgen ... Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome is diagnosed when the degree of androgen insensitivity in an individual with a 46,XY ... "Androgen insensitivity syndrome: somatic mosaicism of the androgen receptor in seven families and consequences for sex ... androgen receptor binding, and mutational analysis in 278 clinical cases reported as androgen insensitivity syndrome". J. Clin ...

*Nandrolone

They are synthetic androgens and anabolic steroids and hence are agonists of the androgen receptor (AR), the biological target ... Nandrolone, also known as 19-nortestosterone, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) which is used in the form of esters ... 4.1.2 Pharmacologic Androgen Therapy - via NCBI Bookshelf. Both testosterone and its non-aromatizable derivative nandrolone, ... ISBN 978-3-540-79088-4. Handelsman, David J (2013). "Androgen Physiology, Pharmacology and Abuse". In De Groot, Leslie J. ...

*Testicular receptor 4

... has been shown to interact with Androgen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, and Hepatocyte nuclear factor ... "Convergence of two repressors through heterodimer formation of androgen receptor and testicular orphan receptor-4: a unique ... "Convergence of two repressors through heterodimer formation of androgen receptor and testicular orphan receptor-4: a unique ... "Identification and characterization of a novel androgen receptor coregulator ARA267-alpha in prostate cancer cells". The ...

*Androgen

Also, androgens are the precursors to estrogens in both men and women. The main subset of androgens, known as adrenal androgens ... Exogenous androgen supplements can be used as a male contraceptive. Elevated androgen levels caused by use of androgen ... Androgens are synthesized in the testes, the ovaries, and the adrenal glands. Androgens increase in both boys and girls during ... Higher androgen levels lead to increased expression of androgen receptor. Fusion of myoblasts generates myotubes, in a process ...

*List of androgens/anabolic steroids

This article pertains to steroidal androgens; nonsteroidal androgens like the selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) ... List of steroids List of designer drugs § Androgens List of androgens/anabolic steroids available in the United States ? = ... This is a list of androgens/anabolic steroids (AAS) or testosterone derivatives. Esters are mostly not included in this list; ... "Structure-activity relationships of synthetic progestins in a yeast-based in vitro androgen bioassay". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol ...

*Androgen receptor

Heinlein CA, Chang C (October 2002). "The roles of androgen receptors and androgen-binding proteins in nongenomic androgen ... In humans, the androgen receptor is encoded by the AR gene located on the X chromosome at Xq11-12. The androgen insensitivity ... Via the Androgen receptor, androgens play a key role in the maintenance of male skeletal integrity. The regulation of this ... The androgen receptor dimer binds to a specific sequence of DNA known as a hormone response element. Androgen receptors ...

*Androgen deficiency

... also known as hypoandrogenism and androgen deficiency syndrome, is a medical condition characterized by not ... Hypogonadism Hyperandrogenism Hypoestrogenism Hypergonadism Hyperestrogenism Androgen Jakiel G, Baran A (2005). "[Androgen ... Wierman ME, Arlt W, Basson R, Davis SR, Miller KK, Murad MH, Rosner W, Santoro N (October 2014). "Androgen therapy in women: a ... More simply, old age may also be a factor in the development of hypoandrogenism, as androgen levels decline with age.[citation ...

*Androgen ester

An androgen or anabolic steroid ester is an ester of an androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) such as the natural testosterone or ... List of androgen esters List of androgens/anabolic steroids Steroid ester Estrogen ester Progestogen ester Richard Lawrence ... They are used in androgen replacement therapy (ART), among other indications. Examples of androgen esters include the ...

*Androgen prohormone

An androgen prohormone, or proandrogen, is a prohormone (or prodrug) of an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS). They can be ... This legislation places both AAS and some androgen prohormones on a list of controlled substances (a new type of "regulatory ...

*Androgen suppression

... , also called androgen ablation or androgen deprivation, is a medical treatment to suppress or block the ...

*Membrane androgen receptor

... which bind and are activated by testosterone and/or other androgens. Unlike the androgen receptor (AR), a nuclear receptor ... 3α-Androstanediol, an active metabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and a weak androgen as well as a neurosteroid via acting ... Membrane steroid receptor Bennett NC, Gardiner RA, Hooper JD, Johnson DW, Gobe GC (2010). "Molecular cell biology of androgen ... Membrane androgen receptors (mARs) are a group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) ...

*Androgen replacement therapy

Androgen replacement is also used in postmenopausal women, for instance to prevent or treat osteoporosis. The androgens used ... Androgen replacement is administered by patch, tablet, pill, cream or gel; or depot injections given into fat or muscle. List ... Abraham Morgentaler; the Androgen Study Group et al. "Letter to JAMA Asking for Retraction of Misleading Article on ... Androgen replacement is the classic treatment of hypogonadism and may improve hypogonadism symptoms such as anemia and fatigue ...

*Androgen deprivation therapy

... (ADT), also called androgen suppression therapy, is an antihormone therapy whose main use is in ... "Androgen Deprivation-Induced Senescence Promotes Outgrowth of Androgen-Refractory Prostate Cancer Cells". PLoS ONE. 8 (6): ... Prostate cancer cells usually require androgen hormones, such as testosterone, to grow. ADT reduces the levels of androgen ... The therapy can also eliminate cancer cells by inducing androgen deprivation-induced senescence. Lowering androgen levels or ...

*Free androgen index

... or FAI is a ratio used to determine abnormal androgen status in humans. The ratio is the total testosterone ... The free androgen index is intended to give a guide to the free testosterone level, but it is not very accurate. Consequently, ... The Free Androgen Index is not valid for adult males Robinson S, Rodin DA, Deacon A, Wheeler MJ, Clayton RN (March 1992). " ... "Free Androgen Index". Online Medical Encyclopedia. University of Rochester Medical Center. Retrieved 11 July 2014. Morris PD, ...

*Androgen-dependent condition

Androgen deprivation therapy Androgen insensitivity syndrome Estrogen-dependent condition Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy Joseph ... An androgen-dependent condition, disease, disorder, or syndrome, is a medical condition that is, in part or full, dependent on ... 1994-. ISBN 978-0-08-058373-0. Shukla, G. C.; Plaga, A. R.; Shankar, E.; Gupta, S. (2016). "Androgen receptor-related diseases ... Known androgen-dependent conditions include acne, seborrhea, androgenic alopecia, hirsutism, hidradenitis suppurativa, ...

*Maximum androgen blockade

Maximum or maximal androgen blockade (MAB) or complete or combined androgen blockade (CAB) is a medical treatment involving the ... antagonism and inhibition or suppression of androgen production to attain maximal effectiveness in androgen deprivation therapy ... Triple androgen blockade (TrAB) is a method of ADT in which a 5α-reductase inhibitor such as finasteride or dutasteride is ... "Maximum androgen blockade in advanced prostate cancer: an overview of the randomised trials". The Lancet. 355 (9214): 1491-1498 ...

*Androgen-induced hermaphroditism

If there is an excess of androgens in a male fetus it will give rise to infant hercules syndrome. J Money Sin, Sickness, or ... Androgen-induced hermaphroditism is a syndrome resulting from a hermaphroditic birth defect of the genital organs. They are ...
The goal of this study was to address the controversy over evidence of prenatal androgen exposure reflected in the digit ratios of women with PCOS. Recently our group showed that when 2D:4D were measured with Vernier calipers, women with PCOS did not demonstrate finger length patterns consistent with increased levels of in utero androgen exposure [12]. This was in contrast to a previous report that had also used Vernier calipers to measure 2D:4D in women with PCOS [9]. Since observed differences in 2D:4D are generally small, there is growing support that studies investigating potential effects of prenatal androgens use the most consistent and reliable technique available to measure finger lengths [13-15, 18-20]. In this study, we imaged the hands of women with four clinical phenotypes of PCOS, healthy female controls and men, and used computer-based calipers to measure their finger lengths since this method was recently validated to be the most reliable [14, 15]. Consistent with this being the ...
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Pain progression was defined as either ≥1-point increase in Present Pain Intensity (PPI) score or ≥25% increase in Analgesics Score (AS) confirmed at least 3 weeks later, or requirement for palliative radiotherapy. PPI scale is a self-report 0-5 scale to assess pain intensity - a score 0 reflects no pain, a score 5 reflects excruciating pain. AS is a scoring method to assess analgesics consumption. Each analgesic is scored 1 or 4 depending on the analgesic type and dose. AS is the sum of the analgesic scores.. Pain progression-free survival (PFS) time was measured as the time from the date of randomization up to the date of first pain progression or death due to any cause, whichever occurred first.. The median pain-PFS and its 95% confidence interval were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. In the absence of event, the participant was censored at the the date of last assessment without evidence of pain progression or the study cut-off date, whichever was earlier. ...
Here we tested the hypothesis that excess maternal androgen in late pregnancy reduces placental and fetal growth, increases placental steroidogenesis, and adversely affects glucose and lipid metabolism in adult female offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats
Bicalutamide (BIC) is an alternative treatment to castration for advanced prostate cancer. Breast events are common adverse effects which can be effectively prevented by the concurrent administration of tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modula
Changes in cognitive function related to altered serum sex hormone levels are well-recognised but poorly understood. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with aging is thought in part to be related to reduction in serum androgen level and international studies are on-going to prevent age-related MCI using androgen replacement therapy. Reduction in cognitive function often leads to morbidity and reduction in quality of life. The commonest therapeutically induced reduction in sex hormone level in men is in the treatment of prostate cancer. As prostate cancer is androgen dependent for growth, androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) to suppress serum testosterone level to castration levels (, 1.7mM) is the key therapeutic intervention for advanced disease. Up to 1 million men worldwide are estimated to have been prescribed ADT for prostate cancer, mostly using luteinising hormone releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa). ADT is now also used to treat some early prostate cancer and as early asymptomatic prostate ...
Herein, we assessed the efficacy of procyanidins from grape seed against a panel of human prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines which ranged from classical cell lines to the new variants that differed in their androgen responsiveness, castration resistance, and metastatic potential. The classical cell lines chosen were PC3, DU145 and LNCaP. Of these cell lines: PC3 and DU145 do not need androgens for growth, i.e, these are androgen independent (AI); they also lack androgen receptors (AR). The LNCaP cell line on the other hand, demonstrates androgen sensitivity (AS) and also requires androgens for its growth; while it harbors a mutated AR. Of the new variants of PCa cell lines available, we further chose a castration resistant variant of LNCaP, C4-2B, derived from the xenografts of castration resistant LNCaP subline-C4 in castrated mice. C4-2B thus represents castration resistant PCa (CRPC) cell line; while it does not require androgen for growth it demonstrates androgen sensitivity due to the ...
The primary objective of this research is to demonstrate that serum androgen (SA) levels in patients with castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are prognostic of overall survival (OS). A relationship of higher SA to improved survival has been observed in two phase III randomized studies, regardless of treatment arm, but never in a study in which an androgen synthesis inhibitor (ASI) such as abiraterone or ketoconazole was NOT part of the therapy. Patient serum is banked from CALGB 90401 - an NCI sponsored cooperative group randomized phase III that compared docetaxel plus prednisone (DP) to docetaxel/prednisone plus bevacizumab (DPB) in CRPC. Banked serum from this completed study will be used to measure androgen levels via CLIA certified ultrasensitive (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy) technique and these results will be associated with mature patient survival and outcome data. The underlying hypothesis of this work is that higher serum androgens are associated with ...
Development of resistance to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a major obstacle for the management of advanced prostate cancer. Therapies with androgen receptor (AR) antagonists and androgen withdrawal initially result in tumor regression but development of compensatory mechanisms including AR bypass signaling leads to tumor re-growth, independent of circulating androgens. The result is the emergence of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), a highly morbid disease exhibiting aberrant expression of many protein-coding and non-coding genes. Under the umbrella of non-coding RNAs is a class of small regulatory RNAs referred to as microRNAs (miRNAs). MicroRNAs are believed to function in the maintenance of cell homeostasis but are often differentially expressed in many different types of cancer including CRPC. In this study, the association of genome wide miRNA expression (1113 unique miRNAs) with development of resistance to ADT was determined. Androgen sensitive prostate cancer cells that
Androgens have important physiological effects in women while at the same time they may be implicated in breast cancer pathologies. However, data on the effects of androgens on mammary epithelial proliferation and/or breast cancer incidence are not in full agreement. We performed a literature review evaluating current clinical, genetic and epidemiological data regarding the role of androgens in mammary growth and neoplasia. Epidemiological studies appear to have significant methodological limitations and thus provide inconclusive results. The study of molecular defects involving androgenic pathways in breast cancer is still in its infancy. Clinical and nonhuman primate studies suggest that androgens inhibit mammary epithelial proliferation and breast growth while conventional estrogen treatment suppresses endogenous androgens. Abundant clinical evidence suggests that androgens normally inhibit mammary epithelial proliferation and breast growth. Suppression of androgens using conventional estrogen
970 Prostate cancer (CaP) cells are typically androgen dependent and androgen ablation is the standard systemic therapy for this disease. Virtually all CaP patients treated with androgen ablation eventually develop resistance to therapy, an ominous clinical state for which no consistently effective therapy exists. The mechanisms and biochemical pathways that contribute to the development of androgen independent prostate cancer (AIPC) are not well understood. Abnormal activation of androgen receptor (AR) has been proposed as one important mechanism. We have performed DNA microarray analysis of 11 noncancerous prostatic tissues and 86 CaP specimens in different clinical states. Therapy resistance has associated with a marked increase in AR transcripts without gene amplification, which suggests that upregulation of AR transcript is a critical event. Based on a correlation with AR transcript level, several transcription factors (NF-κB, Ets-2, AP-1) were identified as potential regulators of AR ...
The effect of androgens on different aspects of atherogenesis has received little attention despite the marked male predisposition to occlusive vascular disease.1 2 In the present study, we have demonstrated that androgen exposure leads to a dose-related and receptor-mediated increase in human monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, a key early event in atherosclerosis. This effect is mediated at least in part by an androgen receptor-dependent increase in endothelial cell expression of the important adhesion molecule VCAM-1.. A proatherogenic effect of androgens is supported by recent work in experimental animals. For example, Adams et al8 documented an approximate doubling of coronary artery plaque size in female postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys treated with testosterone and a cholesterol-enriched diet, and Hutchison et al16 documented arterial endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits that were administered androgens. Similar data are not available in humans.. The incidence of ...
The kidney androgen-regulated protein (KAP) is specifically expressed and differentially regulated by androgens and tri-iodothyronine (T3) in intact mouse early (PCT) and late (PR) proximal-tubule cells. Until now, detailed characterization of the molecular elements mediating androgen-responsive gene expression in the kidney has been hampered by the lack of appropriate cultured cell systems suitable for DNA transfection studies. In the present study we have analysed the hormone-dependent transactivation of the KAP gene promoter in immortalized differentiated PCT and PR proximal-tubule cells derived from L-PK/Tag1 transgenic mice. Transient transfection studies with different KAP promoter constructs indicated that a 224bp-truncated fragment was sufficient to mediate cell-specific expression of the KAP promoter. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulated in an androgen-dependent manner the transactivation of KAP in PCT and PR cells, while mutation of a putative androgen-response element (ARE) sequence ...
Steroid androgen hormones play a key role in the progression and treatment of prostate cancer, with androgen deprivation therapy being the first-line treatment used to control cancer growth. Here we apply a novel search strategy to identify androgen-regulated cellular pathways that may be clinically important in prostate cancer. Using RNASeq data, we searched for genes that showed reciprocal changes in expression in response to acute androgen stimulation in culture, and androgen deprivation in patients with prostate cancer. Amongst 700 genes displaying reciprocal expression patterns we observed a significant enrichment in the cellular process glycosylation. Of 31 reciprocally-regulated glycosylation enzymes, a set of 8 (GALNT7, ST6GalNAc1, GCNT1, UAP1, PGM3, CSGALNACT1, ST6GAL1 and EDEM3) were significantly up-regulated in clinical prostate carcinoma. Androgen exposure stimulated synthesis of glycan structures downstream of this core set of regulated enzymes including sialyl-Tn (sTn), sialyl Lewis(X)
Androgen and androgen receptors (AR) play critical roles in the proliferation of prostate cancer through transcriptional regulation of target genes. Here, we found that androgens upregulated the expression of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which is involved in the induction of mitochondrial fission, a common event in mitosis and apoptosis. Clinical tissue samples and various prostate cancer cell lines revealed a positive correlation between Drp1 and AR levels. Treatment of androgen-sensitive cells with an AR agonist, R1881, and antagonist, bicalutamide, showed that Drp1 is transcriptionally regulated by androgens, as confirmed by an AR ChIP-seq assay. Live imaging experiments using pAcGFP1-Mito stably transfected LNCaP (mito-green) cells revealed that androgen did not induce significant mitochondrial fission by itself, although Drp1 was upregulated. However, when treated with CGP37157 (CGP), an inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca²⁺ efflux, these cells exhibited mitochondrial fission, which was further
RATIONALE: Androgens can cause the growth of prostate cancer cells. Androgen ablation therapy may lessen the amount of androgens made by the body. Drugs
Anose, B.M.; LaGoo, L. and Schwendinger, J. (2008). "Characterization of Androgen Regulation of ZEB-1 and PSA in 22Rv1 Prostate Cancer Cells." Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008; 617:541-6 ...
Bellicum Pharmaceuticals Inc., a Houston-based drug startup focused on prostate cancer, has raised $4.5 million in Series A and convertible note financing. The company has now raised a total of $8.5 million, including $1.45 million from the Texas Emerging Technology Fund.. PRESS RELEASE. Bellicum Pharmaceuticals, Inc. today announced $4.5 million in Series A and Convertible Note funding. The new funds will be used to complete the companys ongoing Phase I/IIa trial of BP-GMAX-CD1 in patients with advanced, androgen independent prostate cancer, and to prepare for Phase IIb trials. The company anticipates reporting initial results of the Phase I/IIa trial in mid 2010.. The new funding brings the total raised to date to $8.5 million, including $1.45 million from the Texas Emerging Technology Fund, $6.8 million from angel investors, and additional seed capital from founders. The $6.8 million in angel funding includes $4.3 million as Series A and $2.5 million as a Note convertible into Series ...
Taxotere (docetaxel) is used to treat adjuvant breast cancer, metastatic androgen independent prostate cancer, advanced non-small cell lung cancer, advanced gastric adenocarcinoma and locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Includes Taxotere side effects, interactions and indications.
Androgen receptor (AR) targeting remains the gold standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PCa); however, treatment resistance remains a major clinical problem. To study the therapeutic effects of clinically used anti-androgens we characterized herein a tissue-mimetic three-dimensional (3D) in vitro model whereby PCa cells were cultured alone or with PCa-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Notably, the ratio of PCa cells to CAFs significantly increased in time in favor of the tumor cells within the spheroids strongly mimicking PCa in vivo. Despite this loss of CAFs, the stromal cells, which were not sensitive to androgen and even stimulated by the anti-androgens, significantly influenced the sensitivity of PCa cells to androgen and to the anti-androgens bicalutamide and enzalutamide. In particular, DuCaP cells lost sensitivity to enzalutamide when co-cultured with CAFs. In LAPC4/CAF and LNCaP/CAF co-culture spheroids the impact of the CAFs was less pronounced. In addition, 3D spheroids exhibited a
The first step in answering a question like this is to kick the tires in the lab, before ever road-testing it with humans. And so Dawn Cochrane, PhD, instructor in the Richer Lab, treated breast cancer cells lines with both casodex and a new anti-androgen drug MDV-3100,developed by Dr. Charles Sawyers at Memorial-Sloan Kettering and is currently in phase III clinical trials for treatment of prostate cancer.. "Interestingly not only did MDV-3100 completely abolish androgen-mediated breast cancer, but it stopped estrogen-mediated breast cancer proliferation, as well," Richer says.. This was true despite the fact that MDV-3100 only binds to androgen receptors and not estrogen receptors. And casodex? Well, while it brought its prostate cancer bag of tricks to bear on androgen-driven breast cancer, on the other hand it augmented the growth of estrogen-driven breast cancer cells. So while casodex may someday prove useful for patients with androgen - but not estrogen! - driven cancers, MDV-3100 is a ...
Sex steroid hormones are essential to normal skeletal growth and maintenance throughout life in both men and women. The importance of estrogens to bone health in women becomes obvious at menopause when estrogen deficiency occurs and results in accelerated bone loss. After menopause, estrogen deficiency results in drastic changes in the androgen-estrogen ratio. Thus, the relative importance of androgens after menopause may increase. Androgens also appear to be important for bone health in pre-menopausal women. Evidence from human, animal, and laboratory studies is leading to a better understanding of the effects of androgens on bone in women ...
In this study, we present data to support the use of cabozantinib with abiraterone for treatment of prostate cancer. This paper also describes abiraterones compensatory upregulation of p-IGFIR and activation of the downstream survival pathway (p-MEK and p-ERK) and cabozantinibs ability to inhibit phosphorylation of IGFIR as well as abiraterone-induced phosphorylation of MEK and ERK. In short, the work suggests the cabozantinib blocked one of the abiraterones short term compensatory adaptive resistance mechanisms.. The in vivo LAPC4-CR is a CRPC model that develops rapid resistance to abiraterone. As can be seen, cabozantinib has single-agent activity and more activity is seen when cabozantinib is combined with abiraterone. It is notable that the LAPC4-CR in vivo is a completely androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line and had undergone two passages in mice in our experiments. Therefore, it is probable that the cellular processes may have already been changed to produce an ...
As an adult woman, you probably know hormones have a lot to do with your acne! Learn how to treat breakouts casued by high androgen levels
... , also named androgenic hormones or testoids, could be the generic phrase for just about any organically grown or artificial compound, normally a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the enlargement and upkeep of male qualities in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. This consists of the actions belonging toward accessory male sex organs and [...]
The antiangiogenic functions of TSP1 in tumors, extensively showed in most tumor models, are exemplified by the inverse correlation between TSP1 expression and MVD in androgen-dependent prostate carcinomas (11, 13, 34). TSP1 expression is inhibited by promoter methylation in the androgen-dependent cell line LNCaP (20), but surprisingly, reexpressed in C4-2 cells, a castration-resistant derivative of LNCaP cells, and in androgen-independent PC3 cells. This TSP1 reexpression is also observed in CRCaP in patients in which angiogenesis is an active process (11). TSP1 reexpression in CRCaP and AICaP is not fortuitous as TSP1 silencing blunted tumor development in vivo (Fig. 1C and Supplementary Fig. S1B), showing that TSP1 actively stimulates tumor growth, as observed in other experimental (5, 35) and clinical situations (12, 36). Indeed, our experiments show that TSP1, which does not regulate CRCaP cell proliferation or apoptosis, is a potent trigger of tumor cell migration. This property was also ...
Consider an XY fetus. For the androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) to do their work in its brain, they must bind to special receptors tailored specially for androgens. The androgens fit into the receptors like a key into a lock. The receptors are actually proteins, made by genes. Even small variations in the gene (SRY) involved in making androgen receptors can lead to a hitch. And small variations in that gene are not uncommon. In some genetic variants, the receptor lacks the right shape to allow the androgens to bind to it. This prevents the process of masculinizing the gonads and the brain. In other genetic variants, no receptor proteins are produced at all, so the androgen has nothing to bind to. In these conditions, the androgens cannot masculinize the brain or the body, despite the XY genetic makeup. In consequence, the baby, though a genetic male, will probably have a small vagina and will be believed to be female when born. This baby will grow breasts at puberty, though she/he ...
To assess prescribing practices for androgens at Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, the authors analyzed prescriptions for all patients receiving therapy during a 12-month period n=201 and reviewed the available outpatient records not maintained elsewhere n=105. The most commonly prescribed androgens were testosterone enanthate 144/201; 56.7%,...
2894 Although accumulated evidence has showed that the androgen receptor (AR) is involved in the progression of prostate cancer (CaP) to androgen-independence, it is unclear how the AR contributes to the proliferation of androgen-independent (AI) cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a prolonged association of the AR with the androgen-response element (ARE) in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter occurs in AI cells. For this, androgen-dependent (AD) LNCaP cell and its AI subline (LNCaP-cds2) were treated with different ligands. A chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to examine the binding of the AR to the PSA promoter, while a ChIP-Western blot assay was used to assess the recruitment of p160 coactivators (SRC1 and TIF2) to the AR-ARE complex. The expression of AR and its p160 coactivators was detected using Western blot assay, and their association was determined using immunoprecipitation (IP). It was found that treatment of LNCaP cells with synthetic ...
I am currently working with an androgen independent prostate ,cancer cell line. Using the Oncor ApopTag kit, I have gotten beautiful ,pictures of cells undergoing apoptosis, however, there are a few ,phenomenas that I notice that I cant explain- namely: , 1. Apoptosis is supposed to be marked by cell shrinkage whereas ,my cells (which underwent ionizing irradiation) are markedly larger than ,the control cells. Cells undergoing apoptosis do tend to shrink during the loss of cytoplasm as apoptotic bodies are formed and released. Cells undergoing radiation induced cell death will swell if they are undergoing necrosis. What you may be observing are necrotic cells, which also contain degraded DNA, stained positive by the ApopTag Kit. Also, what dose range are you using? David W. Voehringer Department of Experimental Radiotherapy Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center 1515 Holcombe Bvld. Houston, Tx. 77030 (713) 792-3797 ...
SesaThin and Androgens 2.0 Androgens are the unquestioned kings for building muscle mass and strength. However, their potency and far-reaching effects
SAHA is a promising agent currently in clinical trials for treatment of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Although previous studies suggest that SAHA can effectively inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells (16), the mechanism of growth inhibition is not well understood. Moreover, it was evident from our previous studies that SAHA is more efficacious in terms of growth inhibition and induction of cell death in androgen-responsive cells (e.g., LNCaP and CWR22) than in cells that lack AR (PC-3; ref. 16), suggesting that a component of the activity of SAHA in prostate cancer cells relates to the presence of a functional androgen signaling axis. Our current data, showing the modulation of the AR and genes involved in AR signaling, including its direct target genes PSA and kallikrein 2, as well as genes reported to be androgen regulated, such as transmembrane serine protease and NEDD4L, provide direct evidence of an effect of SAHA on AR signaling. In addition, our demonstration that both ...
Cancer cell invasion is one of the crucial events in local spreading, growth, and metastasis of tumors. First evidence suggesting an anti-invasive action was published by Nithipatikom et al. (2004) who showed that 2-AG inhibits invasion of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells by a mechanism involving CB1 receptor activation. However, the precise mechanism leading to decreased invasiveness by cannabinoids remained elusive. Recently, several investigations have provided new insight into how cannabinoids could achieve their anti-invasive action.. In this context, several studies suggest a modulation of the MMP system by cannabinoids as part of their anti-invasive action. MMPs belong to a group of enzymes exerting an important function during tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis through degradation of ECM components (Curran and Murray, 2000; Stamenkovic, 2000). Of all MMPs, particularly MMP-2 and -9, are known to facilitate tumor invasion by proteolytic degradation of major basement ...
Gonadal androgens account for up to 80% of serum androgenic steroids (10). Castration, therefore, does not suppress adrenal androgens and achieves a "hormone-reduced" rather than a "hormone-free" state, hence, the recent renaming of this stage of the disease as castration-resistant in preference to hormone-refractory. CRPC cells undergo a number of genomic and expression changes involving the AR and its associated coactivators and corepressors that could allow continued activation of the AR signaling axis by castrate levels of androgens (11). Moreover, intratumoral hormone synthesis associated with overexpression of key enzymes, including CYP17, could cause resistance to castration (12-14). Although the latter remains a very challenging phenomenon to unequivocally prove, the body of circumstantial evidence for suggesting tumors synthesize their own androgens is compelling and introduces the interesting possibility of therapeutically directly targeting tumor hormone synthesis. In 2005, we ...
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Androgens and Glucocorticoids are generally accepted as having opposing actions in skeletal muscle. The former breaks down muscle during periods of stress
Androgen je taková sloučenina, která v organizmu působením na příslušné androgenní receptory zajišťuje vývoj primárních a sekundárních mužských (samčích) pohlavních znaků. V lidském těle jsou přirozenými androgeny mužské pohlavní steroidní hormony, jako je například testosteron ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
This book focuses on the functional significance of targeting apoptosis for the treatment of prostate cancer. New concepts on the challenges relating to the development of resistance by androgen-independent tumors are introduced, in terms of the contribution of anoikis and cross-talk of androgens with key growth factor signaling pathways. This volume also provides insightful discussion on the exploitation of the apoptotic and angiogenic synergism towards complete eradication of prostate tumors. Last but not least, it includes reflections on the drug development challenge based on the analysis of data from existing clinical trials. ...
Nobody is completely sure what causes acne. Experts believe the primary cause is a rise in androgen hormone levels. Androgen levels rise when a human…
Lee, C and Griffo, W, "Progesterone antagonism of androgen-dependent aggression-promoting pheromone in inbred mice. (mus Musculus)." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1709 ...
A little different spin on things. Again, this is an evolving science, so this is what I believe to be true at the time of posting...things can and do
TY - JOUR. T1 - Drug Insight. T2 - Testosterone and selective androgen receptor modulators as anabolic therapies for chronic illness and aging. AU - Bhasin, Shalender. AU - Calof, Olga M.. AU - Storer, Thomas W.. AU - Lee, Martin L.. AU - Mazer, Norman A.. AU - Jasuja, Ravi. AU - Montori, Victor Manuel. AU - Gao, Wenqing. AU - Dalton, James T.. PY - 2006/3. Y1 - 2006/3. N2 - Several regulatory concerns have hindered development of androgens as anabolic therapies, despite unequivocal evidence that testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass and strength in men; it induces hypertrophy of type I and II muscle fibers, and increases myonuclear and satellite cell number. Androgens promote differentiation of mesenchymal multipotent cells into the myogenic lineage and inhibit their adipogenic differentiation, by facilitating association of androgen receptors with β-catenin and activating T-cell factor 4. Meta-analyses indicate that testosterone supplementation increases fat-free mass and muscle ...
Since 1995, when the first Hsp90 inhibitor was shown to demonstrate antitumor efficacy in mouse xenograft tumor models, there has been considerable effort focused on the development of Hsp90 inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. To date, there have been minor differences reported between N-terminal or C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitors. We recently reported that the novobiocin analogue, F-4 induces client protein degradation with minimal Hsp90 induction in androgen dependent and independent prostate cancer cells [18]. These were some of the first pieces of evidence that showed C-terminal inhibitors to possess a unique pharmacology when compared to N-terminal inhibitors. A hallmark of N-terminal Hsp90 inhibition is the induction of Hsps (Hsp27, Hsp70 and to a lesser extent Hsp90) mediated through HSF-1 transcriptional activation of the heat shock response element (HSE). This is of significant concern because clinical resistance has been attributed to the induction of pro-survival Hsps [11, 41, 42]. As ...
of prostate cancer. When this compound was administered to ovariectomized mature female rats for 2 months researchers found it increased BMD and the biomechanical strength of cortical bone in the femur. These findings show that the effects of S-40503 on bone is applicable to both males and females. Rats treated with only estrogen a hormone used to prevent or minimize bone breakdown (resorption) did not positively affect BMD or cortical bone strength.. Please select the Card Type. Please enter a Security Code. LastName is required field.. When Cardarine is administered in excessively high doses in rats over a relatively long period of time the compound may cause cancer. SARMs and AASs. In the Mk-2866 Phytochemical Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator fitness community this compound is most commonly used to improve exercise endurance and assist in fat loss.. Exact Mass: 338. Molecular Weight: 338. Elemental Analysis: C 49. Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product ...
Looking for online definition of androgen ablation in the Medical Dictionary? androgen ablation explanation free. What is androgen ablation? Meaning of androgen ablation medical term. What does androgen ablation mean?
Neurotensin is a neuroendocrine peptide acting as a trophic factor in a variety of cells in vivo but it can also function as an autocrine growth factor in human prostate cancer cells in vitro. In addition, the high-affinity G protein-coupled NT receptor (NTS1) is overexpressed in prostate cancer cell lines. Increasing evidence argues for a direct correlation between specific alternative splice variants and cancer. We detected four splice variants of the NTS1 receptor in human prostate cancer cell lines. These isoforms include one or more exons skipping as well as an alternative 5 splice donor site and are expressed in the late-stage androgen independent prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145, but not in the early-stage androgen-sensitive LNCaP or in normal prostate tissue, which only express the normal transcript ...
The effects of androgen on blood pressure are controversial.3,11-13,16 Because elevated androgens, such as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and testosterone (free and total), have been reported to associate with insulin resistance,17 obesity,18 and lipid metabolism19; therefore, elevated androgens may raise the risk for cardiovascular disease. The present study demonstrated that the serum bioavailable and total testosterone levels were significantly and positively correlated with both SBP and DBP in young women with PCOS, independent of insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia. The observed associations in this specific population suggest that the characteristic hyperandrogenemia in young women with PCOS is associated with the level of the blood pressure and may possibly contribute to the risks of hypertension and cardiovascular disease that may occur in middle age.. The mechanisms by which androgens initiate and/or mediate cardiovascular disease and hypertension have not been clearly ...
Circulating levels of androgens can influence human behavior because some neurons are sensitive to steroid hormones. Androgen levels have been implicated in the regulation of human aggression and libido. Indeed, androgens are capable of altering the structure of the brain in several species, including mice, rats, and primates, producing sex differences.[10]. Numerous reports have shown androgens alone are capable of altering the structure of the brain,[11] but identification of which alterations in neuroanatomy stem from androgens or estrogens is difficult, because of their potential for conversion.. Evidence from neurogenesis (formation of new neurons) studies on male rats has shown that the hippocampus is a useful brain region to examine when determining the effects of androgens on behavior. To examine neurogenesis, wild-type male rats were compared with male rats that had testicular feminization mutation (TMF), a genetic disorder resulting in complete or partial insensitivity to androgens and ...
Background and aim: Erectile dysfunction (ED) can be present in diabetic patients not only induced by androgen deficiency, but also as a consequence of diabetes chronic complications. The aim of our study was to evaluate androgen status and chronic microvascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), with and without ED. Material and methods: 292 patients (44 Type 1 diabetes - T1DM/ 248 Type 2 diabetes - T2DM), were evaluated for androgen status: dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), free testosterone (FT) and presence of chronic complications. ED was diagnosed by a score under 22 of 5-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Patients with free-testosterone , 70 pg/ml were considered hypogonadal. Results: Prevalence of ED was higher in T2DM 87.5% than in T1DM 65.9%. In patients with ED the prevalence of hypogonadism was 31.3% in T1DM, 26.7% in T2DM. In older T2DM patients IIEF-score was significantly correlated with DHEA. There was a significant correlation between ED and ...
Recurrent, metastatic prostate cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer-death in men. The androgen receptor (AR) is a modular, ligand-inducible transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes that can drive the progression of this disease, and as a consequence, this receptor is a key therapeutic target for controlling prostate cancer. The current drugs designed to directly inhibit the AR are called anti-androgens, and all act by competing with androgens for binding to the androgen/ligand binding site. Unfortunately, with the inevitable progression of the cancer to castration resistance, many of these drugs become ineffective. However, there are numerous other regulatory sites on this protein that have not been exploited therapeutically. The regulation of AR activity involves a cascade of complex interactions with numerous chaperones, co-factors and co-regulatory proteins, leading ultimately to direct binding of AR dimers to specific DNA androgen response elements within the
Due to the understanding of male pattern baldness as Androgenic Alopecia (i.e. as an androgen-dependent process), many studies have focused on androgen metabolism (AM) in the body and how androgens effect hair. Studies have shown that "all dermal papilla cells from androgen-sensitive sites contain low capacity, high affinity androgen receptors." [18]. The dermal papilla (DP), at the base of the hair follicle, has androgen receptors (ARs) that androgens from the blood bind to. In androgen-sensitive follicles, the androgens are synthesized and diffused over small distances; this induces changes in neighboring cells (like keratinocytes cells) in what is known as "paracrine interactions". The diffusible proteins are called paracrine factors. [18]. When beard and scalp cells were incubated in androgens, androgens stimulated the cells ability to triggered mitosis (cell division) in beard cells but not in scalp cells. The interesting outcome here was that incubation with androgens had the exact ...
Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men in the western world. The androgen receptor, a phosphoprotein, is suspected to be involved in all stages of the prostate cancer. Androgen receptor activity can be modulated by various kinases such as PKA, MAPK, AKT, and Src. Phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification and serves as a molecular on-off switch to regulate signaling. Disruptions of cellular phosphorylation are associated with various diseases such as cancer and kinases provide important drug targets. Here we present an analysis of the phosphoproteome in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. The analytical strategy employed here used proteomics based methodologies with a combination of detergents and chaotropic reagents during trypsin digestion followed by titanium dioxide enrichment of phosphopeptides. Over the course of multiple analyses by mass spectrometry we identified a total of 746 phosphorylation sites in 540 phosphopeptides corresponding to 116
Im wondering if anyone here has been tested and has low androgen levels? I know that many are within normal range, but Im talking about those whose androgens are at the low end or below the normal range for adult women. I recently had very thorough bloodwork and urine analysis done, and all of my androgens are at the low end, or below normal. Yet I have chronic acne around my chin and facial hair, and a high sex drive. Its mind boggling, but the endocrinologist says most likely it is overactive enzymes at the skin level. There is no way to test for that unless doing a biopsy.. Anyway, I am really wanting to try Spiro again. I tried it for 1 week and quit when I broke out in cysts, which is very unusual for me. They all subsided when I quit, except for one which is still under the skin 2.5 months later. My fear is that I do not have sufficient androgens to activate Spiros anti-androgen properties. I have researched extensively and here is what I have found:. Spiro is not a "pure" blocker ...
Punit Saraon, Natasha Musrap, Daniela Cretu, George S. Karagiannis, Ihor Batruch, Chris Smith, Andrei P. Drabovich, Dominique Trudel, Theodorus van der Kwast, Colm Morrissey, Keith A. Jarvi, Eleftherios P. Diamandis, Proteomic Profiling of Androgen-independent Prostate Cancer Cell Lines Reveals a Role for Protein S during the Development of High Grade and Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2012, 287, 41, ...
Chronic inflammation is associated with advanced prostate cancer (PCa), although the mechanisms governing inflammation-mediated PCa progression are not fully understood. PCa progresses to an androgen independent phenotype that is incurable. We previously showed that androgen independent, androgen receptor negative (AR−) PCa cell lines have high p62/SQSTM1 levels required for cell survival. We also showed that factors in the HS-5 bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) conditioned medium can upregulate p62 in AR+ PCa cell lines, leading us to investigate AR expression under those growth conditions. In this paper, mRNA, protein, and subcellular analyses reveal that HS-5 BMSC conditioned medium represses AR mRNA, protein, and nuclear accumulation in the C4-2 PCa cell line. Using published gene expression data, we identify the inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, as a candidate BMSC paracrine factor to regulate AR expression and find that IL-1β is sufficient to both repress AR and upregulate p62 in multiple ...
Typically, in vitro hazard assessments for the identification of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), including those outlined in the EDSTAC Tier 1 Screening (T1S) protocols, utilize mammalian receptors. However, evidence exists that fish sex steroid hormone receptors differ from mammalian receptors both structurally and in their binding affinities for some steroids and environmental chemicals. Most of the binding information available to date has been conducted using cytosolic preparations from various tissues. We sought to compare competitive binding using rainbow trout androgen receptor alpha (rtAR) and human androgen receptor (hAR) expressed in transfected COS cells. In this system we can investigate the binding affinities of individual receptors without the potentially confounding effects of other steroid receptors present in cytosolic tissue extracts. Saturation ligand binding and Scatchard anaylsis using [3H]R1881, a synthetic androgen, revealed a KD of 0.24 nM for the rtAR. In the same ...
Early-onset adrenal activation, known as premature adrenarche, increases the risk of developing PCOS in women by 50%.7 In a young woman, an early onset of pubic/axillary hair and apocrine sweat gland development can mark this condition.. When it comes to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, circulating ACTH levels in women with PCOS are actually similar to those found in age/weight-matched control women.2 The ACTH response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation has also been found to be similar in PCOS and control women. However, the production of adrenal androgens in response to ACTH stimulation is exaggerated in women with PCOS.2. As excessive stimulation of the adrenals by stress responses increases androgen output, it is helpful to look at the impact of stress in individual womens case histories. Along this same line of thinking, one suggested cause of PCOS-related adrenal androgen excess is peripubertal stress.2. Women with PCOS also secrete more cortisol than ...
A method was developed for measuring in vivo rates of mRNA synthesis in mice by pulse-labeling with the RNA precursor [3H]orotate and then using hybridization to recover specific mRNAs. The efficiency of recovery is determined with synthetic RNAs as internal hybridization standards. The method is particularly applicable to the kidney since this organ shows a strong preferential uptake of the label. Rates of synthesis, expressed as a fraction of total RNA synthesis, were measured for the androgen-inducible mRNAs coding for beta-glucuronidase (GUS), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the protein coded by the RP-2 gene, and the so-called kidney androgen-regulated protein (KAP). Control mRNAs coded for beta-actin, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and major urinary protein. Testosterone markedly increased the synthesis of the androgen-inducible mRNAs, but not the control mRNAs. Induction was not seen in mutant mice lacking functional androgen receptor protein. For GUS, ODC, and RP-2 mRNAs, the
Recently, we have identified serum response factor (SRF) as a mediator of clinically relevant androgen receptor (AR) action in prostate cancer (PCa). Genes that rely on SRF for androgen responsiveness represent a small fraction of androgen-regulated genes, but distinguish benign from malignant prostate, correlate with aggressive disease, and are associated with biochemical recurrence. Thus, understanding the mechanism(s) by which SRF conveys androgen regulation to its target genes may provide novel opportunities to target clinically relevant androgen signaling. Here, we show that the small GTPase ras homolog family member A (RhoA) mediates androgen-responsiveness of more than half of SRF target genes. Interference with expression of RhoA, activity of the RhoA effector Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK), and actin polymerization necessary for nuclear translocation of the SRF cofactor megakaryocytic acute leukemia (MAL) prevented full androgen regulation of SRF target ...
The androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor that mediates androgen action. We have used the green fluorescent protein (GFP) technique to investigate dynamics of nuclear trafficking of human AR in living cells. In the absence of ligand, the GFP-AR fusion protein is distributed between cytoplasm and nuclei. Androgen exposure leads to a rapid and complete import of GFP-AR to nuclei of CV-1 cells (,=90% nuclear in 30 minutes), whereas a pure antiandrogen, Casodex, elicits a slower (,40% nuclear in 30 minutes) and incomplete transfer. Unliganded ARs with mutations in the basic amino acids of the bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the second zinc finger and the hinge region are predominantly cytoplasmic and their androgen-dependent nuclear import is severely compromised ((3/4)20% nuclear in 30 minutes). Interestingly, substitutions of the Leu residues flanking the bipartite NLS lead to inefficient nuclear transfer in response to androgen ((3/4)20% nuclear in 30 minutes). The ...
The term male menopause, or andropause, is probably not accurate. Instead, experts prefer to talk about partial androgen deficiency of the ageing male (PADAM). Find out here what the symptoms of androgen deficiency are?
TRACK ORDERS RE-ORDER PRODUCTS AND MANAGE YOUR WISHLIST HERE. FIND OUT WHAT PAYMENT METHODS WE ACCEPT HERE ALONG WITH OUR ORDER POLICIES. INFORMATION ON OUR RETURN EXCHANGE AND REFUND POLICIES. Sarm S22 Review Gtx-024 permalink to DNA vs. You need to be a registered member to rate this post. Do SARMs or Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators build muscle? This guide contain everything you need to know. Simple Share Buttons Adder (6.. Wu D Wu Z Nair V Miller DD Dalton JT. Urinary metabolites of S-1 a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (sarm) in rats. Marhefka CA Sarm S22 Review Gtx-024 Moore BM 2nd Bishop TC Kirkovsky L Mukherjee A Dalton JT Miller DD. Homology modeling using multiple molecular dynamics simulations and docking studies of the human androgen receptor ligand binding domain bound to testosterone and nonsteroidal ligands. Bohl CE Chang C Mohler ML Chen J Miller DD Swaan PW Dalton JT.. Based on enobosarm ostarine and epistane these findings S-40503 appears to be an ideal ...
Results The prohibition against the use of testosterone therapy in men with a history of prostate cancer is based on a model that assumes the androgen sensitivity of prostate cancer extends throughout the range of testosterone concentrations. Although it is clear that prostate cancer is exquisitely sensitive to changes in serum testosterone at low concentrations, there is considerable evidence that prostate cancer growth becomes androgen indifferent at higher concentrations. The most likely mechanism for this loss of androgen sensitivity at higher testosterone concentrations is the finite capacity of the androgen receptor to bind androgen. This saturation model explains why serum testosterone appears unrelated to prostate cancer risk in the general population and why testosterone administration in men with metastatic prostate cancer causes rapid progression in castrated but not hormonally intact men. Worrisome features of prostate cancer such as high Gleason score, extracapsular disease and ...
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Huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1), an adaptor protein involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis that binds the polyglutamine repeat-containing protein huntingtin, is overexpressed in some prostate cancers. Noting that the androgen receptor (AR) also contains polyglutamine repeats, Mills et al. investigated possible interactions between HIP1 and the AR. Treatment of an AR-expressing prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP) with androgen led to an increase in nuclear AR and redistribution of about 50% of cytoplasmic HIP1 to the nucleus. HIP1 and AR coimmunoprecipitated from LNCaP cells and, when expressed in COS7 cells, the two proteins interacted in a mammalian two-hybrid screen. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that androgen stimulated the recruitment of HIP1 to the androgen response element (ARE) of the prostate-specific androgen (PSA) promoter. In COS7 cells transfected with AR and HIP1, HIP1 enhanced transcriptional activation in response to androgen stimulation. HIP1 knockdown ...
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The progression of all cancers is characterized by increased-cell proliferation and decreased-apoptosis. The androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) is the terminal stage of the disease. Many chemokines and cytokines are suspects to cause this increased tumor cell survival that ultimately leads to resistance to therapy and demise of the host. The AIPC cells, but not androgen-responsive cells, constitutively express abundant amount of the pro-inflammatory chemokine, Interleukin-8 (IL-8). The mechanism of IL-8 mediated survival and therapeutic resistance in AIPC cells is unclear at present. The purpose of this report is to show the pervasive role of IL-8 in malignant progression of androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) and to provide a potential new therapeutic avenue, using RNA interference. The functional consequence of IL-8 depletion in AIPC cells was investigated by RNA interference in two IL-8 secreting AIPC cell lines, PC-3 and DU145. The non-IL-8 secreting LNCaP and LAPC-4 cells served as
Although androgens induce several actions in brain relatively small is well known about which cell signaling pathways androgens activate in neurons. that DHT-induced CREB phosphorylation is normally AR-dependent since it takes place in Computer12 cells stably transfected with AR however in neither wild-type nor unfilled Rosuvastatin vector-transfected cells. Following we sought to recognize the indication transduction pathways of CREB phosphorylation using pharmacological inhibitors upstream. DHT-induced CREB phosphorylation in neurons was discovered to be influenced by proteins kinase C (PKC) signaling but unbiased of MAPK/ERK phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase proteins kinase A and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent proteins kinase IV. These total results demonstrate that DHT induces PKC-dependent CREB signaling which might donate to androgen-mediated neural functions. (5 11 = … DHT acts simply because a powerful agonist of AR but is normally metabolized into androgens that act independently of AR also. ...
A functional model of adult human prostate epithelium is described. This model shows that stromal cells, but not an androgenic stimuli, are required for architectural organisation of prostate epithelium. Within an organised structure, androgenic stimulation is required for the establishment of secretory epithelial cell morphology and associated function. In the absence of stromal cells but in the presence of androgens architectural organisation and secretory function are lost. Epithelial parenchymal units (organoids) from human prostate tissue were isolated, cultured within a three-dimensional collagen matrix, and xenografted subcutaneously into athymic mouse hosts. The grafted gels were rapidly invaded by host fibroblasts. Epithelial organisation initially disappeared but was re-established concurrently with the stromal cell invasion. In intact male hosts, cuboidal and columnar cells that expressed human prostate-specific secretory markers were found. In castrated male and in female hosts ...
Androgen-independent prostate carcinomas are resistant to chemotherapy and cell lines derived from androgen-independent prostate carcinomas such as DU 145 cells are highly resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. The incubation of DU 145 cells with anti-Fas IgM agonistic antibody of Fas receptor fails to activate JNK, a stress kinase involved in regulating apoptosis. We have previously shown that JNK activation is sufficient and necessary to promote Fas-mediated apoptosis in DU 145 cells. We investigate the mechanisms by which JNK activation and apoptosis are abrogated. HSP27 is overexpressed in DU 145 cells and has previously been reported to sequester DAXX and prevent JNK activation in cells treated with anti-Fas IgM. However, we find no evidence that HSP27 interacts with DAXX in DU 145 cells. Instead, we find that FADD does not interact with caspase-8 and this results in defective death-inducing signalling complex formation following Fas receptor activation.
Recent studies using several teleost models have revealed that androgens increase the size of previtellogenic (primary and/or early secondary) ovarian follicles. To explore our hypothesis that androgens drive the development of primary follicles into early secondary follicles, and to determine the mechanisms underlying these androgenic effects, we exposed juvenile coho salmon to near-physiological and relatively sustained levels of the non-aromatizable androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). This resulted in significant growth of primary ovarian follicles after 10 and 20 days, with follicles after 20 days displaying a morphological phenotype characteristic of early secondary follicles (presence of cortical alveoli ...
We previously demonstrated polymorphism of a mouse salivary protein which, because of its ability to bind androgen, we designated androgen binding protein (ABP) and its structural gene, Androgen bindi
Cadmium is a transition metal that has been widely used in industry. Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated a carcinogenic effect of cadmium on the prostate. Although it has been established that androgen is required for this cancer-inducing process, it is not clear how cadmium interacts with androgen. In this study, the carcinogenic mechanism of cadmium was explored with a focus on
This means that a woman has higher levels of mens (or androgenic) hormones (such as testosterone, androstenedione or DHEA or DHEAS) than normal or evidences of the actions of higher mens hormones such as thicker or darker hair growing on the face in a beard pattern (hirsutism), up the middle of the abdomen and around the breasts or acne. Androgen excess is also associated with thinning or loss of head hair in the front and on the top of the head (like a balding man). This is also called androgenetic alopecia.
A ligand dependent co-activator for the human androgen receptor has been identified. The co-activator, named here ARA70, potentiates interaction between androgens and the receptor. The co-activator is useful as a tool in monitoring the androgenic/antiandrogenic effects of possible pharmaceuticals as well as environmental samples. The cDNA for co-activator has been cloned and sequenced.
Mortality from prostate cancer in 2011 is estimated at 33,720 deaths in United States which occurs primarily in advanced disease stages. The cornerstone treatment of advanced prostate cancer is androgen deprivation, first established by Huggins and Hodges in 1941. Since then, recognition for the central role of the androgen axis and the androgen receptor (AR) during prostate tumorigenesis and progression, has been accepted. The arrest of the androgen-dependent growth stimulus by surgical or medical castration (with LHRH analogues or antagonists) is the result of reduced circulating androgens including dihydro-testosterone (DHT), which induces apoptotic regression of androgen-dependent cancer cells. This control however is short lived with the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).. Despite achieving sub-castrate levels of circulating androgens as a result of castration, the androgen-AR axis continues to play an active role in tumor progression. A functional AR, despite the ...
Study ENDO - Androgen deficiency in men flashcards from YA Park's The University of Melbourne class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
If you put 2D:4D into a Google search, you will obtain 11,700,000 hits so you know that something is missing in your life if 2D:4D doesnt ring a bell. From Wikipedia we are informed that "It has been suggested by some scientists that the ratio of two digits in particular, the 2nd (index finger) and 4th (ring finger) is affected by exposure to androgens such as testosterone while in the uterus and that this 2D:4D ratio can be used as a crude measure for prenatal androgen exposure, with lower 2D:4D ratios pointing to higher androgen exposure." Because "Some authors suggest that digit ratio [is] correlated to health, behavior, and even sexuality," there is a great deal of finger measurements all over the globe. For a previous Chance News wiki on the subject, see here; in that wiki, according to those who subscribe to the relevance of 2D:4D, "the 2D:4D ratio is able to explain such disparate entities as sex and population difference, assertiveness, status, aggression, attractiveness, the wearing of ...
If you put 2D:4D into a Google search, you will obtain 11,700,000 hits so you know that something is missing in your life if 2D:4D doesnt ring a bell. From Wikipedia we are informed that "It has been suggested by some scientists that the ratio of two digits in particular, the 2nd (index finger) and 4th (ring finger) is affected by exposure to androgens such as testosterone while in the uterus and that this 2D:4D ratio can be used as a crude measure for prenatal androgen exposure, with lower 2D:4D ratios pointing to higher androgen exposure." Because "Some authors suggest that digit ratio [is] correlated to health, behavior, and even sexuality," there is a great deal of finger measurements all over the globe. For a previous Chance News wiki on the subject, see here; in that wiki, according to those who subscribe to the relevance of 2D:4D, "the 2D:4D ratio is able to explain such disparate entities as sex and population difference, assertiveness, status, aggression, attractiveness, the wearing of ...
Research has revealed that male folks who suffer from reduced amounts of androgenic hormone or testosterone generally display indications of depression or depressive symptoms when they go to an endocrinologist business office. Very same research are finding out that guys well informed they have got lower levels of androgenic hormone or testosterone had been constantly getting antidepressant medicines. The actual partnership among depression and the occasional amount of a sex hormonal are certainly not verified clinically. Men with abnormal amounts of androgenic hormone or testosterone will invariably usual to exhaustion, improved becoming easily irritated, and decreased requirement for gender. This kind of symptoms can also be associated with depression.. A study carried out in 2004 by Dr. Molly Sholes discovered that abnormal amounts of male growth hormone is actually a threat factor for depressive disorders. Gentlemen with very low number of a hormonal agent were 4 instances very likely to ...
Androgenic hormone or testosterone can make males anything they are, which is a fact that has been revealed by numerous people. In case a mans testosterone levels are way too lower then what up coming adjustments will show itself on their own, if it does in fact get them to the things they are? This piece of creating will start out with a review of the most important warning signs related to decreased androgenic hormone or testosterone levels, after which take into account the essential factors why it is considered to be more desirable to choose products depending on natural ingredients in contrast to kinds primarily based upon artificial substances. Lastly, exactly what to look for in relation to t booster capsules will likely be discussed.. A deficit in terms of testosterone can undoubtedly use a effective influence on a guy in a multitude of different approaches, however the most significant methods men might be stricken because of lowered concentrations of androgenic hormone or testosterone ...
The exact cause of acne is not known,but hormones called androgens can play a role. Androgens increase in both boys and girls during puberty. Androgens make the skins oil glands get larger and make more sebum. Androgens also can increase because of hormonal changes related to pregnancy or starting or stopping birth control pills ...
Hirsutism in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), consequent to elevated androgen levels leads to significant cosmetic and psychological problems. Recent research in Turkey has shown that spearmint tea has antiandrogenic properties in females with hirsutism. No research has yet been undertaken to assess whether a reduction in androgen levels brought about by spearmint tea, translates to a clinical improvement in the degree of hirsutism. This study was a two centre, 30 day randomized controlled trial. Forty two volunteers were randomized to take spearmint tea twice a day for a 1 month period and compared with a placebo herbal tea. At 0, 15 and 30 days of the study serum androgen hormone levels and gonadotrophins were checked, the degree of hirsutism was clinically rated using the Ferriman-Galwey score and a questionnaire (the modified DQLI = Dermatology Quality of Life Index) was used to assess improvements in the level of self-reported hirsutism. Forty one of 42 patients completed the study. Free ...
Multiple discrete regions at 8q24 were recently shown to contain alleles that predispose to many cancers including prostate, breast, and colon. These regions are far from any annotated gene and their biological activities have been unknown. Here we profiled a 5-megabase chromatin segment encompassing all the risk regions for RNA expression, histone modifications, and locations occupied by RNA polymerase II and androgen receptor (AR). This led to the identification of several transcriptional enhancers, which were verified using reporter assays. Two enhancers in one risk region were occupied by AR and responded to androgen treatment; one contained a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs11986220) that resides within a FoxA1 binding site, with the prostate cancer risk allele facilitating both stronger FoxA1 binding and stronger androgen responsiveness. The study reported here exemplifies an approach that may be applied to any risk-associated allele in non-protein coding regions as it emerges from ...
Nuclear receptors form a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. In contrast to the significant advances made in recent years to dissect nuclear receptor structure and their corresponding function, progress has been rather slow in the identification of target genes for nuclear receptors, information that is a prerequisite for understanding hormone action. Here, we describe a simple screening protocol that makes it possible to efficiently and effectively clone hormone-responsive genes that are specific to a tissue of interest. When this procedure was used to clone prostate-specific and androgen-responsive genes, approximately 40% of the clones selected at random represented genes that are known to be androgen regulated and are largely specific to prostate for expression, such as prostate specific antigen (PSA). A further 37% are known to be highly enriched in prostate for expression, but their androgen regulation is yet to be studied. The rest of the clones represented novel genes, ...
In Project 1, Drs. Brown, Tamimi, and co-investigators seek to gain a better understanding of the role of the androgen receptor (AR) in cancer risk and progress...
Androgen receptor is a ligand-activated transcription factor and a validated drug target for all stages of prostate cancer. Antiandrogens compete with physiologic ligands for androgen receptor ligand-binding domain (LBD). High-throughput screening of a marine natural product library for small molecules that inhibit androgen receptor transcriptional activity yielded the furanoditerpenoid spongia-13(16),-14-dien-19-oic acid, designated terpene 1 (T1). Characterization of T1 and the structurally related semisynthetic analogues (T2 and T3) revealed that these diterpenoids have antiandrogen properties that include inhibition of both androgen-dependent proliferation and androgen receptor transcriptional activity by a mechanism that involved competing with androgen for androgen receptor LBD and blocking essential N/C interactions required for androgen-induced androgen receptor transcriptional activity. Structure-activity relationship analyses revealed some chemical features of T1 that are associated with
... is a condition that affects sexual development before birth and during puberty. People with this condition are genetically male, with one X chromosome and one Y chromosome in each cell. Because their bodies are unable to respond to certain male sex hormones (called androgens), they may have mostly female sex characteristics or signs of both male and female sexual development. There are three types of androgen insensitivity syndrome which vary in severity. There are different management options, so talk to your doctor about the best care plan if you or your child has been diagnosed with androgen insensitivity syndrome. For more information about the different types, please visit: mild androgen insensitivity syndrome; partial androgen insensitivity syndrome; or complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.. Androgen insensitivity syndrome is caused by mutations in the AR gene on the X chromosome. It is inherited (runs in families) as an X-linked recessive trait. ...
Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) is a condition that results in the partial inability of the cell to respond to androgens. The partial unresponsiveness of the cell to the presence of androgenic hormones impairs the masculinization of male genitalia in the developing fetus, as well as the development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty, but does not significantly impair female genital or sexual development. As such, the insensitivity to androgens is clinically significant only when it occurs in genetic males (i.e. individuals with a Y chromosome, or more specifically, an SRY gene). PAIS is one of three types of androgen insensitivity syndrome, which is divided into three categories that are differentiated by the degree of genital masculinization: complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is indicated when the external genitalia is that of a normal female, mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) is indicated when the external genitalia is that of a normal ...
A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is the under-masculinization of individuals with XY sex chromosome karyotypes. A broad clinical spectrum of AIS exists, from mild to partial to complete AIS. Mouse models of complete AIS have been used to study aspects of sexual development, physiology, and behavioural outcomes in the absence of androgenic signaling. There is currently no animal model of partial AIS (PAIS), and the novel mouse strain described in this research satisfies the clinical description of human PAIS patients, appearing outwardly male with additional feminine characteristics. My research on the PAIS mouse model focuses on the anatomical features and endocrinology of this unique strain, and the role of partial androgen signaling as a cause of behavioural anxiety. -- Anatomically, PAIS male mice have similar body size and weight to wild-type (WT) males, but they have an intermediate anal-genital distance that is shorter than WT males, but longer than WT female mice. The PAIS males do ...
Docetaxel added to androgen-deprivation therapy did not improve overall survival over androgen-deprivation therapy alone in hormone-naive metastatic prostate cancer, according to an updated analysis of the GETUG-AFU 15 trial presented at the 2015 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium.1 In a retrospective analysis component of the trial, docetaxel provided an additional 14 months of survival overall and a 4-month difference in patients with high-volume disease, but neither was statistically significant.. "We wanted to see whether docetaxel in an earlier setting could improve survival in metastatic cancer," said presenting author Gwenaelle Gravis, MD, of the Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.. Study Details. GETUG-AFU 15 enrolled 385 patients between October 2004 and December 2008 and randomized them to receive either androgen-deprivation therapy plus docetaxel or androgen-deprivation therapy alone (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist or maximum androgen blockade or bilateral ...
Looking for online definition of Sex hormone binding globulin in the Medical Dictionary? Sex hormone binding globulin explanation free. What is Sex hormone binding globulin? Meaning of Sex hormone binding globulin medical term. What does Sex hormone binding globulin mean?
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Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome - WikipediaPartial androgen insensitivity syndrome - Wikipedia

"Discordant measures of androgen-binding kinetics in two mutant androgen receptors causing mild or partial androgen ... Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome is diagnosed when the degree of androgen insensitivity in an individual with a 46,XY ... "Androgen insensitivity syndrome: somatic mosaicism of the androgen receptor in seven families and consequences for sex ... androgen receptor binding, and mutational analysis in 278 clinical cases reported as androgen insensitivity syndrome". J. Clin ...
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Androgen insensitivity syndrome | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.orgAndrogen insensitivity syndrome | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org

... results from end-organ resistance to androgens, particularly testosterone. AIS may be complete or incomplete with variable ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also known as the testicular feminisation syndrome, ... complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS): Morris syndrome * incomplete: partial androgen insensitivity syndrome / ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also known as the testicular feminisation syndrome, results from end-organ resistance to ...
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Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome             | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS ProgramComplete androgen insensitivity syndrome | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program

... information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Complete androgen ... Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome is caused by changes (. mutations. ) in the AR gene. and is inherited. in an X-linked ... Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. is a condition that affects sexual development before birth and during puberty. ... PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Complete androgen insensitivity ...
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A novel mouse model for partial androgen insensitivity syndrome :: Memorial University - Electronic Theses and Dissertations 5A novel mouse model for partial androgen insensitivity syndrome :: Memorial University - Electronic Theses and Dissertations 5

Following an androgen sensitivity test, androgen-responsive growth of the preputial glands in castrated males was significantly ... Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is the under-masculinization of individuals with XY sex chromosome karyotypes. A broad ... Androgen-responsive organs are significantly smaller in mature PAIS males compared to age-matched WT males, including the ... A defect in androgen sensitivity was further indicated by the elevated serum gonadotropin concentrations at 30 d of age ( ...
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Androgen Insensitivity SyndromeAndrogen Insensitivity Syndrome

... Common Name(s). Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, Androgen Resistance Syndrome ... The Long-Term Outcome of Boys With Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and a Mutation in the Androgen Receptor Gene. ... Three novel and two known androgen receptor gene mutations associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome in sex-reversed XY ... For more information about the different types, please visit: mild androgen insensitivity syndrome; partial androgen ...
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Phenotypic variation and detection of carrier status in the partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. | Archives of Disease in...Phenotypic variation and detection of carrier status in the partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. | Archives of Disease in...

... similar androgen binding and the same androgen receptor mutations were shown in the cousins. Furthermore, one of the androgen ... who also had qualitatively abnormal androgen binding and two mutations of the androgen receptor gene. Despite marked phenotypic ... The partial androgen insensitivity syndrome occurs in 46,XY subjects with phenotypes ranging from perineoscrotal hypospadias ... Two cousins of a previously reported subject who had severe genital ambiguity and partial androgen insensitivity were ...
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Androgen insensitivity syndrome occurs due to loss of androgen receptor function. Androg ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome may present with symptoms and signs such as primary amenorrhea, undescended testes in ... What Is Biochemistry - Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Androgen insensitivity syndrome may ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome occurs due to loss of androgen receptor function. Androgen insensitivity syndrome is an x ...
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Journal of Postgraduate Gynecology & Obstetrics: Bilateral Gonadectomy In A Case Of Complete Androgen Insensitivity SyndromeJournal of Postgraduate Gynecology & Obstetrics: Bilateral Gonadectomy In A Case Of Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

The androgen supplementation treatment will not be beneficial in these patients due to the absence of functional androgen ... partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), and mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) also called as under-virilized ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome is the most frequent cause of the male pseudohermaphrotidism and the third most frequent cause ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome(AIS), previously known as testicular feminization syndrome, is an X-linked recessive disorder ...
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When androgens (such as nandrolone) are given to women, virilization, manifested by acne, hirsutism, clitoromegaly, male ... Hepatoma also occurs rarely and is testosterone usually benign and androgen-dependent; life-threatening malignant hepatoma has ... the soy isoflavones may counteract the activity of the androgens. ...
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It is also known as androgenic alopecia because it is related to androgen hormones. ... Medical science believes that overproduction of the male hormone or androgen called DHT is an important cause of hair loss in ...
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Androgen - WikipediaAndrogen - Wikipedia

Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens.. Androgen effects[edit]. The androgens function as ... This article is about androgens as natural hormones. For androgens as medications, see Anabolic steroid and Androgen ... Exogenous androgen supplements can be used as a male contraceptive. Elevated androgen levels caused by use of androgen ... Androgen insensitivity[edit]. Main article: Androgen insensitivity syndrome. Reduced ability of an XY-karyotype fetus to ...
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Lower androgen concentrations have been associated with bone loss in various age groups.{ref... more ... Androgens have important roles in bone mineralization either directly or through aromatization to estrogen. ... encoded search term (How do androgens affect bone?) and How do androgens affect bone? What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Androgen excess is due to elevated 11-oxygenated androgens in treated children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. J Steroid ...
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Androgens and exercise.. Br Med J 1973; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5870.49-b (Published 07 July 1973) Cite this as: ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/3/5870/49.3

Exercise, Androgens And Peripheral Nerve InjuriesExercise, Androgens And Peripheral Nerve Injuries

University found that the beneficial effects daily exercise can have on the regeneration of nerves also require androgens such ... "Exercise, Androgens And Peripheral Nerve Injuries." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 17 Oct. 2012. Web.. 18 Mar. 2019. , ... It is the first report of both androgen-dependence of exercise on nerve regeneration and of an androgenic effect of exercise in ... They now report that these beneficial effects of exercise require androgens such as testosterone in both males and females. In ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/251532.php

Androgen insensitivity syndrome - NHSAndrogen insensitivity syndrome - NHS

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare condition that affects the development of a childs genitals and reproductive ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare condition that affects the development of a childs genitals and reproductive ... complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) - where testosterone has no effect on sexual development, so the genitals are ... partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) - where testosterone has some effect on sexual development, so the genitals are ...
more infohttps://www.nhs.uk/conditions/androgen-insensitivity-syndrome/

What is androgen excess?What is androgen excess?

Androgens are produced primarily from the adrenal glands and the ovaries. However, peripheral tissues such as fat an... more ... Androgen excess is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. ... encoded search term (What is androgen excess?) and What is androgen excess? What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions ... Androgen excess is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Androgens are produced primarily from the ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/273153-91084/what-is-androgen-excess

Androgens, aging, and Alzheimers disease | SpringerLinkAndrogens, aging, and Alzheimer's disease | SpringerLink

Testoterone depletion is a normal consequence of aging in men that is associated with senescent effects in androgen-responsive ... Testoterone depletion is a normal consequence of aging in men that is associated with senescent effects in androgen-responsive ... These new findings support the clinical evaluation of androgen-based therapies for the prevention and treatment of AD. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1385%2FENDO%3A29%3A2%3A233

Androgen Receptor (AR) | SpringerLinkAndrogen Receptor (AR) | SpringerLink

NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4); Testosterone/dihydrotestosterone receptor Androgen receptor (AR) ... mediates the effects of androgens that are responsible for diverse... ... Androgen receptor (AR) mediates the effects of androgens that are responsible for diverse biological functions, such as ... A soluble androgen receptor in the cytoplasm of rat prostate. J Endocrinol. 1969;45:531-41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-67199-4_514

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome | Encyclopedia.comAndrogen Insensitivity Syndrome | Encyclopedia.com

... is a disorder caused by mutation of the gene for the androgen receptor. This protein binds testosterone and regulates the ... Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Genetics Copyright Genetics Society of America. Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome. Androgen ... and mild androgen insensitivity (MAIS). In complete androgen insensitivity, the alteration in the androgen receptor results in ... and mild androgen insensitivity (MAIS). In complete androgen insensitivity, the alteration in the androgen receptor results in ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/androgen-insensitivity-syndrome
  • during the embryonic stage of development, testes form in an androgen-independent process that occurs due to the influence of the SRY gene on the Y chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abuse of androgens (also called 'anabolic-androgenic steroids') has grown into a major worldwide substance abuse problem involving tens of millions of individuals, of whom about 98% are men. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The results of this study show the benefits of marjoram tea in women with PCOS by reducing adrenal androgens and improving insulin sensitivity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Left untreated, high levels of androgens, regardless of whether a woman has PCOS or not, are associated with serious health consequences, such as insulin resistance and diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and heart disease. (healthywomen.org)
  • Low androgen levels can be a problem as well, producing effects such as low libido (interest in or desire for sex), fatigue, decreased sense of well-being and increased susceptibility to bone loss, osteoporosis and fractures. (healthywomen.org)
  • Small studies find they are effective in boosting libido, energy and well-being in women with androgen deficiencies, as well as providing added protection against bone loss. (healthywomen.org)
  • At the time of puberty, androgen levels increase dramatically in males, and androgens mediate the development of masculine secondary sexual characteristics as well as the activation of spermatogenesis and fertility and masculine behavioral changes such as gynephilia and increased sex drive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Androgens have important roles in bone mineralization either directly or through aromatization to estrogen. (medscape.com)
  • In adult women, androgens are necessary for estrogen synthesis and have been shown to play a key role in the prevention of bone loss, as well as sexual desire and satisfaction. (healthywomen.org)
  • Aromatization of androgens by human breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • These new findings support the clinical evaluation of androgen-based therapies for the prevention and treatment of AD. (springer.com)
  • To summarize recent findings regarding the public health impact of androgen abuse. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Supraphysiologic androgen levels may sometimes cause irritability, aggressiveness, and violence, whereas androgen withdrawal may cause depression. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Androgens also produce this effect by increasing the levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine. (progressivehealth.com)
  • Low androgen levels may affect women at any age, but most commonly occur during the transition to menopause, or "perimenopause," a term used to describe the time before menopause (usually two to eight years). (healthywomen.org)
  • Androgen levels begin dropping in a woman's 20s, and by the time she reaches menopause, have declined 50 percent or more from their peak as androgen production declines in the adrenal glands, and the mid-cycle ovarian androgen boost lessens or evaporates altogether. (healthywomen.org)
  • According to the theory, African populations should have the highest androgen levels, followed by Caucasians, then by Asians. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Although 40% of women with hirsute have regular menses, half of them will be found to have elevated levels of one or more androgens. (medscape.com)
  • The androgen-directed treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) is fraught with the recurrent profile of failed treatment due to drug resistance and must be addressed if we are to provide an effective therapeutic option. (urotoday.com)
  • ORLANDO -- Periodic breaks from androgen suppression therapy did not impact survival in men with prostate-specific antigen progression after radical therapy for prostate cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recent studies confirm that long-term supraphysiologic androgen exposure produces cardiovascular toxicity, characterized especially by cardiomyopathy and atherosclerotic disease. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Find out how androgens cause acne and how to reduce their production in the body. (progressivehealth.com)
  • For many women, the effects of this further androgen decline include aggravation of hot flashes and accelerated bone loss. (healthywomen.org)