Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
A disorder of sexual development transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. These patients have a karyotype of 46,XY with end-organ resistance to androgen due to mutations in the androgen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANDROGEN) gene. Severity of the defect in receptor quantity or quality correlates with their phenotypes. In these genetic males, the phenotypic spectrum ranges from those with normal female external genitalia, through those with genital ambiguity as in Reifenstein Syndrome, to that of a normal male with INFERTILITY.
Steroidal compounds related to TESTOSTERONE, the major mammalian male sex hormone. Testosterone congeners include important testosterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with androgenic activities.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit the activation of ANDROGEN RECEPTORS.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
A family of structurally related proteins that are constitutively expressed and that negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PIAS proteins inhibit the activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION by deacetylating the HISTONE residues of NUCLEOSOMES.
A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.
Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
Drugs that are used to treat asthma.
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
The 17-valerate derivative of BETAMETHASONE. It has substantial topical anti-inflammatory activity and relatively low systemic anti-inflammatory activity.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.

Effects of spinal cord injury on spermatogenesis and the expression of messenger ribonucleic acid for Sertoli cell proteins in rat Sertoli cell-enriched testes. (1/242)

The study was an examination of the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on spermatogenesis and Sertoli cell functions in adult rats with Sertoli cell-enriched (SCE) testes. The effects of SCI on the seminiferous epithelium were characterized by abnormalities in the remaining spermatogenic cells during the first month after SCI. Three days after SCI, serum testosterone levels were 80% lower, while serum FSH and LH levels were 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of sham control SCE rats. At this time, the levels of mRNA for androgen receptor (AR), FSH receptor (FSH-R), and androgen-binding protein (ABP) were normal whereas those for transferrin (Trf) had decreased by 40%. Thereafter, serum testosterone levels increased, but they remained lower than those of the sham control rats 28 days after SCI; and serum FSH and LH levels returned to normal. The levels of mRNA for AR, ABP, and Trf exhibited a biphasic increase 7 days after SCI and remained elevated 28 days after SCI. FSH-R mRNA levels were also elevated 90 days after SCI. Unexpectedly, active spermatogenesis, including qualitatively complete spermatogenesis, persisted in > 40% of the tubules 90 days after SCI. These results suggest that the stem cells and/or undifferentiated spermatogonia in SCE testes are less susceptible to the deleterious effects of SCI than the normal testes and that they were able to proliferate and differentiate after SCI. The presence of elevated levels of mRNA for Sertoli cell FSH-R and AR, as well as of that for the Sertoli cell proteins, in the SCE testes during the chronic stage of SCI suggests a modification of Sertoli cell physiology. Such changes in Sertoli cell functions may provide a beneficial environment for the proliferation of the stem cells and differentiation of postmeiotic cells, thus resulting in the persistence of spermatogenesis in these testes.  (+info)

Toll receptor-mediated Drosophila immune response requires Dif, an NF-kappaB factor. (2/242)

The induction of immunity genes in Drosophila has been proposed to be dependent on Dorsal, Dif, and Relish, the NF-kappaB-related factors. Here we provide genetic evidence that Dif is required for the induction of only a subset of antimicrobial peptide genes. The results show that the presence of Dif without Dorsal is sufficient to mediate the induction of drosomycin and defensin. We also demonstrate that Dif is a downstream component of the Toll signaling pathway in activating the drosomycin expression. These results reveal that individual members of the NF-kappaB family in Drosophila have distinct roles in immunity and development.  (+info)

Characterization of lipid efflux particles generated by seminal phospholipid-binding proteins. (3/242)

We reported recently that the choline phospholipid-binding proteins (BSP-A1/-A2, BSP-A3 and BSP-30-kDa) of bovine seminal plasma (BSP) stimulate cholesterol and choline phospholipid efflux from fibroblasts. In this study, we characterized the lipid efflux particles generated by BSP proteins. The density gradient ultracentrifugation of the efflux medium from radiolabeled fibroblasts incubated with BSP proteins showed a single peak of [3H]cholesterol between density (d) 1.12 and 1.14 g/ml, which is in the range of high-density lipoproteins. Size-exclusion chromatographic and immunoblot analysis revealed that the efflux particles have a large size equal to or bigger than very low-density lipoproteins and contained BSP proteins. Lipid analysis of density gradient and gel filtration fractions from efflux medium of simultaneously labeled fibroblasts ([3H]cholesterol and [3H]choline) incubated with BSP proteins showed that the efflux particles were homogeneous and composed of cholesterol and choline phospholipids. The lipid particles contained BSP proteins, cholesterol and choline phospholipids in molar ratio of 0.05:1.21:1, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the BSP-generated lipid particles had a gamma migration pattern which is slower than low-density lipoproteins. The sonication of cholesterol and BSP proteins followed by gel filtration chromatographic analysis indicated no direct binding of cholesterol to BSP proteins. These results taken together indicate that BSP proteins induce a concomitant cholesterol and choline phospholipid efflux and generate large protein-lipid particles.  (+info)

Selective activation of the probasin androgen-responsive region by steroid hormones. (4/242)

Glucocorticoid and androgen receptors have been shown to function through the same palindromic glucocorticoid response element (GRE) and yet have differential effects on gene transcription. In this study, we examined the functional and structural relationship of the androgen and glucocorticoid receptors with the androgen responsive region (ARR) of the probasin (PB) gene containing two androgen receptor binding sites, ARBS-1 and ARBS-2. Transfection studies indicated that one copy of each cis-acting DNA element was essential for maximal androgen-induced chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity and that androgen selectivity was maintained when multiple copies of the minimal wild type (wt) androgen responsive region containing both ARBS-1 and ARBS-2 (-244 to -96) were subcloned in front of the thymidine kinase promoter. Furthermore, replacing the androgen response region with 1, 2 or 3 copies of either ARBS-1 or ARBS-2 restored less than 4% of the biological activity seen with the wt PB ARR. Multiple copies of either ARBS-1 or ARBS-2 did not result in glucocorticoid-induced CAT gene activity. By comparison, 1 or 2 copies of the tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) GRE, as well as the mouse mammary tumour virus GRE, were strong inducers of CAT activity in response to both androgen and glucocorticoid treatment. In addition, band shift assays demonstrated that although the synthetic glucocorticoid receptor, GR-DNA binding domain (GR-DBD), and the synthetic androgen receptor, AR2, could interact with the TAT GRE (dissociation constants Kd of 63.9 and 14.1 respectively), only AR2 but not GR-DBD binding could be detected on ARBS-1 and ARBS-2. Our findings provide further evidence that androgen-induced regulation of gene transcription can occur through androgen-specific DNA binding sites that are distinct from the common GRE.  (+info)

The addition of adenovirus type 5 region E3 enables calydon virus 787 to eliminate distant prostate tumor xenografts. (5/242)

CV787, a novel highly prostate-specific replication-competent adenovirus with improved efficacy, was constructed. CV787 contains the prostate-specific rat probasin promoter, driving the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1A gene, and the human prostate-specific enhancer/promoter, driving the E1B gene. To improve efficacy, we constructed CV787 such that it also contains the entire Ad5 E3 region. CV787 replicates in prostate-specific antigen (PSA)+ cells as well as wild-type adenovirus, but in PSA- cells, CV787 replicates 10(4)-10(5) times less efficiently. CV787 destroys PSA+ prostate cancer cells 10,000 times more efficiently than PSA- cells. Incorporation of the Ad5 E3 region significantly improves the target cell killing ability or efficacy of CV787. In nu/nu mice carrying s.c. LNCaP xenografts, a single i.v. tail vein injection of CV787 eliminates 300-mm3 tumors within 4 weeks. CV787 could be a powerful therapeutic for human metastatic prostate cancer.  (+info)

Reduced nucleotide variability at an androgen-binding protein locus (Abpa) in house mice: evidence for positive natural selection. (6/242)

Previous work has shown that the gene for the alpha subunit of androgen-binding protein, Abpa, may be involved in premating isolation between different subspecies of the house mouse, Mus musculus. We investigated patterns of DNA sequence variation at Abpa within and between species of mice to test several predictions of a model of neutral molecular evolution. Intraspecific variation among 10 Mus musculus domesticus alleles was compared with divergence between M. m. domesticus and M. caroli for Abpa and two X-linked genes, Glra2 and Amg. No variation was observed at Abpa within M. m. domesticus. The ratio of polymorphism to divergence was significantly lower at Abpa than at Glra2 and Amg, despite the fact that all three genes experience similar rates of recombination. Interspecific comparisons among M. m. domesticus, Mus musculus musculus, Mus musculus castaneus, Mus spretus, Mus spicilegus, and Mus caroli revealed that the ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions to synonymous substitutions on a per-site basis (Ka/Ks) was generally greater than one. The combined observations of no variation at Abpa within M. m: domesticus and uniformly high Ka/Ks values between species suggest that positive directional selection has acted recently at this locus.  (+info)

Heterotopic endochondrial ossification with mixed tumor formation in C3(1)/Tag transgenic mice is associated with elevated TGF-beta1 and BMP-2 expression. (7/242)

Transgenic mice which express the simian virus 40 large T-antigen (Tag) under the regulatory control of the hormone responsive rat C3(1) gene develop unusual lesions of heterotopic bone growth associated with mixed tumor formation arising from eccrine sweat glands found only in the foot pads of mice, ischiocavernosus muscle adjacent to bulbourethral glands and occasionally the salivary and mammary glands. These lesions are very similar to mixed tumors arising in several types of human cancers. Based upon electron microscopic examination and immunocytochemical analyses of cellular differentiation markers, the mixed proliferative lesions in this transgenic mouse model begin with the Tag-induced proliferation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. The proliferation of these two types of cells results in hyperplasia and adenomatous transformation of the epithelial component, whereas the proliferating myoepithelial cells undergo metaplasia to form chondrocytes which deposit extracellular matrix, including collagen fibers. Cartilage develops focally between areas of epithelial proliferation and subsequently ossifies through a process of endochondrial bone formation. The metaplasia of myoepithelial cells to chondrocytes appears to require the inductive interaction of factors produced by the closely associated proliferating epithelial cells, including members of the TGF-beta superfamily. We demonstrate that TGF-beta1 protein accumulates in the extracellular matrix of the lesions, whereas RNA in situ hybridization reveals that BMP-2, another strong inducer of heterotopic bone formation, is overexpressed by the proliferating epithelial cells during the development of ectopic bone. The formation of sarcomatous tumors within the mixed tumors appears to be androgen-dependent and more frequent in mice lacking a normal allele of p53. This process of cartilage and bone induction may mimic epithelial-mesenchymal interactions which occur during embryonic bone formation. These transgenic mice may provide new insights into the processes of ectopic endochondrial bone formation associated with mixed tumor formation and serve as a useful model for human heterotopic bone disease.  (+info)

Mice without phosphatidylcholine transfer protein have no defects in the secretion of phosphatidylcholine into bile or into lung airspaces. (8/242)

Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (Pc-tp) is a highly specific carrier of phosphatidylcholine (PC) without known function. Proposed functions include the supply of PC required for secretion into bile or lung air space (surfactant) and the facilitation of enzymatic reactions involving PC synthesis or breakdown. To test these functions, we generated knock-out mice unable to make Pc-tp. Remarkably, these mice are normal and have no defect in any of the postulated Pc-tp functions analyzed. The lipid content and composition of the bile, as well as lung surfactant secretion and composition, of Pc-tp (-/-) mice, is normal. The lack of a Pc-tp contribution to biliary lipid secretion is in agreement with our finding that Pc-tp is down-regulated in adult mouse liver: whereas Pc-tp is abundant in the liver of mouse pups, Pc-tp levels decrease > 10-fold around 2 wk after birth, when bile formation starts. In adult mice, Pc-tp levels are high only in epididymis, testis, kidney, and bone marrow-derived mast cells. Absence of Pc-tp in bone marrow-derived mast cells does not affect their lipid composition or PC synthesis and degradation. We discuss how PC might reach the canalicular membrane of the hepatocyte for secretion into the bile, if not by Pc-tp.  (+info)

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The synthesis of androgen-binding protein by cultured Sertoli cells is increased by insulin, retinol, follitropin and testosterone. Only follitropin will stimulate an increase in cyclic AMP in these cells, yet each agent individually increased the synthesis of androgen-binding protein in short-term cultures. For long-term culture of Sertoli cells follitropin, testosterone, insulin, and retinol appeared to act synergistically to prolong the ability of the cells to secrete androgen-binding protein. These are the first reported results which suggest an action of insulin and retinol directly on Sertoli cells even though the importance of both factors in male reproduction is known.. ...
We previously demonstrated polymorphism of a mouse salivary protein which, because of its ability to bind androgen, we designated androgen binding protein (ABP) and its structural gene, Androgen bindi
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Androgen binding proteins in human prostatic hyperplasis. Methodological aspects]. by J Y Dubé et al.
In order to study the individual steps involved in the import of phosphatidylcholine (PC) into rat liver mitochondria, a number of PC analogues were introduced into the outer membrane of isolated mitochondria. Two fluorescent PC species, i.e. 1-palmitoyl-2-(16-bimanylthio)hexadecanoyl-PC (bimane-PC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-(10-pyrene)decanoyl-PC (pyrene-PC), and one radiolabeled PC species, i.e. 1-palmitoyl-2-[1-14C]oleoyl-PC (14C-POPC), were studied. The PC analogues were introduced from small unilamellar vesicles with the use of PC-specific transfer protein. The amount of PC imported was quantified by reisolation of the mitochondria. Import of the fluorescent PC species was monitored by on-line fluorescence spectroscopy. The distribution of the newly inserted PC between the outer and the inner membrane was assessed by separation of the two membranes using digitonin treatment. All analogues tested remained exclusively localized in the outer membrane thereby suggesting that additional ...
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER ...
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. Their tight junctions with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
5.1.1 Testis (Interactive Diagram) -What are the principal functional compartments of the testis? -What are the functions of the testis? -What is cryptorchidism and what are its consequences? -What is the blood-testis barrier? -What is the function of androgen-binding protein and where is it synthesized ...
5.1.1 Testis (Interactive Diagram) -What are the principal functional compartments of the testis? -What are the functions of the testis? -What is cryptorchidism and what are its consequences? -What is the blood-testis barrier? -What is the function of androgen-binding protein and where is it synthesized ...
A supporting cell projecting inward from the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete androgen binding protein. Their tight junctions with the spermatogonia and spermatocytes provide a blood-testis barrier. [MESH:A.05.360.444.849.789 ...
Genetically Engineered Mouse (GEM) models are a pillar of functional cancer research. emergence of castration resistant metastasis simple visualization for therapy fully preserved architecture of naturally developed Rabbit Polyclonal to T3JAM. lesions which are embedded in their undamaged (micro-) environment and immune system as judged by histology analysis (17 18 While metastasis is indeed sometimes seen in analysis the reported penetrance is definitely too low for pre-clinical studies (19). Furthermore promoters that travel transgenes in prostate are typically androgen dependent (e.g. the probasin promoter) therefore making them incompatible with hormone ablation therapy. Finally a major drawback of classic genetic executive lies in the time cost and effort needed for GEM generation. Projects carry typically a high risk as scientists become locked in having a few selected candidate gene alterations the combination of which requires further lengthy breeding. Furthermore state of the art ...
I went today for my appt. and it went okay. The optometrist looked at my eyes and said they look fine but my reading went to 20/25 from 20/20. Then the surgeon came in and talked with me but I felt I wasnt being heard. He was very nice but when I asked to have my eyes tested fro dry eye he said no bother since I can see your eyes are a bit dry under the scope. I asked 3 times and he just wanted to give me restasis. He thinks (I think so too) that I am just a bag of nerves and am getting myself all worked up. He first said Let me ask you the questions and then you can talk. Well, I hardly got a word in edge ways and then fumbled over what I was saying. He was in btw/ surgeries and then had to go and I said I wanted to talk more so he said make an appt. to come in and talk tomorrow morning with him. I told him that I wished I didnt have lasik and had PRK and he said no you dont ...
Gastric cancer (GC) is a threat to human health with increasing incidence and mortality worldwide. Down-regulation or absence of RAF kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) was associated with the occurrence, differentiation, invasion, and metastasis of GC. This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms and biological functions of RKIP in the GC biology. The fusion expression plasmid pcDNA3.1-RKIP-3xFLAG was transfected into SGC7901 cells, the RKIP fusion proteins were purified with anti-flag M2 magnetic beads, and the RKIP-interacting proteins were identified with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and were analyzed with bioinformatics tools. Western blot and co-immunoprecipitation were used to confirm the interaction complex. A total of 72 RKIP-interacting proteins were identified by MS/MS. Those proteins play roles in enzyme metabolism, molecular chaperoning, biological oxidation, cytoskeleton organization, signal transduction, and enzymolysis. Three RKIP-interaction protein network diagrams were
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT); FUNCTIONS IN: phosphatidylethanolamine binding, protein binding; INVOLVED IN: photoperiodism, flowering, positive regulation of flower development, regulation of flower development; LOCATED IN: nucleus, cytoplasm; EXPRESSED IN: 14 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 7 growth stages; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding, conserved site (InterPro:IPR001858), Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein PEBP (InterPro:IPR008914); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) family protein (TAIR:AT4G20370.1); Has 2182 Blast hits to 2182 proteins in 306 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 594; Fungi - 140; Plants - 1404; Viruses - 3; Other Eukaryotes - 41 (source: NCBI BLink ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The phosphatidylcholine transfer protein StarD7 is important for myogenic differentiation in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells and human primary skeletal myoblasts. AU - Horibata, Yasuhiro. AU - Mitsuhashi, Satomi. AU - Shimizu, Hiroaki. AU - Maejima, Sho. AU - Sakamoto, Hirotaka. AU - Aoyama, Chieko. AU - Ando, Hiromi. AU - Sugimoto, Hiroyuki. PY - 2020/12/1. Y1 - 2020/12/1. N2 - StarD7 is a phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific lipid transfer protein essential for the maintenance of mitochondrial PC composition, morphogenesis, and respiration. Here, we studied the role of StarD7 in skeletal myoblast differentiation using mouse myoblast C2C12 cells and human primary myoblasts. Immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy revealed that StarD7 was distributed in the cytosol, inner mitochondria space, and outer leaflet of the outer mitochondrial membrane in C2C12 cells. Unlike human kidney embryonic cell line HEK293 cells, the mitochondrial proteinase PARL was not involved in the ...
Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, and the presence of lymph node metastasis an important prognostic factor. Downregulation of RKIP has been associated with tumor progression and metastasis in several types of neoplasms, being currently categorized as a metastasis suppressor gene. Our aim was to determine the expression levels of RKIP in gastric tissues and to evaluate its impact in the clinical outcome of gastric carcinoma patients. RKIP expression levels were studied by immunohistochemistry in a series of gastric tissues. Overall, we analysed 222 non-neoplastic gastric tissues, 152 primary tumors and 42 lymph node metastasis samples. We observed that RKIP was highly expressed in similar to 83% of non-neoplastic tissues (including normal tissue and metaplasia), was lost in similar to 56% of primary tumors and in similar to 90% of lymph node metastasis samples. Loss of RKIP expression was significantly associated with several markers of poor clinical outcome, ...
Required for transport of secretory proteins from the Golgi complex. Catalyzes the transfer of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine between membranes in vitro (By similarity).
Shishova, E.Y., Stoll, J.M., Ersoy, B.A., Shrestha, S., Scapa, E.F., Li, Y., Niepel, M.W., Su, Y., Jelicks, L.A., Stahl, G.L., Glicksman, M., Gutierrez-Juarez, R., Cuny, G.D., Cohen, D.E. Stahl, G.L., Cuny, G.D., Cohen, D.E. Genetic Ablation or Chemical Inhibition of Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein Attenuates Diet-Induced Hepatic Glucose Production. Hepatology 2011, 54, 664 - 674.. Shishova, E.Y., Di Costanzo, L., Emig, F. A., Ash, D. E., Christianson, D.W. Probing the Specificity Determinants of Amino Acid Recognition by Arginase. Biochemistry 2009, 38, 121-131.. Wagle N., Xian, J., Shishova, E.Y., Wei, J., Glicksman, M.A., Cuny, G.D., Stein. R.L., Cohen. D.E. Small-molecule inhibitors of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein/StarD2 identified by high-throughput screening. Anal. Biochem. 2008, 383, 85-92.. Shishova E.Y., Yu F., Miller D.J., Faraldos J.A., Zhao Y., Coates R.M., Allemann R.K., Cane D.E., Christianson D.W. X-ray Crystallographic Studies of Substrate Binding to Aristolochene ...
Anti-PEBP Polyclonal Antibody, unconjugated, Clone ZLK.17 from Invitrogen,The PhosphatidylEthanolamine-Binding Protein (PEBP) does not share significant homology with other serine protease inhibitors. PEBP is expressed in the central nervous system, spleen, testis, ovary, muscle, and stomach. One important role PEBP is involved in is exerting inhibitory activity agains,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
733 PSK has been shown to have immunoaugmenting effects in several preclinical and clinical studies carried out mainly in Japan. In the TRAMP model the tumor develops after the SV40 T-antigen transgene expression which is controlled by the rat probasin promoter in the C57BL/6 background. This model mimics the development of human prostate tumors in the sense that prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) is seen early, by 8 weeks after birth in mice, with dorsolateral prostate invasive neoplasia evolving progressively thereafter. The hypothesis is being tested that augmentation of innate and early adaptive immunity by chemical structures may retard the development of the disease: PSK is the first agent used to this end. Treatment is given i.p. starting at 4 weeks after birth; mice are sacrificed at 12 and 18 weeks, the macroscopic occurrence of tumors is recorded, as is the weight of the prostate. Body weights are also recorded. Histological evaluation of prostate lobes allows grading of the ...
Polyene phosphatidylcholine is an unsaturated version of phosphatidylcholine which is derived from natural sources such as soybeans, eggs, sunflowers, mustard, etc. It is interchangeably mentioned as lecithin which is a different chemical moiety. It has a vital role in the transfer of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP) within cell membranes and is the activation of enzymes having significance in the metabolic functions of the liver.. Liver diseases are reigning the clinical application segment for the polyene phosphatidylcholine market. According to the latest statistics provided by the National Institute of Health (NIH), it is estimated that approximately 50 million people worldwide are suffering from chronic liver disease. Additionally, the growing incidence of hepatitis B infection among the adult population across the globe further accelerates the market growth. Dietary supplements are gaining immense popularity since the last 2 decades on account of the rising public health ...
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Sequence Charts have been used for years in connection with object-oriented analysis, but the notation itself has not offered any object-oriented facilities. This is remedied by MSC-2000 MSC document as the definiton of instance kinds is a Columbi egg in connection with object orientation. The MSCs easily plays the role of methods as they are called in Java terms (or virtual functions in C++ terms) ...
Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP) is a phospholipid-binding protein that is enriched in liver and that interacts with thioesterase superfamily member 2 (THEM2). Mice lacking either protein exhibit improved hepatic glucose homeostasis and are resistant to diet-induced diabetes. Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) are key effectors of insulin signaling, which is attenuated in diabetes. We found that PC-TP inhibited IRS2, as evidenced by insulin-independent IRS2 activation after knockdown, genetic ablation, or chemical inhibition of PC-TP. In addition, IRS2 was activated after knockdown of THEM2, providing support for a role for the interaction of PC-TP with THEM2 in suppressing insulin signaling. Additionally, we showed that PC-TP bound to tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and stabilized the components of the TSC1-TSC2 complex, which functions to inhibit mTORC1. Preventing phosphatidylcholine from binding to PC-TP disrupted ...
The production of testicular androgen-binding protein (ABP), as a measure of Sertoli cell function, was studied after unilateral or bilateral experimental cryptorchidism in adult rats. Two or 4 weeks after the testis had been translocated to the abdomen, no major changes were found in the concentration of ABP per mg protein, although there was a marked and progressive decrease in ABP content per testis. However, the rate of ABP production was greatly decreased, as measured by the accumulation of ABP during 16-h ligation of the efferent ducts or by the production of ABP by testis mince in an in vitro system. This indicates that the Sertoli cell function is severly impaired by the intra-abdominal position. ...
Foetal steroid binding protein (FSBP) is a normal constituent of adult human serum; in vivo it appears to influence the degree of steroid binding to albumin rather than acting primarily as a high affinity saturable binding protein. Serum levels are elevated in patients with parenchymal liver disease, hepatic malignancy and in those with non-metastatic breast cancer. That FSBP is protective against the development of breast carcinoma is however supported by a comparison of healthy women from racial groups at differing risk of this malignancy in which higher levels are found in those at lower risk. This hypothesis and the possible links between FSBP and primary hepatocellular carcinoma are further examined.. ...
The ORPs (oxysterol-binding-protein-related proteins) constitute an enigmatic family of intracellular lipid receptors that are related through a shared lipid binding domain. Emerging evidence suggests that ORPs relate lipid metabolism to membrane transport. Current data imply that the yeast ORP Kes1p is a negative regulator of Golgi-derived vesicular transport mediated by the essential phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylcholine transfer protein Sec14p. Inactivation of Kes1p function allows restoration of growth and vesicular transport in cells lacking Sec14p function, and Kes1p function in this regard can be complemented by human ORP1S (ORP1 short). Recent studies have determined that Kes1p and ORP1S both bind phospholipids as ligands. To explore the function of distinct linear segments of ORP1S in phospholipid binding and vesicular transport regulation, we generated a series of 15 open reading frames coding for diagnostic regions within ORP1S. Purified versions of these ORP1S deletion proteins ...
Transgenic mice. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice and TRAMP TG C57BL/6 mice expressing the SV40 Tag controlled by rat probasin regulatory elements were purchased from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME). Female LADY (12T-10) TG mice were obtained from Dr. Robert J. Matusik (Vanderbilt Prostate Center, Nashville, TN). We previously described development of FVB/N TG mice in which the Rosa26 promoter drives ubiquitous expression of the human FoxM1b cDNA transgene in all cell types ( 35). Rosa26-FoxM1b TG mice were bred with TRAMP or LADY TG mice to generate TRAMP/Rosa26-FoxM1b and LADY/Rosa26-FoxM1b double TG mice. Mice were sacrificed at ∼90 or 165 days of age for TRAMP single or double TG mice and at ∼120 or 150 days of age for LADY single and double TG mice. Prostate tissues were either used to prepare total RNA with RNA STAT-60 (Tel-Test B, Inc., Friendswood, TX) or fixed, paraffin embedded, and sectioned for morphologic examination following histologic staining with H&E or for ...
The available data demonstrate that even in universal metabolic pathways, some species-specific regulatory features of structural genes are present. For instance, in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway (ABP), genes may be regulated by ABP-specific regulatory factors, and their expression levels may be strongly associated with anthocyanin pigmentation, or they may be expressed independently of pigmentation. A dataset of orthologous ABP genes (Chs, Chi, F3h, F3h, Dfr, Ans) from monocot and dicot plant species that have distinct gene regulation patterns and different types of pollination was constructed to test whether these factors affect the evolution of the genes. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we demonstrated that although the whole set of the ABP genes is under purifying selection, with greater selection acting on the upstream genes than on the downstream genes, genes from distinct groups of plant species experienced different strengths of selective pressure. The selective pressure on the
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The dorsoventral pattern of the Drosophila embryo is mediated by a gradient of nuclear localization of the dorsal protein which acts as amorphogen. Establishment of the nuclear concentration gradient of dorsal protein requires the activities of the 10 maternal dorsal group genes whose function results in the positive regulation of the nuclear uptake of the dorsal protein. Here we show that in contrast to the dorsal group genes, the maternal gene cactus acts as a negative regulator of the nuclear localization of the dorsal protein. While loss of function mutations of any of the dorsal group genes lead to dorsalized embryos, loss of cactusfunction results in a ventralization of the body pattern. Progressive loss of maternal cactus activity causes progressive loss of dorsal pattern elements accompanied by the expansion of ventrolateral and ventral anlagen. However, embryos still retain dorsoventral polarity, even if derived from germline clones using the strongest available, zygotic lethal cactus ...
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ARA70 is a 70 kDa co-regulatory protein that preferentially activates the AR upon androgen binding, although its interactions with other steroid hormone receptors have been Cited by: 6.
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Key words. Methylation of DNA in CpG-rich islands is a key event in the regulation of tissue- and context-specific gene expression. Thereby, DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) plays a pivotal role by converting cytosine to 5-methylcytosine.1 Recently, DNMT3A mutations have been described at high frequency in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), particularly with a monocytic pheno- type.2-4 In in vitro assays, mutated DNMT3A induced aberrant DNA methylation and promoted cellular proliferation. RAF kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) negatively regulates the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway.5 Several solid neoplasms show decreased or absent expression of RKIP and its role as a metastasis suppressor has been firmly established in animal models and studies of human tumors.5 We recently demonstrated that RKIP acts as a tumor suppressor in hematopoietic cells and that loss of RKIP expression occurs frequently in AML.6,7 Similar to mutated ...
Several pathways could be involved in these mechanisms including activation of anti-apoptotic factors, inactivation of pro-apoptotic effectors, and/or reinforcement of Compound C mouse survival signals [122]. Based on an understanding of their characteristics, the refractory response of CSCs to drugs and radiation treatments may be attributed to: drug effluxion glutathione (GSH) system apoptosis; enrichment of CSCs during disease progression tumor dormancy and CSC quiescence Drug effluxion It can be caused by an altered uptake or efflux of drug in the target. cell. Platinum compounds enter the cell, primarily by passive diffusion, however several different ways have been described such as copper transporter proteins (CTR), organic cation transporters (OCTs) from de SLC22 family, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multidrug transporters, copper-transporting ATPases, and multidrug and toxin extrusion from the SLC47 subfamily members that might Trichostatin A clinical trial facilitate the active efflux of ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Acids are proton donors. Bases are proton acceptors. Something that is acidic has a lot of protons in it, because the acids lost them (i.e donated) in the solution ...
Figure 4. Enhanced Expression of MSBP1 Results in Shortened Hypocotyls Because of Reduced Cell Elongation, whereas Its Suppressed Expression Results in Elongated Hypocotyls with Increased Cell Length.. (A) Overexpression of MSBP1 in transgenic plants harboring CaMV35S:O-MSBP1. Expression of MSBP1 RNA was analyzed by RT-PCR in wild-type plants (labeled as C in [A] to [H]) and independent transgenic lines (O-L1, O-L2, O-L3, and O-L4). The Actin2 gene was used as an internal control.. (B) Deficiency of MSBP1 in transgenic plants harboring CaMV35S:A-MSBP1. Expression of MSBP1 RNA was analyzed by RT-PCR in wild-type (C) and independent transgenic lines (A-L1, A-L2, A-L3, and A-L4). External primers at the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions were used for detecting sense MSBP1 transcript, and internal primers were used to detect both sense and antisense transcripts. The Actin2 gene was used as an internal control.. (C) The membrane fractions from MSBP1-overexpressing plants presented a higher binding ...
The purpose of this study is to determine the safest dose of the multiple Raf kinase inhibitor (including c-Raf, B-Raf, and the activated mutant B-RafV600E) XL281, how often it should be taken, and how well subjects with cancer tolerate XL281. This study will also determine how the body reacts to XL281 when it is taken with and without food, and with and without Pepcid (famotidine), a drug that inhibits stomach acid production ...
Prior to IO surgery, the AFP showed 1200 and also the LDH was 100 marks above the normal. Just before the chemo started,it came down to 83 and LDH reading came to normal . AFP came to 5, after the 1st cycle with BEP regimen.But LDH went again high.My Oncologist said not to worry about LDH since there could be some infection in my body.. The doctors will never relieve the full details probably one reason been,it could bring lot of anxiety and depression to the patients and their family and also other reason could be human body changes all of a sudden with no reason though they say T.C happens in a predictable way and if doctors has said something and something else happens which was never expected, then everyone will blame the doctors for their mis-diagnosis. Everyone likes to be on the safer side and cannot complteley blame the doctors since even theyre human beings.. Also I tried to find more about the tumor marker fluctuations and behaviour but those info in detailed is not mentioned anywhere ...
Prior to IO surgery, the AFP showed 1200 and also the LDH was 100 marks above the normal. Just before the chemo started,it came down to 83 and LDH reading came to normal . AFP came to 5, after the 1st cycle with BEP regimen.But LDH went again high.My Oncologist said not to worry about LDH since there could be some infection in my body.. The doctors will never relieve the full details probably one reason been,it could bring lot of anxiety and depression to the patients and their family and also other reason could be human body changes all of a sudden with no reason though they say T.C happens in a predictable way and if doctors has said something and something else happens which was never expected, then everyone will blame the doctors for their mis-diagnosis. Everyone likes to be on the safer side and cannot complteley blame the doctors since even theyre human beings.. Also I tried to find more about the tumor marker fluctuations and behaviour but those info in detailed is not mentioned anywhere ...
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Two human serum proteins, i.e. sex hormone binding globulin (h-SHBG) and corticosteroid binding globulin (h-CBG), rat corticosteroid binding globulin (r-CBG), and progesterone binding globulin (PBG)...
AIS is inherited as an X-linked recessive disorder, the result of a defect in the androgen-receptor gene. Chromosome analysis is 46,XY. 23 The androgen-receptor gene was cloned by several groups in 1988, and is located on the X chromosome at Xq11-12.37 The gene is 90 kb in length and consists of eight exons that encode the three domains of the receptor (see Fig. 3).11,12,13,14,38 Exon 1 encodes the transcription regulation domain. This region includes polymorphic CAG repeats, which aid in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) diagnosis. Exons 2 and 3 encode the DNA-binding domains; exons 4 to 8 encode the androgen-binding domains. Many mutations involving the androgen-receptor gene have been identified.39,40,41,42,43 Like most genes, molecular heterogeneity exists among affected persons. Surprisingly, however, both receptor-positive and receptor-negative persons with complete AIS seem indistinguishable clinically.. Approximately 70% of cases studied have shown a mutation in the ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
after 6, 8 or 10 weeks: ( epididymal sperm content 300 ppm (15 mg/kg bw) ( rABP in testes and serum ( rABP in epididymidis variable degenerative effects in Sertoli.. 5 years colcrys 0.6 mg coupon celebrex 200 mg street value arimidex 1 mg 28 tablet viagra without side effects zoloft online paypal order amoxicillin uk elavil.she tweeted on Jan. 6, 2013,. I love this site http://kelvincruickshank.com/workshops/ amoxicillin purchase online The largest shareholders in the German real.. ❸-3-6}. De: Thaddeus (ven. 01 janv. 2016 12:26:55 CET) Whats the interest rate on this account? priligy dapoxetine side effects Boeing has for decades seen off attempts by ...
Chinnaiyan and the Michigan researchers developed the test based on their recent finding that gene fusions - pieces of chromosomes that trade places with each other, causing two genes to stick together - are common in prostate cancer, and that by overriding molecular switches that turn off excess growth, they may be the causative factor in some forms of the disease. In 2005 they identified a prostate-specific gene called TMPRSS2 which fuses with either ERG or ETV1, two genes known to be involved in several types of cancer. In 2007, they identified another five genes that fuse on to ERG or ETV1 to cause prostate cancer.. In the current study, researchers built upon the PCA3 test by screening for six additional biomarkers, including TMPRSS2:ERG as well as some molecules generally over-expressed in prostate cancer, and some which are over-expressed in specific cancer subtypes.. Researchers collected urine samples from 234 men with rising PSA levels before they underwent prostate biopsy at a ...
Ive been goin back an forth to my doc- first it was the nose spray- made it a bit better but it never solved it, then the bottle was finished it came back- then after another month I went in again and she gave me another brand and tryed that, again a bit better, 4 months ago I coughed all day every day and now its just every couple hours but the phlem is still really ...
Aarnisalo P, Palvimo JJ, Jänne OA (Mar 1998). "CREB-binding protein in androgen receptor-mediated signaling". Proceedings of ... "Modulation of DNA binding properties of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein epsilon by heterodimer formation and interactions with ... Parry GC, Mackman N (Dec 1997). "Role of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in cyclic AMP inhibition of NF-kappaB- ... Gerritsen ME, Williams AJ, Neish AS, Moore S, Shi Y, Collins T (Apr 1997). "CREB-binding protein/p300 are transcriptional ...
Pereira F, Rosenmann E, Nylen E, Kaufman M, Pinsky L, Wrogemann K (March 1991). "The 56 kDa androgen binding protein is an ... This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenases family of proteins. Aldehyde dehydrogenase is the second enzyme of the ...
Androgen Binding Proteins of Testis, Epididymis and Plasma in Man and Monkey. Vigersky RA, Andersen AE, Thompson RH, Loriaux DL ...
FSH stimulates sustentacular cells to release androgen-binding protein, which promotes testosterone binding. LH binds to the ... Depending on which hormone and receptor are unable to bind different effects occur but all alter the HPG axis. For example, the ... Examples of such necessary liver proteins are vitellogenin and choriogenin. The HPA, HPG, and HPT axes are three pathways in ... GnRH travels down the anterior portion of the pituitary via the hypophyseal portal system and binds to receptors on the ...
2002). "Repression of androgen receptor mediated transcription by the ErbB-3 binding protein, Ebp1". Oncogene. 21 (36): 5609-18 ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... TATA element modulatory factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMF1 gene. TMF1 has been shown to interact with ... Hsiao, P W; Chang C (Aug 1999). "Isolation and characterization of ARA160 as the first androgen receptor N-terminal-associated ...
Johnson JL, Ellis BA, Noack D, Seabra MC, Catz SD (November 2005). "The Rab27a-binding protein, JFC1, regulates androgen- ... Strom M, Hume AN, Tarafder AK, Barkagianni E, Seabra MC (July 2002). "A family of Rab27-binding proteins. Melanophilin links ... Strom M, Hume AN, Tarafder AK, Barkagianni E, Seabra MC (July 2002). "A family of Rab27-binding proteins. Melanophilin links ... Synaptotagmin-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYTL1 gene. Model organisms have been used in the ...
androgen binding protein (also called testosterone binding globulin) - increases testosterone concentration in the seminiferous ... dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene on the expressions of transferrin and androgen-binding protein in rat Sertoli cells". ... transferrin - a blood plasma protein for iron ion delivery Testicular ceruloplasmin - a ceruloplasmin-like protein which is ... Sertoli cells bind to spermatogonial cells via N-cadherins and galactosyltransferase (via carbohydrate residues). During the ...
They secrete androgen-binding protein, a binding protein which increases the concentration of testosterone inside the ...
Yenugu S, Hamil KG, Radhakrishnan Y, French FS, Hall SH (Jul 2004). "The androgen-regulated epididymal sperm-binding protein, ... "Primate epididymis-specific proteins: characterization of ESC42, a novel protein containing a trefoil-like motif in monkey and ... Beta-defensin 118 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB118 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000131068 - ...
... an androgen-regulated NEDD4-binding protein, exhibits cell growth inhibitory function and decreased expression during prostate ... Transmembrane prostate androgen-induced protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PMEPA1 gene. TMEPAI has been ... an androgen-regulated NEDD4-binding protein, exhibits cell growth inhibitory function and decreased expression during prostate ... "Identification of multiple proteins expressed in murine embryos as binding partners for the WW domains of the ubiquitin-protein ...
The encoded protein also can bind androgen receptor, providing a link between transcriptional activation and splicing. PRPF6 ... Identification of the p102 U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle-binding protein as a coactivator for the receptor". J. ... Identification of the p102 U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle-binding protein as a coactivator for the receptor". J. ... Pre-mRNA-processing factor 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRPF6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene appears ...
ErbB3 binding protein 1) mediated repression of androgen receptor signalling". British Journal of Cancer. 92 (1): 140-6. doi: ... Proliferation-associated protein 2G4 (PA2G4) also known as ErbB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) is a protein that in humans is ... This gene encodes an RNA-binding protein that is involved in growth regulation. This protein is present in pre-ribosomal ... Zhang Y, Hamburger AW (June 2004). "Heregulin regulates the ability of the ErbB3-binding protein Ebp1 to bind E2F promoter ...
... "p300 and p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-associated factor acetylate the androgen receptor at sites governing ... Enz R (Mar 2002). "The actin-binding protein Filamin-A interacts with the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 7". FEBS Letters ... Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRM4 gene. Together with GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8 it ... Gaughan L, Logan IR, Cook S, Neal DE, Robson CN (Jul 2002). "Tip60 and histone deacetylase 1 regulate androgen receptor ...
Crystal Structure Of The Rat Androgen Receptor Ligand Binding Domain Complex With Bms-564929 at Protein Data Bank. ... Gao W, Dalton JT (March 2007). "Expanding the therapeutic use of androgens via selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs ... Selective androgen receptor modulators may also be used by athletes to assist in training and increase physical stamina and ... This means there is a clinical need for selective androgen receptor modulators, which produce anabolic effects in some tissues ...
... which is achieved via the binding of testosterone by androgen binding protein present in the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone ... FSH stimulates both the production of androgen binding protein (ABP) by Sertoli cells, and the formation of the blood-testis ... The protein FMRP binds to meiotic chromosomes and regulates the dynamics of the DDR machinery during spermatogenesis. FMRP ... blood-testis barrier Secrete substances initiating meiosis Secrete supporting testicular fluid Secrete androgen-binding protein ...
2005). "Antimicrobial activity of human EPPIN, an androgen-regulated, sperm-bound protein with a whey acidic protein motif". ... Eppin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPINLW1 gene. This gene encodes an epididymal protease inhibitor, which ... locus on human chromosome 20 contains several genes expressing protease inhibitor domains with homology to whey acidic protein ...
FSH enhances the production of androgen-binding protein by the Sertoli cells of the testes by binding to FSH receptors on their ... In males, FSH induces Sertoli cells to secrete androgen-binding proteins (ABPs), regulated by inhibin's negative feedback ... FSH binding is thought to upregulate neovascularization via at least two mechanisms - one in the VEGF pathway, and the other ... Hypothalamic control of pituitary FSH-regulatory proteins and their relationship to changes in FSH synthesis and secretion". ...
... and A-homo-5 alpha-androstane derivatives with the androgen receptor and the epididymal androgen-binding protein". Steroids. 37 ... It binds to the estrogen receptor but does not bind to the androgen receptor or the progesterone receptor. In animals, anordrin ... Song S, Chen JK, He ML, Zuo SH, Fotherby K (1987). "Effect of Anordrin on serum levels of sex hormone binding globulin, ... Mehta RR, Jenco JM, Chatterton RT, Venton D (1982). "Antagonism of the actions of estrogens, androgens and progesterone by ...
... of androgen-binding protein genes within the mouse Scgb gene superfamily". Human Genomics. 5 (6): 691-702. doi:10.1186/1479- ... Härd T, Barnes HJ, Larsson C, Gustafsson JA, Lund J (November 1995). "Solution structure of a mammalian PCB-binding protein in ... "Structure of a human Clara cell phospholipid-binding protein-ligand complex at 1.9 A resolution". Nature Structural Biology. 1 ... The binding and release may be coupled with the redox state of the cystines, i.e. the presence of these disulfide bonds. Many ...
Additionally, estrogen in the pills stimulates the liver to produce more of a protein that binds to androgens and reduces their ... Birth control pills are often prescribed to reverse the effects of excessive androgen levels, and decrease ovarian hormone ... scientists had isolated and determined the structure of the steroid hormones and found that high doses of androgens, estrogens ... as they prevent ovulation and decrease androgen production by the ovaries. ...
2002). "Repression of androgen receptor mediated transcription by the ErbB-3 binding protein, Ebp1". Oncogene. 21 (36): 5609-18 ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... regulation of proteasomal protein catabolic process. • male gonad development. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • ... Hsiao PW، Chang C (1999). "Isolation and characterization of ARA160 as the first androgen receptor N-terminal-associated ...
Binding Protein Cytoplasmic 1 Is a Novel Co-Regulator of the Androgen Receptor". PLOS ONE. 10 (7): e0128495. doi:10.1371/ ... i. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard treatment for patients with prostate-specific antigen progression after ... "Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Function and Level in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells by 2-[(isoxazol-4-ylmethyl) ... "Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Nuclear Localization and Castration-Resistant Prostate Tumor Growth by Pyrroloimidazole-based ...
... androgen-binding protein and Mullerian-inhibiting factor.[citation needed] The organ of Corti in the inner ear and taste buds ... "Odorant-Binding Proteins and Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes: Implications in Olfactory Perireceptor Events: Odorant-Binding ... Proteins and Metabolizing Enzymes". The Anatomical Record. 296 (9): 1333-1345. doi:10.1002/ar.22735. PMID 23907783. Zhuo, ...
"Androgen regulation of prostasin gene expression is mediated by sterol-regulatory element-binding proteins and SLUG". The ... separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of prostase, an androgen-regulated serine protease with prostate-restricted expression" ...
RNA formation in transcripts of the human cytochrome P-450 2C18 gene in epidermis and of the rat androgen binding protein gene ... This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum but its specific substrate has not yet been determined. The gene is located ... Cytochrome P450 2C18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C18 gene. This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome ... The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of ...
"The role of protein kinase A pathway and cAMP responsive element-binding protein in androgen receptor-mediated transcription at ... This protein is a CREB transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins. This protein ... Zhang Q, Vo N, Goodman RH (Jul 2000). "Histone binding protein RbAp48 interacts with a complex of CREB binding protein and ... CAMP responsive element binding protein 1, also known as CREB-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CREB1 gene. This ...
"Androgen regulation of prostasin gene expression is mediated by sterol-regulatory element-binding proteins and SLUG". The ... Prostasin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRSS8 gene. This gene encodes a trypsinogen, which is a member of the ... The protein is implicated in epithelial sodium channel regulation and may help regulate a variety of tissue functions that ... an androgen-regulated serine protease with prostate-restricted expression". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ...
"Androgen regulation of prostasin gene expression is mediated by sterol-regulatory element-binding proteins and SLUG". The ... The encoded protein acts as a transcriptional repressor that binds to E-box motifs and is also likely to repress E-cadherin ... Zinc finger protein SNAI2 is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the SNAI2 gene. It promotes the ... This protein is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and has antiapoptotic activity. It regulates differentiation and ...
... sterol-regulated element-binding proteins and androgen receptors are all controlled by the UPS and thus involved in the ... To recognize protein as designated substrate, 19S complex has subunits that are capable to recognize proteins with a special ... Accordingly, misfolded proteins and damaged protein need to be continuously removed to recycle amino acids for new synthesis; ... The 19S regulatory particles can recognize ubiquitin-labeled protein as degradation substrate, unfold the protein to linear, ...
... sterol-regulated element-binding proteins and androgen receptors are all controlled by the UPS and thus involved in the ... The eukaryotic proteasome recognizes degradable proteins, including damaged proteins for protein quality control purpose or key ... "Microsequences of 145 proteins recorded in the two-dimensional gel protein database of normal human epidermal keratinocytes". ... This protein is one of the 17 essential subunits that contribute to the complete assembly of the 20S proteasome complex. In ...
RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding. • DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • ... Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... 1989). "Complementary homeo protein gradients in developing limb buds". Genes Dev. 3 (5): 641-50. doi:10.1101/gad.3.5.641. PMID ... HOXD8+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
... specificity is gained by coupling targeted proteins to an "E3 ubiquitin ligase". Each E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to a particular ... selective androgen receptor modulators) are being investigated with promising results. They would have fewer side-effects, ... The protein balance at time of dormancy is also maintained by lower levels of protein breakdown during the winter time. At ... Furthermore, 1 gram of nitrogen is roughly equivalent to 6 gram of protein, and 1 gram of protein is roughly equivalent to 4 ...
... influenced by androgens), excessive deposition of the protein keratin leading to comedo formation, colonization of the follicle ... C. acnes' ability to bind and activate a class of immune system receptors known as toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR2 ... protein.[45] PPARα increases the activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and NF-κB, thereby leading to the recruitment of ... Both androgens and IGF-1 seem to be essential for acne to occur, as acne does not develop in individuals with complete androgen ...
Androgens bind to and activate androgen receptors (ARs) to mediate most of their biological effects. ... "G protein-coupled receptors: extranuclear mediators for the non-genomic actions of steroids". Int J Mol Sci. 15 (9): 15412-25 ... Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens.. Androgen effects[edit]. The androgens function as ... This article is about androgens as natural hormones. For androgens as medications, see Anabolic steroid and Androgen ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. GTP-binding protein regulators. GTPase-activating protein. * ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome/Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. *KAL1 Kallmann syndrome. *X-linked adrenal hypoplasia ... Mutations in the RPS6KA3 disturb the function of the protein, but it is unclear how a lack of this protein causes the signs and ... The RPS6KA3 gene makes a protein that is involved with signaling within cells. Researchers believe that this protein helps ...
AR NTD antagonists bind covalently to the NTD of the AR and prevent protein-protein interactions subsequent to activation that ... Androgen receptor antagonistsEdit. Androgens and anti-. androgens at the AR[82][83]. Compound. RBA (%). ... Androgen receptor antagonists: drugs that bind directly to and block the AR.[57][58] These drugs include the steroidal ... R 1881 binding to the prostatic androgen receptor and [3H]5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and [3H]cortisol binding to plasma ...
DNA-binding domains. 2.1. *(Intracellular receptor): Thyroid hormone resistance. *Androgen insensitivity syndrome *PAIS ... Genetic disorder, protein biosynthesis: Transcription factor/coregulator deficiencies. (1) Basic domains. 1.2. *Feingold ...
Kelly CJ, Stenton SR, Lashen H. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in PCOS: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ... Androgen Excess PCOS Society. 2006年,Androgen Excess PCOS Society提出了一套嚴謹診斷標準[15]:. *具有雄性激素過剩症狀 ... The Free androgen index (FAI) of the ratio of testosterone to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is high[15][61]and is meant ... It has previously been suggested that the excessive androgen production in PCOS could be caused by a decreased
Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding complex ... podfamilija 3 (Steroidni hormon (Androgen, Estrogen (α, β), Glukokortikoid, Mineralokortikoid, Progesteron), Estrogen-vezani (α ... "Control of c-myc mRNA half-life in vitro by a protein capable of binding to a coding region stability determinant". Genes Dev. ... 1988). "A non-AUG translational initiation in c-myc exon 1 generates an N-terminally distinct protein whose synthesis is ...
... sterol-regulated element-binding proteins and androgen receptors are all controlled by the UPS and thus involved in the ... The protein degradation processEdit. Ribbon diagram of ubiquitin, the highly conserved protein that serves as a molecular tag ... After a protein has been ubiquitinated, it is recognized by the 19S regulatory particle in an ATP-dependent binding step.[15][ ... The result is a polyubiquitin chain that is bound by the proteasome, allowing it to degrade the tagged protein.[1] The ...
19 July 1990). "A gene from the human sex-determining region encodes a protein with homology to a conserved DNA-binding motif ... This is caused by the androgens produced and secreted by the testes. Androgen induced development causes the elongation and ... Some individuals are male who have the XX male syndrome and androgen insensitivity syndrome. This occurs when one X chromosome ... The spermatic cord, formed from spermatic artery, vein and nerve bound together with connective tissue passes into the testis ...
... in the helix H5 of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the ERα protein.[6] This is a critical residue that is completely ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome[edit]. Main article: Androgen insensitivity syndrome. In contrast to EIS, androgen ... Sex hormone-binding globulin, corticosteroid-binding globulin, thyroxine-binding globulin, prolactin, and triglycerides, which ... EIS is analogous to androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), a condition in which the androgen receptor (AR) is defective and ...
So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes.[49] ... See also: Androgen insensitivity syndrome and Intersex. Most therian mammals have only one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell ... at least 72 of which code for proteins.[5] Traits that are inherited via the Y chromosome are called Y-linked traits, or ... with between 45 and 73 of these protein-coding. All single-copy Y-linked genes are hemizygous (present on only one chromosome) ...
... often bound to ligands such as coenzymes and cofactors, or to another protein or other macromolecule (DNA, RNA, etc.), or to ... "Hormone (androgen deprivation) therapy for prostate cancer". cancer.org. Retrieved 3 October 2013.. ... Peptide fragments refer to fragments of proteins that are used to identify or quantify the source protein.[13] Often these are ... For example, synthetic peptides can be used as probes to see where protein-peptide interactions occur- see the page on Protein ...
... androgen receptor ligand-binding domain complexed with various agonists reveals molecular determinants responsible for binding ... Protein Sci. May 2006, 15 (5): 987-99. PMC 2242507. PMID 16641486. doi:10.1110/ps.051905906.. ... 研究者已對腦部男性化的神經生物機轉進行了不少研究。5α還原酶會把雌二醇和睾
... insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and epidermal growth factor on human breast epithelial cells in primary culture". ... In complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, a condition in which the AR is defective and insensitive to androgens, there is ... "A mammalian model for Laron syndrome produced by targeted disruption of the mouse growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene ... Calcitriol, the hormonally active form of vitamin D, acting through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), has, like the androgens, been ...
sequence-specific DNA binding. • DNA binding. • transcription factor binding. • protein domain specific binding. • RNA ... HNF-3G is a member of the forkheadclass of DNA-binding proteins. These hepatocyte nuclear factors are transcriptional ... 2003). "Transcriptional regulation of human CYP3A4 basal expression by CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha and hepatocyte ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • ...
Now it is clear that there is often a range of protein targets that the drug can bind. An example target for targeted therapy ... primarily estrogens for breast cancer and androgens for prostate cancer) is known as hormonal therapy, while the inhibition of ... Mutations in genes that produce drug target proteins, such as tubulin, can occur which prevent the drugs from binding to the ... including proteins, RNA and DNA. This ability to bind covalently to DNA via their alkyl group is the primary cause for their ...
Template:DNA and protein biosynthesis navs(edit talk links history)- Genetics ({{Protein biosynthesis navs}}, R) ...
Protein kinase C activation[edit]. PIP2 cleavage to IP3 and DAG initiates intracellular calcium release and PKC activation. ... Binding of DAG to the C1 domain of Munc13 increases the fusion competence of synaptic vesicles resulting in potentiated release ... Steroids: Sex steroids: Androgens (AR). *Estrogens (ER). *Progestogens (PR); Corticosteroids: Glucocorticoids (GR) ... a membrane-bound enzyme) that, through the same reaction, produces inositol trisphosphate (IP3). Although inositol ...
Protein kodiran ovim genom je član NR1 potfamilije nuklearnih hormonskih receptora. To je DNA-vezujući protein koji se može ... podfamilija 3 (Steroidni hormon (Androgen, Estrogen (α, β), Glukokortikoid, Mineralokortikoid, Progesteron), Estrogen-vezani (α ... 2001). "X-ray structure of the orphan nuclear receptor RORbeta ligand-binding domain in the active conformation.". Embo J. 20 ( ... 2000). "Differential ligand-dependent protein-protein interactions between nuclear receptors and a neuronal-specific cofactor ...
... and it is the last protein to bind in the complex.. Histones tend to be positively charged proteins with N-terminal tails that ... and the androgen receptor (AR).[18] PCAF has also been observed to acetylate c-MYC, GATA-2, retinoblastoma (Rb), Ku70, and E1A ... structural proteins, polyamines, and proteins involved in nuclear import.[3] Acetylation of these proteins can alter their ... Many MYST proteins also contain a cysteine-rich, zinc-binding domain within the HAT region in addition to an N-terminal ...
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA ... Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1. X-ray crystallography of Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1A ... SCAP, in turn, can bind reversibly with another ER-resident membrane protein, INSIG. In the presence of sterols, which bind to ... proteins. However, in contrast to E-box-binding HLH proteins, an arginine residue is replaced with tyrosine making them capable ...
When released, ADH binds to V2 G-protein coupled receptors within the distal convoluted tubules, increasing cyclic AMP, which ... Androgen receptor (Androgen insensitivity syndrome). *general: Hypogonadism (Delayed puberty). *Hypergonadism *Precocious ... it acts on proteins called aquaporins and more specifically aquaporin 2 in the following cascade. ... couples with protein kinase A, stimulating translocation of the aquaporin 2 channel stored in the cytoplasm of the distal ...
It does this by binding to globulins that normally bind to sex hormones such as androgens and estrogens, leading to the ... This then decreases the level of thyroid hormone binding proteins that bind to triiodothyronine. By affecting the thyroid ...
The XIC also contains binding sites for both known and unknown regulatory proteins.[32] ... Besides, measuring the methylation (inactivation) status of the polymorphic human androgen receptor (HUMARA) located on X- ... implications for methyl-CpG binding proteins". BMC Biology. 2: 21. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-2-21. PMC 521681 . PMID 15377381.. ... It is hypothesized[by whom?] that there is an autosomally-encoded 'blocking factor' which binds to the X chromosome and ...
... and hence is not bound to these proteins in the circulation.[78] The plasma protein binding of DES is greater than 95%.[2] ... It suppresses gonadal androgen production and hence circulating androgen levels due to its antigonadotropic effects; it ... interaction of 70 drugs with testosterone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin in human plasma". J. Clin. ... G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor and Its Pharmacologic Modulators". Pharmacol. Rev. 67 (3): 505-40. doi:10.1124/pr. ...
bile acid binding. • protein binding. • ligand-dependent nuclear receptor binding. • transcription factor activity, RNA ... RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • DNA binding. • ... metal ion binding. • retinoid X receptor binding. • steroid hormone receptor activity. • transcriptional activator activity, ... chenodeoxycholic acid binding. • transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory ...
The plasma protein binding of norethisterone is 97%.[4] It is bound 61% bound to albumin and 36% bound to SHBG.[4] ... Norethisterone binds to SHBG with less affinity than endogenous androgens and oestrogens [...]. ... Protein binding. 97%:[4]. Albumin: 61%;[4]. SHBG: 36%[4]. Metabolism. Mainly CYP3A4 (liver);[1] also 5α-/5β-reductase, 3α-/3β- ... Norethisterone binds to the ERs, the ERα and the ERβ, with 0.07% and 0.01% of the relative binding affinity of estradiol.[48] ...
5-trisphosphate-binding protein P400". Nature. 342 (6245): 32-8. Bibcode:1989Natur.342...32F. doi:10.1038/342032a0. PMID ... Steroids: Sex steroids: Androgens (AR). *Estrogens (ER). *Progestogens (PR); Corticosteroids: Glucocorticoids (GR) ... The initial sequencing was reported as an unknown protein enriched in the cerebellum called P400.[5] The large size of this ... December 2002). "Structure of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor binding core in complex with its ligand". Nature. 420 ( ...
Androgen-Binding+Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Ensembl Gene ref Protein ref. ... Androgen-binding protein (ABP) is a glycoprotein (beta-globulin) produced by the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of ... "Extracellular androgen binding proteins". Annual Review of Physiology. 43: 189-98. doi:10.1146/annurev.ph.43.030181.001201. ... "Secretion and role of androgen-binding proteins in the testis and epididymis". Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. ...
Androgen binding protein as a biochemical marker of formation of the blood-testis barrier.. Tindall DJ, Vitale R, Means AR. ... Androgen binding protein (ABP) was measured during postnatal development in normal and irradiated rats to determine whether ... 2.8 pmol/mg protein) than in normal testis (0.5 pmol/mg protein). In the SCE testis neither blood-testis barrier development ...
Androgen receptor; Coactivator binding inhibition; Coregulator recruitment; Peptidomimetics; Prostate cancer; Protein-protein ... Recent progress in the development of protein-protein interaction inhibitors targeting androgen receptor-coactivator binding in ... While frontline androgen-deprivation therapies targeting either the production or action of androgens usually yield favorable ... Structural analyses of the AR have identified key surfaces involved in protein-protein interaction with coregulators that have ...
... because of its ability to bind androgen, we designated androgen binding protein (ABP) and its structural gene, Androgen bindi ... We previously demonstrated polymorphism of a mouse salivary protein which, ... because of its ability to bind androgen, we designated androgen binding protein (ABP) and its structural gene, Androgen binding ... androgen binding proteins mouse salivary proteins mouse prostate Western transfer This work was supported in part by intramural ...
The aim of this study is to explore the association of fluoride exposure and age with serum T and androgen-binding protein (ABP ... Does fluoride affect serum testosterone and androgen binding protein with age-specificity? A population-based cross-sectional ...
... phenomenon in androgen-responsive prostate tumor lines and involves activation of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein ... we demonstrate that coordinated stimulation of lipogenic gene expression by androgens is a common ... of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage activating protein/sterol regulatory element-binding protein pathway ... androgens induce a major increase in the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein ( ...
Castration-Induced Increases in Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 2 Promotes Proliferation of Androgen-independent ... Castration-Induced Increases in Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 2 Promotes Proliferation of Androgen-independent ... Castration-Induced Increases in Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 2 Promotes Proliferation of Androgen-independent ... Castration-Induced Increases in Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 2 Promotes Proliferation of Androgen-independent ...
Tat-Binding Protein-1 (TBP-1), an ATPase of 19S Regulatory Particles of the 26S Proteasome, Enhances Androgen Receptor Function ... Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we previously identified Tat-binding protein-1 (TBP-1), an adenosine triphosphatase of 19S ... The 26S proteasome, which degrades ubiquitinated proteins, appears to contribute to the cyclical loading of androgen receptor ( ... TBP-1 directly bound TBPIP through the amino-terminal domain possessing the leucine zipper structure. AR is physically ...
Recombinant Protein and Androgen-binding protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody ... Androgen-binding protein homolog. Androgen-binding protein homolog ELISA Kit. Androgen-binding protein homolog Recombinant. ... Protein Family Androgen-binding protein. LOG IN MY ACCOUNT CART CONTENTS CHECKOUT ... Below are the list of possible Androgen-binding protein products. If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available ...
... androgen receptor-interacting protein 3) as a DJ-1-binding protein (3). PIASxα/ARIP3 belongs to the PIAS family of proteins, ... androgen receptor-interacting protein 3) and other PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) proteins differ in their ability ... After a ligand binds to the AR, the AR is translocated into the nucleus and binds to the androgen-responsive element, ARE, on ... DJBP: A Novel DJ-1-Binding Protein, Negatively Regulates the Androgen Receptor by Recruiting Histone Deacetylase Complex, and ...
Androgen binding proteins in human prostatic hyperplasis. Methodological aspects]. by J Y Dubé et al. ... Androgen binding proteins in human prostatic hyperplasis. Methodological aspects].. *. J Y Dubé, Réjean Tremblay, L F Coulonval ... article{Dub1975AndrogenBP, title={[Androgen binding proteins in human prostatic hyperplasis. Methodological aspects].}, author ...
"Androgen-Binding Protein" by people in this website by year, and whether "Androgen-Binding Protein" was a major or minor topic ... Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of ... "Androgen-Binding Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Androgen-Binding Protein*Androgen-Binding Protein. *Protein, Androgen-Binding. *Androgen Binding Protein ...
Antonyms for Androgen binding protein. 1 synonym for androgen: androgenic hormone. What are synonyms for Androgen binding ... Synonyms for Androgen binding protein in Free Thesaurus. ... Androgen Binding Protein Beta. *Androgen Binding Protein Gamma ... Androgen binding protein synonyms, Androgen binding protein antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com https://www.freethesaurus.com/Androgen ... androgen. (redirected from Androgen binding protein). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. #vtZoom,.vt- ...
... Academic Article ... Androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transcription is modulated by interaction with coregulatory proteins. We demonstrate that the ... Repression of AR-mediated transcription is achieved, in part, by URI binding and regulation of androgen receptor trapped clone ... While Art-27 can bind AR directly, URI is bound to chromatin prior to hormone-dependent recruitment of AR, suggesting a role ...
Characterization of an androgen binding protein (ABP) in rat testis and epididymis. / Ritzén, E. Martin; Dobbins, M. Catherine ... N2 - An androgen binding protein (ABP) was demonstrated in the 105,000 g supernatant of rat testis homogenate after charcoal ... AB - An androgen binding protein (ABP) was demonstrated in the 105,000 g supernatant of rat testis homogenate after charcoal ... An androgen binding protein (ABP) was demonstrated in the 105,000 g supernatant of rat testis homogenate after charcoal ...
Measurement of ovine plasma androgens by a competitive protein binding method : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the ... A method has been developed for measuring plasma testosterone in sheep using competitive protein binding (CPB) techniques. The ... and final determination of plasma testosterone by the CPB technique using salt precipitation of the protein bound fraction. The ...
Karn, R. C. ; Dlouhy, S. R. / Salivary androgen-binding protein variation in Mus and other rodents. In: Journal of Heredity. ... Karn, R. C., & Dlouhy, S. R. (1991). Salivary androgen-binding protein variation in Mus and other rodents. Journal of Heredity ... Salivary androgen-binding protein variation in Mus and other rodents. / Karn, R. C.; Dlouhy, S. R. ... Karn, RC & Dlouhy, SR 1991, Salivary androgen-binding protein variation in Mus and other rodents, Journal of Heredity, vol. ...
Y-box binding protein-1 promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer growth via androgen receptor expression. / Shiota, Masaki ... Y-box binding protein-1 promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer growth via androgen receptor expression. In: Endocrine- ... Y-box binding protein-1 promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer growth via androgen receptor expression. Endocrine- ... title = "Y-box binding protein-1 promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer growth via androgen receptor expression", ...
Rapid bursts of androgen-binding protein (Abp) gene duplication occurred independently in diverse mammals. BMC Evolutionary ... Rapid bursts of androgen-binding protein (Abp) gene duplication occurred independently in diverse mammals. / Laukaitis, ... Laukaitis, CM, Heger, A, Blakley, TD, Munclinger, P, Ponting, CP & Karn, RC 2008, Rapid bursts of androgen-binding protein ( ... Rapid bursts of androgen-binding protein (Abp) gene duplication occurred independently in diverse mammals. ...
Here we show that HESCs express three RNA-binding proteins, Hu antigen R and the poly(C)-binding proteins PCBP1 and PCBP2, that ... 2010) The Poly(C)-binding protein-1 regulates expression of the androgen receptor. Endocrinology, Vol.151 (No.8). pp. 3954-3964 ... The Poly(C)-binding protein-1 regulates expression of the androgen receptor ... Decidualization profoundly down-regulated AR protein levels with no discernible effect on either AR mRNA or protein stability, ...
Testis-specific androgen-binding protein Homo sapiens 1.000 CHEMBL3746 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 Homo sapiens ... Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1 Homo sapiens 0.995 CHEMBL4931 3-beta-hydroxysteroid-delta(8),delta(7)-isomerase Homo sapiens ... The two tables below display ChEMBL single-protein targets which are predicted to interact with CHEMBL1473. A 1uM and 10 uM cut ... Testis-specific androgen-binding protein Homo sapiens 1.000 CHEMBL3072 Androgen Receptor Rattus norvegicus 0.999 ...
Testis-specific androgen-binding protein Homo sapiens 1.000 CHEMBL4261 Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha Homo sapiens 1.000 ... The two tables below display ChEMBL single-protein targets which are predicted to interact with CHEMBL384467. A 1uM and 10 uM ...
Differential presentation of protein interaction surfaces on the androgen receptor defines the pharmacological actions of bound ... Differential presentation of protein interaction surfaces on the androgen receptor defines the pharmacological actions of bound ... Thus, we asked whether differential presentation of protein-protein interaction surfaces on the androgen receptor (AR), a ... over 150 proteins/polypeptides whose ability to interact with AR is influenced in a differential manner by ligand binding. The ...
... unexpected proliferation of gene duplicates encoding a family of secretoglobin proteins including the androgen-binding protein ... The tissue source and cellular control of the apparent size of androgen binding protein (Abp), a mouse salivary protein whose ... Production of an antibody to mouse salivary androgen binding protein (ABP) and its use in identifying a prostate protein ... Dlouhy RD, Taylor BA, Karn RC: The genes for mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) subunits alpha and gamma are located ...
No appreciable DHT binding was detectable in fibroblasts from androgen insensitive patients. Deficiency of DHT binding protein ... No appreciable DHT binding was detectable in fibroblasts from androgen insensitive patients. Deficiency of DHT binding protein ... No appreciable DHT binding was detectable in fibroblasts from androgen insensitive patients. Deficiency of DHT binding protein ... No appreciable DHT binding was detectable in fibroblasts from androgen insensitive patients. Deficiency of DHT binding protein ...
The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) genes in the house mouse genome have undergone extensive duplications that produced 64 Abp ... The Implications of Knocking Out Two Major Salivary Androgen-Binding Protein Genes for Mouse Viability, Fecundity and the ...
Alternative processing of androgen-binding protein RNA transcripts in fetal rat liver. Identification of a transcript formed by ... Two of these carrier proteins, testicular androgen-binding protein (ABP) and plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), are ... Alternative processing of androgen-binding protein RNA transcripts in fetal rat liver. Identification of a transcript formed by ... a process that is thought to be modulated by extracellular androgen carrier proteins. ...
Cancer cells that are androgen receptor positive may need androgens to grow. ... Describes cells that have a protein that binds to androgens (male hormones). ... Describes cells that have a protein that binds to androgens (male hormones). Cancer cells that are androgen receptor positive ... These cells may stop growing or die when they are treated with substances that block the binding and actions of androgen ...
Each dimer binds one molecule of steroid. Specific for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and 17-beta-estradiol. ... Functions as an androgen transport protein, but may also be involved in receptor mediated processes. ... Functions as an androgen transport protein, but may also be involved in receptor mediated processes. Each dimer binds one ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 10116. ...
Androgen-binding protein. is a glycoprotein produced by the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis that binds ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome. a condition whereby a genetically male individual cannot respond to androgens in blood. ... a protein coded by the KISS1 gene that is important in initiating the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in puberty. ... an androgen sex steroid produced from the conversion of testosterone in presence of the 5α-reductase enzyme. ...
  • Independently, TBP-1-interacting protein (TBPIP) was also identified as a coactivator of several nuclear receptors, including AR. (scialert.net)
  • Although PIAS family proteins have been shown to play roles in SUMO-1 conjugation ( 6 -11 ) and in the regulations of STAT ( 12 , 13 ), nuclear receptors ( 4 , 5 , 14 -17 ), and K channels ( 18 ), the contribution of DJ-1 to such functions is not clear. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, gene families, such as those containing olfactory or vomeronasal receptors, immunoglobulin domain-containing proteins, or cytochromes P450 that are expanded in one lineage are often expanded in another. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding androgen receptors were obtained from human testis and rat ventral prostate cDNA libraries. (sciencemag.org)
  • The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequences of the cDNAs indicated the presence of a cysteine-rich DNA-binding domain that is highly conserved in all steroid receptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • In some cell types testosterone interacts directly with androgen receptors while in others testosterone is converted by 5-alpha-reductase to dihydrotestosterone, an even more potent agonist for androgen receptor activation. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The primary mechanism of action for androgen receptors is direct regulation of gene transcription . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Androgen receptors interact with other proteins in the nucleus resulting in up or down regulation of specific gene transcription . (thefullwiki.org)
  • [ 11 ] Thus, changes in levels of specific proteins in cells is one way that androgen receptors control cell behavior. (thefullwiki.org)
  • More recently, androgen receptors have been shown to have a second mode of action. (thefullwiki.org)
  • As has been also found for other steroid hormone receptors such as estrogen receptors , androgen receptors can have actions that are independent of their interactions with DNA. (thefullwiki.org)
  • [ 6 ] [ 12 ] Androgen receptors interact with certain signal transduction proteins in the cytoplasm. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Androgen binding to cytoplasmic androgen receptors can cause rapid changes in cell function independent of changes in gene transcription, such as changes in ion transport . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Regulation of signal transduction pathways by cytoplasmic androgen receptors can indirectly lead to changes in gene transcription, for example, by leading to phosphorylation of other transcription factors. (thefullwiki.org)
  • As with other nuclear receptors, AR has three distinct domains: an N-terminal transactivation domain (NTD), a central DNA binding domain, and a C-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bicalutamide binds to proteins called androgen receptors, which are found in some prostate cancer cells. (cancer.gov)
  • Another connection is that luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone carry out their duties by triggering the actions of second messengers once they bind to cell receptors in the gonads. (wisegeek.com)
  • Winstrol binds well with androgen receptors. (namhaihotel.com)
  • It does not bind well with estrogen receptors and helps avoid water retention. (namhaihotel.com)
  • For this to happen, these hormones have to bind to androgen receptors, proteins located mostly in the cytoplasm of prostate cells. (news-medical.net)
  • This is what we believe the molecules we identified are doing to androgen receptors in a prostate tumor,' said Verjovski-Almeida, who is also a professor in the University of São Paulo's Chemistry Institute (IQ-USP). (news-medical.net)
  • The next step was to find out whether these lncRNAs interacted with androgen receptors. (news-medical.net)
  • We detected more than 600 lncRNAs bound to androgen receptors in prostate tumors. (news-medical.net)
  • Androgen receptors are known to be capable of binding to more than 10,000 different genome sites upon migrating to cell nuclei. (news-medical.net)
  • [1] GnRH travels down the anterior portion of the pituitary via the hypophyseal portal system and binds to receptors on the secretory cells of the adenohypophysis . (wikia.com)
  • The compound in HMG-Xtreme binds to muscle androgen receptors causing increased protein synthesis rates. (anabolicminds.com)
  • This means that HMG-Xtreme only binds to 17β-estradiol receptors in certain tissues such as mammary (breast). (anabolicminds.com)
  • Some chemicals do this by binding to receptors, such as the estrogen and androgen receptors. (fda.gov)
  • The testosterone binds to androgen receptors and causes increased protein synthesis. (energymanagertraining.com)
  • When taken into the cell, it can bind to the cytoplasmic estrogen receptors, and activate genes related to estrogen, tricking cells into thinking they are in an environment containing estrogen when they are not. (igem.org)
  • this is a small sequence of DNA that the receptors can specifically bind once they are dimerized (3). (igem.org)
  • Androgen-binding protein (ABP) is a glycoprotein (beta-globulin) produced by the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis that binds specifically to testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 17-beta-estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contained saturable high-affinity sites which exhibited binding specificity for dihydrotestosterone (6) and testosterone when measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or by competitive binding using charcoal adsorption. (elsevier.com)
  • A method was developed for measuring specific dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binding in cultured human skin fibroblasts. (utmb.edu)
  • The androgen receptor ( AR ), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor [ 1 ] which is activated by binding of either of the androgenic hormones testosterone or dihydrotestosterone . (thefullwiki.org)
  • [ 7 ] Testosterone appears to be the primary androgen receptor activating hormone in the Wolffian duct while dihydrotestosterone is the main androgenic hormone in the urogenital sinus , urogenital tubercle, and hair follicles . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Total bound radioactivity in cytosol fractions was reduced to a greater extent by estradiol-17β than cyproterone acetate when either 3 H-testosterone or 3 H-dihydrotestosterone was injected. (elsevier.com)
  • Estradiol-17β and cyproterone acetate inhibited in vitro binding of 3 H-dihydrotestosterone to the intracellular cytoplasmic receptor, but not the intraluminal androgen binding protein (ABP). (elsevier.com)
  • Androgens, particularly dihydrotestosterone, bind to the AR with high affinity and stimulate the transcription of a cascade of androgen-responsive genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • SHBG has a high binding affinity to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), medium affinity to testosterone and estradiol, and only a low affinity to estrone, DHEA, androstenedione, and estriol. (labcorp.com)
  • In most cases of prostate cancer, tumor cell growth is stimulated by the action of male hormones, or androgens, such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). (news-medical.net)
  • Androgen is the active metabolic product, 5alpha-Dihydrotestosterone ( DHT ), which is produced from the transformation of Testosterone catalyzed by the Steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptides 1 and 2 ( S5AR1 and S5AR2 ) [ 1 ], [ 2 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • They're also going to be secreting a hormone called DHT, dihydrotestosterone, a much more potent androgen than testosterone. (coursera.org)
  • While Art-27 can bind AR directly, URI is bound to chromatin prior to hormone-dependent recruitment of AR, suggesting a role for URI in modulating AR recruitment to target genes. (scripps.edu)
  • The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) genes in the house mouse genome have undergone extensive duplications that produced 64 Abp paralogs. (arizona.edu)
  • Androgens and their nuclear receptor regulate genes necessary for development of the male phenotype, a process that is thought to be modulated by extracellular androgen carrier proteins. (duke.edu)
  • One strategy to improve therapies in prostate cancer involves targeting cytoprotective genes activated by androgen withdrawal to delay the emergence of the androgen-independent (AI) phenotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • AI progression is a multifactorial process by which cells acquire the ability to both survive in the absence of androgens and proliferate using non-androgenic stimuli for mitogenesis, and involves variable combinations of adaptive up-regulation of antiapoptotic genes, ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor, and alternative signaling pathways including Her2/neu, epidermal growth factor receptor, transforming growth factor-β, and insulin-like growth factor-I ( 1 - 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • [ 6 ] Androgen regulated genes are critical for the development and maintenance of the male sexual phenotype . (thefullwiki.org)
  • One of the known target genes of androgen receptor activation is insulin-like growth factor I ( IGF-1 ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • One example is serum response factor , a protein which activates several genes that cause muscle growth. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In LNCaP cells, a human prostate epithelial cell line, HX109 repressed AR-mediated cell proliferation and the induction of androgen receptor (AR) target genes at the transcriptional level without affecting the translocation or expression of AR. (mdpi.com)
  • Androgen receptor (AR) regulates genes expression in multiple tissues and diseases, by targeting binding elements in promoters and distant enhancers. (nature.com)
  • This protein binds testosterone and regulates the expression of other genes that stimulate male sexual development. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When hormone and receptor bind, they migrate to the cell nucleus, where they either activate or inhibit a number of genes to create a gene expression pattern that favors tumor proliferation. (news-medical.net)
  • The other 98%, formerly dismissed as 'junk DNA', produces different types of RNA termed noncoding because they are generally not translated into proteins but modulate the expression of neighboring genes or the action of proteins produced by those genes. (news-medical.net)
  • A genome-wide analysis showed that protein-coding gene neighbors to ARA-lincRNAs had a significantly higher androgen-induced change in expression than protein-coding genes neighboring lincRNAs not associated to AR. (frontiersin.org)
  • To find relevant epigenetic signatures enriched at the ARA-lincRNAs' transcription start sites (TSSs) we used a machine learning approach and identified that the ARA-lincRNA genomic loci in LNCaP cells are significantly enriched with epigenetic marks that are characteristic of in cis enhancer RNA regulators, and that the H3K27ac mark of active enhancers is conspicuously enriched at the TSS of ARA-lincRNAs adjacent to androgen-activated protein-coding genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fork-head box protein A1 (FOXA1) is a ''pioneer factor' ' that is known to bind to the androgen receptor (AR) and regulate the transcription of AR-specific genes. (psu.edu)
  • ING3 potentiates androgen effects, increasing expression of androgen-regulated genes and androgen response element-driven reporters to promote growth and anchorage-independent growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After binding to androgens, the AR translocates to the nucleus, forms homodimers, and binds androgen response elements (AREs) in the promoters of target genes, altering their expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because most metastatic specimens were from men who had undergone androgen ablation, we examined the primary tumors from patients who have undergone hormone deprivation therapy and found that a significant fraction of these specimens showed nuclear localization of ErbB3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Medical and surgical androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been a standard palliative therapy for metastatic PC. (hindawi.com)
  • What is androgen deprivation therapy? (moffitt.org)
  • Androgen deprivation therapy, or ADT, is a treatment that reduces androgen production. (moffitt.org)
  • 1] Since the seminal discovery of the hormone dependence of prostate cancer by Huggins and colleagues more than 7 decades ago, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the main treatment strategy for metastatic prostate cancer. (cancernetwork.com)
  • This standard treatment is known as androgen deprivation therapy. (brightsurf.com)
  • Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because ABP binds to T and DHT, these hormones are made less lipophilic and become concentrated within the luminal fluid of the seminiferous tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Describes cells that have a protein that binds to androgens (male hormones). (cancer.gov)
  • These cells may stop growing or die when they are treated with substances that block the binding and actions of androgen hormones. (cancer.gov)
  • People with too little sex hormones can be short during puberty but end up taller as adults as in androgen insensitivity syndrome or estrogen insensitivity syndrome . (thefullwiki.org)
  • What hormones and proteins do Sertoli cells produce? (brainscape.com)
  • In serum, many hormones exist both as free, unbound hormone and as hormone bound to a serum carrier or transport protein . (britannica.com)
  • These proteins, which are produced by the liver, bind to specific hormones in the serum. (britannica.com)
  • In serum, protein-bound hormones are in equilibrium with a much smaller concentration of free, unbound hormones. (britannica.com)
  • The affinity (attraction) of hormones for binding proteins is not constant. (britannica.com)
  • Levels of SHBG are under the positive control of estrogens and thyroid hormones, and are suppressed by androgens. (labcorp.com)
  • These proteins bind to androgens (male hormones) and may cause cancer cells to grow. (cancer.gov)
  • This data will allow for population estimates of the selected steroid hormones and related binding protein that can be used to assist in disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease such as, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), androgen deficiency, cancer, and hormone imbalances in children. (cdc.gov)
  • Male and female sex hormones bind SHBG with equal affinity. (rndsystems.com)
  • Other steroid hormones such as progesterone , cortisol , and other corticosteroids are bound by transcortin . (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins then bind to testosterone and other hormones to generate sperm. (wisegeek.com)
  • A brief survey will be made of the characteristics of the physicochemical methods that have been used to study the binding of steroid hormones by plasma protein. (annals.org)
  • Androgens and estrogens are hormones. (drugs.com)
  • Androgens are hormones required for normal function of the prostate. (moffitt.org)
  • BIRMINGHAM, Ala. - Androgens, commonly known as male hormones, stimulate prostate cancer cells to grow. (brightsurf.com)
  • The androgen receptor, or AR, is a cellular protein in prostate tissues that is activated by binding androgen hormones like testosterone. (brightsurf.com)
  • More recently, he has investigated the influence of environmental hormones on reproductive function and the mechanisms by which these effects are mediated through steroid receptor and/or steroid-binding protein pathways. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • We have shown that PIASxα inhibits the transcription activity of the AR by binding to the DNA-binding domain of AR and that DJ-1 antagonizes this inhibition by sequestering PIASXα from the AR in CV-1, Cos1, and TM4 Sertoli cells, indicating that DJ-1 is a positive regulator of the AR ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Sertoli cells bind to spermatogonial cells via N-cadherins and galctosyltransferase (via carbohydrate residues). (bionity.com)
  • Effects of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene on the expressions of transferrin and androgen-binding protein in rat Sertoli cells. (bionity.com)
  • FSH, meanwhile, influences the production of sperm by triggering Sertoli cells to create androgen-binding proteins. (wisegeek.com)
  • Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells ( NF-kB ) is an activator of Androgen receptor gene transcription in Sertoli cells and may be an important determinant of androgen activity during spermatogenesis [ 14 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • He was a discoverer of androgen-binding proteins, which are produced by the Sertoli cells of the testes and influence epididymal function and sperm maturation. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • abstract = "The androgen receptor (AR) is well known to play a central role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa). (elsevier.com)
  • ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Inducible high-level expression is favoured for recombinant protein production in Pichia pastoris. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A weak androgen precurser to testosterone or estrogen. (studystack.com)
  • Androgens cause slow epiphysis , or maturation of the bones, but more of the potent epiphysis effect comes from the estrogen produced by aromatization of androgens. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Steroid users of teen age may find that their growth had been stunted by androgen and/or estrogen excess. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Protein Kinase C Assays Androgen Receptor, Ligand Binding Domain Estrogen Receptor-Beta 1, Long Form Tau Protein, microtubule-associated protein, histidine-tagged Cytochrome P450 Monoclonal Antibodies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • androgen and estrogen . (wikipedia.org)
  • We also correlate gene and protein expression level and enzyme activity of steroid-metabolizing enzymes with expression of the androgen and estrogen receptor α. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Also, before you use an androgen and estrogen product, you and your doctor should discuss the good that it will do as well as the risks of using it. (drugs.com)
  • The datasets were derived from competitive binding assays for the estrogen and androgen nuclear receptor proteins that were validated and carried out at the NCTR. (fda.gov)
  • A major element of the EDKB program has been the development of computer-based predictive models to predict affinity for binding of compounds to the estrogen and androgen nuclear receptor proteins. (fda.gov)
  • When BPA is present in the environment, it diffuses through the cell membrane and binds to free cytoplasmic estrogen receptor (1). (igem.org)
  • Testosterone exerts its action on these target cells by first binding with a receptor, called the androgen receptor (AR). (encyclopedia.com)
  • They promote the growth of both normal and cancerous prostate cells by binding to and activating a protein called the androgen receptor. (moffitt.org)
  • Similarly, among the sex steroids, testosterone binds more tightly to sex hormone-binding globulin than do other androgens or estrogens. (britannica.com)
  • Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the blood transport protein for androgens and estrogens. (cdc.gov)
  • [7] In women, SHBG serves to limit exposure to both androgens and estrogens . (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] Low SHBG levels in women have been associated with hyperandrogenism and endometrial cancer due to heightened exposure to androgens and estrogens, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Albumin is the principal binding protein for the less polar steroids, (androgens, estrogens, and progesterone). (annals.org)
  • Androgens and estrogens may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor. (drugs.com)
  • Influence of androgens on the concentration of prostatic binding protein (PBP) and its mRNA in rat prostate. (springer.com)
  • IGFBP-2 mRNA and protein levels increase 2-3-fold after androgen withdrawal in LNCaP cells in vitro in LNCaP tumors during AI progression in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Overexpression of TBP-1 did not alter AR protein and mRNA levels. (scialert.net)
  • Decidualization profoundly down-regulated AR protein levels with no discernible effect on either AR mRNA or protein stability, suggesting that loss of the receptor was a consequence of translational inhibition. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • PCBP1 also blocked AR translation in a cell-free system, although this did not require binding to the 3′-untranslated region of the receptor mRNA. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • This leads to reducing Androgen receptor expression on mRNA level. (bio-rad.com)
  • Oxidative stress also generates unstable chemical species that cause damage to mRNA, DNA, and proteins involved in cell death and proliferation [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This binding protein can be found in the circulation where it regulates hormone access to target tissues. (rndsystems.com)
  • Two of these carrier proteins, testicular androgen-binding protein (ABP) and plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), are encoded by the same gene, but differ in glycosylation and possibly amino acid sequence. (duke.edu)
  • Most of the circulating testosterone is bound to carrier proteins (sex hormone-binding globulin [SHBG], and albumin). (cdc.gov)
  • Using two independent prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and MDA-PCa-2a), we demonstrate that coordinated stimulation of lipogenic gene expression by androgens is a common phenomenon in androgen-responsive prostate tumor lines and involves activation of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) pathway. (nih.gov)
  • In this article, we characterize changes in IGFBP-2 in the LNCaP tumor model after androgen withdrawal and evaluate its functional significance in AI progression using gain-of-function and loss-of-function analyses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, TBP-1 was transiently recruited to the proximal androgen response element of the prostate-specific antigen gene promoter in a ligand-dependent manner in LNCaP cells. (scialert.net)
  • Furthermore, knockdown of PCBP1 in the prostate cancer LNCaP cell line also increased AR protein. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Hsp27 overexpression rendered LNCaP cells highly resistant to androgen withdrawal both in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activated Ack1 promoted androgen-independent growth of LNCaP and LAPC-4 prostate xenograft tumors, AR recruitment to the androgen-responsive enhancer, and androgen-inducible gene expression in the absence of androgen. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, we found that androgen-independent cell lines were less sensitive to growth inhibition and cell death induced by SAHA than the androgen-responsive LNCaP cells ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether the sensitivity of the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line to SAHA is dependent on the presence of a functional androgen signaling axis and whether the combination of low doses of both SAHA and a specific androgen receptor (AR) antagonist would result in enhanced growth suppression and/or apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this work, we performed RNA-seq deep-sequencing of LNCaP prostate cancer cells and found over 7000 expressed long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs), of which ∼4000 are novel lincRNAs, and 258 lincRNAs have their expression activated by androgen. (frontiersin.org)
  • We mimicked these conditions by overexpressing FOXA1 in the androgen-responsive LNCaP prostate cancer cell line and observed a significant increase in AR genomic binding at novel regions that possess increased chromatin accessibility. (nih.gov)
  • LNCaP and C4-2 androgen-responsive cells were used for in vitro assays including immunoprecipitation, western blotting, Luciferase reporter assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Development of increased cytoplasmic binding of androgen in the submandibular gland of the mouse with testicular feminization. (springer.com)
  • Initial studies indicate that about one half of the measured binding is nuclear and the rest cytoplasmic. (utmb.edu)
  • Androgen binding protein (ABP) was measured during postnatal development in normal and irradiated rats to determine whether development of a blood-testis barrier and formation of a continuous lumen from testis to epididymis is correlated with entry of ABP into the caput epididymis. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that estradiol-17 β may have a more potent antiandrogenic effect on the epididymis than cyproterone acetate due to inhibition of 5 α reduction of testosterone as well as binding to the androgen receptor. (elsevier.com)
  • Production and use of antibodies to mouse salivary androgen binding protein. (springer.com)
  • We have searched for genetic variation in the expression of salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) in a wide variety of mice and other rodents. (elsevier.com)
  • Karn, RC & Dlouhy, SR 1991, ' Salivary androgen-binding protein variation in Mus and other rodents ', Journal of Heredity , vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 453-458. (elsevier.com)
  • Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is a pleiotropic transcription factor that is upregulated in CPRC. (elsevier.com)
  • The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor, expressed in male and female reproductive organs, and essential for normal reproduction in both sexes. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Transcription factor p65 also known as nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p65 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RELA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alignment of the human, mouse, rat, rabbit and dog promoters reveals several highly conserved transcription factor-binding sites. (biochemj.org)
  • Gel electrophoretic mobility-shift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies and co-transfection experiments with plasmids expressing these transcription factors or dominant-negative versions of these factors showed that NF-YA (nuclear transcription factor Yα), AP2 (activator protein 2), Nrf1 (nuclear respiratory factor/α-Pal) and Sp1 (specificity protein 1) all bind to the FXR2 promoter both in vitro and in vivo and positively regulate the FXR2 promoter. (biochemj.org)
  • Androgens act through the androgen receptor (AR), which is a ligand-modulated transcription factor. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The effects of androgens are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), which is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The androgen receptor (AR), a receptor of nuclear family and a transcription factor, is the most important target in this disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Biological activity of androgens such as Testosterone and DHT is predominantly meditated by its binding to the Androgen receptor , a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a ligand-activated transcription factor [ 3 ], [ 4 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • Moreover, transcription factor Forkhead box O3 ( FOXO3A ) can induce Androgen receptor expression [ 13 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • Cell signaling events triggered by androgen hormone in prostate cells is dependent on activation of the androgen receptor (AR) transcription factor. (frontiersin.org)
  • The AR transcription factor mediates the effect of androgen hormone and modulates the gene transcriptional program in prostate cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-associated deaths in men and signalling via a transcription factor called androgen receptor (AR) is an important driver of the disease. (psu.edu)
  • The androgen receptor (AR) is the central transcription factor in PC biology and pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For instance, lysine 221 acetylation facilitates RELA dissociation from IκBα and enhances its DNA-binding affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein bound androgens specifically and with high affinity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Albumin, which exists in far higher concentrations than SHBG, also binds to sexual steroids−although with a clearly lower binding affinity (eg, about 100 times lower for testosterone). (labcorp.com)
  • Albumin, which exists in far higher concentrations than SHBG, also binds sexual steroids - although with a clearly lower binding affinity (e.g. about 100 times lower for testosterone). (cdc.gov)
  • [6] DHT binds to SHBG with about 5 times the affinity of testosterone and about 20 times the affinity of estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these variants reside in non-coding regulatory regions and may affect the transcription factors (TFs)-binding affinity 4 . (nature.com)
  • The later has at least 10-fold stronger binding affinity. (hindawi.com)
  • Activation of the androgen receptor (AR) may play a role in androgen-independent progression of prostate cancer. (pnas.org)
  • Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we previously identified Tat-binding protein-1 (TBP-1), an adenosine triphosphatase of 19S regulatory particles of the 26S proteasome, as a transcriptional coactivator of thyroid hormone receptor. (scialert.net)
  • Unfortunately, androgen-independent (AI) progression is inevitable, and the development of hormone-refractory disease and death occurs within 2 to 3 years in most men. (aacrjournals.org)
  • a protein coded by the KISS1 gene that is important in initiating the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in puberty. (studystack.com)
  • The androgen receptor dimer binds to a specific sequence of DNA known as a hormone response element . (thefullwiki.org)
  • and growth hormone-binding protein, which binds growth hormone . (britannica.com)
  • There are two specific thyroid hormone binding proteins, thyroxine-binding globulin and transthyretin (thyroxine-binding prealbumin), and at least six binding proteins for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). (britannica.com)
  • As free hormone leaves the circulation to exert its action on a tissue, bound hormone is immediately freed from its binding protein. (britannica.com)
  • Thus, the transport proteins serve as a reservoir within the circulation to maintain a normal concentration of the biologically important free hormone. (britannica.com)
  • In addition, transport proteins protect against sudden surges in hormone secretion and facilitate even distribution of a hormone to all of the cells of large organs such as the liver. (britannica.com)
  • The thyroid hormone thyroxine , for example, binds much more tightly to thyroxine-binding globulin than does triiodothyronine. (britannica.com)
  • Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the blood transport protein for testosterone and estradiol. (labcorp.com)
  • SHBG (Sex Hormone-binding Globulin), also known as ABP (Androgen-binding Protein), is a variably glycosylated, secreted, non-disulfide-linked homodimer. (rndsystems.com)
  • Sex hormone-binding globulin is homodimeric, meaning it has two identical peptide chains making up its structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The androgen receptor is a protein that binds to the male sex hormone, testosterone. (mda.org)
  • Here, we use a ranking score and benign prostate transcriptomes to identify a non-coding polymorphic regulatory element at 7p14.3 that associates with DNA repair and hormone-regulated transcript levels and with an early recurrent prostate cancer-specific somatic mutation in the Speckle-Type POZ protein (SPOP) gene. (nature.com)
  • A recent PCa whole-genome sequencing study revealed a significant correspondence between DNA breakpoints and AR-binding sites implicating an inter-play between hormone regulation and genomic events 5 . (nature.com)
  • Because of the scarce information available and in view of its essential role in thymus biology, we investigated thymus-specific androgen metabolism and hormone receptor expression levels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Androgen, the male steroid hormone, is responsible for male sexual differentiation and development, as well as the maintenance and support of sexual tissues in the adult. (hindawi.com)
  • Androgen hormone binding to AR promotes its displacement from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and AR binding to DNA motifs, thus inducing activatory and inhibitory transcriptional programs through a complex regulatory mechanism not yet fully understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Drugs called luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists or LHRH antagonists-these cause the pituitary gland to stop producing luteinizing hormone, and as a result the testicles are not stimulated to produce androgens. (moffitt.org)
  • 7,8 Decreased SHBG serum levels are associated with conditions in which elevated androgen levels are present or in which the effect of androgen on its target organs is excessive. (labcorp.com)
  • To investigate ABP-SHBG gene expression in fetal rat liver, we analyzed RNA transcripts and expressed protein. (duke.edu)
  • The other cDNA represented a fused transcript of the ABP-SHBG gene (exons 1-5) and the histidine decarboxylase (HDC) gene, encoding a Mr 98,000 precursor protein. (duke.edu)
  • A putative trans-splicing which involves HDC and SHBG gene regions produces a fusion protein expressed in fetal liver. (uniprot.org)
  • SHBG binds reversibly to sexual steroids. (labcorp.com)
  • In serum, SHBG mainly takes over the transportation of steroids and the reduction/regulation of the effect of androgen. (labcorp.com)
  • Measurement of SHBG can be an important indicator of an excessive/chronic androgenic action where androgen levels are normal, but where clinical symptoms would seem to indicate androgen in excess. (cdc.gov)
  • SHBG is a useful supplementary parameter in the determination of androgen where a relatively high concentration of free androgen (e.g. testosterone) is suspected (Pugeat, et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Decreased SHBG concentrations are often seen with hypothyroidism, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), obesity, hirsutism, elevated androgen levels, alopecia, acromegaly and some polymorphisms on the SHBG gene. (cdc.gov)
  • [7] Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is weakly bound to SHBG, but dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is not bound to SHBG. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Androstenedione is not bound to SHBG either, and is instead bound solely to albumin. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Estrone sulfate and estriol are also poorly bound by SHBG. (wikipedia.org)
  • [9] Less than 1% of progesterone is bound to SHBG. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] The high SHBG levels during pregnancy may serve to protect the mother from exposure to fetal androgens that escape metabolism by the placenta . (wikipedia.org)
  • [11] Testes-produced SHBG is called androgen-binding protein . (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of activating the promoter for SHBG in the liver involves hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha ( HNF4A ) binding to a DR1 like cis element which then stimulate production. (wikipedia.org)
  • If HNF4A level is low then COUP-TF binds to the first site and turns off production of SHBG. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neither was elevated in androgen-dependent tumors or benign prostate samples. (pnas.org)
  • Although the majority of these patients respond initially to androgen ablation, virtually all tumors eventually progress with castration-resistant disease ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The androgen receptor (AR) is a key regulator for the growth, differentiation and survival of prostate cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Coregulator recruitment is a crucial regulatory step in AR signaling and the direct blockade of coactivator binding to AR offers the opportunity to develop therapeutic agents that would remain effective in prostate cancer cells resistant to conventional endocrine therapies. (nih.gov)
  • Both time course studies and overexpression experiments showing that increasing levels of SCAP enhance the production of mature SREBP and stimulate lipogenic gene expression support the contention that SCAP plays a pivotal role in the lipogenic effects of androgens in tumor cells. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, a co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that the formation of a ternary complex between DJ-1, DJBP, and AR occurred in cells in which DJ-1 bound to the AR via DJBP. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DJ-1 was identified as a protein that transforms mouse NIH3T3 cells in cooperation with activated ras ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • With regard to the function of DJ-1 in somatic cells, we have identified PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT)xα/ARIP3 (androgen receptor-interacting protein 3) as a DJ-1-binding protein ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cancer cells that are androgen receptor positive may need androgens to grow. (cancer.gov)
  • In conclusion, these findings suggested that YB-1 induces castration resistance in androgen-dependent PCa cells via AR expression. (elsevier.com)
  • The levels of AR are tightly controlled in androgen-responsive cells in which it plays a central role in the regulation of target gene expression. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, knockdown of PCBP1 in decidualizing cells was sufficient to restore AR protein levels, indicating that loss of the AR protein is primarily the consequence of a translational block. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, PCBP1 plays a major role in the dynamic expression of AR in both male and female androgen-responsive cells. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Expression of the fusion cDNA in COS cells yielded HDC activity and the predicted size protein (Mr = 93,000) on Western immunoblots. (duke.edu)
  • For instance, IKK2 is found to be mainly responsible for phosphorylating serine 536 in monocytes and macrophages, or in CD40 receptor binding in hepatic stellate cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite being a plasma membrane protein, ErbB-3 was also detected in the nuclei of the prostate cancer cells in the metastatic specimens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings suggest that the bone microenvironment and androgen status influence the subcellular localization of ErbB-3 in prostate cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings suggest that the cellular localization of ErbB-3 in prostate cancer cells is a dynamic process that can be influenced by the tumor microenvironment and androgen status. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data provide a kinetic and mechanistic basis for regulation of gene expression by androgens and antiandrogens in living cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bicalutamide blocks these proteins and may keep cancer cells from growing. (cancer.gov)
  • Indeed, STAT3 integrates different signaling pathways involved in the reactivation of androgen receptor pathway, stem like cells and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition that drive progression to mCRPC. (mdpi.com)
  • The growth response to androgen receptor signaling in ERalpha negative human breast cells is dependent on p21 and mediated by MAP kinase activation. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Many MDA-supported projects are focused on understanding how the downstream effects of mutations in the androgen receptor gene affect cells, and developing methods to overcome or compensate for these effects. (mda.org)
  • Growth of prostate cancer cells is initially dependent on androgens, and androgen ablation therapy is used to control tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings indicate that SAHA is effective in targeting the AR signaling axis and that androgen deprivation sensitizes prostate cancer cells to SAHA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • [6] FSH stimulates sustentacular cells to release androgen-binding protein, which promotes testosterone binding. (wikia.com)
  • LH binds to the interstitial cells, causing them to secrete testosterone . (wikia.com)
  • This work highlights the possible involvement of hundreds of lincRNAs working in synergy with the AR on the genome-wide androgen-induced gene regulatory program in prostate cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • It also binds to muscle stem cells causing them to change and become active muscle tissue. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Drugs called androgen synthesis inhibitors-these prevent the production of androgens by the adrenal glands and prostate cells themselves, as well as by the testicles. (moffitt.org)
  • Deficiency of DHT binding protein (s) could account for the syndrome of androgen insensitivity (testicular feminization) in man. (utmb.edu)
  • This cDNA also lacked testicular exon 6 DNA, an alteration that implicates the encoded protein in regulatory functions. (duke.edu)
  • The androgen insensitivity syndrome , formerly known as testicular feminization, is caused by a mutation of the Androgen Receptor gene located on the X chromosome (locus:Xq11-Xq12). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a disorder caused by mutation of the gene for the androgen receptor. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Increased IGFBP-2 levels after androgen ablation may represent an adaptive response that helps potentiate IGF-I-mediated survival and mitogenesis and promote androgen-independent tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The objectives of this study were to define changes in Hsp27 levels after androgen ablation and to evaluate the functional relevance of these changes in AI progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings identify Hsp27 as a modulator of Stat3-regulated apoptosis after androgen ablation and as a potential therapeutic target in advanced prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We speculate that nuclear localization of ErbB-3 may aid prostate cancer cell survival during androgen ablation and progression of prostate cancer in bone. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Unfortunately, resistance to androgen ablation therapy inevitably occurs, and there is an urgent need for better treatments for advanced prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For patients with biochemical relapse following primary treatment with surgery and/or radiation, or who present with metastatic disease, androgen ablation is the standard first-line treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although there have been recent reports of significant responses with the use of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of castration-resistant disease ( 3 ), there remains an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies in both an adjuvant setting and following failure of androgen ablation therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Related to the mechanism underlying androgen activation of the SREBP pathway, we show that in addition to minor effects on SREBP precursor levels, androgens induce a major increase in the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), an escort protein that transports SREBPs from their site of synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum to their site of proteolytical activation in the Golgi. (nih.gov)
  • [ 10 ] Up-regulation or activation of transcription results in increased synthesis of messenger RNA which in turn is transcribed by ribosomes to produce specific proteins. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Permease s in the lysosomal membrane, for example, allow amino acids generated inside the lysosome to cross into the cytoplasm, where they can be used for the synthesis of new proteins. (britannica.com)
  • These influences dynamically control the liver synthesis of this carrier protein. (labcorp.com)
  • This process increases the rate of protein synthesis. (namhaihotel.com)
  • As Verjovski-Almeida explained, only 2% of the human genome produces messenger RNA molecules, which carry the genetic information needed for protein synthesis. (news-medical.net)
  • AKT(PKB) phosphorylates and inhibits Tuberous sclerosis 2 ( Tuberin ) , this prevents inhibition of mTOR and leads to phosphorylation of the downstream mTOR targets Ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 1 ( p70 S6 kinase 1 ), Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 ( 4E-BP1 ) and subsequently activates protein synthesis [ 11 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • Increase in protein synthesis is the way by which testosterone manifests its anabolic nature. (energymanagertraining.com)
  • There are multiple approved androgen synthesis inhibitors in the United States and they are given in pill form. (moffitt.org)
  • When testosterone binds to the AR, the testosterone/AR complex can enter the cell nucleus. (mda.org)
  • However, patients can develop resistance to this therapy and progress to androgen-independent, or castration-resistant, prostate cancer. (brightsurf.com)
  • Repression of AR-mediated transcription is achieved, in part, by URI binding and regulation of androgen receptor trapped clone 27 (Art-27), a previously characterized AR corepressor. (scripps.edu)
  • Various roles have been proposed for Hsp27 to explain its cytoprotective effects during cellular stress, including its role as a molecular chaperone, inhibitor of protein unfolding, direct interference with caspase activation, modulation of oxidative stress, and regulation of the cytoskeleton ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The protein product of this gene, FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein), is thought to be involved in the translational regulation of mRNAs important for learning and memory. (biochemj.org)
  • The pathway maps illustrate protein interactions and regulation to provide a comprehensive picture of signaling and disease processes. (bio-rad.com)
  • These are molecules that bind to the complex formed by androgen and its receptor in the cell nucleus, possibly for the purpose of fine regulation of the gene activation and inhibition process,' Verjovski-Almeida said. (news-medical.net)
  • His research has focused on male reproductive biology and made significant contributions to the body of knowledge in the areas of hormonal regulation of epididymal function, androgen-binding proteins (ABP) and the effects of xenobiotics on reproductive health. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Androgens and gestagens with androgenic residual action have the opposite effect. (labcorp.com)
  • A protein complex, related to inhibin, that enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion. (studystack.com)
  • binds to genomic DNA target sites and promotes a highly regulated androgen-dependent gene activation program. (frontiersin.org)
  • The reason for reduced or absent CRM in the prostates of DBA/2J males is unknown but this finding suggests that there are strain-related differences in the expression of this prostate protein. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, a Mr 93,000 immunoreactive protein was transiently expressed in fetal liver during the time of ABP and HDC gene expression. (duke.edu)
  • Such effects of HX109 on AR signaling were mediated through the control of activating transcriptional factor 3 (ATF3) expression, phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ), and increases in intracellular calcium, as evidenced by data from experiments involving ATF3-specific siRNA, CaMKKβ inhibitor, and calcium chelator, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • Moreover, high ErbB-3 protein expression has been linked with poor prognosis in endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary ( 7 ) and with short survival in advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The highest expression levels together with strong repression in pre-culture were achieved with the novel promoters PG1 and PG6.Human serum albumin (HSA) was used to characterize the promoters with an industrially relevant secreted protein. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: A set of novel regulated promoters, enabling induction without methanol, was successfully identified by using DNA microarrays and shown to be suitable for high level expression of recombinant proteins in glucose-based protein production processes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ack1 knockdown inhibited heregulin-dependent AR tyrosine phosphorylation, AR reporter activity, androgen-stimulated gene expression, and AR recruitment. (pnas.org)
  • We therefore investigated gene and protein expression, total protein content, and enzyme activity of major P450 isoforms and other key steroid-metabolizing enzymes in thymus tissue of adult and fetal rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The high production of 7α-HT and 16α-HT correlated well with the gene and protein expression of CYP2A1/2 and CYP2B1/2 in thymus of adult animals. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We therefore studied gene and protein expression and enzyme activity of major P450 isoforms and key steroid-metabolizing enzymes, i.e., 17β- and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDHs) and 5α-steroid-reductase, in thymus tissue of fetal and adult male rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Transcription factors bind to DNA to control the rate of gene expression. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There is ample evidence that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can interact with a number of proteins and regulate gene expression ( Khalil and Rinn, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • INhibitor of Growth (ING) proteins target lysine acetyltransferase or lysine deacetylase complexes to the histone H3K4Me3 mark of active transcription, to affect chromatin structure and gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While most efforts in the clinic are currently directed at lowering levels of androgens that activate AR, resistance to androgen deprivation eventually develops. (hindawi.com)
  • We later identified PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT)xα as a DJ-1-binding protein, and found that DJ-1 restored androgen receptor (AR) transcription activity that was repressed by PIASxα. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent progress in the development of protein-protein interaction inhibitors targeting androgen receptor-coactivator binding in prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Early in their development, prostate cancers need relatively high levels of androgens to grow. (moffitt.org)
  • Thus, Ack1 activated by surface signals or oncogenic mechanisms may directly enhance AR transcriptional function and promote androgen-independent progression of prostate cancer. (pnas.org)
  • Activation of alternative growth factor pathways after androgen withdrawal is one mechanism mediating androgen-independent (AI) progression in advanced prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One mechanism mediating AI progression in advanced prostate cancer involves activation of alternative growth factor pathways after androgen withdrawal. (aacrjournals.org)
  • URI is phosphorylated upon androgen treatment, suggesting communication between the URI and AR signaling pathways. (scripps.edu)
  • Many components of survival and apoptotic pathways are regulated by molecular chaperones, such as heat shock proteins (Hsp). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Novel therapeutic strategies that target the molecular basis of androgen and chemoresistance may provide an opportunity to delay progression and prolong survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Possibly, nuclear translocation of ErbB-3 is one of mechanisms involved in the androgen-independent progression and metastasis of prostate cancer to bone. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, androgens are important for the development and progression of age-associated pathologies in men, including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer (PC). (hindawi.com)
  • FOXA1 Promotes Tumor Progression in Prostate Cancer via the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 Pathway. (psu.edu)
  • In 8 of 18 primary androgen-independent prostate tumor samples, tyrosine-phosphorylated AR protein was detected and correlated with the detection of tyrosine-phosphorylated Ack1. (pnas.org)
  • An interaction between epidermal growth factor receptor Epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) and Androgen receptor results in decreasing of EGFR -mediated MAPK signaling and Epidermal growth factor ( EGF) -stimulated PI3K activity, mediated through adaptor protein Insulin receptor substrate 1 ( IRS-1 ) [ 15 ], [ 16 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • The effects of estradiol-17β on androgen uptake, metabolism and binding were studied in rat epidymis in vivo in comparison with cyproterone acetate. (elsevier.com)
  • Morrow, "Evidence for the existence of an androgen binding protein in hydatidiform mole vesicles," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The AR protein shares highly structural similarities in the DBD and LBD with other steroid nuclear receptor family members, such as glucocorticoids receptor (GR), mineral corticoid receptor (MR), and progesterone receptor (PR). (omicsonline.org)
  • [ 2 ] The androgen receptor is most closely related to the progesterone receptor , and progestins in higher dosages can block the androgen receptor. (thefullwiki.org)
  • These studies highlight an important role of androgens in the initiation and development of PCa. (nature.com)
  • Changes of the underlying steroid-metabolizing enzyme systems may aid in understanding the role of androgens in altering biological functions of the thymus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • and 4) that cotransfection with dominant-negative forms of SREBPs abolishes the effects of androgens. (nih.gov)
  • An androgen binding protein (ABP) was demonstrated in the 105,000 g supernatant of rat testis homogenate after charcoal extraction of endogenous steroids. (elsevier.com)
  • Planar C 18 and C 19 steroids with a 17α-hydroxyl group bind particularly well, 3,4 whereas C 19 17-ketosteroids, such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione, do not bind so easily. (labcorp.com)
  • Phosphorylation of serine 311 by protein kinase C zeta type (PKCζ) serves the same purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that RELA can be modified by a collection of kinases via phosphorylation at different sites/regions within the protein under different stimulations might suggest a synergistic effect of these modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation at these sites enhances NF-κB transcriptional response via tightened binding to transcription coactivators. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo studies revealed that RELA is also under acetylation modification in the nucleus, which is just as important as phosphorylation as a post-translational modification of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gao Y, Chen S (2013) Proline-Directed Androgen Receptor Phosphorylation. (omicsonline.org)
  • In this report, we provide evidence for an Ack1-dependent process, site-specific tyrosine phosphorylation of AR, promoting AR-regulated activities in a low-androgen environment. (pnas.org)
  • part, le récepteur à l'IGF (IGF-R1) à activité tyrosine kinase interagit avec la voie de signalisation du RA en modulant sa phosphorylation et donc son activité, induisant sa translocation nucléaire (=-=Wu et al. (psu.edu)
  • Triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), protein kinase A (PKA) specifically phosphorylates serine 276 in the RHD domain in the cytoplasm, controlling NF-κB DNA-binding and oligomerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the binding of DJBP to the COOH-terminal region of DJ-1, DJBP was also found to bind in vitro and in vivo to the DNA-binding domain of the AR in a testosterone-dependent manner and to be colocalized with DJ-1 or AR in the nucleus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have shown that SAHA can inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and suppresses the growth of the androgen-dependent human prostate cancer xenograft, CWR22, at high doses ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Structural analyses of the AR have identified key surfaces involved in protein-protein interaction with coregulators that have been recently used to design and develop promising AR-coactivator binding inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transcription is modulated by interaction with coregulatory proteins. (scripps.edu)
  • Differential presentation of protein interaction surfaces on the androgen receptor defines the pharmacological actions of bound ligands. (duke.edu)
  • Thus, we asked whether differential presentation of protein-protein interaction surfaces on the androgen receptor (AR), a surrogate assay of receptor conformation, could be used in a prospective manner to define the pharmacological activity of bound ligands. (duke.edu)
  • RHD is involved in DNA binding, dimerization and NF-κB/REL inhibitor interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the interaction of antagonist-bound or mutant AR with its target was found to be kinetically different: it was dramatically faster, occurred without chromatin remodeling, and resulted in the lack of transcriptional inhibition. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For efficient non-genomic activity, Androgen receptor is recruited to plasma membrane microdomains via interaction with Caveolin 1, caveolae protein, 22kDa ( Caveolin-1 ) [ 7 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • Androgen receptor also can activate Phosphoinositide-3-kinase ( PI3K )/ V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 ( AKT(PKB) ) kinase pathway through direct interaction with the Phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha) ( PI3K reg class IA (p85-alpha) ) in response to natural androgens [ 9 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • In primary PC, the inhibition of the AR pathway by anti-androgens leads to dramatic tumor regression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings suggest that a component of 19S regulatory particles directly binds AR and might participate in AR-mediated transcriptional activation in cooperation with TBPIP. (scialert.net)
  • Acts as a transcriptional repressor in concert with the corepressor UXT to regulate androgen receptor (AR) transcription. (genecards.org)
  • Antagonizes transcriptional modulation via hepatitis B virus X protein. (genecards.org)
  • As the androgen receptor (AR) remains a critical driver in CRPC, understanding the determinants of its transcriptional activity is important for developing new AR-targeted therapies. (nih.gov)
  • To this end, we identified over 150 proteins/polypeptides whose ability to interact with AR is influenced in a differential manner by ligand binding. (duke.edu)
  • Structure of the ligand binding domain of the androgen receptor (rainbow cartoon) complexed with testosterone (white sticks) based on PDB 2AM9 . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Genetic and biochemical experiments have indicated that the LBD of AR interacts with the NTD upon ligand binding ( 7 , 14 , 27 , 32 , 82 ), which is similar to the results observed for the ER ( 39 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Resistance mechanisms include AR, gene mutation or amplification, ligand independent activation of AR and persistent intraprostatic androgens [ 6 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ERα-1 consists of the ligand binding domain and ERα-2 consists of the DNA binding domain. (igem.org)
  • The ErbB family of membrane proteins consists of receptor tyrosine kinases that mediate cell growth and differentiation through the binding of their ligands ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To discover germline events involved in prostate cancer predisposition, we develop a computational approach to nominate heritable facilitators of somatic genomic events in the context of the androgen receptor signaling. (nature.com)
  • Together, these results suggest that in an androgen-depleted state, elevated levels of FOXA1 enhance AR binding at genomic regions not normally occupied by AR, which in turn facilitates prostate cancer cell growth. (nih.gov)
  • We found that ERBB4 activates sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) to enhance low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake and cholesterol biosynthesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, many of the drugs to target that cancer focus on stopping androgen biosynthesis or blocking the androgen receptor. (brightsurf.com)