Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome: A disorder of sexual development transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. These patients have a karyotype of 46,XY with end-organ resistance to androgen due to mutations in the androgen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANDROGEN) gene. Severity of the defect in receptor quantity or quality correlates with their phenotypes. In these genetic males, the phenotypic spectrum ranges from those with normal female external genitalia, through those with genital ambiguity as in Reifenstein Syndrome, to that of a normal male with INFERTILITY.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Gonadal Dysgenesis: A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Hypospadias: A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.46, XY Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Surgically-Created Structures: Organs or parts of organs surgically formed from nearby tissue to function as substitutes for diseased or surgically removed tissue.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Feminization: Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Pain Insensitivity, Congenital: A syndrome characterized by indifference to PAIN despite the ability to distinguish noxious from non-noxious stimuli. Absent corneal reflexes and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may be associated. Familial forms with autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant patterns of inheritance have been described. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY: Defects in the SEX DETERMINATION PROCESS in 46, XY individuals that result in abnormal gonadal development and deficiencies in TESTOSTERONE and subsequently ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE or other factors required for normal male sex development. This leads to the development of female phenotypes (male to female sex reversal), normal to tall stature, and bilateral streak or dysgenic gonads which are susceptible to GONADAL TISSUE NEOPLASMS. An XY gonadal dysgenesis is associated with structural abnormalities on the Y CHROMOSOME, a mutation in the GENE, SRY, or a mutation in other autosomal genes that are involved in sex determination.Testosterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to TESTOSTERONE, the major mammalian male sex hormone. Testosterone congeners include important testosterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with androgenic activities.

Assessment of the gonadotrophin-gonadal axis in androgen insensitivity syndrome. (1/139)

OBJECTIVE: To study the value of measuring serum luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). DESIGN: Retrospective study of patients on a nationwide register of AIS. PATIENTS: Sixty one cases of AIS with androgen receptor (AR) dysfunction (abnormalities of the AR gene and/or abnormal AR binding) were divided into three age groups: infants, < 1 year old; children, 1-13 years old; and postpubertal, > 13 years old. MEASUREMENTS: Age, dose of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) stimulation, pre-hCG and post-hCG serum testosterone values, serum DHT values, and serum LH and FSH values before and after LH releasing hormone (LHRH) stimulation. RESULTS: In 23 of 30 infants testosterone was within age related reference ranges; six were above this range. The median testosterone rise following variable dosage of hCG was 9.5 times the basal value. The increment was not related to the hCG dose, age, or basal concentration of testosterone. The median basal and stimulated testosterone:DHT ratios were 2.5 and 6.1, respectively. The median increment in DHT was 2.2-fold. Seventeen of 18 FSH and 11 of 19 LH measurements were within age related ranges in infants; in seven patients LH values were above the range. LHRH stimulation performed in 39 patients showed an exaggerated LH in all age groups. The FSH response was not exaggerated in children. CONCLUSION: Although a positive hCG test excludes biosynthetic defects of testosterone, an inadequate response does not exclude AIS. Basal LH and testosterone may not be raised during early infancy. An LHRH stimulation test might be useful for evaluating cases of suspected AIS presenting in mid-childhood.  (+info)

Direct androgenic regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in motoneurons of rats with mosaic androgen insensitivity. (2/139)

The spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) and its target muscles, bulbocavernosus and levator ani (BC/LA), form a sexually dimorphic neuromuscular circuit whose development and maintenance are androgen-dependent. The mechanisms whereby androgen regulates gene expression in the SNB of adult rats are largely unknown, although a retrograde influence from the BC/LA muscles has been suggested to underlie the suppression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression observed in SNB motoneurons after systemic androgen treatment. A mosaic paradigm was used to determine the site of action of androgen in the regulation of CGRP expression in SNB motoneurons. As a consequence of random X chromosome inactivation, androgenized female rats heterozygous for the tfm androgen receptor (AR) mutation (XwtXtfm-mosaics) express a mosaic of androgen-sensitive and androgen-insensitive motoneurons in the SNB, whereas the BC/LA target musculature appears to be uniformly sensitive to androgens. In adult mosaics, testosterone administration resulted in a reduction in the proportion of androgen-sensitive cells expressing CGRP, whereas no such reduction was observed in the androgen-insensitive population, indicating that neuronal AR plays an essential role in the neuromuscular regulation of CGRP expression in these motoneurons. This provides the first in vivo demonstration of AR regulation of gene expression unambiguously localized to a neuronal population.  (+info)

Point mutations in the steroid-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene of five Japanese patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome. (3/139)

We analyzed the androgen receptor (AR) gene in five Japanese patients diagnosed with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). All AR genes from the five patients had single-nucleotide substitutions, which introduced a premature termination codon in three patients (Gln640, Arg752, and Gln640 and Trp751), and a single amino acid substitution in two patients (Arg831 to Gln, and Leu812 to Phe). All the mutations occurred in the steroid-binding domain, comprising exons D through G. The three patients with the premature termination codon(s) and the one patient with Arg831Gln were clinically diagnosed as having complete AIS, while the patient with Leu812Phe had a partial form of AIS. Pubic skin fibroblasts from four of the five patients did not show detectable androgen binding. These data on mutations that have not been reported previously, provide valuable information for the further characterization of structural and functional relationships in the steroid-binding domain of the AR protein.  (+info)

Coregulator small nuclear RING finger protein (SNURF) enhances Sp1- and steroid receptor-mediated transcription by different mechanisms. (4/139)

The small nuclear RING finger protein SNURF is not only a coactivator in steroid receptor-dependent transcription but also activates transcription from steroid-independent promoters. In this work, we show that SNURF, via the RING finger domain, enhances protein binding to Sp1 elements/GC boxes and interacts and cooperates with Sp1 in transcriptional activation. The activation of androgen receptor (AR) function requires regions other than the RING finger of SNURF, and SNURF does not influence binding of AR to cognate DNA elements. The zinc finger region (ZFR) together with the hinge region of AR are sufficient for contacting SNURF. The nuclear localization signal in the boundary between ZFR and the hinge region participates in the association of AR with SNURF, and a receptor mutant lacking the C-terminal part of the bipartite nuclear localization signal shows attenuated response to coexpressed SNURF. Some AR ZFR point mutations observed in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome or male breast cancer impair the interaction of AR with SNURF and also render AR refractory to the transcription-activating effect of SNURF. Collectively, SNURF modulates the transcriptional activities of androgen receptor and Sp1 via different domains, and it may act as a functional link between steroid- and Sp1-regulated transcription.  (+info)

Pituitary-gonadal axis in male undermasculinisation. (5/139)

AIMS: To study the value of assessing serum concentrations of luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in patients with male undermasculinisation not caused by androgen insensitivity. METHODS: A retrospective study of a register of cases of male undermasculinisation (20 with abnormal testes, eight with 5alpha-reductase deficiency, three with testosterone biosynthetic defects, seven with Drash syndrome, and 210 undiagnosed). RESULTS: A human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation test was performed in 66 of 185 children with male undermasculinisation. In 41 of 66 patients the dose of hCG was either 1000 U or 1500 U on three consecutive days. The rise in testosterone was related to basal serum testosterone and was not significantly different between the two groups. Testosterone:DHT ratio in patients with 5alpha-reductase deficiency was 12.5-72.8. During early infancy, baseline concentrations of LH and FSH were often within normal reference ranges. In patients with abnormal testes, median pre-LHRH (luteinising hormone releasing hormone) concentrations of LH and FSH were 2 and 6.4 U/l, respectively, and post-LHRH concentrations were 21 and 28 U/l. An exaggerated response to LHRH stimulation was observed during mid-childhood in children where the diagnosis was not clear and in all children with abnormal testes. CONCLUSIONS: The testosterone:DHT ratio following hCG stimulation is more reliable than the basal testosterone:DHT ratio in identifying 5alpha-reductase deficiency. During infancy, the LHRH stimulation test may be more reliable in identifying cases of male undermasculinisation due to abnormal testes than basal gonadotrophin concentrations.  (+info)

Tissue interaction in androgen response of embryonic mammary rudiment of mouse: identification of target tissue for testosterone. (6/139)

In the androgen response of the embryonic mammary rudiment of the mouse, both gland epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme are visibly involved. The question whether this is due to a direct action of testosterone on both tissues was investigated in experimental combination of mammary epithelium and mammary mesenchyme, derived either from normal or from androgen-insensitive (XTfm/Y) embryos. A typical androgen response occurred in combinations of androgen-insensitive epithelium with normal mesenchyme, whereas all combinations of normal epithelium with androgen-insensitive mesenchyme failed to respond. It is therefore concluded that only the mesenchyme of the mammary rudiment is the target tissue for testosterone, and that all changes in the gland epithelium, including its necrosis, are secondarily caused by testosterone-activated mesenchymal cells.  (+info)

Desert hedgehog (Dhh) gene is required in the mouse testis for formation of adult-type Leydig cells and normal development of peritubular cells and seminiferous tubules. (7/139)

Testes from adult and prepubertal mice lacking the Desert hedgehog (DHH:) gene were examined in order to describe further the role of Dhh in spermatogenesis because, in a previous report, DHH:-null male mice were shown to be sterile. Dhh is a signaling molecule expressed by Sertoli cells. Its receptor, patched (Ptc), has been previously localized to Leydig cells and is herein described as being localized also to peritubular cells. Two phenotypes of the mice were observed: masculinized (7.5% of DHH:-null males) and feminized (92.5%), both of which displayed abnormal peritubular tissue and severely restricted spermatogenesis. Testes from adult feminized animals lacked adult-type Leydig cells and displayed numerous undifferentiated fibroblastic cells in the interstitium that produced abundant collagen. The basal lamina, normally present between the myoid cells and Sertoli cells, was focally absent. We speculate that the abnormal basal lamina contributed to other characteristics, such as extracordal gonocytes, apolar Sertoli cells, and anastomotic seminiferous tubules. The two DHH:-null phenotypes described have common peritubular cell defects that may be indicative of the essential role of peritubular cells in development of tubular morphology, the differentiation of Leydig cells, and the ultimate support of spermatogenesis.  (+info)

Neuronal size in the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus: direct modulation by androgen in rats with mosaic androgen insensitivity. (8/139)

The motoneurons of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) and its target muscles, the bulbocavernosus and levator ani, form a sexually dimorphic circuit that is developmentally dependent on androgen exposure and exhibits numerous structural and functional changes in response to androgen exposure in adulthood. Castration of male adult rats causes shrinkage of SNB somata, and testosterone replacement reverses this effect, but the site at which androgen is acting to cause this change is undetermined. We exploited the X-chromosome residency of the androgen receptor (AR) gene to generate androgenized female rats that were heterozygous for the testicular feminization mutant (tfm) AR mutation and that, as a consequence of ontogenetic random X-inactivation, expressed a blend of androgen-sensitive wild-type cells and tfm-affected androgen-insensitive cells in the SNB. Chronic testosterone treatment of adult mosaics increased soma sizes only in androgen-competent wild-type SNB cells. The size of tfm-affected SNB somata in the same animals did not differ from the size of either the wild-type or tfm-affected SNB neurons in control mosaics that did not receive androgen treatment in adulthood. Because the muscle targets of the SNB are known to be uniformly androgen-sensitive in tfm mosaics, this mosaic analysis provides unambiguous evidence that androgenic effects on motoneuron soma size are mediated locally in the SNB. It is possible that the neuronal AR plays a permissive role in coordinating the actions of androgen.  (+info)

*Androgen

Andrology Endocrine system Exercise and androgen levels Androgen insensitivity syndrome Testosterone and the cardiovascular ... Also, androgens are the precursors to estrogens in both men and women. The main subset of androgens, known as adrenal androgens ... Exogenous androgen supplements can be used as a male contraceptive. Elevated androgen levels caused by use of androgen ... Androgens are synthesized in the testes, the ovaries, and the adrenal glands. Androgens increase in both boys and girls during ...

*Quigley scale

... including complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, partial androgen insensitivity syndrome and mild androgen insensitivity ... It is similar in function to the Prader scale and is used to describe genitalia in cases of androgen insensitivity syndrome, ... Galani A, Kitsiou-Tzeli S, Sofokleous C, Kanavakis E, Kalpini-Mavrou A (2008). "Androgen insensitivity syndrome: clinical ... and corresponds to mild androgen insensitivity syndrome. Grades 6 and 7 are indicated when the external genitalia is fully ...

*Mild androgen insensitivity syndrome

MAIS is the mildest and least known form of androgen insensitivity syndrome. The existence of a variant of androgen ... this category of androgen insensitivity is diagnosed when the degree of androgen insensitivity in an individual with a 46,XY ... Mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) is a condition that results in a mild impairment of the cell's ability to respond ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome is the largest single entity that leads to 46,XY undermasculinization. Individuals with mild ( ...

*Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome

... is diagnosed when the degree of androgen insensitivity in an individual with a 46,XY ... "Androgen insensitivity syndrome: somatic mosaicism of the androgen receptor in seven families and consequences for sex ... androgen receptor binding, and mutational analysis in 278 clinical cases reported as androgen insensitivity syndrome". J. Clin ... "A novel mutation c.118delA in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene resulting in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome within ...

*Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

... mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) when the external genitalia is that of a normal male, and partial androgen ... "A novel mutation c.118delA in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene resulting in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome within ... and genetic characteristics of androgen insensitivity syndrome in a Brazilian cohort: five novel mutations in the androgen ... "Height and bone mineral density in androgen insensitivity syndrome with mutations in the androgen receptor gene". Osteoporos ...

*Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia

"Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group (AISSG)". Androgen Insensivitity Syndrome Support Group. Retrieved 2016-05-16. " ... Intersex rights in Australia Intersex human rights Androgen insensitivity syndrome Official website Androgen Insensitivity ... for people with intersex variations such as androgen insensitivity syndrome. The Androgen Insensivitity Syndrome Support Group ... Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia (12 March 2013). "Submission to the Senate Inquiry on the involuntary ...

*DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Sex-Development Disorders: Intersex: Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

... also referred to as androgen resistance syndrome, is a set of disorders of sex development caused by mutations of the gene ... encoding the androgen receptor. The set of resulting disorders varies according to the structure and sensitivity of the ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also referred to as androgen resistance syndrome, is a set of disorders of sex ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome The free encyclopedia on incidence and genetics, the androgen receptor, variations in ...

*X-linked recessive inheritance

Alport syndrome; glomerulonephritis, endstage kidney disease, and hearing loss. Androgen insensitivity syndrome; variable ... Hunter's Syndrome; potentially causing hearing loss, thickening of the heart valves leading to a decline in cardiac function, ... Coffin-Lowry syndrome; severe mental retardation sometimes associated with abnormalities of growth, cardiac abnormalities, ... Progressive liver damage, skin lesions, and brittle hair may also be seen Siderius X-linked mental retardation syndrome; cleft ...

*Testis-determining factor

Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications (2008). "Androgen insensitivity syndrome". Genetics Home Reference. U ... karyotype and a functional SRY gene can have an outwardly female phenotype due to an underlying androgen insensitivity syndrome ... These athletes were found to have either partial or full androgen insensitivity, despite having an SRY gene, making them ... AIS). Individuals with AIS are unable to respond to androgens properly due to a defect in their androgen receptor gene, and ...

*Small Luk

She was born with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. Luk lived as a male for 36 years, and now lives as a woman. She ... Doctors explained that her body did not respond to androgen. Luk eventually underwent surgery to remove her male genitalia, and ...

*Apolipoprotein D

APOD is a biomarker of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). APOD is an androgen up-regulated gene in normal scrotal ... is a putative biomarker of androgen receptor function in androgen insensitivity syndrome". J. Mol. Med. 87 (6): 623-32. doi: ...

*Y chromosome

... see Androgen insensitivity syndrome and Intersex. Many ectothermic vertebrates have no sex chromosomes. If they have different ... 47, XYY syndrome (simply known as XYY syndrome) is caused by the presence of a single extra copy of the Y chromosome in each of ... Among humans, some men have two Xs and a Y ("XXY", see Klinefelter syndrome), or one X and two Ys (see XYY syndrome), and some ... except in the cases of aneuploidy such as XYY syndrome or XXYY syndrome. (See Y linkage.) The Y chromosome was identified as a ...

*Prader scale

Diamond, Milton; Linda Ann Watson (2004). "Androgen insensitivity syndrome and Klinefelter's syndrome: sex and gender ...

*Pseudohermaphroditism

Mutations affecting the androgen receptor (AR) gene may cause either complete or partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. ... Associated conditions include 5-α-reductase deficiency and androgen insensitivity syndrome. Sex determination and ... example of the challenges involved in the use of the term is the case of women with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome ( ... Androgen, a hormone used to describe a group of sex steroid hormones, is responsible for affecting male pseudohermaphroditism. ...

*Vaginal hypoplasia

The main causes are Müllerian agenesis and complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. In order to facilitate sexual intercourse ... It is frequently associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küstner-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, in which the most common result is an absent ...

*Hanne Gaby Odiele

She was born intersex as a result of androgen insensitivity syndrome. As a child, she underwent medical procedures relating to ...

*XY sex-determination system

... see androgen insensitivity syndrome). Additionally, an abnormal number of sex chromosomes (aneuploidy) may be present, such as ... and Klinefelter's syndrome, in which two X chromosomes and a Y chromosome are present, XYY syndrome and XXYY syndrome. Other ... Exceptions to this are cases of XX males or XY females, or other syndromes. The XY system contrasts in several ways with the ZW ... Turner's syndrome)". Lancet. 1 (7075): 711-3. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(59)91893-8. PMID 13642858. JACOBS, PA; STRONG, JA (Jan 31 ...

*Maria José Martínez-Patiño

Martínez-Patiño is a 46,XY woman who has androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). She passed a gender test in 1983 at the IAAF ...

*XX male syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome Karyotype X chromosome, for other diseases related to the X chromosome. XY gonadal dysgenesis ( ... Since XX male syndrome is variable in its presentation, the specifics of treatment varies widely as well. In some cases gonadal ... XX male syndrome is a rare congenital condition where an individual with a female genotype has phenotypically male ... This syndrome is diagnosed through various detection methods and occurs in approximately 1:20 000 newborn males, making it less ...

*Male reproductive system

Some individuals are male who have the XX male syndrome and androgen insensitivity syndrome. This occurs when one X chromosome ... Klinefelter's syndrome - two X chromosomes and a Y chromosome are present, XYY syndrome and XXYY syndrome. Other less common ... This is caused by the androgens produced and secreted by the testes. Androgen induced development causes the elongation and ... After the testes have differentiated, male sex hormones, called androgens, are secreted from interstitial cells (cells of ...

*Reproductive system disease

Androgen insensitivity syndrome - A genetic disorder causing people who are genetically male (i.e. XY chromosome pair) to ... Examples of congenital abnormalities of the reproductive system include: Kallmann syndrome - Genetic disorder causing decreased ... develop sexually as a female due to an inability to utilize androgen. Intersexuality - A person who has genitalia and/or other ...

*Kimberly Zieselman

Neither Zieselman nor her parents were told the truth about her diagnosis, that she had androgen insensitivity syndrome, XY sex ... Kimberly Zieselman is an attorney, human rights advocate, and intersex woman, with androgen insensitivity syndrome. She ...

*Androgen deficiency

Alternatively, it may be the result of conditions such as androgen insensitivity syndrome or hyperestrogenism. More simply, old ... Androgen deficiency also known as hypoandrogenism and androgen deficiency syndrome, is a medical condition characterized by not ... Hypogonadism Hyperandrogenism Hypoestrogenism Hypergonadism Hyperestrogenism Androgen Jakiel G, Baran A (2005). "[Androgen ... Wierman ME, Arlt W, Basson R, Davis SR, Miller KK, Murad MH, Rosner W, Santoro N (October 2014). "Androgen therapy in women: a ...

*Antiandrogen

Anabolic-androgenic steroid Androgen insensitivity syndrome Antiandrogens in the environment Selective androgen receptor ... This is evidenced by the perfectly female phenotype of women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. These women have a ... Androgen synthesis inhibitors are enzyme inhibitors that prevent the biosynthesis of androgens. This process occurs mainly in ... Androgen synthesis inhibitors: drugs that directly inhibit the enzymatic biosynthesis of androgens like testosterone and/or DHT ...

*Georgiann Davis

Born with Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, she writes widely on intersex issues and the sociology of diagnosis. In a video for ... Davis states how she was born with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome and diagnosed as an adolescent after experiencing ...

*DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Sex-Development Disorders: Intersex

Androgen Insensitiv-ity Syndrome 2 Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasi-a 3 Klinefelte-r Syndrome 7 ...

*Androgen-dependent condition

Androgen deprivation therapy Androgen insensitivity syndrome Estrogen-dependent condition Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy Joseph ... An androgen-dependent condition, disease, disorder, or syndrome, is a medical condition that is, in part or full, dependent on ... 1994-. ISBN 978-0-08-058373-0. Shukla, G. C.; Plaga, A. R.; Shankar, E.; Gupta, S. (2016). "Androgen receptor-related diseases ... Known androgen-dependent conditions include acne, seborrhea, androgenic alopecia, hirsutism, hidradenitis suppurativa, ...
Androgen insensitivity syndrome is the most frequent cause of the male pseudohermaphrotidism and the third most frequent cause of primary amenorrhea (approximately 10% of the primary amenorrhea). [2,7] Three different types of AIS have been reported. [2,7] The three AIS phenotype classifications are: complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), also called as testicular feminization syndrome, partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), and mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) also called as under-virilized male syndrome.[8] CAIS, the typical mode of presentation is in an adolescent female who has well developed breasts with a pubertal growth spurt but has no menarche and no or scanty growth of axillary and pubic hair. CAIS may also present in early infancy with the appearance of bilateral labial or inguinal swellings. Bilateral inguinal hernias are rare in girls and it has been estimated that 1-2% of such cases actually have CAIS. On the other hand if a female child shows inguinal ...
... is a condition that affects sexual development before birth and during puberty. People with this condition are genetically male, with one X chromosome and one Y chromosome in each cell. Because their bodies are unable to respond to certain male sex hormones (called androgens), they may have mostly female sex characteristics or signs of both male and female sexual development. There are three types of androgen insensitivity syndrome which vary in severity. There are different management options, so talk to your doctor about the best care plan if you or your child has been diagnosed with androgen insensitivity syndrome. For more information about the different types, please visit: mild androgen insensitivity syndrome; partial androgen insensitivity syndrome; or complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.. Androgen insensitivity syndrome is caused by mutations in the AR gene on the X chromosome. It is inherited (runs in families) as an X-linked recessive trait. ...
Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) is a condition that results in the partial inability of the cell to respond to androgens. The partial unresponsiveness of the cell to the presence of androgenic hormones impairs the masculinization of male genitalia in the developing fetus, as well as the development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty, but does not significantly impair female genital or sexual development. As such, the insensitivity to androgens is clinically significant only when it occurs in genetic males (i.e. individuals with a Y chromosome, or more specifically, an SRY gene). PAIS is one of three types of androgen insensitivity syndrome, which is divided into three categories that are differentiated by the degree of genital masculinization: complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is indicated when the external genitalia is that of a normal female, mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) is indicated when the external genitalia is that of a normal ...
Mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) is a condition that results in a mild impairment of the cells ability to respond to androgens. The degree of impairment is sufficient to impair spermatogenesis and / or the development of secondary sexual characteristics at puberty in males, but does not affect genital differentiation or development. Female genital and sexual development is not significantly affected by the insensitivity to androgens; as such, MAIS is only diagnosed in males. The clinical phenotype associated with MAIS is a normal male habitus with mild spermatogenic defect and / or reduced secondary terminal hair. MAIS is one of three types of androgen insensitivity syndrome, which is divided into three categories that are differentiated by the degree of genital masculinization: complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is indicated when the external genitalia is that of a normal female, mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) is indicated when the external genitalia is ...
A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome in children - What does androgen insensitivity syndrome mean? XY baby is a girl. Without testosterone (t), all babies develop as girls. So a child with 1 x & 1 y chromosome, who would normally be a boy, would develop as a girl if no t was present. In androgen insensitivity syndrome, the t is there, but the cells are insensitive to it, and dont respond, so its as if the t was not there at all. So an xy genetic boy baby is born looking like a normal healthy baby girl.
The partial androgen insensitivity syndrome occurs in 46,XY subjects with phenotypes ranging from perineoscrotal hypospadias with cryptorchidism and micropenis (mild undervirilisation) to clitoromegaly and partial labial fusion (marked undervirilisation). Within an affected family, wide variation in the degree of genital ambiguity between individuals can be seen. Two cousins of a previously reported subject who had severe genital ambiguity and partial androgen insensitivity were investigated. Neither of the cousins had genital abnormalities as marked as the index case, who also had qualitatively abnormal androgen binding and two mutations of the androgen receptor gene. Despite marked phenotypic differences between the index case and his cousins, similar androgen binding and the same androgen receptor mutations were shown in the cousins. Furthermore, one of the androgen receptor gene mutations has been shown in the mother and sister of one of the boys indicating that they are carriers. Thus ...
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also known as the testicular feminisation syndrome, results from end-organ resistance to androgens, particularly testosterone. AIS may be complete or incomplete with variable imaging findings. Epidemiology...
A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome may present with symptoms and signs such as primary amenorrhea, undescended testes in phenotypic female or inguinal mass in infancy. Androgen insensitivity syndrome occurs due to loss of androgen receptor function. Androg
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is the under-masculinization of individuals with XY sex chromosome karyotypes. A broad clinical spectrum of AIS exists, from mild to partial to complete AIS. Mouse models of complete AIS have been used to study aspects of sexual development, physiology, and behavioural outcomes in the absence of androgenic signaling. There is currently no animal model of partial AIS (PAIS), and the novel mouse strain described in this research satisfies the clinical description of human PAIS patients, appearing outwardly male with additional feminine characteristics. My research on the PAIS mouse model focuses on the anatomical features and endocrinology of this unique strain, and the role of partial androgen signaling as a cause of behavioural anxiety. -- Anatomically, PAIS male mice have similar body size and weight to wild-type (WT) males, but they have an intermediate anal-genital distance that is shorter than WT males, but longer than WT female mice. The PAIS males do ...
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is the under-masculinization of individuals with XY sex chromosome karyotypes. A broad clinical spectrum of AIS exists, from mild to partial to complete AIS. Mouse models of complete AIS have been used to study aspects of sexual development, physiology, and behavioural outcomes in the absence of androgenic signaling. There is currently no animal model of partial AIS (PAIS), and the novel mouse strain described in this research satisfies the clinical description of human PAIS patients, appearing outwardly male with additional feminine characteristics. My research on the PAIS mouse model focuses on the anatomical features and endocrinology of this unique strain, and the role of partial androgen signaling as a cause of behavioural anxiety. -- Anatomically, PAIS male mice have similar body size and weight to wild-type (WT) males, but they have an intermediate anal-genital distance that is shorter than WT males, but longer than WT female mice. The PAIS males do ...
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (Androgen Resistance Syndrome): Symptoms ❗ Workup ❗ Diagnosis ❗ Treatment ❗ Complications ❗ Causes ❗ Epidemiology ❗ Incidence ❗ Prognosis ❗ Check at SYMPTOMA.com
Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) is usually spotted soon after birth because the genitals have an unusual appearance.. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) isnt usually diagnosed at birth because the genitals look normal for a girl, although the condition may be picked up if the child develops a hernia.. Hernias are where an internal part of the body pushes through a weakness in the surrounding tissue. They can occur in babies with CAIS as a result of the testicles failing to move from the tummy into the scrotum.. When the baby has an operation to repair the hernia, the surgeon may find the testicles inside the hernia or in the tummy, and tests may be arranged to check for CAIS.. If a baby with CAIS doesnt develop a hernia, the condition may go undiagnosed until puberty, when she doesnt start having periods and doesnt develop pubic and underarm hair.. Read more about the symptoms of AIS and types of AIS.. ...
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also referred to as androgen resistance syndrome, is a set of disorders of sex development caused by mutations of the gene encoding the androgen receptor. The set of resulting disorders varies according to the structure and sensitivity of the abnormal receptor. Most forms of AIS involve a variable degree of undervirilization and/or infertility in people genetically XY.
Challenges in clinical and laboratory diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome: a case report. Caroline O.A. Melo, Daniela M. Silva, and Aparecido D. da Cruz. AIS Overview . AIS is an X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the Androgen Receptor gene Slideshow 790405 by machiko
Young, male, spousal caregivers of intersex patients are a minority within a minority. There are so many similarities and dissimilarities between caregivers of Alzheimer and AIS or intersex.
Read about the causes of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), including how babies with the condition develop and how it is passed on.
Definition of androgen insensitivity syndrome. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Male Pseudohermaphroditism"/ Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome. Children with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome or CAIS are the counterparts to XX CAH children. Their external genitalia take the typical female form, but internally they lack a uterus, and in the place where one would ordinarily find ovaries, they have internal testes. Because their bodies do not respond to testosterone, they grow up to develop very feminine secondary sexual characteristics at puberty, though they will never have menstrual periods. Despite their typically-female appearance, doctors call these individuals "male pseudohermaphrodites" because they have testes. However, in contrast to the treatment of children with CAH, doctors do not go on to say that they CAIS children have "malformed penises" that must be surgically altered to fit their "true sex." Instead of urging genital reconstruction, they tell parents to raise their CAIS children as girls, warn parents that their internal testes could possibly present a ...
Male Pseudohermaphroditism"/ Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome. Children with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome or CAIS are the counterparts to XX CAH children. Their external genitalia take the typical female form, but internally they lack a uterus, and in the place where one would ordinarily find ovaries, they have internal testes. Because their bodies do not respond to testosterone, they grow up to develop very feminine secondary sexual characteristics at puberty, though they will never have menstrual periods. Despite their typically-female appearance, doctors call these individuals "male pseudohermaphrodites" because they have testes. However, in contrast to the treatment of children with CAH, doctors do not go on to say that they CAIS children have "malformed penises" that must be surgically altered to fit their "true sex." Instead of urging genital reconstruction, they tell parents to raise their CAIS children as girls, warn parents that their internal testes could possibly present a ...
Cryptorchidism is associated with a several-fold higher risk of GCT. Abdominal cryptorchid testes are at a higher risk than inguinal cryptorchid testes. Orchiopexy should be performed before puberty, if possible. Early orchiopexy reduces the risk of GCT and improves the ability to save the testis. An abdominal cryptorchid testis that cannot be brought into the scrotum should be removed. Approximately 2% of men with GCTs of one testis will develop a primary tumor in the other testis. Testicular feminization syndromes increase the risk of testicular GCT, and Klinefelters syndrome is associated with mediastinal GCT. ...
Cryptorchidism is associated with a several-fold higher risk of GCT. Abdominal cryptorchid testes are at a higher risk than inguinal cryptorchid testes. Orchiopexy should be performed before puberty, if possible. Early orchiopexy reduces the risk of GCT and improves the ability to save the testis. An abdominal cryptorchid testis that cannot be brought into the scrotum should be removed. Approximately 2% of men with GCTs of one testis will develop a primary tumor in the other testis. Testicular feminization syndromes and family history increase the risk of testicular GCT, and Klinefelters syndrome is associated with mediastinal GCT. ...
When a child is born with complete AIS or CAIS, the baby will probably outwardly appear as a completely normal female. She will typically be raised as a woman and may have internal gonads that produce testosterone, which the brain alters to estrogen for her. Since male hormones are responsible for sexual virilization or facial, pubic and underarm hair, a person with CAIS may have little, if any. Some of these women do not even find out about having AIS until in their late teens or after puberty when the diagnosis is established because of a lack of menses or a period. ...
This case is genotypically male with a 46XY karyotype (proven), but with a female external genitalia. Both parents are co-sanguineous (cousins). An initial history of trauma was considered psychological denial to the diagnosis and to justify the...
Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine , Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow in association with Editorial office, Asian Journal of Andrology ...
This is the second in a series of posts in which I cover the basics of a particular intersex trait. For the purposes of this blog an intersex trait is defined as a bodily characteristic or set of bodily characteristic that have been determined to not be standard for male or female. This determination can be…
Background on Disease Markers The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), 137852571, that is being examined in this experiment is linked with Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Kennedy Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy. Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome occurs when a person who is genetically male (who has one X and one Y chromosome) is resistant to male hormones (called androgens). As a result, the person has some or all of the physical traits of a female, but the genetic makeup of a male. The mutation on the X chromosome makes the body unable to respond to the hormones that produce a male appearance. Kennedy Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease resulting in muscle cramps and progressive weakness due to degeneration of motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. The SNP is located on the X chromosome and affects the gene AR, the gene is inherited in an x-linked recessive manner therefore only males can be fully affected by the mutation and females ...
This quote was relayed to me by my buddy Vince - FP doc on the subtleties of differentiating between Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Klinefelters Syndrome: Well, yeah, it could be Klinefelters - but they usually present with a penis An explanation for non-medical types (because inside jokes are not cool): Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) and…
Its a very simple goal : Health Care Providers need to change the messaging to caregivers from. "Its not your business to be here between me and my patient". to. "I am sorry, even though your loved one, the patient, has requested for your presence as a caregiver, I respectfully decline and I suggest you contact this xyz counselor". Really, how hard is it? Would it better human lives? Would it provide better care for both the patient and the caregiver? Isnt this really at the heart of any medical condition. It seems like it should be easy to get this change made in a civilized society. But it is NOT. It is far more difficult to practice than preach. We will probably write annals and volumes of text on this to debate the pros and cons (are there any?) just to have a few words change. And we thought devoting our life to caregiving was tough, huh?. We are very grateful to good medicine and the good health care provider who help save lives of our loved ones. Its through their education and ...
Colles fracture is a break across the end of the main bone of the forearm (the radius). A Colles fracture results in a backward and outward position of the hand in relation to the forearm.
The November 2006 editorial about treatment of children born with ambiguous genitalia proceeds from a problematic premise, and goes on to imbue questions about elective genitoplasty with a rhetoric of optimism that could be misleading to distraught parents.. Dr. Rivkees argues that surgical gender reversal no longer occurs because 46,XX infants with CAH are typically assigned as female regardless of virilization, and 46,XY infants with testes and microphallus are typically assigned as male. However, gender identity development in children born with atypical genitalia is poorly understood1. It is certain that neither chromosomes nor gonads decisively determine gender. Patients with complete or partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), for example, commonly develop a female gender identity; but not always2. Parents who are considering irreversibly altering their childs genitals need to understand this uncertainty in order to make an informed decision. Whether or not gender assignment ...
After reading the Daily Telegraph of London, I read some of the 299 comments and per usual everybody has an opinion about something they know nothing about. All speculative! As a Urologist, who lectures on this very subject to medical doctors, let me tell you what I think I know from reading the AP from Pretoria, SA. Caster Semenya has a probable genetic Disorder of Sexual Development known as Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, probably Grade 5 or 6, where the external genitalia are female-like and the internal genitalia are vestigial testes, which produce Testosterone and Estrogen. I say probable because we cannot know if she has any ovarian tissue mixed with the testis tissue until these vestigial organs are examined under the microscope by a pathologist. This will probably never happen, unless it is presented to her as a condition for receiving female hormones. At this moment everyone is assuming she is an XY woman. Now somebody said she had three times the normal female Testosterone ...
As described recently (Nirdé et al., 2001), the region surrounding Gly708 in the hAR seems to be crucial for the stabilization of the active hAR conformation. The sequence alignment of the hAR revealed that this glycine residue is well conserved, as it is in human progesterone receptor and human glucocorticoid receptor. This suggests the key role of this amino acid in the functionality of nuclear receptors, although it should be noted that hMR and hER possess an alanine at the corresponding position. Furthermore, an AR gene mutation was detected by single-strand conformation polymorphism in codon 708, leading to an amino acid substitution Gly708A (Hiort et al., 1994; Albers et al., 1997). This point mutation causes a partial androgen insensitivity syndrome clinically characterized by undervirilization in 46XY male patients.. We previously showed (Auzou et al., 2000) that the Ala773Gly substitution in hMR was critical for generating agonist mineralocorticoid activity in the 11β-substituted ...
Yes. In the books, she has Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS). That means she has male chromosomes, but her body lacks the receptors to androgens. Androgens are male hormones that would cause the development of a 8====D. So, she basically has female genitalia. If by now you arent totally confused, you should have already asked yourself what having androgens means. Well, it means she has internal testes. Insensitivity to androgens means these women dont develop any male characteristics (which explains why they are more often than not extremely beautiful like Sadako). Also, women with AIS are usually very tall as well. They are infertile, but their life expectancy isnt reduced by the syndrome. Some models are thought to have AIS. By the way, only the Boreoeutherian land mammals have external @@. Having internal testes isnt THAT weird ...
If this is Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS), she is not a man because her body does not respond to testosterone she is producing, but there is no space, at the end of the day, for an XY female athlete.Now, take the plurality of genders (which by no means is an exhaustive list) and take the numbers of choromosomal patterns (which again is not an exhaustive list) and create all sorts of permutations and combinations and see the number you come up with. How can then you clearly say this is a man and this a woman? Should people with all of these "syndromes" not be allowed to play? Should they not be allowed to live? The violence of such archaic notions of sex, uninformed by science, and unethical in practice are clear. Santhi tried to kill herself because she was an athlete, a brilliant athlete, who had won for her country one of the few medals that it manages to win every four years, who had been shamed and stripped of her hard-earned and well-deserved medal because of some outdated and ...
A bit off topic, but its been on my mind lately.. XX and XY are not the sex-absolutes you may think it is. Theyre the two most common bins, but theyre far from the only genetic bins that humans end up in. Many, many people have been surprised when examining genes to determine "true" sex, often unhappily, and often complicatedly as a genetic condition a test wasnt designed to handle is encountered (how do you type XXY?).. What else is there out there?. Possibly the most famous is Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (which comes in complete and partial varieties) in which a mutation on the hormone receptor for Testosterone either doesnt work or only partly works. Babies with C-AIS will end up with an F on their birth-certificate because thats what they look like, and theyll go through a normal female puberty even though theyre still producing Testosterone.. Thats because the liver does this neat trick called armoatization in which excess Testosterone is converted into Estrogen. This is ...
Underviriwization can occur if a genetic mawe cannot produce enough androgen or de body tissues cannot respond to it. Extreme underviriwization occurs when no significant androgen hormones can be produced or de body is compwetewy insensitive to androgens. Bof resuwt in a femawe body. Partiaw underviriwization produces ambiguous genitawia part-way between mawe and femawe. The miwdest degree of underviriwization may be a swightwy smaww penis. Exampwes of underviriwization are androgen insensitivity syndrome, 5 awpha reductase deficiency, and some forms of congenitaw adrenaw hyperpwasia.. ...
Despite the low prevalence of primary amenorrhea, a prompt, comprehensive assessment by a specialist in reproductive medicine is warranted, as amenorrhea is often the presenting sign of an underlying reproductive disorder. A delay in diagnosis and treatment may adversely impact the long-term future of such patients. For example, an adolescent with androgen insensitivity syndrome requires counseling for eventual removal of gonads because these patients carry up to about a 30% risk of gonadal neoplasms. In polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperinsulinemia, behavioral and dietary modifications may prevent subsequent cardiovascular disease. [4] Verp MS, Simpson JL. Abnormal sexual differentiation and neoplasia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1987;25:191-218. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3548944?tool=bestpractice.com [5] Loret de Mola JR. Amenorrhea. In: Hurd WW, Falcone T, eds. Clinical reproductive medicine and surgery. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:233-250. [6] Shroff R, Kerchner A, Maifeld ...
Before the 2009 Berlin World Athletic championships you probably had no knowledge of Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome. But neither did you know about Caster Semenya. It could very well be that in terms of social evolution athletic events belong...
The FXXLF motif mediates androgen receptor-specific mk-2866 ostarine on cycle interactions with coregulators. Quigley CA Tan JA He B Zhou ZX Mebarki F Morel Y Forest MG Chatelain P Ritzen EM French FS Wilson EM. Partial androgen insensitivity with phenotypic variation caused mk 2866 stack gtx-024 by androgen receptor mutations that disrupt activation function 2 and the NH(2)- and carboxyl-terminal interaction. Mk-2866 Ostarine Liver Damage langley E Kemppainen JA Wilson EM. Thompson J Saatcioglu F Janne OA Palvimo JJ. Disrupted amino- and carboxyl-terminal interactions of the androgen receptor are linked to androgen insensitivity. Furuya K Yamamoto N Ohyabu Y Morikyu T Ishige H Albers M Endo Y.. Look for the file or directory in enobosarm sarms recovery the list of files. A dialogue box should Mk-2866 Ostarine Liver Damage appear allowing you to select the correct permissions or use the numerical value to set the correct permissions. Edit the file permissions as needed.Please enter Article. ...
of a lipophilic T patch or gel can result in significant unintended drug transfer which is of particular concern when women and children are exposed to high levels of androgen. T undecanoate (TU) is available as an oral capsule though not in the US. Unmodified T is subject to extensive first pass metabolism and suffers from a half-life on the order of minutes.. LBM Day 147 27. Compound III 51. Compound III 73.. E H) was measured by qRT-PCR. RT-PCR on Day 2 and 4. DHT increased the expression of these genes at lower concentrations. C) was measured by qRT-PCR.. Partial androgen insensitivity with phenotypic variation caused by androgen receptor mutations that disrupt activation function 2 and the NH(2)- and carboxyl-terminal interaction. Langley E Kemppainen JA Wilson EM. Thompson J Saatcioglu F Janne OA Palvimo JJ.. Suppl 6: S22-9. BPCA Drug Use Review NDA 21-015. Gan EH Pattman S Pearce SH and Quinton R.. I know this because my bottle included something called in chemistry jargon a C. The ...
Sammarco I., Grimaldi P., Rossi P., Cappa M., Moretti C., Frajese G., and Geremia R. Novel point mutation in the splice donor site of exon-intron junction 6 of the androgen receptor gene in a patient with partial androgen insensitivity sindrome. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85:3256-3261, 2000; ...
It is commonly accepted that the length of the polyQ tract influences the transactivation capacity of the receptor in an inverse manner; that is, the longer the tract, the lower the activity. To support this hypothesis, a clear negative impact on AR activity is documented in relationship with pathological expansions of the repeat length (40 or more), known as the Kennedy syndrome (5). This syndrome is characterized by spinobulbar muscular atrophy and hypoandrogenism due to partial androgen insensitivity. On the other hand, controversies still exist about the effect of variations in polyQ within the normal polymorphic range. The normal distribution of the (CAG)n is reported as 6-39 repeats, with a median of 21-22 in White Caucasian, 19-20 in African-American, 22-23 in Asian, and 23 in Hispanic populations. Clinical observations showing a linear correlation between testosterone level and CAG repeat length support the notion of a functional effect of the polymorphism within the normal range. In ...
The pain of herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus name generic viagra infection, rubella, herpes simplex virus, cmv, toxoplasmosis, and other discomfort after hours. Potential candidates for repair, and diagnose endocarditis. Avoid excessive administration of oral secretions at end expiration, indicating a link with gonadotropin and - , suckling leads to impairment or loss of definition of the situation. Conjunctivitis can occur in the past, short-acting barbitu-rates such as ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide, or pelvic collections revealed by color changes. Am j gastroenterol. Complete androgen resistance chapter from the same symptoms of hyperviscosity. Local irritation of the superior vena cava to the control of hormone production. An accurate test requires that peripheral conversion of t and increase cardiac output. They may act by restoring health and primary snoring. Atypical lymphocytes. Investigation is then complete treatment as outpatients, hospitalization is warranted. Although colic has ...
Education Resource Below you will find educational and support material for intersex education. Please feel free to email me with questions and/or comments. I found out when I was 21 years old of my intersex condition. I have Androgen Insensitivity Syndrom, which is a fairly common condition. This is an important cause to me, and…
Androgens are central to sexual differentiation and the maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics and functions. Individuals with inactivating mutations of their androgen receptor (AR) (androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS)) are phenotypically female in appearance and behavior and lack male sex accessory organs (prostate, seminal vesicles and Cowpers glands) despite the presence of testes, high levels of testosterone and a Y chromosome [1]. The effects of androgens are cell-specific and developmental stage-specific. For instance, castration of an adult male does not change the external genitalia or voice pitch, but causes a profound involution of the prostate, particularly in the epithelial compartment [2,3]. The exquisite sensitivity of prostatic epithelial cells to androgens has been exploited therapeutically in the management of prostate cancer [4].. The mechanisms underlying the temporal and tissue-specific effects of androgens are not understood. Like all steroid hormones, ...
Softening the facial features for feminization requires special skills. View the results of facial feminization procedures performed by Joshua D. Rosenberg, MD, on our before and after gallery page.
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Weapons Of Mass Feminization Written By: Jennie Ann Freiman MD Weapons Of Mass Feminization If youve ever wondered where all the alpha males have gone, the interaction between chemistry and biology may offer a clue.
This paper argues that the feminisation of migration has heightened the awareness of human trafficking, yet the feminisation of poverty is a social concept that is yet to be fully understood within the context of human trafficking. The false notion of
DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS: Histologically proven, symptomatic prostate cancer Appearance or aggravation of clinical symptoms with progression of disease Bone pain OR Urethral compression OR 20% decrease in performance status Metastatic disease Local-regional or distant secondary tumors Documented radiologically or scintigraphically Hormone-refractory as defined by progression while on hormone treatment (simple castration or complete androgen blockage) Progressive disease No urethral or cervical stenosis Increase of greater than 25% prostatic volume on endorectal echography No documentation by PSA increase or imagery only Hormone castration verified by testosterone less than 0.5 ng/mL No history of CNS metastases. PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS: Age: Over 18 Performance status: Karnofsky 60-100% Life expectancy: No specified Hematopoietic: Neutrophil count greater than 1500/mm3 Platelet count greater than 100,000/mm3 Hemoglobin greater than 9 g/dL Hepatic: Bilirubin less than 1.5 times normal Renal: ...
The feminization of poverty is a term that reflects that changes that are being seen in households that are in poverty. Specifically, it is a reference to the increase of poverty in households that are headed by women compared to households headed by men or by couples. In looking at poverty on a global scale,…
My Feminization Process : A true, personal story from the experience, I When I First Dressed As a Girl. When I was 11, I went to live with my uncle and his much younger wife who was only 10 years older than I (my parents had both died in a car crash). My aunt (by marriage) I thought was a hottie and wh...
Read a free sample or buy My Hot Wife: A Cuckold, Male Chastity, Female Led Relationship, Feminization Story by Barbara Deloto. You can read this book with iBooks on your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, or Mac.
I once was explaining this to a class, and after seeing this textbook photo, a student asked "Couldnt that lead to homosexuality?" I initially thought she meant that, being XY, theyd want to have sex with women, and that would make them lesbians. It took a few minutes of rather confusing discussion before I realized that she meant that theyd probably have sex with guys, and being XY, that would make them gay. I think the class found it fairly disturbing that their terminology wasnt working in this instance.. Androgen insensitivity and hypospadias are examples of the range of conditions known as intersex. The term itself reflects the general discomfort of people toward any admission that gender is not an absolute dichotomy. And of course, that discomfort exists in part because a large majority of individuals do cluster close to the ends of the continuum, at least when it comes to genital morphology.. When you consider, as discussed in the recent New York Times essay on this issue, that ...
An antiandrogen, or androgen antagonist, is any of a group of hormone receptor antagonist compounds that are capable of preventing or inhibiting the biologic effects of androgens, male sex hormones, on normally responsive tissues in the body (see androgen insensitivity syndrome). Antiandrogens usually work by blocking the appropriate receptors, competing for binding sites on the cells surface, obstructing the androgens pathway. Antiandrogens are often indicated to treat severe male sexual disorders, such as hypersexuality (excessive sexual desire) and sexual deviation, specifically paraphilias, as well as use as an antineoplastic agent and palliative, adjuvant or neoadjuvant hormonal therapy in prostate cancer. Antiandrogens can also be used for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (prostate enlargement), acne vulgaris, androgenetic alopecia (male pattern baldness), and hirsutism (excessive hairiness). They are also occasionally used as a male contraceptive agent, to purposefully prevent ...
A dysgerminoma is a type of germ cell tumor;[1] it usually is malignant and usually occurs in the ovary.. A tumor of the identical histology but not occurring in the ovary may be described by an alternate name: seminoma in the testis[2] or germinoma in the central nervous system or other parts of the body.. Dysgerminoma accounts for less than 1% of ovarian tumors overall. Dysgerminoma usually occurs in adolescence and early adult life; about 5% occur in pre-pubertal children. Dysgerminoma is extremely rare after age 50. Dysgerminoma occurs in both ovaries in 10% of patients and, in a further 10%, there is microscopic tumor in the other ovary.. Abnormal gonads (due to gonadal dysgenesis and androgen insensitivity syndrome) have a high risk[3] of developing a dysgerminoma. Most dysgerminomas are associated with elevated serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), which is sometimes used as a tumor marker. ...
The aforementioned letter written by Nikkis mother to Judge Clapp was to point out specific facts, that were inexplicable considering that Mr. Mann and Judge Clapp BOTH were involved in cases with Nikki and Emilio, i.e. bankruptcy and divorce proceedings.. In no manner did the letter suggest any Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome. How does anyone come to THAT conclusion, when Nikkis mother clearly states she discovered a birth defect on her baby the day of Tuesday, January 20, 1976 - while Chris Purdue was at work, before he was tragically killed that night, hit head-on by a semi-truck - and called Fort Hood to inquire if the baby would be covered for birth defects, since Chris was in the Army and only discharged less than 6 weeks prior? No description of the birth defect was given - but in a 6-MONTH infant, it was VISIBLE, and mother intended to tell Daddy when he came home that night. But, he never arrived - he was next in a closed casket, in a funeral home. WANT A PICTURE OF THAT???. And, ...
Looking for online definition of facial feminisation surgery in the Medical Dictionary? facial feminisation surgery explanation free. What is facial feminisation surgery? Meaning of facial feminisation surgery medical term. What does facial feminisation surgery mean?
Feminization or feminisation (see spelling differences), also known as sissification, is used to describe the practice, especially in female dominance, of switching the gender role of a male submissive. The male in such a process is sometimes and informally known as a sissy. Feminization is usually achieved via cross-dressing, where the male is dressed in female attire, ranging from just wearing female undergarments to being fully dressed in very feminine attire, including make-up, hairdress and nail polish. Some males take on tasks, behaviours and roles that are overtly feminine, and adopt female mannerisms and postures in tasks such as sitting, walking, and acting in a feminine manner. This emasculation may be coupled with punishments such as spanking or caning to gain cooperation and heighten submission of submissive male. Begging and pleading to stop the feminization may be part of the fantasy.. Costumes are sometimes very domestic, suggestive of servitude or ageplay. The clothes may be from ...
Lim, J., Ghadessy, F.J., Abdullah, A.A.R., Pinsky, L., Trifiro, M., Yong, E.L. (2000). Human androgen receptor mutation disrupts ternary interactions between ligand, receptor domains, and the coactivator TIF2 (transcription intermediary factor 2). Molecular Endocrinology 14 (8) : 1187-1197. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1210/me.14.8. ...
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Facial feminization surgery (FFS) in the transgender patient has come a long way in the past two decades. As societal and political changes have occurred, greater patient acceptance and awareness of the need for such external physical changes has become mainstream procedures for those plastic surgeons experienced in doing them. With roughly a 1/4% to 1/2% of the population being transexual, the number of patients desiring FFS is steadily increasing.. The key factor in transgender patients finding qualified and experienced plastic surgeons to address their needs is the internet. Like everything else in life, the internet has made finding FFS surgeons as easy as the click of a mouse. Having discussions by e-mails and online video chats enables patients to gather a tremendous amount of information without travel or office visit expenses. Patients can literally search amongst the available facial feminization surgeons to see whom they feel the most comfortable.. FFS surgery is a well known ...
The pursuing health care conditions are some from the feasible capable prospects to of Gynecomastia. There are very likely getting other feasible causes. Klinefelter syndrome Seminiferous tubule dysgenesis Testicular failure Androgen-insensitivity syndrome Androgen receptor defects Biosynthetic defects in testosterone production Feminizing adrenocortical tumors Isolated Leutenizing hormone deficiency Testicular germ cellular tumor Leydig cellular tumor Sertoli [...]
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These frontal and profile "before" views were taken shortly before Feminization Laryngoplasty surgery in a 28 year old patient. The "after" photos were taken 3.5 months after surgery.. ...
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These frontal and profile "before" views were taken shortly before Feminization Laryngoplasty surgery in a 49 year old patient. The "after" photos were taken 3 weeks and 2 months after surgery.. ...
I always wanted to have two shemales and two females in a big king size bedroom perform feminization on me. They would shave me and dress me up complete from head to toe. I would be controlled by them all the time and they would make me go out with them anywhere they want.. - Mark, 26. ...
This chapter focuses on the feminization of memory related to the Hiroshima bombing. The transformation of the official characterization of nationhood from a militant empire to a peace-loving democratic nation has often been represented as a change from a country of masculinised prowess to feminized innocence. The chapter argues that post-war Japanese womanhood became fully implicated in sustaining the myth of national innocence and victimology before, during, and after the war. ...
This chapter examines womens poverty in the United States. Poverty remains feminized in the United States despite reduction in official poverty levels of both single mothers and lone elderly women since the mid-1990s. Yet, the poverty rates of both groups remain high, whether based on the very low, static, and unrealistic threshold of the United States, or more realistic, relative or absolute standards that register higher rates. Minority status stands along with gender in both risk and prevalence of poverty; and the less educated, as well, are more prone to poverty. Consequently, there is a need for anti-poverty strategies that target inequalities of gender, race, and class.
I put together a new Pinterest board called Lingerie For Men, and it wasnt as easy as youd think. Out of hundreds of great photos of beautiful women in lingerie only a few stood out. Only a few were really different, or what I think of as creative. Yes, they were all gorgeous, and they were all wearing incredible pieces of lingerie in pretty colors, but most had the same expression and pose. Either they were sitting in a chair, often backwards, leaning against a wall, or lying on a couch or bed. The same is true for the thousands of photos of crossdressers I see all over the web, especially Pinterest. So these photos are meant to give you some ideas and inspiration to try something new, rather than take a quick selfie in your bathroom. For example, many of you dont want to show your face so you blur it or crop out your head. The photo below is a fantastic example of a way to do something different, something creative that youll be proud to show your friends at work and post online. As Ansel ...
All content provided on the "Sage of Quay Radio" blog is for informational purposes only. The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this site or found by following or viewing any link on this site. ...
He grunted appreciatively as I gave my second proper blow job, and I could feel him tensing up as my speed increased. I made sure with each forward motion I took his entire length, fighting the gag reflex as the tip of his cock banged against my tonsils. Tom firmly gripped my head as he started to rock his hips in time with my mouth, and from the sounds he was making, I knew it wouldnt be long before I was swallowing his cum. He took control, and held my hair tightly as a blow job slowly turned into a face fucking. Every time his cock hit the back of my throat, we both gave a little grunt, and it wasnt long before he gave a strangled yell, just managing to shout a warning that he was coming before the first spurt of cum filled my mouth. He hung on to my head as he spurted several more times, and there was so much man-juice that I couldnt keep it all in. I felt it trickle down my chin as his thrusts got a little weaker, and finally he pulled back from between my lips ...
The local implications of large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs), commonly referred to as land grabs, are at the center of an exponential production of scientific literature that only seldom focuses...
PLEASE LEAVE ANNOTATIONS ON! THEY CORRECT AN ERROR NEAR THE END. READ THE DESCRIPTION! Of course, you probably wont, but thats just rude! Ive been noticing that Ive been getting a lot more attention lately. Ive received a fair few new subscribers in the past weeks alone, by just sitting here and doing nothing! How awesome is that? Ive also been getting over 9000 requests for feminization videos since I started making videos, and the requests never stopped. So Ive caved in and I made a set of videos, one for man to woman and another for woman to man. This video screams adult content, so you should be 18 or over to view… Not like people actually care. Also, no trigger required. Ive come to the realization that trigger videos are stupid. I do full on inductions at the start of all my videos anyway, so Ill just save you all 10 minutes of your lives from now on (because Im a kind master). This video involves you walking around at one point, and talking out loud at another, so you may want ...
A baixa estatura é comumente percebida associada com desvantagem social e psicológica. Os pais muitas vezes atribuem distúrbios de comportamento, tais como, an…
Learn about Dr. Joel Becks cheek feminization procedure in San Francisco and San jose and see if he can help you obtain the facial features you have always wanted.
Feminization of poverty in caregiving can be mitigated or reduced by incentivizing caregivers either with money or food items in order to raise their working morale; or remove stress and distress from lack of food to the caregiver. Money to settle challenges such as transport is critical (UNAIDS, 2000). Programmes and plans must be put in place to streamline different forms of incentives. The Government, complemented by civil society bodies and donors should take the challenge of initiating financial and material incentives to the caregivers (Kangethe, 2011b). This researcher would recommend that the government of Botswana borrows a leaf from the Mozambique government which has a policy to give its caregiver volunteers 60% of the minimum wage rate in the country. This would to some extent cushions the poverty and reduces feminization of the caregivers (http//www.irinews.org./AIDsreport, 2005). Although Botswana government has a policy to offer food to its people living with HIV/AIDS, there is ...
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Dansie on incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism: Possible, but has a chance have normal fertility.
in Trabajos del Instituto Cajal (2009), LXXXII. Steroid receptors such as estrogen receptors alpha and beta and androgen receptors are transcription factors involved in the transcriptional regulation of a large number of target genes. Steroid-dependent ... [more ▼]. Steroid receptors such as estrogen receptors alpha and beta and androgen receptors are transcription factors involved in the transcriptional regulation of a large number of target genes. Steroid-dependent expression in the brain controls a large array of biological processes including spatial cognition, copulatory behavior and neuroprotection. The discovery of a competition, or squelching, between two different nuclear receptors introduced the notion that common cofactors might be involved in the modulation of transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors. These cofactors, which are now known as coactivators, are involved in chromatin remodeling and stabilization of the general transcription machinery. Since the characterization of ...
Dr. McLachlan, its Scott Kerlin from the DES Sons Network. Good to make a connection with you here. I appreciate your presentation on many different levels, but Ill try to be fairly specific on my own topic question. Our network in the past year did a poll to try to find out what were the leading concerns of DES sons and, as youve pointed out and others have, theres a lot less research that has documented the effects on DES sons than on daughters.. We learned quite a bit though from network members that: endocrine system problems, gender identity problems, and mental health problems seem to be among the top three areas, closely followed by cancer. I wonder if you could just briefly comment from your own long-term research about two somewhat questionable or controversial topics; one being feminization in males, and the other being various endocrine disorders in males, particularly hypogonadism, and whether youve seen linkages in your research over the years in animal research that might ...
MTF Facial Feminization Surgery before and after photo from Kamol Pansritum, MD Tagged: age 25-34, forehead, jaw line, male, 2 weeks post-op, front view, mtf. Taken on April 8th, 2016. (#2704814)
In most industrialized.nations, women are overrepresented in the ranks of the poor. Furthermore, it is often argued that this gender-based disadvantage has increased over time. In this paper, the author tests this so-called feminization of poverty hypothesis in Great Britain. Cross-sectional data from three years of the Family Expenditure Survey (1968, 1977, and 1986) are used. A poverty measure that is additively decomposable with population share weights, and is consistent with A. K. Sens axiomatic approach to poverty measurement, is used to decompose the total amount of poverty into male and female shares. Somewhat surprisingly, this decomposition lends no support to the feminization of poverty hypothesis. Copyright 1992 by The International Association for Research in Income and Wealth.
Forced Feminization Dress [Nyoninka-kenkyujo] | DLsite English for adults is an on-demand download shop for X-rated doujin/indie manga and games. Indulge your secret fantasies instantly, 24/7 on PC and mobile. - DLsite English for adults
Rash chafing genital skin fold - What to Do When Youre Itchy Down There - Personal Care Tips.... Revitol Skin Brightener Cream is your safe, herbal-based solution for a beautiful, glowing complexion.
One of the major questions in HSV-2 immunobiology has been the disparity between animal model data suggesting that functional host T cell responses in the ganglia have the ability to markedly limit viral reactivation at the ganglion level (25, 26) and human clinical studies of HSV-2 reactivation, which demonstrate that mucosal and genital skin shedding of HSV-2 in the immunocompetent person is extremely frequent (27-29). With once daily sampling, HSV-2 reactivation is seen in 20-60% of days in immunocompetent persons. More recent data suggest that high titer reactivations of HSV-2 lasting only 6-12 h are common (Mark, K., personal communication). These human clinical studies indicate that control of mucosal HSV-2 reactivation at the ganglion level in humans is incomplete at best. It is likely that immune control at both the ganglion and peripheral mucosal level is needed for containment of HSV reactivation. This study was designed to define whether local host control of HSV-2 played an important ...
If you contemplate what endocrine disruptors would do to the male population in this world - you will soon have a male population with health problems and stuck in the grip of pharmaceutical companies. In today world men have naturally lower testosterone due to 1. Bad quality food and 2. Sedentary lifestyle (100 years ago people were doing phyiscal labour, chopping woods and farming which all help to raise testosterone levels). I will also take an example from a story I read recently from the 16th century in Sweden were a group of 40-50 men in a place called Dalarna werent happy about the government put taxes on their income. They were lihving almost 500k from the capital but travelled all the way to stockholm and demanded that te government/king to take it away otherwise they wouldnt leave. That was courage that would never happen in todays society. Today in our soceity (I speak about sweden because I haven*t lived anywhere else) you hear stories after stories where woman is assaulted ...
If you contemplate what endocrine disruptors would do to the male population in this world - you will soon have a male population with health problems and stuck in the grip of pharmaceutical companies. In today world men have naturally lower testosterone due to 1. Bad quality food and 2. Sedentary lifestyle (100 years ago people were doing phyiscal labour, chopping woods and farming which all help to raise testosterone levels). I will also take an example from a story I read recently from the 16th century in Sweden were a group of 40-50 men in a place called Dalarna werent happy about the government put taxes on their income. They were lihving almost 500k from the capital but travelled all the way to stockholm and demanded that te government/king to take it away otherwise they wouldnt leave. That was courage that would never happen in todays society. Today in our soceity (I speak about sweden because I haven*t lived anywhere else) you hear stories after stories where woman is assaulted ...
FacesittingPOV offers the best in FacesittingPOV, movies, video clips, pics and more! Feel like you are in the movie! See our Exclusive Facesitting and Smothering content. Extreme fem domination, ass worship, foot worship
A Community Forum site for Sissies, and Anyone Who Loves Them! We are Transgender Girls who love to indulge in a super girly, cute, and sweet lifestyle. Sissy, Transsexual, Captions, Stories, Videos.
Evanesce, Feminol, Androease, etc., are not "crushed herbs in a capsule". These are Formulations, created using state-of-the-art herbal processing techniques to bring out the most potent parts of various feminizing herbs. These parts are then mixed in research-based ratios to optimize the Feminization of M2F Cross-dressers, Transgender and Transsexual People.. These Standardized Extracts of herbs, are processed to be extraordinarily Potent and Powerful Formulations, and are a Clear Step Above any Store-bought Herbs, while being Healthy for your Body.. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where Maria Constança Gomes Redinha Pais do Amaral is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Transmission of the RNA Species Associated With Cadang-Cadang of Coconut Palm, and the Insensitivity of the Disease to Antibiotics. J. W. Randles, G. Boccardo, M. L. Retuerma, and Erlinda P. Rillo. Pages 1211-1216. VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. ...
Looking for online definition of familial incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism, type 2 in the Medical Dictionary? familial incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism, type 2 explanation free. What is familial incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism, type 2? Meaning of familial incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism, type 2 medical term. What does familial incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism, type 2 mean?
Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain a familial disease that caused the bizarre appearance of the royalty, including Marfan syndrome, Wilson-Turner X-linked mental retardation syndrome, Fröhlich syndrome (adiposogenital dystrophy), Klinefelter syndrome, androgen insensitivity syndrome,1 myotonic dystrophy,2 and aromatase excess syndrome in conjunction with sagittal craniosynostosis syndrome, or Antley-Bixler syndrome.3 Hawass and co-workers published results of their molecular genetic studies on mummified remains of the royal family of the 18th dynasty to determine any pathologies and familial disease that might have afflicted them.4 Tests showed no sign of craniosynostoses and Antley-Bixler or Marfan syndrome, and could find no evidence of gynaecomastia because the anterior chest wall of the mummies was not available. Therefore, the presence or absence of gynaecomastia is not clear. The feminised appearance of Akhenaten was excluded by the pelvic bone shape. The study group also ...
Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain a familial disease that caused the bizarre appearance of the royalty, including Marfan syndrome, Wilson-Turner X-linked mental retardation syndrome, Fröhlich syndrome (adiposogenital dystrophy), Klinefelter syndrome, androgen insensitivity syndrome,1 myotonic dystrophy,2 and aromatase excess syndrome in conjunction with sagittal craniosynostosis syndrome, or Antley-Bixler syndrome.3 Hawass and co-workers published results of their molecular genetic studies on mummified remains of the royal family of the 18th dynasty to determine any pathologies and familial disease that might have afflicted them.4 Tests showed no sign of craniosynostoses and Antley-Bixler or Marfan syndrome, and could find no evidence of gynaecomastia because the anterior chest wall of the mummies was not available. Therefore, the presence or absence of gynaecomastia is not clear. The feminised appearance of Akhenaten was excluded by the pelvic bone shape. The study group also ...
Posted on 02/28/2011 5:35:55 AM PST by verdugo. The Feminization of the Church and Vatican II Marian T. Horvat, Ph.D. There has been much talk of late about a long-observable fact: the feminization of the Catholic Church. My friend Jan was quite impressed with the term and thought it accurately expressed the reality. I went to a Catholic church downtown yesterday, she said, and really, it was all women on the altar except for the priest. At Communion four ladies three in pants went to the side altar to pick up the chalices. The song leader was sensuous, in a blouse showing cleavage, waving her arms like a traffic cop. Only a few women in the pews were singing along. All the altar boys were girls. The Mass service invaded by women and girls in Linz, Austria According to the National Pastoral Life Center (NPLC), today there are more lay ministers than priests working in Catholic parishes: that is, 31,000 lay ministers to 29,000 diocesan priests. It notes that this revolution in ministry has meant ...
Hi Girls,. I am writing this and future posts about Facial Feminisation Surgery to reassure those of you who are considering it but are understandably worried and a bit scared about what is involved. I also felt apprehensive about it, as it is major surgery, but I would like to reassure those that are thinking about it that really, you have nothing to worry about.. I can only speak about my own experience of FFS, which was performed by the Facial Team - www.facialteam.eu.. The Facial Team are based in Marbella, on the south coast of Spain; or you can go to their clinic in Sao Paulo in Brazil, if you prefer.. I had a brow and orbital reduction performed by Dr. Daniel Simon and Dr. Luis Capitan, who are both experienced and very skilful maxillo-facial surgeons. I also had rhinoplasty on my nose and liposuction under my chin and on my neck performed by the plastic surgeon Dr. Kai, ably assisted by Louise, Dr. Kais lovely theatre nurse (who hails originally from South Yorkshire). Dr. Simon is ...
Wolbachia are maternally inherited, intracellular, alpha proteobacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. They cause three kinds of reproductive alterations in their hosts: cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. There have been many studies of the distribution of Wolbachia in arthropods, but very few crustacean species are known to be infected. We investigated the prevalence of Wolbachia in 85 species from five crustacean orders. Twenty-two isopod species were found to carry these bacteria. The bacteria were found mainly in terrestrial species suggesting that Wolbachia came from a continental environment. The evolutionary relationships between these Wolbachia strains were determined by sequencing bacterial genes and by interspecific transfers. All the bacteria associated with isopods belonged to the wolbachiae B group, based on 16S rDNA sequence data. All the terrestrial isopod symbionts in this group except one formed an independent clade. The results of ...
Methods Fifty rats received cyclophosphamide injection over 5 consecutive days to induce PADAM, which was verified by comparing total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels with 10 non-PADAM healthy control rats (CON). Successful modelling was confirmed in 43 of 50 rats, 40 of which were randomly divided into untreated (PADAM), EA-treated (PADAM+EA), MM-treated (PADAM+MM), and androlin (AD)-treated (PADAM+AD) groups (n=10 each). EA and MM were administered at BL23 and CV4 acupuncture points for 8 weeks, and no treatment was given to rats in the PADAM and CON groups. Serum levels of luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), mRNA expression of cytochrome P450c17 (P450c17) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (3β-HSD1), and protein levels of cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17β-HSD3) and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) were evaluated after 8 weeks. ...
Treatment of patients with progressive, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with abiraterone in combination with prednisone leads to an increase in progression-free and overall survival pre- and post docetaxel as evidenced in two large, phase-III trials (COU-AA-301 [1], COU-AA-302 [2, 3]). Inclusion of patients in both phase-III and former trials required continuation of medical castration with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) therapy in patients who had not undergone prior surgical castration. Therefore, the label on abiraterone (Zytiga®) contains advice to continue LHRH therapy during treatment with it [4]. However, in medically castrated men treated with abiraterone while continuing on LHRH therapy, testosterone further decreased rapidly to undetectable levels [5]. This potential of abiraterone to achieve even a more complete androgen deprivation than LHRH therapy alone appeals to speculation as to whether abiraterone may achieve and maintain testosterone deprivation at ...

Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome - WikipediaPartial androgen insensitivity syndrome - Wikipedia

Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome is diagnosed when the degree of androgen insensitivity in an individual with a 46,XY ... "Androgen insensitivity syndrome: somatic mosaicism of the androgen receptor in seven families and consequences for sex ... androgen receptor binding, and mutational analysis in 278 clinical cases reported as androgen insensitivity syndrome". J. Clin ... "A novel mutation c.118delA in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene resulting in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome within ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partial_androgen_insensitivity_syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome - Causes
    

            
                
                    
                       - NHS...Androgen insensitivity syndrome - Causes - NHS...

Read about the causes of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), including how babies with the condition develop and how it is ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is caused by a genetic fault that means the body cant respond to testosterone properly. ...
more infohttps://www.nhs.uk/conditions/androgen-insensitivity-syndrome/causes/

Androgen insensitivity syndrome definition | Drugs.comAndrogen insensitivity syndrome definition | Drugs.com

Definition of androgen insensitivity syndrome. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/androgen-insensitivity-syndrome.html

Androgen insensitivity syndrome | Radiology Case | Radiopaedia.orgAndrogen insensitivity syndrome | Radiology Case | Radiopaedia.org

The combined karyotyping and imaging features are compatible with androgen insensitivity syndrome (testicular feminization), ... Further MRI clearly showed both testes and the other findings of this syndrome as described. ...
more infohttps://radiopaedia.org/cases/androgen-insensitivity-syndrome-1

Androgen insensitivity syndrome | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.orgAndrogen insensitivity syndrome | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org

... also known as the testicular feminisation syndrome, results from end-organ resistance to androgens, particularly testosterone. ... complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS): Morris syndrome * incomplete: partial androgen insensitivity syndrome / ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also known as the testicular feminisation syndrome, results from end-organ resistance to ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome. Dr Mostafa Mahmoud El Feky and Dr Yuranga Weerakkody ◉ et al. ...
more infohttps://radiopaedia.org/articles/androgen-insensitivity-syndrome

Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome             | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS ProgramComplete androgen insensitivity syndrome | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program

... and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome ... ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/androgen-insensitivity-syndrome. *Androgen insensitivity syndrome. MedlinePlus. September 2014; https ... Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome is caused by changes (. mutations. ) in the AR gene. and is inherited. in an X-linked ... Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. is a condition that affects sexual development before birth and during puberty. ...
more infohttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/10597/complete-androgen-insensitivity-syndrome

A novel mouse model for partial androgen insensitivity syndrome :: Memorial University - Electronic Theses and Dissertations 5A novel mouse model for partial androgen insensitivity syndrome :: Memorial University - Electronic Theses and Dissertations 5

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is the under-masculinization of individuals with XY sex chromosome karyotypes. A broad ... indicating partial androgen insensitivity. A defect in androgen sensitivity was further indicated by the elevated serum ... Following an androgen sensitivity test, androgen-responsive growth of the preputial glands in castrated males was significantly ... Androgen-responsive organs are significantly smaller in mature PAIS males compared to age-matched WT males, including the ...
more infohttp://collections.mun.ca/cdm/ref/collection/theses5/id/22662

Androgen Insensitivity SyndromeAndrogen Insensitivity Syndrome

... mild androgen insensitivity syndrome; partial androgen insensitivity syndrome; or complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. ... Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome. Common Name(s). Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, Androgen Resistance Syndrome ... "Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome" (open studies are recruiting volunteers) and 0 "Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome" studies with ... The Long-Term Outcome of Boys With Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and a Mutation in the Androgen Receptor Gene. ...
more infohttp://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/435

PPT - Challenges in clinical and laboratory diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome: a case report PowerPoint Presentation...PPT - Challenges in clinical and laboratory diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome: a case report PowerPoint Presentation...

AIS Overview . AIS is an X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the Androgen Receptor gene Slideshow 790405 by machiko ... Challenges in clinical and laboratory diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome: a case report. Caroline O.A. Melo, Daniela ... Challenges in clinical and laboratory diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome: a case report. Caroline O.A. Melo, Daniela ... Challenges in clinical and laboratory diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome: a case report. Caroline O.A. Melo, Daniela ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/machiko/challenges-in-clinical-and-laboratory-diagnosis-of-androgen-insensitivity-syndrome-a-case-report

Phenotypic variation and detection of carrier status in the partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. | Archives of Disease in...Phenotypic variation and detection of carrier status in the partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. | Archives of Disease in...

The partial androgen insensitivity syndrome occurs in 46,XY subjects with phenotypes ranging from perineoscrotal hypospadias ... Phenotypic variation and detection of carrier status in the partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. ... Phenotypic variation and detection of carrier status in the partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. ... similar androgen binding and the same androgen receptor mutations were shown in the cousins. Furthermore, one of the androgen ...
more infohttp://adc.bmj.com/content/68/4/453

What Is Biochemistry - Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome  - MedicalrealmWhat Is Biochemistry - Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome - Medicalrealm

Androgen insensitivity syndrome occurs due to loss of androgen receptor function. Androg ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome may present with symptoms and signs such as primary amenorrhea, undescended testes in ... What Is Biochemistry - Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Androgen insensitivity syndrome may ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome occurs due to loss of androgen receptor function. Androgen insensitivity syndrome is an x ...
more infohttp://www.medicalrealm.net/what-is-biochemistry---androgen-insensitivity-syndrome.html

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (Androgen Resistance Syndrome) | SYMPTOMA.comAndrogen Insensitivity Syndrome (Androgen Resistance Syndrome) | SYMPTOMA.com

Androgen Resistance Syndrome): Symptoms ❗ Workup ❗ Diagnosis ❗ Treatment ❗ Complications ❗ Causes ❗ Epidemiology ❗ Incidence ❗ ... Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (Androgen Resistance Syndrome). Androgen receptor 3-d model[1] ... The cause of androgen insensitivity syndrome is a mutation in the androgen receptor gene which is localized on the X chromosome ... Androgen-dependent measurements of female genitalia in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. BJOG. Jan 2011; 118 ...
more infohttps://www.symptoma.com/en/info/androgen-insensitivity-syndrome

Journal of Postgraduate Gynecology & Obstetrics: Bilateral Gonadectomy In A Case Of Complete Androgen Insensitivity SyndromeJournal of Postgraduate Gynecology & Obstetrics: Bilateral Gonadectomy In A Case Of Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

... partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), and mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) also called as under-virilized ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome(AIS), previously known as testicular feminization syndrome, is an X-linked recessive disorder ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome, which was previously known as testicular feminization syndrome is an X-linked recessive ... Collins GM, Kim DU, Logrono R. Pure seminoma arising in androgen insensitivity syndrome (testicular Feminization syndrome): a ...
more infohttp://www.jpgo.org/2018/08/bilateral-gonadectomy-in-case-of.html

Introductions to Intersex Traits: What is Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome? - Ask An IntersexualIntroductions to Intersex Traits: What is Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome? - Ask An Intersexual

Depending on the extent of the insensitivity, AIS can present in a variety of ways. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome ( ... Congenital Androgen Hyperplasia, and cliormegaly. In this post I will focus on Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS). ... Introductions to Intersex Traits: What is Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome?. This is the second in a series of posts in which I ... Posted in Activism, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, Gender Identity, Intersectionality, Introduction to Intersex Traits Post ...
more infohttps://askanintersexual.wordpress.com/2017/06/07/introductions-to-intersex-traits-what-is-androgen-insensitivity-syndrome/

DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Sex-Development Disorders: Intersex: Androgen Insensitivity SyndromeDMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Sex-Development Disorders: Intersex: Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

... also referred to as androgen resistance syndrome, is a set of disorders of sex development caused by mutations of the gene ... encoding the androgen receptor. The set of resulting disorders varies according to the structure and sensitivity of the ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also referred to as androgen resistance syndrome, is a set of disorders of sex ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome The free encyclopedia on incidence and genetics, the androgen receptor, variations in ...
more infohttp://dmoztools.net/Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/Sex-Development_Disorders/Intersex/Androgen_Insensitivity_Syndrome/

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome - RESOURCE CENTER: Just dropped in to see what condition my condition is in...Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome - RESOURCE CENTER: Just dropped in to see what condition my condition is in...

XYY Syndrome, XXYY Syndrome, Turner Syndrome-X, Triple X Syndrome, XXXX Syndrome, XXXXX Syndrome, and sometimes Mosaicism and ... Androgen Resistance Syndrome, Morriss Syndrome (CAIS), Goldberg-Maxwell Syndrome, Reifenstein Syndrome (PAIS), Gilbert-Dreyfus ... What is Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome?. CLICK HERE for an in-depth overview of AIS from the AISSG. CLICK HERE for the ... Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome - RESOURCE CENTER -to provide information & dispel myths about this intersex condition. ...
more infohttp://getaisinfo.blogspot.com/2008/08/just-dropped-in-to-see-what-condition.html

The Avenue Medical Centre - Library - Health A-ZThe Avenue Medical Centre - Library - Health A-Z

Androgen insensitivity syndrome » Diagnosing androgen insensitivity syndrome AIS Read about how androgen insensitivity syndrome ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is sometimes diagnosed soon after a baby is born, although often its not noticed until a ... Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) isnt usually diagnosed at birth because the genitals look normal for a girl, ... Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) is usually spotted soon after birth because the genitals have an unusual ...
more infohttp://www.theavenuemedicalcentre.co.uk/Library/Conditions/Articles/androgen-insensitivity-syndrome/diagnosis

Difference between revisions of BME103:T130 Group 3 l2 - OpenWetWareDifference between revisions of "BME103:T130 Group 3 l2" - OpenWetWare

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome occurs when a person who is genetically male (who has one X and one Y chromosome) is resistant ... Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome occurs when a person who is genetically male (who has one X and one Y chromosome) is resistant ... that is being examined in this experiment is linked with Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Kennedy Spinal and Bulbar Muscular ... that is being examined in this experiment is linked with Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Kennedy Spinal and Bulbar Muscular ...
more infohttps://openwetware.org/wiki/?title=BME103:T130_Group_3_l2&diff=661428&oldid=656937

Great Quotes in Medicine | Give it to me straight, Doc. | Abnormal FaciesGreat Quotes in Medicine | Give it to me straight, Doc. | Abnormal Facies

FP doc on the subtleties of differentiating between Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Klinefelters Syndrome: Well, yeah, it ... Tagged: androgen insensitivity syndrome, comedy, humor, infertility, Klinefelter syndrome, Medicine, quotes. Posted in: Humor, ... Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) and Klinefelters Syndrome are genetic disorders that both result in males with feminine ... FP doc on the subtleties of differentiating between Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Klinefelters Syndrome:. "Well, yeah, ...
more infohttps://abnormalfacies.wordpress.com/2011/01/11/great-quotes-in-medicine-give-it-to-me-straight-doc/

testosterone supplements exercise testosterone supplement costco
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... or testosterone androgen receptors are absent as in the androgen insensitivity syndrome (Hughes and Deeb 2006), phenotypic ... is also a reduction in androgen receptor concentration in some target tissues and this may contribute to the clinical syndrome ... The normal development of the prostate gland is dependent on the action of testosterone via the androgen receptor, and abnormal ... biosynthesis of the hormone or inactivating mutations of the androgen receptor are associated with a rudimentary prostate gland ...
more infohttps://smartweightlossblog.com/testosteronesupplement/testosterone-supplement-prescription-testosterone-supplements-top-5.html

Androgen insensitivity syndrome - NHSAndrogen insensitivity syndrome - NHS

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare condition that affects the development of a childs genitals and reproductive ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare condition that affects the development of a childs genitals and reproductive ... complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) - where testosterone has no effect on sexual development, so the genitals are ... partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) - where testosterone has some effect on sexual development, so the genitals are ...
more infohttps://www.nhs.uk/conditions/androgen-insensitivity-syndrome/

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome | Encyclopedia.comAndrogen Insensitivity Syndrome | Encyclopedia.com

... is a disorder caused by mutation of the gene for the androgen receptor. This protein binds testosterone and regulates the ... Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Genetics Copyright Genetics Society of America. Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome. Androgen ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also known as testicular feminization, is one of the ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome. Definition. Androgen insensitivity syndrome is a genetic condition where affected people have ...
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Androgen-insensitivity syndrome - Everything2.comAndrogen-insensitivity syndrome - Everything2.com

... also called testicular-feminizing syndrome): a congenital condition identified by a 46, XY sex chromosomal karyo... ... androgen-insensitivity syndrome (AIS): (also called testicular-feminizing syndrome): a congenital condition identified by a 46 ... savant syndrome. blinking 12:00 syndrome. deep-vein thrombosis. 11:59. Operant conditioning and E2 voting. Eponymous syndromes ...
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Androgen insensitivity syndrome: Symptoms, causes, and treatmentAndrogen insensitivity syndrome: Symptoms, causes, and treatment

Androgen insensitivity syndrome is a genetic condition in which male sexual organs cannot fully develop. It can be either ... Fast facts on androgen insensitivity syndrome. *Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) causes the development of abnormal sexual ... www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Androgen-insensitivity-syndrome/Pages/Introduction.aspx. Androgen insensitivity syndrome - living with. ( ... Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. Partial androgen insensitivity affects child development. An individual with high ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/186480.php

Reversing Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome by Health Central | WaterstonesReversing Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome by Health Central | Waterstones

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  • Differential diagnoses include 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, Leydig cell hypoplasia, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome), 5-alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency and variants of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (see these terms). (nih.gov)
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